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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Student name: Salah Hewidi

MSc Mechanical Engineering

Msc project (Final report)


Course: EN 542

Project title: Optimization of shell and tube heat


exchanger

Supervisor: Dr. Ken Leung

Year of submission: 2005

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Abstract

The most viable approach for increase heat transfer is to increase the surface area A
by attaching to the heat transfer surface a solid protrusion called a fin. The surface of the fin
exposed to the surrounding fluid is referred to as an extended surface.
By extending the surface, the convective thermal resistance reduced.

In this study fins of Longitudinal, Annular, and Pin rectangular profile have been
investigated to compare the performance of each fin in order to increase the heat transfer
and reduce the cost. The results were the annular fin reduces the length of heat exchanger by
68.75%, consequently, the weight reduced by 62.98 %. Furthermore, the cost reduced to
30% of the heat exchanger, by using fins no significant pressure drop, which mean no extra
power required to pump the fluid, and because of the reduction in the length of the heat
exchanger the pressure drop consequently reduced to 55.35 %, which means reduce in the
process equipments cost.

Since, the annular fin is the greatest solution for extended surface heat transfer,
deeply investigations were done. Temperature behavior through the fin, the heat dissipation
from fin increased by increasing the velocity of the flow up to the temperature of the fin
reaches the temperature of the base which is the maximum heat can be dissipated from the
fin.

Chart designed which can be used to rate or design specific radial rectangular fins
for a particular heat transfer specification, a mathematical model for a radial rectangular fin
is presented, The fin efficiency, an indicator to quantify the actual heat flow through a fin
relative to a maximum heat flow through a fin It is dependent on four parameters, length,
thickness, thermal conductive of the fin, and heat transfer coefficient, The design chart have
curves of the efficiency plotted against length to thickness l/δ ratio in present of the heat

transfer coefficient to thermal conductive h/k ratio. Example on how to use the design chart is
included.

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

List of principle symbols

A Area (m²)
b width (m)
c tube surface to surface distance (m)
D Shell diameter (m)
d fin diameter (m)
f friction coefficient (dimensionless)
h Heat transfer coefficient (w/m²k)
k Thermal conductivity (w/mk)
L Fin length (m)
m Fin parameter (dimensionless)
N Fin effectiveness (dimensionless)
Nu Nusselt Number (dimensionless)
P Fin perimeter (m)
Pr Prandtl Number (dimensionless)
q Heat transfer rate (w)
Re Reynolds Number (dimensionless)
r Fin Radius (m)
T Temperature (ºC)
U Overall heat transfer coefficient (w/m²k)
u Fluid velocity (m/s)

Greek symbols
δ Fin thickness (m)
η Fin efficiency (dimensionless)
θ Temperature difference (ºC)
ρ Fin material density (kg/m³)
∆P Pressure drop (N/m²)

Subscripts

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

b At fin base
a At fin tip
s Surface
id Ideal
Content

1. Aims and objective ……………………………………………………… 1


2. Introduction ……………………………………………………… 2
3. Background
3.1. Principle of heat transfer ……………….……………………………… 5
3.2. Heat exchanger performance improvement ……………………… 6
3.3. Extended surface heat transfer ……………………………………… 6
4. Literature review
4.1. Fins optimizations ……………..…………………..…………………… 13
4.2. Fin performance ……………………………………………………… 14
5. Calculation procedure
5.1. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile ……………………………… 15
5.2. Cylindrical or pin fin ……………………………………………… 18
5.3. Radial fin of rectangular profile ……………………………………… 20
5.4. Pressure drop cross finned tube ……………………………………… 23
5.5. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from fin ……………… 23
5.6. Design chart for radial rectangular fin in terms of efficiencies ……… 24
6. Results and discussion
6.1. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile results ……………………… 25
6.2. Cylindrical or pin fin results ……………………………………… 27
6.3. Radial fin of rectangular profile results and discussion ……………… 29
6.4. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from fin results and discussion ... 31
6.5. Design chart creation for radial rectangular fin in terms of efficiencies …… 32
7. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………… 33
8. Future work ……………………………………………………………… 34
9. References ……………………………………………………………… 35

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

1. Aims and objectives

1.1. Objective

The main objective of this project is to investigate on the extended surface heat transfer
(fins) mathematically, and compare between different types of extended heat transfer in
term of the weight and cost.

1.2. Aims

This aims of the project are outlined as follow:


1- To understand the heat transfer principles.
2- To comprehend with the heat exchanger design.
3- To elucidate the effect of the extended surface on the heat transfer.
4- To understand the usage of the fins
5- To compare between different types of fins
6- To optimize the heat exchanger by using fins

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

2. Introduction

With the growing importance of global environmental problems, efficient energy


utilization becomes an ever more urgent target in science and technology. Among diverse
elementary techniques to be improved, heat exchanger is one of the major components
common in a wide variety of thermal energy handling processes, such as conversion,
transport, consumption and storage.

Improvement of heat exchanger performance affects both directly and indirectly


the performance of various devices and systems, and it would lead to better utility and
industrial energy plants, air-conditioning systems, manufacturing processes, transportation
systems, and even information devices, all of which should contribute to reduction of
emission of greenhouse effect gases. Hence, the present work is aimed at developing an
optimum design tool of high-performance heat exchangers

Furthermore, there are two optimizing methods of Heat Exchangers:


1) Rating or performance method: (sizes, arrangements, shape of the
surfaces, etc.) and the designer is looking for the performances (Power, Pressure Drops) at
the nominal flow rates, and inlet temperatures.
2) Sizing or design method: the inputs are the flow rates, the primary (or
secondary) inlet-outlet temperatures, the outputs are the sizes, the arrangements, etc

Generally, heat transfer enhancement is achieved by employing extended heat


transfer surfaces, such as louvered fins and offset-fins. Although the modern heat exchanger
performance has increased with these, elaborate heat transfer surfaces.

