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UNIT 1: Building Community with Bronx Masquerade by Nikki Grimes (Reading Literature & Poetry Unit)

Weeks 1-7: August 28 – October 12 (23 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


RL.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RL.6.3 Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a
resolution.
RL.6.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific
word choice on meaning and tone.
RL.6.5 Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme,
setting, or plot.
RL.6.7 Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including
contrasting what they "see" and "hear" when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.
RL.6.9 Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to
similar themes and topics.
W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
W.6.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach.
W.6.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command
of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
W.6.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
SL.6.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues,
building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
SL.6.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
Understandings Essential Questions
1. Strong communities make its members feel safe. 1. What defines a strong community?
2. It takes courage to express ourselves. 2. What are obstacles in expressing ourselves?
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


 Ode to Community: Students will write and perform a  Who’s Like You? After reading Bronx Masquerade by Nikki
poem that uses poetic devices and expresses the values Grimes, students will pick one character they identify with
that they think make up a strong community. – either in full or in part – write a reflection in which they
 Create a Self-Expression Tradition: Students will create a describe how they are like that character, and then
weekly community tradition that we will incorporate. The perform one of that character’s poems to the group. Either
tradition must be centered around honoring and before or after they read the poem they’ve chosen, they
welcoming individuals’ self-expression. Students will need to explain why they identify with that character and
propose their traditions to the community who will vote to why they chose that poem.
adopt one. All students will participate in some kind of
self-expression during the community tradition at some
point during the school year.
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Graph Community Strength: At the end of the book, students will graph the strength of the community of students in Mr.
Ward’s English class in Bronx Masquerade. The y axis will be the strength (out of 10) and the x axis will be different events in
the book. The will have to defend their graph with evidence from the text.
2. Award Ceremony: Students will nominate characters from Bronx Masquerade to receive poetic devices awards (i.e. the
assonance award, the internal rhyme award, etc.). Individually, they will be given a list of poetic devices and need to identify
which character used them the best. After they have their nominations, the will get into groups to discuss/debate the
nominations and vote on who should receive the award based on the characters effective use of the poetic devices.
3. Performance Poetry: Students will experience the difference between reading poetry, hearing poetry, and watching
someone read/recite/perform poetry. In groups and individually, students will compare and contrast the different ways to
experience poetry and the different kinds of poetry.
Resources
1. Bronx Masquerade by Nikki Grimes: This books follows the evolution of a high school English class in the Bronx, where
students are encouraged to express themselves through poetry. It is told from the multiple perspectives of each student and
includes poetry and narratives written by each student.
2. Poetry Foundation (https://www.poetryfoundation.org/learn/educators): This website provides poem archives, lesson
plans, videos, and much more that will be a resource for me and as well as a great website for students to interact with.
Specifically, the website includes articles for teachers that gives some dos and don’ts of teaching poetry.
3. Youth Speaks: Teen Poetry Slam (https://youthspeaks.org/youth-speaks-teen-poetry-slam/): This website has videos of
teens performing their own poetry. This could be a great example for students to see what other students are doing and can
do, and there may be poems that relate to themes found in Bronx Masquerade.

UNIT 2: Structure & Clarity (Grammar and Organization Unit “The Exciting Stuff!”)
Weeks 9-10: October 22 – 31 (7 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


RI.6.5 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
W.6.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach.
W.6.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command
of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
SL.6.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues,
building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
L.6.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
L.6.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Understandings Essential Questions
1. Structure provides clarity. 1. Is structure important?
2. Effective organization takes thought (design), time, and 2. Is it easy to stay organized?
persistence.
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


