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Reading Comprehension Passage 1

Robert Moog was an American inventor who developed the Moog Synthesizer. It was one of the first
synthesizers to gain widespread use as a musical instrument. Moog’s synthesizers were an important pa
Line of musical innovation in rock and jazz music in the 1960s and 1970s. Robert Arthur Moog was born
in Queens, a borough of New York City 75 years ago. He became fascinated with electronics as a
teenager, particularly an early electronic music instrument called the theremin. Moog studied physic and
electrical engineering at Queens College and Columbia University, both in New York City and later
received a Ph.D. in engineering physic Cornel University in Ithaca, New York. In 1954, while still an
undergraduate student, Moog formed his own company to sell theremins and theremin kits.

Soon after, Moog began working on a keyboard instrument that could replicate the sound of any musical
instrument electronically. Working with American composer Herbert Deutsch, Moog introduced the
prototype Moog Synthesizer at a convention in 1964. The device represented a significant advance over
previous electronic synthesizer because of its use of new semiconductor technology, which
made it smaller and considerably cheaper than earlier machines. The Moog, as it was known, was soon
in demand by musician all over the world.

In 1964, Moog began a collaboration with American composer and organist Walter Carlos (now Wendy
Carlos), who released the bestselling electronic music album Switched-On Bach in 1968. Rock groups
such as the Beatles and Yes and jazz musicians such as Herbie Hancock and Chick Corea began
incorporating Moog Synthesizer into their recordings, a trend that increased when the company
introduced the compact and portable Minimoog in 1970. A Moog Synthesizer was
also prominently featured on the soundtrack to the movie A Clockwork Orange in 1971. Encyclopedia of
World Biography, 2008

1. The word “prominently” in paragraph 3 can easily be replaced by …

(A) significantly
(B) perfectly
(C) accurately
(D) excellently

Jawab: (A) significantly


Keyword: featured on
Pembahasan:
• prominently = significantly = menonjol
• perfectly = sempurna
• accurately = akurat
• excellently = baik

2. The passage describes theremin as a/an …

(A) prototype of Moog Synthesizer


(B) initial electronic music instrument
(C) musical instrument to replicate the sound
(D) instrument of electronic tool

Jawab: (B) initial electronic music instrument


Keyword: instrument called theremin
Pembahasan: Initial electronic music instrument. Dapat dilihat pada bacaan ‘particularly on early
electronic music instrument called theremin.

3. The pronoun “it” paragraph 2 refers to…


(A) electronic synthesizer
(B) a keyboard instrument
(C) prototype of Moog Synthesizer
(D) new semiconductor technology

Jawab: (C) prototype of Moog Synthesizer


Keyword: intoduced yhe prototype
Pembahasan: Prototype of Moog Synthesizer. Jika dilihat dari bacaan pada paragraf 3, Moog
memperkenalkan sebuah prototype Moog Synthesizer.

4. According to the passage, all of the following are true about The Moog, EXCEPT…

(A) it was invented by Robert Moog


(B) it was first introduced in 1964
(C) it initiated new technology which was smaller and cheaper than previous
(D) it was the first synthesizer in the world

Jawab: (D) it was the first synthesizer in the world


Keyword: made it smaller and considerably than
Pembahasan: it was the first synthesizer In the world. Karena dalam bacaan ke-18-19 dituliskan
bahwa sebelumnya sudah diciptakan mesin synthesizer “which made it smaller and considerably
cheaper than earlier machine”.

5. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses…

(A) collaboration between The Moog and other musicians


(B) the description of compact and portable Mini Moog
(C) the improvement of Moog Synthesizer
(D) trend in the music industry about synthesizer

Jawab: (C) the improvement of Moog Synthesizer


Keyword : Moo Sythesizer was also prominently
Pembahasan: Yang paling mungkin dibahas dalam paragraf selanjutnya adalah the improvement
of Moog synthesizer.

6. The main idea of paragraph three is …

(A) the Moog’s collaboration in music field


(B) the Moog in the movie soundtrack
(C) the introduction of Minimoog
(D) the collaboration of The Moog with music groups

Jawab: (A) the Moog’s collaboration in music field


Keyword: Moog began a collaboration
Pembahasan: the Moog’s collaboration in music field. Dalam bacaan dituliskan bahwa Moog mulai
berkolaborasi dengan berbagai musisi dalam berbagai genre musik.