Moreover, further improvement in the heat exchanger performance seems to be


saturated after a great deal of industrial effort with this sort of sophisticated extended heat
transfer surfaces of complex geometry.

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Alternatively, one would be aware of the fact that, given a Nusselt number (Nu =
h.L /k) for the heat transfer system under study, the heat transfer coefficient h itself would
simply increase as the characteristic length scale L is reduced. That is, might conceive a
high performance heat exchanger by reducing the hydraulic diameter of its flow passage.

In many engineering applications, finned dissipaters are commonly used to promote


high heat fluxes from small components having a limited heat transfer surface.

During the last few years, the need to reduce the volume and the weight of thermal
dissipaters has become even more important. For new applications, such as in the electronic
industry or in the compact heat exchanger field, even smaller and lighter dissipaters have
been, in fact, required. Therefore, the problem of optimizing the geometry of finned
dissipaters in order to increase the heat transfer effectiveness and reduce the dimensions and
the weight.

To maximize the heat flux removed through finned surfaces, a variety of fin profiles
Parabolic, triangular, undulated optimized profiles have been proposed. For longitudinal
fins, under particular conditions, some of them have been demonstrated to have a
significantly improved effectiveness Nevertheless, for many situations, an ultimate solution
has not yet been found to the problem of optimizing the profiles of the fins.

For finned dissipaters cooled by forced convection, the heat transfer effectiveness
depends on different factors, which often are interdependent. The most important are the
local convective heat transfer coefficient, the extension of the heat transfer surface between
the solid and the coolant fluid and the fin conductance. The local convective heat transfer
coefficient depends on the velocity distribution of the coolant fluid induced by the fin
spacing and shape, which also affect the heat transfer surface and the fin conductance.

Moreover, to increase the heat transfer surface, the extension of the fin must be
augmented. Therefore, if the fin weight is constrained, the fin thickness must be reduced.

Nevertheless, for a given value of the thermal conductivity of the fin material, it is
necessary to reduce the height and to increase the thickness of the fins in order to enhance
the conductance.
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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Finally, why is the extended surface required?

· To Increase The Outside Surface Area Of The Tube And

· To Maximize Heat Transfer In Order

· To Reduce The Total Number Of Tubes Required And

· To Reduce Overall Equipment Size In Order

· To Save Money

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

3. Background theory

3.1. Principles of heat transfer

Heat Transfer Concepts Heat is a form of energy that transferred from one body to
another body flows due to difference in temperature, the heat transfers from the hotter body
to the colder one. This will continue until the temperatures of the bodies are the same
(thermal equilibrium). The transfer of heat occurs via one or any combination of the three
modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation. Generally, the radiation heat
transfer is of little importance for heat exchangers operating at low temperatures.

Heat Flow through a Pipe The heat transfer through a pipe is dependent on the
thickness of the pipe layer. The thickness of the pipe defined by the radius of layers i.e. Din,
and Dout the thermal conductivity of layer is, K The fluid within the pipe is at temperature
Tin, and the heat transfer coefficient from fluid to the wall is h in. The temperature and heat
transfer coefficient for the fluid outside the pipe are Tout and h out. By using Fourier’s law
of conduction and Newton’s law of cooling, it shown that for a steady state heat transfer [1]:

·
Q = UA(Tin - Tout ) ………………………………………… (1)

3.2. Principle of heat exchanger

Heat exchangers are widely used in both living organisms and industrial applications.
An exchange process, whether it involves heat, gases, solutes, or water, is an important
feature in many different physiological processes.

Heat exchanger used for transferring heat, gases, or water between two media separated
by tubes that has good thermal conductance or a high conductance for different gases,
solutes or water. Depending on the flow arrangements, the flow direction of the media, the
flow rate of the media and diffusion distance, or conductance of the exchanger material.

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The most important need for heat exchanger design is overall heat transfer coefficient;
this is a measure of the general resistance of a heat exchanger to flow of heat.

The conduction, and convection component of the heat exchanger problem is more
complex than the simple planer analyses.

3.3. Shell and tube Heat exchanger

The most common type of heat exchanger used in industry contains a number of parallel
tubes enclosed in a shell and is thus called a shell and tube heat.

The shell and tube heat exchanger as shown in figure (3-1) consists of a cylinder (shell)
to pack in a large number of tubes. The inner fluid flow through several of tubes, the outer
fluid flow through the shell and forced be buffers, which provided to support the tubes, and
direct the fluid flow and increase the turbulence, consequently improve the convection heat
transfer [4].

Tube outlet Shell inlet

Baffles Shell outlet Tube inlet

Figure (3-1) Shell and tube heat exchanger

2.2.2 Tube arrangements

The tubes usually arranged in equilateral triangular or square pattern as shown in


di
figure (3-2) [4] do

Flow
P C P

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Figure (3-2) Tube arrangement

2.2.3 Tube passes

The fluid in the tube usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of passes to
increase the length of the flow path. The arrangement of the pass partition for 2, 4, and 6
tubes are shown in figure (3-3) [4].

Figure (3-3) Tube passes

2.2.4 Baffles

Baffles used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the tube, to increase the
fluid velocity and so improve the rate of transfer. The most commonly used type of baffle
shown in figure (3-4) [7].

Figure (3-4) Baffles

3.4. Heat exchanger performance improvement

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An inspection of Newton's law of cooling Q = h A ∆T reveals that the only way to


increase the heat transfer, Q, for a fixed surface to fluid temperature ∆T is to increase the
heat transfer coefficient, h, the surface area, A, or both. the heat transfer coefficient, h can
increased, by using a fluid with better heat transfer properties, but our choice of fluids may
be limited by the system requirements. For example, could use a liquid rather than a gas, but
a pump, pipes, valves, reservoirs, and other hardware would be needed, which increase
system weight and cost. Also increase h by increasing the velocity of the fluid.
Unfortunately, increase the fluid velocity requires large and more power full pumps, which,
once again, increase system weight and cost.

