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Course: EN 542

exchanger

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Abstract

The most viable approach for increase heat transfer is to increase the surface area A

by attaching to the heat transfer surface a solid protrusion called a fin. The surface of the fin

exposed to the surrounding fluid is referred to as an extended surface.

By extending the surface, the convective thermal resistance reduced.

In this study fins of Longitudinal, Annular, and Pin rectangular profile have been

investigated to compare the performance of each fin in order to increase the heat transfer

and reduce the cost. The results were the annular fin reduces the length of heat exchanger by

68.75%, consequently, the weight reduced by 62.98 %. Furthermore, the cost reduced to

30% of the heat exchanger, by using fins no significant pressure drop, which mean no extra

power required to pump the fluid, and because of the reduction in the length of the heat

exchanger the pressure drop consequently reduced to 55.35 %, which means reduce in the

process equipments cost.

Since, the annular fin is the greatest solution for extended surface heat transfer,

deeply investigations were done. Temperature behavior through the fin, the heat dissipation

from fin increased by increasing the velocity of the flow up to the temperature of the fin

reaches the temperature of the base which is the maximum heat can be dissipated from the

fin.

Chart designed which can be used to rate or design specific radial rectangular fins

for a particular heat transfer specification, a mathematical model for a radial rectangular fin

is presented, The fin efficiency, an indicator to quantify the actual heat flow through a fin

relative to a maximum heat flow through a fin It is dependent on four parameters, length,

thickness, thermal conductive of the fin, and heat transfer coefficient, The design chart have

curves of the efficiency plotted against length to thickness l/δ ratio in present of the heat

transfer coefficient to thermal conductive h/k ratio. Example on how to use the design chart is

included.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

A Area (m²)

b width (m)

c tube surface to surface distance (m)

D Shell diameter (m)

d fin diameter (m)

f friction coefficient (dimensionless)

h Heat transfer coefficient (w/m²k)

k Thermal conductivity (w/mk)

L Fin length (m)

m Fin parameter (dimensionless)

N Fin effectiveness (dimensionless)

Nu Nusselt Number (dimensionless)

P Fin perimeter (m)

Pr Prandtl Number (dimensionless)

q Heat transfer rate (w)

Re Reynolds Number (dimensionless)

r Fin Radius (m)

T Temperature (ºC)

U Overall heat transfer coefficient (w/m²k)

u Fluid velocity (m/s)

Greek symbols

δ Fin thickness (m)

η Fin efficiency (dimensionless)

θ Temperature difference (ºC)

ρ Fin material density (kg/m³)

∆P Pressure drop (N/m²)

Subscripts

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

b At fin base

a At fin tip

s Surface

id Ideal

Content

2. Introduction ……………………………………………………… 2

3. Background

3.1. Principle of heat transfer ……………….……………………………… 5

3.2. Heat exchanger performance improvement ……………………… 6

3.3. Extended surface heat transfer ……………………………………… 6

4. Literature review

4.1. Fins optimizations ……………..…………………..…………………… 13

4.2. Fin performance ……………………………………………………… 14

5. Calculation procedure

5.1. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile ……………………………… 15

5.2. Cylindrical or pin fin ……………………………………………… 18

5.3. Radial fin of rectangular profile ……………………………………… 20

5.4. Pressure drop cross finned tube ……………………………………… 23

5.5. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from fin ……………… 23

5.6. Design chart for radial rectangular fin in terms of efficiencies ……… 24

6. Results and discussion

6.1. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile results ……………………… 25

6.2. Cylindrical or pin fin results ……………………………………… 27

6.3. Radial fin of rectangular profile results and discussion ……………… 29

6.4. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from fin results and discussion ... 31

6.5. Design chart creation for radial rectangular fin in terms of efficiencies …… 32

7. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………… 33

8. Future work ……………………………………………………………… 34

9. References ……………………………………………………………… 35

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

1.1. Objective

The main objective of this project is to investigate on the extended surface heat transfer

(fins) mathematically, and compare between different types of extended heat transfer in

term of the weight and cost.

1.2. Aims

1- To understand the heat transfer principles.

2- To comprehend with the heat exchanger design.

3- To elucidate the effect of the extended surface on the heat transfer.

4- To understand the usage of the fins

5- To compare between different types of fins

6- To optimize the heat exchanger by using fins

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

2. Introduction

utilization becomes an ever more urgent target in science and technology. Among diverse

elementary techniques to be improved, heat exchanger is one of the major components

common in a wide variety of thermal energy handling processes, such as conversion,

transport, consumption and storage.

the performance of various devices and systems, and it would lead to better utility and

industrial energy plants, air-conditioning systems, manufacturing processes, transportation

systems, and even information devices, all of which should contribute to reduction of

emission of greenhouse effect gases. Hence, the present work is aimed at developing an

optimum design tool of high-performance heat exchangers

1) Rating or performance method: (sizes, arrangements, shape of the

surfaces, etc.) and the designer is looking for the performances (Power, Pressure Drops) at

the nominal flow rates, and inlet temperatures.