1. Whaaaaaaaat? I will rewrite a student essay so none of  On-Demand Personal Narrative (not graded)
the paragraphs or sentences are in order and there is not  Grammar Quizzes
punctuation or capitalization. It will be one block of text.  Essay Structure Quizzes
Students will have to disassemble the block of text and  MLA Format Quizzes
rewrite it with structure and grammar to make it make
sense.
2. Organization Awards: Students will research organized
locker design, the variety of binders that exits, even fun
ways to keep a planner (hard copy, or on the phone).
Individually, they will nominate the top products in
different categories (space, task prioritizing, filing, etc.). In
groups they will discuss/debate the nominees and vote for
a winner.
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Organize Your English Binder: Create an organization system for your English binder and describe why it is effective and
provides clarity.
2. Organize Your Locker: Create an organization system for your locker and describe why it is effective and provides clarity.
Resources
1. Units of Study in Argument, Information, and Narrative Writing, Grade 6 by Lucy Calkins: This resource provides many
examples of mini lessons and example scripts from which to pull from when teaching structure in writing. Some lessons can
be used wholesale while others offer inspiration to create my own or small nuggets to incorporate in to preexisting lessons.
2. The Perdue OWL Writing Lab (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/): This is a great resource for me and for
students. It is easy to navigate, and students know that they are getting reputable information when they visit this website.
3. Grammar Gap Fillers: These are online and individualized grammar lessons I can direct students to as needed. Each Gap Filler
contains a short video, a quiz for as a check for understanding, and a handy Cheat Sheet for them to keep and remind
themselves of the rule they just learned.
UNIT 3: Understanding Ourselves with Stargirl by Jerry Spinelli (Reading Literature & Personal Narrative
Writing Unit)
Weeks 11-16, November 5 – December 21 (24 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


RL.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RL.6.3 Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a
resolution.
RL.6.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific
word choice on meaning and tone.
RL.6.5 Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme,
setting, or plot.
RL.6.7 Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including
contrasting what they "see" and "hear" when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.
RL.6.9 Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to
similar themes and topics.
W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
W.6.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach.
W.6.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command
of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
W.6.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Understandings Essential Questions
1. You need to tell your story to understand your story. 1. Do you need to tell your story to understand your story?
2. Our perspective is defined by our personal experience. 2. Why do we have the perspective we have?
3. Perspective is dynamic. 3. Can perspective change?
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


Roommate Letter: Imagine you are applying for your dream  Annotated Book: Students will turn in their book and be
sleep-away camp. As part of the application process, the camp assessed on their use and clarity of annotation.
has requested that you write a short narrative telling the story  Create a Timeline: Students will create a timeline
of an important moment in your life and how that moment summarizing/analyzing the five events or moments in
helped shape the person you are today. This narrative will be Stargirl that shaped or changed the boy’s perspective and
used to match you with your cabin mates. development.
 On-Demand Personal Narrative Prompt (post assessment;
graded)
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Introduce Text-to-Self Annotation: As a class we will read Stargirl out loud, and I will demonstrate text-to-self annotation on
a projected page. Students will be encouraged to raise their hand during the reading and offer their own text-to-self
connection. At this point they will be told that they are turning in their copy of the story at the end to be assessed on their
annotation.
2. Introduce Aha Moment Signpost: As a class we will continue to read Stargirl out loud, and I will demonstrate “Aha Moment”
annotations. As we continue reading out loud, students may stop us by raising their hand if they think they have found an
“Aha Moment.” Each signpost works by triggering a student to ask themselves a particular question regarding the text. For
instance, the “Aha Moment” signpost first asks students to recognize when a character realizes something that shifts their
actions or understanding of themselves, others, or the world around them. Then students ask themselves, “how much this
change things?”
Resources
1. Stargirl by Jerry Spinelli: This is the novel we will read for this unit. The novel chronicles the high school experience of Leo as
he negotiates the turbulent social waters of high school, namely is it better to be unabashedly yourself or to slip into the
crowd.
2. Units of Study in Argument, Information, and Narrative Writing, Grade 6 by Lucy Calkins: This resource is primarily for me,
but also includes helpful checklists that I can print out for students to use while they are writing. These texts have helpful
mini lessons that I can tailor to the needs of my students, depending how they are progressing as writers.
3. Notice and Note Strategies for Close Reading by Kyleen Beers and Robert E Probst: This text is primarily a resource for me,
but it has helpful graphic organizers and print outs for students to use as they are learning the signposts. The text outlines the
teaching of six signposts for students to identify in their reading. Each signpost is connected with a question that students
learn to ask themselves about the text.