To get the most out of a heat exchanger means saving money, particularly if the
process built for a long-term operations. Some ways to improve the performance of a heat
exchanger:-
1. Heat transfer area
2. Fluid flow velocity
3. Temperature gradient [7]

3.4.1. Heat transfer area

As the equation (1), the heat transfer area is directly proportional to the heat transfer
rate. As the heat transfer area increases, heat transfer rate increases. (Considered at this
study)

3.4.2. Fluid flow rate velocity

As the cooling fluid velocity increases, the cooling fluid is able to dissipate heat
more effectively. (Considered at project part one)

3.4.3. Temperature gradient

Temperature gradient is an important factor of heat transfer. It is the driving force


for heat transfer. If introduce fluids with larger temperature difference into the heat
exchanger, the heat transfer rate (Q) will be higher [4] . (Considered at project part one)

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3.5. Extended heat transfer area [4]

In heat exchanger applications a finned tube arrangement to remove heat from a hot
liquid, the heat transfer from the liquid to the finned tube is by the convection. The heat
conducted through the material and finally dissipated to the surroundings by convection as
shown in Figure1.

Fins or extended surfaces are widely used to augment the rate of heat transfer from
the primary surface to the ambient medium in a large variety of thermal equipment as shown
on figure (3-5). An accurate analysis of heat transfer in fins has become crucial with the
growing demand of high performance of heat transfer surfaces with progressively smaller
weights, volumes, accommodating shapes, initial and running cost of the system. Over the
years different fin shapes have been evolved depending upon the application and the
geometry of the primary surface. Extended surface heat transfer is the study of these high-
performance heat transfer components with respect to these parameters and of their behavior
in a variety of thermal environments
T2, h
Base Convection

Heat Conduction
Source T1

T2, h
Convection
Figure (3-5) heat flow through the fin

3.5.1. Fin Types

Fins come in many shapes and sizes. Classified into:-


1-Fins of constant cross-section: rectangular or pin fins
· longitudinal fin of rectangular profile

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Figure (3-6) longitudinal fin


· radial fin of rectangular profile

Figure (3-7) radial fin


· cylindrical spine

Figure (3-8) pin fin

2- Fins of varying cross-section: tapered fins


· longitudinal fin of trapezoidal profile
· longitudinal fin of parabolic profile
· cylindrical tube equipped with radial fin of trapezoidal profile
· truncated conical spine
· truncated parabolic spine

3.5.2. Fins applications

Heat transfer fins used in many field, hereby some applications:

· Heat Exchanger, the finned tubes used to reduce the weight, the cost, and increase
the performance of heat exchanger.

Figure (3-9) heat exchanger

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· Industrial cooling fans, used to cool the fluids by the air fans, fins used to reduce the
size of the cooler as well the number of fans, consequently the cost , and the noise
reduced,

Figure (3-10) cooling fin fans


· Air conditions, as area is very important for the air-conditioning system the fins is
very helpful.

Figure (3-11) Air-conditioning application

· Automotives, the heat produced from the engine is too high, and to remove this heat
the technique of the fins needed.

Figure (3-12) automotive radiator

· Motorcycles, because the cooling system used in the motorcycles is air, the fins are
highly effective to cool the engine.

Figure (3-13) motorcycle air-cooling

· Electrical motors, the heat produced by the electric motor removed by the air
blowing through the fins.

Figure (3-14) electrical motor cooling

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· Electronic component, because the size of the electronic component occupations,


and the high rate of heat produced by the components comparing the size, fins
solving this problem

Figure (3-15) electronic cooling

3.5.3. Fin effectiveness

When a surface extended by adding fins, the convective resistance decrease because
the surface area is increased, but the conductive resistance because heat must flow through
the solid fin before being convected from its surface.
Heat loss to surrounding fluid by convection according to Newton's law of cooling

Qno&¢fins = hAq ……………...……………………… (2)

The ratio of the heat transfer from the fin to the heat transfer from the unfinned surface
found to be
Q fin
N= ………………………………………. (3)
Qunfin

The magnitude of the fin effectiveness, N is the key for determining whether fins should
use.
· If N is greater than one, the heat transfer from the fin is greater than that from the
unfinned surface, so adding the fin is beneficial.
· If N is less than one, the heat transfer from the fin is less than that from the unfinned
surface, so adding the fin is detrimental.
· If N = one, adding the fin no effect.

3.5.4. Fins efficiency

If the whole fin were at prime surface temperature, the increase in heat transfer rate
would be in direct proportion to the increase in surface area. The fin efficiency is defined as

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

the ratio of the actual heat dissipation of a fin to its ideal dissipation if the entire fin were at
the same temperature as its base.

Therefore define fin efficiency as:-

Actual fin heat transfer rate


h fin = …. (4)
Heat transfer rate if the whole fin were at the root temperature

The total efficiency for a finned surface may be defined as the ratio of the total heat transfer
of the combined area of the surface and fins to the heat which would be transferred if this
total area were maintained at the base temperature
Af
ht = 1 - (1 - h f } …………………..…………. (5)
A
Fins of given size, shape, and material possess different fin efficiencies, and the efficiency
of any fin will vary with its thermal conductivity and the mode of heat transfer with respect
to its environment.

Figure (3-16) fin efficiency vs. length for varies fin profile

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3.5.5. Modes of Heat Transfer Involving Fins and Surroundings

The study of extended surface heat transfer in most cases comprises two factors that
may conveniently be separated. One factor considers only the movement of the heat within
the fin by conduction. The other considers how the fin exchanges heat with the
surroundings, which usually involves convection and radiation singly or together.

3.5.6. Limiting Assumptions

1. The heat flow in the fin and its temperatures remain constant with time.
2. The fin material is homogeneous; its thermal conductivity is the same in all directions,
and it remains constant.
3. The convective heat transfer coefficient on the faces of the fin is constant and uniform
over the entire surface of the fin.
4. The temperature of the medium surrounding the fin is uniform.
5. The fin thickness is small, compared with its height and length, so that temperature
gradients across the fin thickness and heat transfer from the edges of the fin may be
neglected.
6. The temperature at the base of the fin is uniform.
7. There is no contact resistance where the base of the fin joins the prime surface.
8. There are no heat sources within the fin itself.
9. The heat transferred through the tip of the fin is negligible compared with the heat leaving
its lateral surface.
10. Heat transfer to or from the fin is proportional to the temperature excess between the fin
and the surrounding medium.