2) Sizing or design method: the inputs are the flow rates, the primary (or

secondary) inlet-outlet temperatures, the outputs are the sizes, the arrangements, etc

transfer surfaces, such as louvered fins and offset-fins. Although the modern heat exchanger

performance has increased with these, elaborate heat transfer surfaces.

saturated after a great deal of industrial effort with this sort of sophisticated extended heat

transfer surfaces of complex geometry.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Alternatively, one would be aware of the fact that, given a Nusselt number (Nu =

h.L /k) for the heat transfer system under study, the heat transfer coefficient h itself would

simply increase as the characteristic length scale L is reduced. That is, might conceive a

high performance heat exchanger by reducing the hydraulic diameter of its flow passage.

high heat fluxes from small components having a limited heat transfer surface.

During the last few years, the need to reduce the volume and the weight of thermal

dissipaters has become even more important. For new applications, such as in the electronic

industry or in the compact heat exchanger field, even smaller and lighter dissipaters have

been, in fact, required. Therefore, the problem of optimizing the geometry of finned

dissipaters in order to increase the heat transfer effectiveness and reduce the dimensions and

the weight.

To maximize the heat flux removed through finned surfaces, a variety of fin profiles

Parabolic, triangular, undulated optimized profiles have been proposed. For longitudinal

fins, under particular conditions, some of them have been demonstrated to have a

significantly improved effectiveness Nevertheless, for many situations, an ultimate solution

has not yet been found to the problem of optimizing the profiles of the fins.

For finned dissipaters cooled by forced convection, the heat transfer effectiveness

depends on different factors, which often are interdependent. The most important are the

local convective heat transfer coefficient, the extension of the heat transfer surface between

the solid and the coolant fluid and the fin conductance. The local convective heat transfer

coefficient depends on the velocity distribution of the coolant fluid induced by the fin

spacing and shape, which also affect the heat transfer surface and the fin conductance.

Moreover, to increase the heat transfer surface, the extension of the fin must be

augmented. Therefore, if the fin weight is constrained, the fin thickness must be reduced.

Nevertheless, for a given value of the thermal conductivity of the fin material, it is

necessary to reduce the height and to increase the thickness of the fins in order to enhance

the conductance.

School of Engineering and Technology 7

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· To Save Money

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

3. Background theory

Heat Transfer Concepts Heat is a form of energy that transferred from one body to

another body flows due to difference in temperature, the heat transfers from the hotter body

to the colder one. This will continue until the temperatures of the bodies are the same

(thermal equilibrium). The transfer of heat occurs via one or any combination of the three

modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation. Generally, the radiation heat

transfer is of little importance for heat exchangers operating at low temperatures.

Heat Flow through a Pipe The heat transfer through a pipe is dependent on the

thickness of the pipe layer. The thickness of the pipe defined by the radius of layers i.e. Din,

and Dout the thermal conductivity of layer is, K The fluid within the pipe is at temperature

Tin, and the heat transfer coefficient from fluid to the wall is h in. The temperature and heat

transfer coefficient for the fluid outside the pipe are Tout and h out. By using Fourier’s law

of conduction and Newton’s law of cooling, it shown that for a steady state heat transfer [1]:

·

Q = UA(Tin - Tout ) ………………………………………… (1)

Heat exchangers are widely used in both living organisms and industrial applications.

An exchange process, whether it involves heat, gases, solutes, or water, is an important

feature in many different physiological processes.

Heat exchanger used for transferring heat, gases, or water between two media separated

by tubes that has good thermal conductance or a high conductance for different gases,

solutes or water. Depending on the flow arrangements, the flow direction of the media, the

flow rate of the media and diffusion distance, or conductance of the exchanger material.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The most important need for heat exchanger design is overall heat transfer coefficient;

this is a measure of the general resistance of a heat exchanger to flow of heat.

The conduction, and convection component of the heat exchanger problem is more

complex than the simple planer analyses.

The most common type of heat exchanger used in industry contains a number of parallel

tubes enclosed in a shell and is thus called a shell and tube heat.

The shell and tube heat exchanger as shown in figure (3-1) consists of a cylinder (shell)

to pack in a large number of tubes. The inner fluid flow through several of tubes, the outer

fluid flow through the shell and forced be buffers, which provided to support the tubes, and

direct the fluid flow and increase the turbulence, consequently improve the convection heat

transfer [4].

di

figure (3-2) [4] do

Flow

P C P

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The fluid in the tube usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of passes to

increase the length of the flow path. The arrangement of the pass partition for 2, 4, and 6

tubes are shown in figure (3-3) [4].

2.2.4 Baffles

Baffles used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the tube, to increase the

fluid velocity and so improve the rate of transfer. The most commonly used type of baffle

shown in figure (3-4) [7].

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

increase the heat transfer, Q, for a fixed surface to fluid temperature ∆T is to increase the

heat transfer coefficient, h, the surface area, A, or both. the heat transfer coefficient, h can

increased, by using a fluid with better heat transfer properties, but our choice of fluids may

be limited by the system requirements. For example, could use a liquid rather than a gas, but

a pump, pipes, valves, reservoirs, and other hardware would be needed, which increase

system weight and cost. Also increase h by increasing the velocity of the fluid.