Reading Comprehension Passage 2


Throughout history, people have been the victim of pickpockets. Today, pick pocketing is the one of the
most rapidly increasing crimes. Pickpockets are increasing in number and developing better methods to
Line practice their skill. Approximately one million Americans lose money to pickpockets every year, and
none is really safe from a skilled pickpockets. His victims, or ‘marks’ as they are called, can be rich or
poor, young or old.
During the eighteenth century, pickpockets were hanged in England, large crowds of people would gather
watch the hanging, which was supposed to be a warning to other pickpockets. However, in time the
practice was discontinued. The reason: while people were attentively watching the hanging of a
pickpockets, other pickpockets skillfully stole the money of spectators.

Police official say that the most efficient pickpockets come from South America. Many of these expert
pickpockets are trained in special school called ‘Jingle Bell Schools’. A pickpocket’s graduate from J. B. S
when he is able to steal a wallet from a dresses dummy (mannequin) that has bells inside its pockets.
Even the most well dressed, respectable person may be a pickpocket. Some of the favorite places of
pickpockets are banks, airports, racetrack, supermarkets, elevators, and train and bus stations.
Oftentimes a pickpocket will work with another pickpockets as his partner. Another kind of pickpockets
works outside or inside bars and specialize in stealing from women is called a ‘purse snatcher’.

To avoid being the victim of a pickpocket, it’s important to be very cautious and alert when in the midst of
large gathering of the people.

7. The best title for the passage would be…

(A) Pickpockets are well dressed


(B) Jingle Bell Schools
(C) Pickpockets
(D) The hanging of pickpockets

Jawab: (C) Pickpockets


Keyword: have been the victim of pickcpockets
Pembahasan: Keseluruhan bacaan di atas berisi tentang pickpocket (pencopet).

8. The hanging of pickpockets were not continued because …

(A) they were large crowd of people


(B) it was against humanity
(C) the police were not at the hanging
(D) it was not effective to stop pickpocketing

Jawab: (D) it was not effective to stop pickpocketing


Keyword: other pickpockets skillfully stole the money
Pembahasan: Pada paragraf 2 dijelaskan bahwa ketika para pencopet digantung, pencopet yang
lain beraksi di antara kerumunan penonton.

9. Pick pocketing is … crime.

(A) an old
(B) a modern
(C) a temporary
(D) a contemporary

Jawab: (A) an old


Keyword: during the 18th century
Pembahasan: Pencopetan merupakan kejahatan lama sejak abad ke-18.

10. The passage mentions that pickpockets steal in/from the following, except

(A) crowded places


(B) the shops
(C) drunkards
(D) women
Jawab: (C) drunkards
Keyword: his victims can be rich or poor, young or old
Pembahasan: Berdasarkan bacaan, drunkard tidak disebutkan.

11. South Americans pickpockets are the most efficient ones because …

(A) they are well-trained


(B) they are handsome
(C) they are well-dressed
(D) they are respectable

Jawab: (A) they are well-trained


Keyword: the most efficient pickpockets come from South America
Pembahasan: Di Amerika Sealtan terdapat sekolah untuk para pencopet.

Reading Comprehension Passage 3


The cause of tooth decay is acid, which is produced by bacteria in the mouth. The acid removes minerals
from tooth enamel, allowing tooth decay to begin; the saliva in your mouth encourages remineralization
and Line neutralizes the acid. The rate at which bacteria in the mouth produce acid depends on the
amount of plaque on the teeth, the composition of the microbial flora, and whether the bacteria of the
plaque have been “primed” by frequent exposure to sugar. To keep your teeth healthy, a regular dental
hygiene program should be followed.

Removing plaque with a toothbrush and dental floss temporarily reduces the numbers of bacteria in the
mouth and thus reduces tooth decay. It also makes the surfaces of the teeth more accessible, enabling
saliva to neutralize acid and remineralise lesions. If fluoride is present in drinking water when teeth are
forming, some fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of the teeth, making them more resistant to attack
by acid. Fluoride toothpaste seems to act in another way, by promoting the remineralization of early
carious lesions.