4. Literature review

This chapter delineates information regarding the research carried out on extended
surface heat transfer.

4.1. Fins optimization

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The fin optimization problem, discussed in the literature [5], can be described as the
optimum volume or the least material problem where the shape of the fin which would
minimize the fin volume for a given amount of heat dissipation is found, or alternatively the
heat dissipation is maximized for a given volume.

The optimum shape for straight fins and spines with temperature-dependent
conductivity was investigated by Jany and Bejan [6]. Zubair et al. [7] investigated the
optimum dimensions of variable profile circular fins with temperature-dependent thermal
conductivity. They found that a circular fin of (quadratic) hyperbolic profile gives an
optimum performance.

Chung and Zhang [8] studied a new design of four- fin radiating array in which the
horizontal fins have rectangular profile and the vertical fins can have either a rectangular or
triangular profile. The optimum dimensions of the fins are also obtained and the results are
presented in an extremely simple algebraic form which is very convenient for use by
thermal designers. They also found that the four- fin array saves about 30% in material,
when compared to the conventional two-fin array.

4.2. Fin performance

Performance and optimum dimensions of longitudinal and annular fins and spines
with a temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient have been presented by Laor and
Kalman [9]. In them work, Laor and Kalman considered the heat transfer coefficient as a
power function of temperature and used exponent values in the power function that
represent different heat transfer mechanisms such as free convection, fully developed
boiling and radiation.

Yu¨ncu¨ and Anbar [10] and Gu¨vence and Yu¨ncu¨ [11] presented experimental
investigation on performance of fin arrays in free convection on horizontal and vertical
base, respectively. These studies reported that for a given ambient temperature difference,
the convection heat transfer rate from fin array takes a maximum value as a function of fin
spacing and fin height.

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5. Calculation procedures

The most used fins types is longitudinal, pin, and annular fins, accordingly these
types of fins selected to compare each of them for more effective in weight and save money

There are three ways to compare between the fins:


a. By equalizing the fins efficiency.
b. By equalizing the volume of the fins.
c. By equalizing the heat transfer from the fins.

In this study the efficiencies was taken as a reference to compare between the fins, and than
find the most suitable to this case (weight, and money saving).
The efficiency selected 90%.
The finial results of project part one taken as initial data as shown on table (5-1).

Table (5-1) initial data


Di , Shell inside diameter 400 mm Do , Shell outside diameter 420 mm

d i , Tube inside diameter 15 mm d o , Tube outside diameter 19 mm

c, Tubes surface to surface 6 mm L, Length of the heat 2400 mm


distance exchanger
n, Number of tubes 174 K, Thermal conductivity 45 W/mk
H, Heat transfer coefficient 6117.7 W/m²k Total weight of tubes 347.9 kg
Total weight of shell 241.1 kg Total weight of the heat 589 kg
exchanger

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5.1. Longitudinal Fin of Rectangular Profile

The longitudinal fin shape is illustrated on the figure (5-1), attached to the heat
exchanger tube. In this chapter the calculations procedure described as follows:

Figure (5-1) longitudinal fin

For the longitudinal fin of rectangular profile displayed at Figure. (5-1), the exponent on the
(1-2 n ) (1- n )
d æxö
general fin profile of f 2 ( x) = 0 ç ÷ ……………………… (6)
2 èbø
Satisfies the geometry when n = 1 / 2. The profile function for this fin then becomes
db d
f 2 ( x) = = ……………………………… (7)
2 2
df 2 ( x )
Because δb = δ and =0 ………………………………. (8)
dx
When these are substituted into general equation

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d 2q 2 Ldf 2 ( x) dq 2h
2 Lf 2 ( x) + - q = 0, …….... (9)
dx 2 dx dx k
The governing differential equation becomes
d 2q 2h
- q =0 ………………………………. (10)
dx 2 kd
This is an ordinary second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. The
general solution is
q = C1e mx + C 2 e - mx ………………………………. (11)
Where m is referred to as the fin performance factor,
1
æ 2h ö 2
m=ç ÷ ……………………………………… (12)
è kd ø
Application of the boundary conditions of equations:
dq
q (x = b) = q b , q( x = b ) = q b = - kA x=b ………. (13)
dx
Permits evaluation of the constants C1 and C2, This evaluation yields:
θ(x) = T (x) − Ts : ………………………………. (14)
q b cosh mx
q (x ) = ……………………………… (15)
cosh mb
Because the orientation of the height coordinate x is opposed to the direction of the heat
flow in the fin, the heat flow through the base of the fin qb is obtained from

dq
qb = kA x =b ………………………………. (16)
dx
The fin cross-sectional area is equal to A = δL, so that in using the derivative of eq. (16)
evaluated at x = b,
qb = kdLmq b tanh mb ………………………………. (17)

For the longitudinal fin of rectangular profile, the actual heat flow is given by eq. (17). The
ideal heat flow is qid = hPq b , where P is the perimeter of the fin, P = 2(L + δ). Because L

>> δ, the ideal heat flow is qid = 2hLbq b , so that the efficiency becomes

kdLmq b tanh mb
h= ……………………………… (18)
2hLbq b
kd
And by noting that = m - 2 , the efficiency may be written as
2h

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tanh mb
h= ………………………………………. (19)
mb
The fin effectiveness
PK
N= tanh(mb) ……………………………… (20)
hA