Unfortunately, increase the fluid velocity requires large and more power full pumps, which,

once again, increase system weight and cost.

To get the most out of a heat exchanger means saving money, particularly if the

process built for a long-term operations. Some ways to improve the performance of a heat

exchanger:-

1. Heat transfer area

2. Fluid flow velocity

3. Temperature gradient [7]

As the equation (1), the heat transfer area is directly proportional to the heat transfer

rate. As the heat transfer area increases, heat transfer rate increases. (Considered at this

study)

As the cooling fluid velocity increases, the cooling fluid is able to dissipate heat

more effectively. (Considered at project part one)

for heat transfer. If introduce fluids with larger temperature difference into the heat

exchanger, the heat transfer rate (Q) will be higher [4] . (Considered at project part one)

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

In heat exchanger applications a finned tube arrangement to remove heat from a hot

liquid, the heat transfer from the liquid to the finned tube is by the convection. The heat

conducted through the material and finally dissipated to the surroundings by convection as

shown in Figure1.

Fins or extended surfaces are widely used to augment the rate of heat transfer from

the primary surface to the ambient medium in a large variety of thermal equipment as shown

on figure (3-5). An accurate analysis of heat transfer in fins has become crucial with the

growing demand of high performance of heat transfer surfaces with progressively smaller

weights, volumes, accommodating shapes, initial and running cost of the system. Over the

years different fin shapes have been evolved depending upon the application and the

geometry of the primary surface. Extended surface heat transfer is the study of these high-

performance heat transfer components with respect to these parameters and of their behavior

in a variety of thermal environments

T2, h

Base Convection

Heat Conduction

Source T1

T2, h

Convection

Figure (3-5) heat flow through the fin

1-Fins of constant cross-section: rectangular or pin fins

· longitudinal fin of rectangular profile

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· radial fin of rectangular profile

· cylindrical spine

· longitudinal fin of trapezoidal profile

· longitudinal fin of parabolic profile

· cylindrical tube equipped with radial fin of trapezoidal profile

· truncated conical spine

· truncated parabolic spine

· Heat Exchanger, the finned tubes used to reduce the weight, the cost, and increase

the performance of heat exchanger.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Industrial cooling fans, used to cool the fluids by the air fans, fins used to reduce the

size of the cooler as well the number of fans, consequently the cost , and the noise

reduced,

· Air conditions, as area is very important for the air-conditioning system the fins is

very helpful.

· Automotives, the heat produced from the engine is too high, and to remove this heat

the technique of the fins needed.

· Motorcycles, because the cooling system used in the motorcycles is air, the fins are

highly effective to cool the engine.

· Electrical motors, the heat produced by the electric motor removed by the air

blowing through the fins.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

and the high rate of heat produced by the components comparing the size, fins

solving this problem

When a surface extended by adding fins, the convective resistance decrease because

the surface area is increased, but the conductive resistance because heat must flow through

the solid fin before being convected from its surface.

Heat loss to surrounding fluid by convection according to Newton's law of cooling

The ratio of the heat transfer from the fin to the heat transfer from the unfinned surface

found to be

Q fin

N= ………………………………………. (3)

Qunfin

The magnitude of the fin effectiveness, N is the key for determining whether fins should

use.

· If N is greater than one, the heat transfer from the fin is greater than that from the

unfinned surface, so adding the fin is beneficial.

· If N is less than one, the heat transfer from the fin is less than that from the unfinned

surface, so adding the fin is detrimental.

· If N = one, adding the fin no effect.

If the whole fin were at prime surface temperature, the increase in heat transfer rate

would be in direct proportion to the increase in surface area. The fin efficiency is defined as

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

the ratio of the actual heat dissipation of a fin to its ideal dissipation if the entire fin were at

the same temperature as its base.

h fin = …. (4)

Heat transfer rate if the whole fin were at the root temperature

The total efficiency for a finned surface may be defined as the ratio of the total heat transfer

of the combined area of the surface and fins to the heat which would be transferred if this

total area were maintained at the base temperature

Af

ht = 1 - (1 - h f } …………………..…………. (5)

A

Fins of given size, shape, and material possess different fin efficiencies, and the efficiency

of any fin will vary with its thermal conductivity and the mode of heat transfer with respect

to its environment.

Figure (3-16) fin efficiency vs. length for varies fin profile

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The study of extended surface heat transfer in most cases comprises two factors that

may conveniently be separated. One factor considers only the movement of the heat within

the fin by conduction. The other considers how the fin exchanges heat with the

surroundings, which usually involves convection and radiation singly or together.

1. The heat flow in the fin and its temperatures remain constant with time.

2. The fin material is homogeneous; its thermal conductivity is the same in all directions,

and it remains constant.

3. The convective heat transfer coefficient on the faces of the fin is constant and uniform

over the entire surface of the fin.

4. The temperature of the medium surrounding the fin is uniform.

5. The fin thickness is small, compared with its height and length, so that temperature

gradients across the fin thickness and heat transfer from the edges of the fin may be

neglected.