UNIT 4: Understanding Others with I am Malala (Reading Informational Texts & Argument Writing)
Weeks 17-22: January 7 – February 15 (23 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


W.6.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
W.6.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 6 here.)
W.6.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command
of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
W.6.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range
of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
SL.6.4 Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use
appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
SL.6.5 Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
SL.6.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language
standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Understandings Essential Questions


1. Everyone can learn something from everyone. 1. Does everyone have something to teach us?
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


 Unsung Heroes Hall of Fame: Students will pick someone  On-Demand Argument Prompt
to induct in the Unsung Heroes HOF and create an exhibit  Ethos, Logos, & Pathos: Students will pick a op-ed or
for them. These could be unknown or underrepresented persuasive speech (either real or fictional) and determine
students at school, from their family or community, the effectiveness based on the presence of ethos, logos,
outside the mainstream media, or from history. Student’s and pathos.
exhibits should include an artifact from that person’s life
(real or imagined) and an explaination of why that person
is worth understanding and what we can learn from that
person. The artifact should represent the thing the
inductee can teach us. The exhibit’s opening will be open
to the public.
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Light a Fire (Intro to Ethos, Logos, Pathos: Students will read persuasive op-eds. and speeches, and perhaps even watch
speeches or scenes from a movie and reflect on how they feel after reading, listening, or watching. The idea here is that the
have an understanding for the way a effective persuasion should make you feel.
2. Museum or Memorial Field Trip: Students will visit a museum, memorial, or statue to see how curators have honored people
in the past and how they justify the memorial. They will takes notes on what is written about the honorees and how it is
written.
Resources
1. I am Malala: The book tells the story of Malala Yousafzai and her family who were uprooted by terrorism in their country and
whose live changed after she refused to be silenced by the Taliban, who was trying to prevent girls from going to school.
2. Units of Study in Argument, Information, and Narrative Writing, Grade 6 by Lucy Calkins: This resource is primarily for me,
but also includes helpful checklists that I can print out for students to use while they are writing. These texts have helpful
mini lessons that I can tailor to the needs of my students, depending how they are progressing as writers.
3. Notice and Note Strategies for Close Reading by Kyleen Beers and Robert E Probst: This text is primarily a resource for me,
but it has helpful graphic organizers and print outs for students to use as they are learning the signposts. The text outlines the
teaching of six signposts for students to identify in their reading. Each signpost is connected with a question that students
learn to ask themselves about the text.

UNIT 5: The Circuit by Francisco Jimenez (Reading Literature & Writing Literary Essays)
Weeks 23-27: February 20 – March 22 (18 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


RL.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RL.6.3 Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a
resolution.
RL.6.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific
word choice on meaning and tone.
RL.6.5 Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme,
setting, or plot.
W.6.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
W.6.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 6 here.)
W.6.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command
of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
W.6.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range
of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Understandings Essential Questions
1. Literature is the question minus the answer. 1. Do authors try and make a particular point, or do they
want us to consider a question?
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


1. Book Review: Imagine the school librarian has asked you
to review The Circuit. She wants to make a student review
section in the library, and she really needs someone to
review The Circuit. She is asking for reviews that are more
than personal opinions of books. She wants to know if the
author is trying to make a specific point, or if the author is
asking the reader to consider a particular question. As is
typical of librarians, this one is a stickler for textual
evidence, so you must make sure your reviews are rooted
in textual evidence.
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Introduce Again and Again Signpost: As a class we will continue to read The Circuit out loud, and I will demonstrate “Again
and Again” annotations. As we continue reading out loud, students may stop us by raising their hand if they think they have
found an “Again and Again” signpost. Each signpost works by triggering a student to ask themselves a particular question
regarding the text. For instance, the Again and Again signpost first asks students to recognize when events, images, or
particular words reoccur over a portion of the novel. Then students ask themselves, “why does the author bring this up again
and again?”
2. Introduce Tough Question Signpost: As a class we will continue to read The Circuit out loud, and I will demonstrate “Tough
Question” annotations. As we continue reading out loud, students may stop us by raising their hand if they think they have
found an “Tough Question” signpost. Each signpost works by triggering a student to ask themselves a particular question
regarding the text. For instance, the Tough Question signpost first asks students to recognize when a character raises a
question that reveals his or her inner struggles. Then students ask themselves, “what does this question make me wonder
about?”
Resources
1. The Circuit: Stories from the Life of a Migrant Child: This book is a series of vignettes told from the perspective of young
migrant child as his family moves from town to town in southern California looking for work. It is based on the life experience
of the author, who grew up a migrant child in the 50s.
2. Units of Study in Argument, Information, and Narrative Writing, Grade 6 by Lucy Calkins: This resource is primarily for me,
but also includes helpful checklists that I can print out for students to use while they are writing. These texts have helpful
mini lessons that I can tailor to the needs of my students, depending how they are progressing as writers.
3. Notice and Note Strategies for Close Reading by Kyleen Beers and Robert E Probst: This text is primarily a resource for me,
but it has helpful graphic organizers and print outs for students to use as they are learning the signposts. The text outlines the
teaching of six signposts for students to identify in their reading. Each signpost is connected with a question that students
learn to ask themselves about the text.