In addition to a regular dental hygiene program, a good way to keep your teeth healthy is to reduce your
intake of sweet food. The least cavity- causing way to eat sweets is to have them with meals and not
between. The number of times you eat sweets rather than the total amount determines how much harmful
acid the bacteria in your saliva produce. But the amount of sweets influences the quality of your saliva.
Avoid, if you can, sticky sweets that stay in your mouth a long time. Also try to brush and floss your teeth
after eating sugary foods. Even rinsing your mouth with water is effective. Whenever possible, eat foods
with fiber, such as raw carrot sticks, apples, celery sticks, etc., that scrape off plaque, acting as a
toothbrush. Cavities can be greatly reduced if these rules are followed when eating sweets.

12. What does this passage mainly discuss?

(A) Good nutrition


(B) Food with fiber
(C) Ways to keep your teeth healthy
(D) Fluoridization and cavities

Jawab: (C) Ways to keep your teeth healthy


Keyword: to keep your teeth healthy
Pembahasan: Bacaan tersebut membahas tentang cara menjaga gigi Anda sehat (Ways to keep
your teeth healthy).

13. According to the passage, all of the following statements about plaque are true EXCEPT…

(A) it consists of acid producing bacteria


(B) it is not affected by eating sweets
(C) it can be removed from teeth by brushing and flossing
(D) it reduces the positive effect of saliva

Jawab: (B) It is not affected by eating sweets


Keyword: have been primed by frequent exposure to sugar
Pembahasan: Pernyataan tentang plak berdasarkan bacaan tersebut kecuali: “It is not affected by
eating sweets.”

14. We can infer from the passage that one benefit of fluoride to healthy teeth is…

(A) It strengthens tooth enamel


(B) it stimulates saliva production
(C) it makes teeth whiter
(D) It Is a replacement for brushing and flossing in dental care

Jawab: (A) it strengthens tooth enamel


Keyword: making them more resistant to attarck by add
Pembahasan: Kita bisa menyimpulkan satu manfaat dari fluoride untuk gigi, yaitu memperkuat
enamel gigi (It strengthens tooth enamel.)

15. The word “it” in paragraph 2 refers to …

(A) dental floss


(B) bacteria
(C) removal of plaque
(D) plaque

Jawab: (C) removal of plaque


Keyword: removing plaque
Pembahasan: “it” paragraf ke 2 menunjukkan removal of plaque (menghilangkan plak).

16. What can be concluded from the passage about sweets?

(A) All sweets should be avoided.


(B) Sweets should be eaten with care.
(C) It is better to eat sweets a little at a time throughout the day.
(D) Sticky sweets are less harmful than other sweets.

Jawab: (B) Sweets should be eaten with care.


Keyword: Avoid, if you can, sticky sweets
Pembahasan: Simpulan tentang “sweets” (permen) adalah sweets should be eaten with care.
(Sweets harus dimakan dengan hati-hati).

17. The word “scrape off” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to…

(A) repel
(B) rub together with
(C) remove
(D) dissolve

Jawab: (C) remove


Keyword: acting as a toothbrush
Pembahasan: Kata “scrape off” yang terdekat dalam arti untuk remove.
• repel = mengusir
• rub together with = gosok bersama-sama dengan
• remove = menghapus
• dissolve = larut

18. According to the passage, the value of eating foods with fiber is that …

(A) they contain Vitamin A


(B) they are less expensive than a toothbrush
(C) they are able to remove the plaque from your teeth
(D) they contain no sugar

Jawab: (C) they are able to remove the plaque from your teeth
Keyword: that scrape off plaque
Pembahasan: Menurut bagian ini, nilai makan makanan dengan serat adalah bahwa “they are able
to remove the plaque from your teeth” (mereka mampu menghilangkan plak dari gigi Anda).

19. The author of the passage states that the amount of acid produced by the bacteria in your saliva
increases …

(A) with the amount of sweets you eat


(B) with the number of times you eat sweets
(C) if you eat sweets with your meals
(D) if you eat sticky sweets

Jawab: (B) with the number of times you eat sweets


Keyword: the amount of sweets influences the quality of your saliva
Pembahasan: Jumlah asam yang diproduksi oleh bakteri dalam air liur akan meningkat seiring
dengan jumlah permen yang dimakan. (with the number of times you eat sweets.)