6. The temperature at the base of the fin is uniform.

7. There is no contact resistance where the base of the fin joins the prime surface.

8. There are no heat sources within the fin itself.

9. The heat transferred through the tip of the fin is negligible compared with the heat leaving

its lateral surface.

10. Heat transfer to or from the fin is proportional to the temperature excess between the fin

and the surrounding medium.

4. Literature review

This chapter delineates information regarding the research carried out on extended

surface heat transfer.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The fin optimization problem, discussed in the literature [5], can be described as the

optimum volume or the least material problem where the shape of the fin which would

minimize the fin volume for a given amount of heat dissipation is found, or alternatively the

heat dissipation is maximized for a given volume.

The optimum shape for straight fins and spines with temperature-dependent

conductivity was investigated by Jany and Bejan [6]. Zubair et al. [7] investigated the

optimum dimensions of variable profile circular fins with temperature-dependent thermal

conductivity. They found that a circular fin of (quadratic) hyperbolic profile gives an

optimum performance.

Chung and Zhang [8] studied a new design of four- fin radiating array in which the

horizontal fins have rectangular profile and the vertical fins can have either a rectangular or

triangular profile. The optimum dimensions of the fins are also obtained and the results are

presented in an extremely simple algebraic form which is very convenient for use by

thermal designers. They also found that the four- fin array saves about 30% in material,

when compared to the conventional two-fin array.

Performance and optimum dimensions of longitudinal and annular fins and spines

with a temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient have been presented by Laor and

Kalman [9]. In them work, Laor and Kalman considered the heat transfer coefficient as a

power function of temperature and used exponent values in the power function that

represent different heat transfer mechanisms such as free convection, fully developed

boiling and radiation.

Yu¨ncu¨ and Anbar [10] and Gu¨vence and Yu¨ncu¨ [11] presented experimental

investigation on performance of fin arrays in free convection on horizontal and vertical

base, respectively. These studies reported that for a given ambient temperature difference,

the convection heat transfer rate from fin array takes a maximum value as a function of fin

spacing and fin height.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

5. Calculation procedures

The most used fins types is longitudinal, pin, and annular fins, accordingly these

types of fins selected to compare each of them for more effective in weight and save money

a. By equalizing the fins efficiency.

b. By equalizing the volume of the fins.

c. By equalizing the heat transfer from the fins.

In this study the efficiencies was taken as a reference to compare between the fins, and than

find the most suitable to this case (weight, and money saving).

The efficiency selected 90%.

The finial results of project part one taken as initial data as shown on table (5-1).

Di , Shell inside diameter 400 mm Do , Shell outside diameter 420 mm

distance exchanger

n, Number of tubes 174 K, Thermal conductivity 45 W/mk

H, Heat transfer coefficient 6117.7 W/m²k Total weight of tubes 347.9 kg

Total weight of shell 241.1 kg Total weight of the heat 589 kg

exchanger

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The longitudinal fin shape is illustrated on the figure (5-1), attached to the heat

exchanger tube. In this chapter the calculations procedure described as follows:

For the longitudinal fin of rectangular profile displayed at Figure. (5-1), the exponent on the

(1-2 n ) (1- n )

d æxö

general fin profile of f 2 ( x) = 0 ç ÷ ……………………… (6)

2 èbø

Satisfies the geometry when n = 1 / 2. The profile function for this fin then becomes

db d

f 2 ( x) = = ……………………………… (7)

2 2

df 2 ( x )

Because δb = δ and =0 ………………………………. (8)

dx

When these are substituted into general equation

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

d 2q 2 Ldf 2 ( x) dq 2h

2 Lf 2 ( x) + - q = 0, …….... (9)

dx 2 dx dx k

The governing differential equation becomes

d 2q 2h

- q =0 ………………………………. (10)

dx 2 kd

This is an ordinary second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. The

general solution is

q = C1e mx + C 2 e - mx ………………………………. (11)

Where m is referred to as the fin performance factor,

1

æ 2h ö 2

m=ç ÷ ……………………………………… (12)

è kd ø

Application of the boundary conditions of equations:

dq

q (x = b) = q b , q( x = b ) = q b = - kA x=b ………. (13)

dx

Permits evaluation of the constants C1 and C2, This evaluation yields:

θ(x) = T (x) − Ts : ………………………………. (14)

q b cosh mx

q (x ) = ……………………………… (15)

cosh mb

Because the orientation of the height coordinate x is opposed to the direction of the heat

flow in the fin, the heat flow through the base of the fin qb is obtained from

dq

qb = kA x =b ………………………………. (16)

dx

The fin cross-sectional area is equal to A = δL, so that in using the derivative of eq. (16)

evaluated at x = b,

qb = kdLmq b tanh mb ………………………………. (17)

For the longitudinal fin of rectangular profile, the actual heat flow is given by eq. (17). The

ideal heat flow is qid = hPq b , where P is the perimeter of the fin, P = 2(L + δ). Because L

>> δ, the ideal heat flow is qid = 2hLbq b , so that the efficiency becomes

kdLmq b tanh mb

h= ……………………………… (18)

2hLbq b

kd

And by noting that = m - 2 , the efficiency may be written as

2h

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

tanh mb

h= ………………………………………. (19)

mb

The fin effectiveness

PK

N= tanh(mb) ……………………………… (20)

hA

The optimum fin height and width are those for which the maximum quantity of heat

is dissipated. This implies that the flow through the base of the fin be a maximum.