UNIT 6: What do you think? (Argument Writing Unit)


Weeks 27-30: March 25 – April 18 (16 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


SL.6.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues,
building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
SL.6.2 Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue
under study.
SL.6.3 Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
SL.6.4 Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use
appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
SL.6.5 Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
SL.6.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language
standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Understandings Essential Questions


1. An argument is only as strong as its understanding of the 1. Can counterarguments be helpful?
counterargument.
2. The desire to understand others is a virtue. 2. Is our point of view more important than others?
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


 Letters to the Editor: Students will pick a topic they feel  On-Demand Post Assessment for Argument Writing
strongly about, write a letter to the editor of a real news (graded)
organization, and submit it. The letter should include the
students research on the topic as well as an
acknowledgement of a counterargument and a rebuttal.
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Argument Flaws: In groups, students will research an argument flaw and present it to the class. They should provide
examples of their argument flaw, and give the class advice on how to avoid this flaw in the letter to the editor.
2. Summarize & Debate the Other Side: Students will find examples of the counterargument to their argument and write a
summary of the counterargument. This will provide students with the perspective of the other side, and hopefully inform the
argument the need to make. Then they will be asked to argue the other side in an debate.
Resources
1. Units of Study in Argument, Information, and Narrative Writing, Grade 6 by Lucy Calkins: This resource is primarily for me,
but also includes helpful checklists that I can print out for students to use while they are writing. These texts have helpful
mini lessons that I can tailor to the needs of my students, depending how they are progressing as writers.
2. Opinion Writing from Various News Organizations: I will collect a variety of opinion writing to present to the students from
professional columnists, editors, and citizens. These resources will bring argument writing to life and provide students an
opportunity to read about things that are important to them.
UNIT 7: Information and Ethics (Reading Informational Texts & Info Writing)
Weeks 31-36: April 29 – June 5 (22 classes)

Established Goals (Standards)


RI.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RI.6.2 Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or
judgments.
RI.6.3 Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
RI.6.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.
RI.6.5 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
RI.6.6 Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.
RI.6.7 Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a
topic or issue.
RI.6.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
RI.6.9 Compare and contrast one author's presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).
RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high
end of the range.
Understandings Essential Questions
1. Solid research is a process, takes vetting, and is multi- 1. What makes good research?
sourced.
Knowledge & Skills

Performance Tasks (Authentic Assessment) Other Evidence (Quizzes, Tests, Papers)


 Publish a News Article: Write a news article (multiple  On-Demand Pre-Assessment for Information Writing (not
credible resources, different kinds of information – graded)
numbers, quotes, images) describing a conflict. It could be  On-Demand Post-Assessment for Information Writing
a conflict at school, in society, in your personal community, (graded)
or throughout the world. The article should be informative
and should clearly include the different sides of the
conflict, what started the conflict, and what is being done
to resolve the conflict. Articles will be published on a class
news website.
Learning Plan
Learning Activities:
1. Model Credible Sources: Students will be given criteria for credible sources. In the I-do-we-do-you-do format, the class will
observe how to ensure that sources meet the criteria, work in groups to identify other credible resources, and then
individually identify even more credible sources based on the criteria.
2. Model Finding Patterns in Research: Using affinity mapping, students will look for common threads in their research notes.
Students will also observe how to use the sentence stem, “What stood out to me was …” to create synthesis from their
research notes and then they will practice creating synthesis themselves. Furthermore, they will observe how their “What
stood out to me was …” sentence stem becomes the basis for an essay outline.
Resources
1. Units of Study in Argument, Information, and Narrative Writing, Grade 6 by Lucy Calkins: This resource is primarily for me,
but also includes helpful checklists that I can print out for students to use while they are writing. These texts have helpful
mini lessons that I can tailor to the needs of my students, depending how they are progressing as writers.
2. Reading Nonfiction by Kyleen Beers and Robert E. Probst: This text is primarily a resource for me, but it has helpful graphic
organizers and print outs for students to use as they are learning the signposts. This text outlines the teaching of three
essential questions, five signposts, and seven strategies to help students get more out of reading non-fiction. The strategies
in this text will help students understand nonfiction texts more so they can challenge them and be challenged by them.