5.1.1. Optimum shapes of longitudinal fins of rectangular profile

The optimum fin height and width are those for which the maximum quantity of heat
is dissipated. This implies that the flow through the base of the fin be a maximum.
Let b L be the optimizing parameter which may be defined in term of the fin profile area,
Ap = bd .
1 1

b L = mb = bç ÷ = Ap ç ÷ (d )
æ 2h ö 2 æ 2h ö
2
- 32
………. (21)
è kd ø è k ø
The heat flow through the base for unit fin length in terms of the fine profile area and fin
thickness:
3
æ1 ö
1 1 2
æ 2h ö 2 æ 2h ö 2

ç ÷
qo = kd q o ç ÷ tanh Ap ç ÷ …….… (22)
è kd ø è k ø çd ÷
è ø
Differentiation with respect to δ gives:
3b L sec h 2 b L = tanh b L ………………………. (23)
b L can be solved by trail and error and yields to b L =1.4192.
The value of the optimum thickness of fin becomes:
1
æ 2hA2p ö
3
tolerable weight
d = .791çç ÷ where Ap =
÷
.. (24)
è k ø Length ´ density

The optimum fin height and width are related as follows:


1
A æ kA ö 3

b = p = 1.262çç p ÷÷ ………………………. (25)


d è 2h ø

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5.2. Cylindrical or pin fins

The pin fin shape is illustrated on the figure (5-2), attached to the heat exchanger tube.
In this chapter the calculations procedure described as follows:

Figure (5-2) pin fin

For the Cylindrical or pin fins shown in Figure (5-2), the profile function is

d d2
f 2 ( x) = [ f 2 ( x)]2 = ……………… (26)
2 4
and its derivative
d
[ f 2 ( x)]2 = 0 ……………………………… (27)
dx

When this substituted in the generalized differential equation:

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

d 2q d dq 2h
[ f 2 ( x)]2 2
+ [ f 2 ( x)]2 - f 2 ( x )q = 0 ……… (28)
dx dx dx k
Becomes:

d 2q
2
- m=
2
q 0 ……………………………… (29)
dx
Where m is referred to as the fin performance factor,
4h 12
m=( ) ……………………………………… (30)
kd
The equation for the temperature excess becomes

q b cosh mx
q= ……………………………….. (31)
cosh mb
For the heat flow through the pin base and the heat dissipation,
p 2
q0 = d kmq b tanh mb ………………………. (32)
4
And for the fin efficiency,
tanh mb
h= ………………………………………. (33)
mb
The fin effectiveness
PK
N= tanh(mb) ……………………………… (34)
hA

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

5.3. Radial Fin of Rectangular Profile

The Radial fin shape is illustrated on the figure (5-3), attached to the heat exchanger
tube. In this chapter the calculations procedure described.

Figure (5-3) radial fin

For the radial fin of rectangular profile shown in Figure. (5-3), the profile function is
d
f 2 (r ) = ………………………………………. (35)
2
and its derivative

df 2 (r )
=0 ……………………………………… (36)
dr
When this substituted in the generalized differential equation:

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

d 2q f 2 (r ) dq df 2 (r ) dq h
f 2 (r ) + + - q = 0 ………………. (37)
dr 2 r dr dr dr k

The governing differential equation becomes

d 2q dq
r 2
2
+r - m 2r 2q ……………………… (38)
dr dr
Where m is referred to as the fin performance factor,
1
æ 2h ö
2

m=ç ÷ . ………………………………………. (39)


è kd ø
Equation (40) is Bessel’s modified equation, which has a solution in terms of the modified
Bessel functions:
q (r ) = C1I o (mr ) + C2 K o (mr ) ………………………. (40)

The arbitrary constants are evaluated using the boundary conditions

at r = rb , q = qb
dq
at r = ra , =0
dr

When these boundary conditions are used with eq. (40), two simultaneous equations
in C1 and C2 result
q b = C1I 0 (mrb ) + C2 K 0 (mrb ) ……………………… (41)

0 = C1I1 (mra ) - C2 K1 (mra ) ………………………. (42)

When C1 and C2 are evaluated and inserted into eq. (40), the equation for the temperature
excess becomes

qb [K1 (mra )I 0 (mr ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mr )]


q (r ) = ………. (43)
I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

when r = rb , eq. (1.33) reduces to q = qb , as it should.

The heat flow through the base is determined from the general relationship
dq
qb = 2prb kd r = rb ………………………………. (44)
dr

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

The result, after differentiating eq. (1.33) and evaluating at r = rb, is


I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )
qb = 2prbdkmq b ……….. (45)
I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

The ideal heat flow


(
qid = 2p ra2 - rb2 hqb ) ……………………………… (46)

So that the fin efficiency:

qb 2prbdkmq b I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )


h= = … (47)
( )
qid 2p ra2 - rb2 hq b I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )

2h
And by noting that m 2 = , an alternative form is obtained:
kd
2rb I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )
h= ………. (48)
( )
m ra - rb I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )
2 2

The fin effectiveness


h (rb2 - ra2 )
N= ……………………………… (49)
ra d
5.3.1. Optimum shapes of radial fins of rectangular profile

The Optimum shape of radial fins of rectangular profile obtained at the maximum
quantity of heat is dissipated. This implies that the heat flow through the base of the fin be a
maximum and the figure (5-4) present the solution in terms of :
1
æ 2hrb ö rb qb
2

u=ç ÷ , v= ,
è k ø d 2pkrbq b

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

100

u=4.0
2.0
rb 1.0
v=
d
0.50
10 0.25
0.125

1
qb
0.01 0.1 1
2pkrbq b

Figure (5-4) to calculate the optimum shape of radial fin

5.4. Pressure drop cross finned tube

The Fins friction factor, also known as the skin friction coefficient, is defined as [2]

t0
f = ………………………………………. (50)
1 rv 2
2

It is related to the more common D'Arcy friction factor by [2]

The pressure drop, using the Fins friction factor provided by Kays & London, is given by
[2]

L u2
DP = 4 f ………………………………. (51)
De 2 r

5.5. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from the fin

Here, looking the velocity behavior how to effect on the heat dissipation.