Let b L be the optimizing parameter which may be defined in term of the fin profile area,

Ap = bd .

1 1

b L = mb = bç ÷ = Ap ç ÷ (d )

æ 2h ö 2 æ 2h ö

2

- 32

………. (21)

è kd ø è k ø

The heat flow through the base for unit fin length in terms of the fine profile area and fin

thickness:

3

æ1 ö

1 1 2

æ 2h ö 2 æ 2h ö 2

ç ÷

qo = kd q o ç ÷ tanh Ap ç ÷ …….… (22)

è kd ø è k ø çd ÷

è ø

Differentiation with respect to δ gives:

3b L sec h 2 b L = tanh b L ………………………. (23)

b L can be solved by trail and error and yields to b L =1.4192.

The value of the optimum thickness of fin becomes:

1

æ 2hA2p ö

3

tolerable weight

d = .791çç ÷ where Ap =

÷

.. (24)

è k ø Length ´ density

1

A æ kA ö 3

d è 2h ø

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The pin fin shape is illustrated on the figure (5-2), attached to the heat exchanger tube.

In this chapter the calculations procedure described as follows:

For the Cylindrical or pin fins shown in Figure (5-2), the profile function is

d d2

f 2 ( x) = [ f 2 ( x)]2 = ……………… (26)

2 4

and its derivative

d

[ f 2 ( x)]2 = 0 ……………………………… (27)

dx

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

d 2q d dq 2h

[ f 2 ( x)]2 2

+ [ f 2 ( x)]2 - f 2 ( x )q = 0 ……… (28)

dx dx dx k

Becomes:

d 2q

2

- m=

2

q 0 ……………………………… (29)

dx

Where m is referred to as the fin performance factor,

4h 12

m=( ) ……………………………………… (30)

kd

The equation for the temperature excess becomes

q b cosh mx

q= ……………………………….. (31)

cosh mb

For the heat flow through the pin base and the heat dissipation,

p 2

q0 = d kmq b tanh mb ………………………. (32)

4

And for the fin efficiency,

tanh mb

h= ………………………………………. (33)

mb

The fin effectiveness

PK

N= tanh(mb) ……………………………… (34)

hA

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The Radial fin shape is illustrated on the figure (5-3), attached to the heat exchanger

tube. In this chapter the calculations procedure described.

For the radial fin of rectangular profile shown in Figure. (5-3), the profile function is

d

f 2 (r ) = ………………………………………. (35)

2

and its derivative

df 2 (r )

=0 ……………………………………… (36)

dr

When this substituted in the generalized differential equation:

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

d 2q f 2 (r ) dq df 2 (r ) dq h

f 2 (r ) + + - q = 0 ………………. (37)

dr 2 r dr dr dr k

d 2q dq

r 2

2

+r - m 2r 2q ……………………… (38)

dr dr

Where m is referred to as the fin performance factor,

1

æ 2h ö

2

è kd ø

Equation (40) is Bessel’s modified equation, which has a solution in terms of the modified

Bessel functions:

q (r ) = C1I o (mr ) + C2 K o (mr ) ………………………. (40)

at r = rb , q = qb

dq

at r = ra , =0

dr

When these boundary conditions are used with eq. (40), two simultaneous equations

in C1 and C2 result

q b = C1I 0 (mrb ) + C2 K 0 (mrb ) ……………………… (41)

When C1 and C2 are evaluated and inserted into eq. (40), the equation for the temperature

excess becomes

q (r ) = ………. (43)

I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

The heat flow through the base is determined from the general relationship

dq

qb = 2prb kd r = rb ………………………………. (44)

dr

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )

qb = 2prbdkmq b ……….. (45)

I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

(

qid = 2p ra2 - rb2 hqb ) ……………………………… (46)

h= = … (47)

( )

qid 2p ra2 - rb2 hq b I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

2h

And by noting that m 2 = , an alternative form is obtained:

kd

2rb I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )

h= ………. (48)

( )

m ra - rb I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

2 2

h (rb2 - ra2 )

N= ……………………………… (49)

ra d

5.3.1. Optimum shapes of radial fins of rectangular profile

The Optimum shape of radial fins of rectangular profile obtained at the maximum

quantity of heat is dissipated. This implies that the heat flow through the base of the fin be a

maximum and the figure (5-4) present the solution in terms of :

1

æ 2hrb ö rb qb

2

u=ç ÷ , v= ,

è k ø d 2pkrbq b

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

100

u=4.0

2.0

rb 1.0

v=

d

0.50

10 0.25

0.125

1

qb

0.01 0.1 1

2pkrbq b

The Fins friction factor, also known as the skin friction coefficient, is defined as [2]

t0

f = ………………………………………. (50)

1 rv 2

2

The pressure drop, using the Fins friction factor provided by Kays & London, is given by

[2]

L u2

DP = 4 f ………………………………. (51)