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Since, the heat transfer between the fin and the fluid by convection so.
q = hADT ………………………………………. (52)
Where q is the heat dissipated by the fin
Nu K
h= ……………………………………… (53)
As
1 1
N u = 0.664 Re2 Pr 3 ……………………………………… (54)

rmC p
=
Pr ………………………………………. (55)
K
ruDi
R=
e ………………………………………. (56)
m
Since, heat transfer coefficient effected by the fluid velocity through the Reynolds number
therefore, the heat transfer will change accordingly.

5.6. Design chart for radial rectangular fins in terms of efficiencies.

The fin efficiency is dependent on four parameters, length, thickness, thermal


conductive of fin, and heat transfer coefficient of fluid. It's obvious from the formula:-
2rb I1 (mra )K1 (mrb ) - K1 (mra )I1 (mrb )
h= , ………. (57)
( )
m ra - rb I 0 (mrb )K1 (mra ) + I1 (mra )K 0 (mrb )
2 2

2h
and, m=
2

kd
l
· If length and thickness of the fin set as a ratio of , the heat transfer coefficient
d
h
of the fluid and thermal conductivity of the fin as
k
l h
· Calculating the efficiencies with different values of and selecting values of
d k
h
· Repeat the above calculations with different values of
k
h
· Plot the results, will be many curve for each value of .
k

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· By this chat the geometry of the fin can be predicated for any tube diameter,
materials and fluids in terms the efficiency without going to the equations and
calculations

6. Results and discussions

In this chapter, the results of the calculation by using mathematical equations summarized
and discussed each fin type individually.

6.1. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile

6.1.1. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile results.

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Figure (6-1) longitudinal fin

Input data referred to the results of the project part one for the same operation conditions
which needs to optimize by using the fins

Table (6-1) input data to calculate the longitudinal fin parameter and performance

Heat
Width, Length, Thickness, Base Fluid Thermal Density of
Transfer
L b δ Temperature Temperature Conductivity fin
Coefficient
(m) (m) (m) (°C) (°C) (W/mK) (kg/m³)
(W/m²×K)
0.75 0.0025 0.005 6117.7 60 30 45 7800

Fin
efficiency

90.0%

Physical properties of the fin obtained due to the calculation tabled on the table (6-2)

Table (6-2) output calculation for longitudinal fin parameter

Fin perimeter Cross Sectional Surface Area Fin performance m Temperature difference
(m) Area (m²) (m²) ( m -1 ) θ(ºC)
1.5100 0.0038 0.0075 233.9703 30

Heat transfer
Heat Transfer Rate
rate from bare
(W)
surface(w)

623.3 219.0

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Table (6-3), concerning the results which needed to compare with other types of fins

Table (6-3) Results of longitudinal fin to be analysed

Required Heat Total mass


Bare Surface Mass of Fin Mass of tube
Transfer per Number of Fins of 174 tube
Area (m2) Array (kg) (kg)
tube (W) (kg)
3850 0.044 6 0.44 0.6248 185.0577
Total mass of
Pressure drop
Mass of shell the heat Total pressure
due to
(kg) exchanger drop(N/m²)
fins(N/m²)
(kg)
75.35 260.4 6056.200 1.244

6.1.2. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile temperature gradations

The figure (6-2), show the temperature gradation through the fin, and its clear the
temperature drop in the fin from 60 ºC to 55.5 ºC

Rectangular fin temperature gradations

61
60
Temperature (C)

59
58
57
56
55
0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025
Dis tance L (m )

Figure (6-2) temperature gradient through the rectangular fin

6.1.3. Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile results discussions

· Total mass of the heat exchanger after using the longitudinal fin of rectangular
profile is 260.4 kg with comparison to the heat exchanger without using the fins 589
kg. The mass is reduced by 55.85% without effect on the process parameters.
· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the
fins which about

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin is very small, in other hand because
the length of the heat exchanger reduced from 2.4 m to .75 m the total pressure of
the system decreased from 18480.66 to 6056.2 N/m², which mean power energy
saved by 67.22%
· The longitudinal fin is easy to fabricate, it fabricate by drawing the tube using
grooved die, that mean no scraps and no material lost.
· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which
mean more heat transfer during the process
· As the fin length increase the performance of the fin reduced due to the heat transfer
by the conduction though the material of the fin dissipated before reaches the tip.

6.2. Cylindrical or pin fins.

6.2.1. Cylindrical or pin fins results:

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Figure (6-3) pin fin

Input data referred to the results of the project part one for the same operation conditions
which needs to optimize by using the fins

Table (6-4) input data to calculate the pin fin parameter and performance
Fin
Fin Heat Transfer Base Fluid Thermal Density
Radius,
length, b Coefficient (W/ Temperature Temperature Conductivity of fin
d
(m) m²K) (°C) (°C) (W/mK) (kg/m³)
(m)
.0.0081 0.0025 6117.7 60 30 45 7800

Fin
efficiency

90.0%

Physical properties of the fin obtained due to the calculation tabled on the table (6-5)

Table (6-5) output calculation for pin fin parameter

Perimeter at Cross Sectional Fin performance Temperature difference


Surface Area (m²)
Base (m) Area at base (m²) m ( m -1 ) θ(ºC)

0.0254 0.0001 0.0001 259.1047 30.0


Heat transfer rate
Heat Transfer
from bare
Rate (W)
surface(w)
15.2 473.256

Table (6-6), concerning the results which needed to compare with other types of fins

Table (6-6) Results of pin fin to be analysed

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Required Heat
Bare Surface Mass of Fin Mass of tube Total mass of
Transfer per tube Number of Fins
Area (m2) Array (kg) (kg) 174 tube (kg)
(W)
3850 0.044 223 0.224 0.6248 147.69
Total mass of
Total pressure Pressure drop due
Mass of shell (kg) the heat
drop(N/m²) to fins(N/m²)
exchanger (kg)
75.35 223.04 7155.125 4.297