De 2 r

Here, looking the velocity behavior how to effect on the heat dissipation.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Since, the heat transfer between the fin and the fluid by convection so.

q = hADT ………………………………………. (52)

Where q is the heat dissipated by the fin

Nu K

h= ……………………………………… (53)

As

1 1

N u = 0.664 Re2 Pr 3 ……………………………………… (54)

rmC p

=

Pr ………………………………………. (55)

K

ruDi

R=

e ………………………………………. (56)

m

Since, heat transfer coefficient effected by the fluid velocity through the Reynolds number

therefore, the heat transfer will change accordingly.

conductive of fin, and heat transfer coefficient of fluid. It's obvious from the formula:-

2rb I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )

h= , ………. (57)

( )

m ra - rb I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

2 2

2h

and, m=

2

kd

l

· If length and thickness of the fin set as a ratio of , the heat transfer coefficient

d

h

of the fluid and thermal conductivity of the fin as

k

l h

· Calculating the efficiencies with different values of and selecting values of

d k

h

· Repeat the above calculations with different values of

k

h

· Plot the results, will be many curve for each value of .

k

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· By this chat the geometry of the fin can be predicated for any tube diameter,

materials and fluids in terms the efficiency without going to the equations and

calculations

In this chapter, the results of the calculation by using mathematical equations summarized

and discussed each fin type individually.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Input data referred to the results of the project part one for the same operation conditions

which needs to optimize by using the fins

Table (6-1) input data to calculate the longitudinal fin parameter and performance

Heat

Width, Length, Thickness, Base Fluid Thermal Density of

Transfer

L b δ Temperature Temperature Conductivity fin

Coefficient

(m) (m) (m) (°C) (°C) (W/mK) (kg/m³)

(W/m²×K)

0.75 0.0025 0.005 6117.7 60 30 45 7800

Fin

efficiency

90.0%

Physical properties of the fin obtained due to the calculation tabled on the table (6-2)

Fin perimeter Cross Sectional Surface Area Fin performance m Temperature difference

(m) Area (m²) (m²) ( m -1 ) θ(ºC)

1.5100 0.0038 0.0075 233.9703 30

Heat transfer

Heat Transfer Rate

rate from bare

(W)

surface(w)

623.3 219.0

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Table (6-3), concerning the results which needed to compare with other types of fins

Bare Surface Mass of Fin Mass of tube

Transfer per Number of Fins of 174 tube

Area (m2) Array (kg) (kg)

tube (W) (kg)

3850 0.044 6 0.44 0.6248 185.0577

Total mass of

Pressure drop

Mass of shell the heat Total pressure

due to

(kg) exchanger drop(N/m²)

fins(N/m²)

(kg)

75.35 260.4 6056.200 1.244

The figure (6-2), show the temperature gradation through the fin, and its clear the

temperature drop in the fin from 60 ºC to 55.5 ºC

61

60

Temperature (C)

59

58

57

56

55

0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025

Dis tance L (m )

· Total mass of the heat exchanger after using the longitudinal fin of rectangular

profile is 260.4 kg with comparison to the heat exchanger without using the fins 589

kg. The mass is reduced by 55.85% without effect on the process parameters.

· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the

fins which about

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin is very small, in other hand because

the length of the heat exchanger reduced from 2.4 m to .75 m the total pressure of

the system decreased from 18480.66 to 6056.2 N/m², which mean power energy

saved by 67.22%

· The longitudinal fin is easy to fabricate, it fabricate by drawing the tube using

grooved die, that mean no scraps and no material lost.

· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which

mean more heat transfer during the process

· As the fin length increase the performance of the fin reduced due to the heat transfer

by the conduction though the material of the fin dissipated before reaches the tip.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Input data referred to the results of the project part one for the same operation conditions

which needs to optimize by using the fins

Table (6-4) input data to calculate the pin fin parameter and performance

Fin

Fin Heat Transfer Base Fluid Thermal Density

Radius,

length, b Coefficient (W/ Temperature Temperature Conductivity of fin

d

(m) m²K) (°C) (°C) (W/mK) (kg/m³)

(m)

.0.0081 0.0025 6117.7 60 30 45 7800

Fin

efficiency

90.0%

Physical properties of the fin obtained due to the calculation tabled on the table (6-5)

Surface Area (m²)

Base (m) Area at base (m²) m ( m -1 ) θ(ºC)

Heat transfer rate

Heat Transfer

from bare

Rate (W)

surface(w)

15.2 473.256

Table (6-6), concerning the results which needed to compare with other types of fins

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Required Heat

Bare Surface Mass of Fin Mass of tube Total mass of

Transfer per tube Number of Fins

Area (m2) Array (kg) (kg) 174 tube (kg)

(W)

3850 0.044 223 0.224 0.6248 147.69

Total mass of

Total pressure Pressure drop due

Mass of shell (kg) the heat

drop(N/m²) to fins(N/m²)

exchanger (kg)

75.35 223.04 7155.125 4.297

The figure (6-4), show the temperature gradation through the fin, and its clear the

temperature drop in the fin from 60 ºC to 54.5 ºC

61

60

T e m p e rt a t re ( C )

59

58

57

56

55

54

Distance (m)

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Total mass of the heat exchanger after using the pin fin of circular profile is 223.04

kg with comparison to the heat exchanger without using the fins 589 kg. The mass is

reduced by 62.1 % without effect on the process parameters.

· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the

fins which about

· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin is very small, in other hand because

the length of the heat exchanger reduced from 2.4 m to .75 m the total pressure of

the system decreased from 18480.66 to 7155.125 N/m², which mean power energy

saved by 61.28%

· The pin fin is more difficult to fabricate than longitudinal fin, it fabricate by welding

the pins on the tube that mean more cost.

· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which

mean more heat transfer during the process.

· As the fin length increase the performance of the fin reduced due to the heat transfer

by the conduction though the material of the fin dissipated before reaches the tip.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Table (6-7) input data to calculate the radial fin parameter and performance

Inner Outer Heat

Radius, Radius, Thickness, Transfer Base Fluid Thermal Density

δ Temperature Temperature Conductivity of fin

rb ra Coefficient

(m) (°C) (°C) (W/mK) (kg/m³)

(m) (m) (W/ m²K)

0.0095 0.012 0.0057 6117.7 60 30 45 7800

Physical properties of the fin obtained due to the calculation tabled on the table (6-8)

Surface Area (m²)

Base (m) Area at base (m²) m ( m -1 ) θ(ºC)

Heat transfer rate

Heat Transfer

Fin efficiency from bare

Rate (W)

surface(w)

126.77 90.0% 636.900

Table (6-9), concerning the results which needed to compare with other types of fins

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Bare Surface Mass of Fin Mass of tube

Transfer per Number of Fins of 174 tube

Area (m2) Array (kg) (kg)

tube (W) (kg)

3850 0.044 26 0.195 0.6248 142.645

Total mass of

Pressure drop

Mass of shell the heat Total pressure

due to

(kg) exchanger drop(N/m²)

fins(N/m²)

(kg)

75.35 217.995 8254.05 7.350

The figure (6-6), show the temperature gradation through the fin, and its clear the

temperature drop in the fin from 60 ºC to 55.8 ºC

61

60

Temperature (C)

59

58

57

56

55

0.010 0.010 0.011 0.011 0.012 0.012

Radial Position r2 (m)

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

1 1

2

è k ø è 45 ø

qb 126

= = 1.56

2pkrbq b 2p ´ 45 ´ 0.0095 ´ (60 - 30)

qb

From figure (16) , u intersect at a value of v equal to 1.8

2pkrbq b

rb r

Since, v = than, 1.8 = b .

d d

rb 0.0095

Therefore d = = = 0.005277 mm

1. 8 1.8

Comparing the optimum thickness by the estimation thickness could still saving the material

of the fin by (0.0057 - .005277 = 0.000423 mm) 7.42 %.

· Total mass of the heat exchanger after using the annular fins rectangular profile is

217.995 kg with comparison to the heat exchanger without using the fins 589 kg.

The mass is reduced by 62.98 % without effect on the process parameters.

· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the

fins which about

· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin is very small, in other hand because

the length of the heat exchanger reduced from 2.4 m to .75 m the total pressure of

the system decreased from 18480.66 to 8254.05 N/m², which mean power energy

saved by 55.33%

· The radial fin is easy to fabricate, it fabricate by casting the rings and than slotted on

the grooved tube, that mean no scraps and no material lost.

· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which

mean more heat transfer during the process.

· As the fin length increase the performance of the fin reduced due to the heat transfer

by the conduction though the material of the fin dissipated before reaches the tip.

6.4. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from the radial fin

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

This graph (6-7) shows how the velocity of the flow effect on the dissipation of fin.

The base temperature of the fin assumed to be constant 60 °C

12

10

flow velocity (m/s)

0

40 60 80 100 120 140

Heat dissipate d by fin (w)

· As the velocity of the flow increases the heat dissipation from the fin increases that

due to increases of the heat transfer coefficient

· The line is curved due to the temperature of the fin, as the fin temperature reach the

base temperature the heat transfer will be the maximum, and there will be no effect

for further increment in the velocity of the flow.

· As the velocity of the flow increases the flow will be in turbulence mode, which

means more heat transfer.

· Due to the turbulence which produced from the fin obstructs, the heat transfer will

increase.

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The fin efficiency, an indicator to quantify the actual heat flow through a fin relative to a

maximum heat flow through a fin It is dependent on four parameters, length, thickness,

thermal conductive of the fin, and heat transfer coefficient, The design chart have curves of the

efficiency plotted against length to thickness l/δ ratio in present of the heat transfer coefficient

h/k=1

100.0%

95.0%

h/k=2

90.0% h/k=3

85.0%

80.0%

h/k=4

75.0%

70.0%

65.0%

60.0%

55.0%

η 50.0%

45.0%

40.0%

35.0%

30.0%

25.0%

20.0%

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0%

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

1.75

2

2.25

2.5

2.75

3

3.25

3.5

3.75

4

4.25

4.5

4.75

5

5.25

5.5

5.75

6

6.25

6.5

6.75

7

7.25

7.5

7.75

8

8.25

8.5

8.75

9

9.25

9.5

9.75

10

l/δ

Figure (6-8) chart design to predict the radial fin shape in term of efficiency

· Example illustrate how this chart is working, if there have tube with outer radius 30

mm, thermal conductivity of fin which need to fix 50 W/mK, heat transfer coefficient of the

fluid is 200 W/ m²K, the efficiency required 80%.