6.2.2. Pin fin of rectangular profile temperature gradations

The figure (6-4), show the temperature gradation through the fin, and its clear the
temperature drop in the fin from 60 ºC to 54.5 ºC

pin fin temperature gradations

61
60
T e m p e rt a t re ( C )

59
58
57
56
55
54

Distance (m)

Figure (6-4)) temperature gradient through the pin fin

6.2.3. pin fin of cylinder profile results discussions

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Total mass of the heat exchanger after using the pin fin of circular profile is 223.04
kg with comparison to the heat exchanger without using the fins 589 kg. The mass is
reduced by 62.1 % without effect on the process parameters.
· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the
fins which about
· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin is very small, in other hand because
the length of the heat exchanger reduced from 2.4 m to .75 m the total pressure of
the system decreased from 18480.66 to 7155.125 N/m², which mean power energy
saved by 61.28%
· The pin fin is more difficult to fabricate than longitudinal fin, it fabricate by welding
the pins on the tube that mean more cost.
· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which
mean more heat transfer during the process.
· As the fin length increase the performance of the fin reduced due to the heat transfer
by the conduction though the material of the fin dissipated before reaches the tip.

6.3. Radial fin of rectangular profile

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

6.3.1. Radial fin of rectangular profile results:

Figure (6-5) radial fin

Input data referred to the results of the project part one

Table (6-7) input data to calculate the radial fin parameter and performance
Inner Outer Heat
Radius, Radius, Thickness, Transfer Base Fluid Thermal Density
δ Temperature Temperature Conductivity of fin
rb ra Coefficient
(m) (°C) (°C) (W/mK) (kg/m³)
(m) (m) (W/ m²K)
0.0095 0.012 0.0057 6117.7 60 30 45 7800

Physical properties of the fin obtained due to the calculation tabled on the table (6-8)

Table (6-8) output calculation for radial fin parameter

Perimeter at Cross Sectional Fin performance Temperature difference


Surface Area (m²)
Base (m) Area at base (m²) m ( m -1 ) θ(ºC)

0.1194 0.000054 0.0008 218.4064 30.0


Heat transfer rate
Heat Transfer
Fin efficiency from bare
Rate (W)
surface(w)
126.77 90.0% 636.900

Table (6-9), concerning the results which needed to compare with other types of fins

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

Table (6-9) Results of radial fin to be analysed

Required Heat Total mass


Bare Surface Mass of Fin Mass of tube
Transfer per Number of Fins of 174 tube
Area (m2) Array (kg) (kg)
tube (W) (kg)
3850 0.044 26 0.195 0.6248 142.645
Total mass of
Pressure drop
Mass of shell the heat Total pressure
due to
(kg) exchanger drop(N/m²)
fins(N/m²)
(kg)
75.35 217.995 8254.05 7.350

6.3.2. Radial fin of rectangular profile temperature gradations

The figure (6-6), show the temperature gradation through the fin, and its clear the
temperature drop in the fin from 60 ºC to 55.8 ºC

Annular fin temperature gradations

61
60
Temperature (C)

59
58
57
56
55
0.010 0.010 0.011 0.011 0.012 0.012
Radial Position r2 (m)

Figure (6-6) temperature gradient through the radial fin

6.3.3. Optimum shapes of radial fins of rectangular profile

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

1 1

æ 2hrb ö æ 2 ´ 6117.7 ´ 0.0095 ö 2


2

To optimize the radial fin u = ç ÷ =ç ÷ = 1.6 ,


è k ø è 45 ø
qb 126
= = 1.56
2pkrbq b 2p ´ 45 ´ 0.0095 ´ (60 - 30)

qb
From figure (16) , u intersect at a value of v equal to 1.8
2pkrbq b

rb r
Since, v = than, 1.8 = b .
d d
rb 0.0095
Therefore d = = = 0.005277 mm
1. 8 1.8
Comparing the optimum thickness by the estimation thickness could still saving the material
of the fin by (0.0057 - .005277 = 0.000423 mm) 7.42 %.

6.3.4. Radial fin rectangular profile results discussions

· Total mass of the heat exchanger after using the annular fins rectangular profile is
217.995 kg with comparison to the heat exchanger without using the fins 589 kg.
The mass is reduced by 62.98 % without effect on the process parameters.
· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the
fins which about
· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin is very small, in other hand because
the length of the heat exchanger reduced from 2.4 m to .75 m the total pressure of
the system decreased from 18480.66 to 8254.05 N/m², which mean power energy
saved by 55.33%
· The radial fin is easy to fabricate, it fabricate by casting the rings and than slotted on
the grooved tube, that mean no scraps and no material lost.
· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which
mean more heat transfer during the process.
· As the fin length increase the performance of the fin reduced due to the heat transfer
by the conduction though the material of the fin dissipated before reaches the tip.

6.4. Effect of flow velocity on heat dissipation from the radial fin

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

This graph (6-7) shows how the velocity of the flow effect on the dissipation of fin.
The base temperature of the fin assumed to be constant 60 °C

flow velocity vs heat transfer

12

10
flow velocity (m/s)

0
40 60 80 100 120 140
Heat dissipate d by fin (w)

Figure (6-7) shows the effect of the velocity to heat dissipation

6.4.1. Effect of flow velocity discussion

· As the velocity of the flow increases the heat dissipation from the fin increases that
due to increases of the heat transfer coefficient
· The line is curved due to the temperature of the fin, as the fin temperature reach the
base temperature the heat transfer will be the maximum, and there will be no effect
for further increment in the velocity of the flow.
· As the velocity of the flow increases the flow will be in turbulence mode, which
means more heat transfer.
· Due to the turbulence which produced from the fin obstructs, the heat transfer will
increase.

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

6.5. Chart for radial rectangular fins in terms of efficiencies

The fin efficiency, an indicator to quantify the actual heat flow through a fin relative to a
maximum heat flow through a fin It is dependent on four parameters, length, thickness,
thermal conductive of the fin, and heat transfer coefficient, The design chart have curves of the
efficiency plotted against length to thickness l/δ ratio in present of the heat transfer coefficient

to thermal conductive h/k ratio

Chart for radial rectangular fins in terms of efficiencies h/k=0.5


h/k=1
100.0%
95.0%
h/k=2
90.0% h/k=3
85.0%
80.0%
h/k=4
75.0%
70.0%
65.0%
60.0%
55.0%
η 50.0%
45.0%
40.0%
35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
3.25
3.5
3.75
4
4.25
4.5
4.75
5
5.25
5.5
5.75
6
6.25
6.5
6.75
7
7.25
7.5
7.75
8
8.25
8.5
8.75
9
9.25
9.5
9.75
10
l/δ

Figure (6-8) chart design to predict the radial fin shape in term of efficiency

· Example illustrate how this chart is working, if there have tube with outer radius 30
mm, thermal conductivity of fin which need to fix 50 W/mK, heat transfer coefficient of the
fluid is 200 W/ m²K, the efficiency required 80%.
h 200
= =4
k 50
h
From chart the line to 80% which intersect with the curve = 4, read the corresponding
k
l 30 - re
value of which is in this case 0.125, that is = 0.125 so, re = 0.125 δ + 30
d d
7. Conclusion
School of Engineering and Technology 42
Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Extended surface heat transfer is useful to use on many application where the area,
cost, and the weight are important factor.
· A very long fin will be inefficient. On the other hand the efficiency goes to 100% as
the length is reduced to zero
· The fin effectiveness to be as high as possible ,but this can always be done by
extending the length of the fin ,and that rapidly becomes a losing proposition
· Annular fins is more effective than longitudinal, and pin fins
· The total mass is reduced by 62.98 % without effect on the process parameters,
which mean reduced on the supports, loading, transporting, and cost.
· Total length of the heat exchanger is shorted from 2.4 m to .75 m only by using the
fins which about, which can used on the narrow area
· The pressure drop on the system by using the fin save the energy power by 55.33%,
which mean save on budget.
· There is a limit for extended area heat transfer; further area extended above the limit
will wasteful the martial. That means increasing the volume of the material without
effective of heat transfer.
· To increase the volume of material with more effective of heat transfer, increment of
the outer radians of the fin more effective than increasing the fin thickness.
· The fins are easy to fabricate, no scraps and no material lost.
· The fins is effect on the flow as obstruct, that produce the turbulence flow, which
mean more heat transfer during the process

8. Future work
School of Engineering and Technology 43
Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

· Validate the results by experimental work, the material used for the fin is steel
· Introduce a new design of compact heat exchanger that consists of many small
diameter tubes without any extended surfaces, i.e., micro bare-tube heat exchanger.
There will be a large pressure drop across the heat exchanger core. Hence, should
compromise the heat transfer augmentation and pressure penalty. To do this,
develops an optimum design tool for micro bare-tube heat exchanger, and evaluate
its performance in several design cases.

9. References

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

1. Holman, J. P., Heat transfer (SI Metric Edn). McGraw-Hill, 1992


2. Incropera, F. P. and Dewitt, D.P., Introduction to Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons,
1996
3. Incropera, F. P. and Dewitt, D.P., Fundamentals of Heat and mass Transfer, John
Wiley & Sons, 1996
4. Kern DQ; Kraus AD (1972) Extended Surface Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York
478
5. James P. Hartnett, Tomas F. Irvine, Advances in heat transfer, vol.15, Academic press,
1982.
6. Christopher long, Essential heat transfer, Longman, 1999
7. Donald R. Pitts, Leighton E. Sissom, Theory and problems of heat transfer, ed 2,
schaum’s outline series, McGraw-Hill, 1997.
8. Jesse S. Doolittle, Francis J. Hale, Thermodynamics for engineers, John Wiley & sons,
1984.
9. T. D. Eastop, A. Mcconkey, Applied thermodynamics for engineering technologists, ed
5, Longman, 1993.
10. R. K. Sinnott, Chemical engineering, Vol. 6, ed. 3, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.
11. Howard F. rase, Chemical reactors design for process plants, Vol. 1, principles and
techniques, John Wiley & sons, 1977
12. Ullmann A; Kalman H., Efficiency and optimized dimensions of annular fins of
different cross-section shapes. Int J Heat and Mass Transfer 32, pp1105-1110,(1989)
13. Jany P; Bejan A. Ernst Schmidt's approach to fin optimization: an extension to fins with
variable conductivity and the design of ducts for fluid flow. Int J Heat and Mass
Transfer 31, pp1635-1644, (1988)
14. Zubair S.; Al-Garni A.; Nizami J. The optimal dimensions of circular fins with variable
profile and temperature- dependent thermal conductivity. Int J Heat and Mass Transfer
39, pp 3431-3439, (1996)
15. Chung B.; Zhang A. Novel design for a radiative fin array system. J Franklin Institute
330, PP 465-478, (1993)
16. Laor, K. and Kalman, H., Performance and Optimum Dimensions of Different Cooling
Fins with a Temperature Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient, International Journal of
Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 1993–2003, (1996)

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Optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger by Salah hewidi

17. Yu¨ncu¨, H. and Anbar, G., An Experimental Investigation on Performance of


Rectangular Fins on a Horizontal Base in Free Convection Heat Transfer, Heat and
Mass Transfer, Vol. 33, pp. 507–514, (1998)
18. Gu¨vence, A. and Yu¨ncu¨, H., An Experimental Investigation on Performance of Fins
on a Horizontal Base in Free Convection Heat Transfer, Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.
37, pp. 409– 416, (2001)
19. Dong, Z.,Ebadian, M., A numerical analysis of thermally developing flow in elliptic
ducts with internal fins, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Vol.12, pp.166-
172, (1991)
20. Ajay, K. Laminar flow and heat transfer in a finned tube annulus, International Journal
of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 11, pp. 54-59, (1990).
21. Soylemez M. Thermeconomical optimization of double pipe heat=d exchangers for
waste heat recovery, Journal of thermodphysics and heat transfer, Vol.18, pp. 559-
562,(2004)

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