h 200

= =4

k 50

h

From chart the line to 80% which intersect with the curve = 4, read the corresponding

k

l 30 - re

value of which is in this case 0.125, that is = 0.125 so, re = 0.125 δ + 30

d d

7. Conclusion

School of Engineering and Technology 42

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Extended surface heat transfer is useful to use on many application where the area,

cost, and the weight are important factor.

· A very long fin will be inefficient. On the other hand the efficiency goes to 100% as

the length is reduced to zero

· The fin effectiveness to be as high as possible ,but this can always be done by

extending the length of the fin ,and that rapidly becomes a losing proposition

· Annular fins is more effective than longitudinal, and pin fins

· The total mass is reduced by 62.98 % without effect on the process parameters,

which mean reduced on the supports, loading, transporting, and cost.

· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the

fins which about, which can used on the narrow area

· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin save the energy power by 55.33%,

which mean save on budget.

· There is a limit for extended area heat transfer; further area extended above the limit

will wasteful the martial. That means increasing the volume of the material without

effective of heat transfer.

· To increase the volume of material with more effective of heat transfer, increment of

the outer radians of the fin more effective than increasing the fin thickness.

· The fins are easy to fabricate, no scraps and no material lost.

· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which

mean more heat transfer during the process

8. Future work

School of Engineering and Technology 43

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Validate the results by experimental work, the material used for the fin is steel

· Introduce a new design of compact heat exchanger that consists of many small

diameter tubes without any extended surfaces, i.e., micro bare-tube heat exchanger.

There will be a large pressure drop across the heat exchanger core. Hence, should

compromise the heat transfer augmentation and pressure penalty. To do this,

develops an optimum design tool for micro bare-tube heat exchanger, and evaluate

its performance in several design cases.

9. References

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

2. Incropera, F. P. and Dewitt, D.P., Introduction to Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons,

1996

3. Incropera, F. P. and Dewitt, D.P., Fundamentals of Heat and mass Transfer, John

Wiley & Sons, 1996

4. Kern DQ; Kraus AD (1972) Extended Surface Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York

478

5. James P. Hartnett, Tomas F. Irvine, Advances in heat transfer, vol.15, Academic press,

1982.

6. Christopher long, Essential heat transfer, Longman, 1999

7. Donald R. Pitts, Leighton E. Sissom, Theory and problems of heat transfer, ed 2,

schaum’s outline series, McGraw-Hill, 1997.

8. Jesse S. Doolittle, Francis J. Hale, Thermodynamics for engineers, John Wiley & sons,

1984.

9. T. D. Eastop, A. Mcconkey, Applied thermodynamics for engineering technologists, ed

5, Longman, 1993.

10. R. K. Sinnott, Chemical engineering, Vol. 6, ed. 3, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.

11. Howard F. rase, Chemical reactors design for process plants, Vol. 1, principles and

techniques, John Wiley & sons, 1977

12. Ullmann A; Kalman H., Efficiency and optimized dimensions of annular fins of

different cross-section shapes. Int J Heat and Mass Transfer 32, pp1105-1110,(1989)

13. Jany P; Bejan A. Ernst Schmidt's approach to fin optimization: an extension to fins with

variable conductivity and the design of ducts for fluid flow. Int J Heat and Mass

Transfer 31, pp1635-1644, (1988)

14. Zubair S.; Al-Garni A.; Nizami J. The optimal dimensions of circular fins with variable

profile and temperature- dependent thermal conductivity. Int J Heat and Mass Transfer

39, pp 3431-3439, (1996)

15. Chung B.; Zhang A. Novel design for a radiative fin array system. J Franklin Institute

330, PP 465-478, (1993)

16. Laor, K. and Kalman, H., Performance and Optimum Dimensions of Different Cooling

Fins with a Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient, International Journal of

Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 1993–2003, (1996)

Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Rectangular Fins on a Horizontal Base in Free Convection Heat Transfer, Heat and

Mass Transfer, Vol. 33, pp. 507–514, (1998)

18. Gu¨vence, A. and Yu¨ncu¨, H., An Experimental Investigation on Performance of Fins

on a Horizontal Base in Free Convection Heat Transfer, Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.

37, pp. 409– 416, (2001)

19. Dong, Z.,Ebadian, M., A numerical analysis of thermally developing flow in elliptic

ducts with internal fins, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Vol.12, pp.166-

172, (1991)

20. Ajay, K. Laminar flow and heat transfer in a finned tube annulus, International Journal

of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 11, pp. 54-59, (1990).

21. Soylemez M. Thermeconomical optimization of double pipe heat=d exchangers for

waste heat recovery, Journal of thermodphysics and heat transfer, Vol.18, pp. 559-

562,(2004)

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