Reading Comprehension Passage 4

Until recently,mostAmericanentrepreneursweremen. Discrimination against women in business, the


demands of caring for families, and lack of business training had kept the number of women
entrepreneurs Line small. Now, however, businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion
in annual revenues, and this figure is likely to continue rising throughout the 1990s. As Carolyn Doppelt
Gray, an official of the Small Business Administration, has noted, “The 1970s was the decade of women
entering management, and the 1980s turned out to be the decade of the woman entrepreneur”.

What are some of the factors behind this trend? For one thing, as more women earn advanced degrees in
business and enter the corporate world, they are finding obstacles. Women are still excluded from most
executive suites. Charlotte Taylor, a management consultant, had noted, “In the 1970s women believed if
they got an MBA and worked hard they could become chairman of the board. Now they’ve found
out that isn’t going to happen, so they go out on their own”.

In the past, most women entrepreneurs worked in “women’s” fields: cosmetics and clothing, for example.
But this is changing. Consider ASK Computer Systems, a $22-million-a-year computer software
business. It was founded in 1973 by Sandra Kurtzig, who was then a housewife with degrees in math and
engineering. When Kurtzig founded the business, her first product was software that let weekly
newspapers keep tabs on their newspaper carriers and her office was a bedroom at home, with a
shoebox under the bed to hold the company’s cash. After she succeeded with the newspaper software
system, she hired several bright computer-science graduates to develop additional programs. When
these were marketed and sold, ASK began to grow. It now has 200 employees, and Sandra Kurtzig owns
$66.9 million of stock.
Of course, many women who start their own businesses fail, just as men often do. They still
face hurdles in the business world, especially problems in raising money; the banking and finance world
is still dominated by men, and old attitudes die hard. Most businesses owned by women are still quite
small. But the situation is changing; there are likely to be many more Sandra Kurtzigs in the years ahead.

20. What is the main idea of this passage?

(A) Women today are better educated than in the past, making them more attractive to the business
world.
(B) The computer is especially lucrative for women today.
(C) Women are better at small businesses than men are.
(D) Women today are opening more businesses of their own.

Jawab: (D) Women today are opening more businesses of their own.
Keyword: businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion
Pembahasan: Gagasan utama bacaan tersebut adalah Wanita masa kini makin banyak yang
membuka usaha sendiri.

21. The word “excluded” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to…

(A) not permitted in


(B) often invited to
(C) decorators of
(D) charged admission to

Jawab: (A) not permitted in


Keyword: form most executive suites
Pembahasan: Kata “excluded” = dikecualikan”pada paragraf ke 2 adalah memiliki arti terdekat
dengan not permitted in = tidak diizinkan dalam.
• often invited to = sering diundang untuk.
• decorators of = dekorator dari.
• charged admission to = dibebankan masuk ke.

22. All of the following were mentioned in the passage as detriments to women in the business world
EXCEPT…

(A) women were required to stay at home with their families


(B) women lacked ability to work in business
(C) women faced discrimination in business
(D) women were not trained in business

Jawab: (B) women lacked ability to work in business


Keyword: more women earn advanced degrees in business
Pembahasan: Berlkut Ini adalah yang disebutkan dalam bacaan sebagai kekurangan wanita di
dunia bisnis KECUALI wanita tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk bekerja dalam bisnis (women
lacked ability to work in business).

23. In paragraph 2, “that” refers to …

(A) a woman becomes chairman of the board


(B) women working hard
(C) women achieving advanced degrees
(D) women believing that business is a place for them

Jawab: (A) a woman becomes chairman of the board


Keyword: they become chairman of the board
Pembahasan: Kata “that” pada paragraf ke 2 mengacu padaa woman becomes chairman of the
board (wanita yang menjadi ketua dewan).

24. According to the passage, Charlotte Taylor believes that women in the 1970s…

(A) were unrealistic about their opportunities in business management


(B) were still more interested in education than business opportunities
(C) had fewer obstacles in business than they do today
(D) were unable to work hard enough to succeed in business

Jawab: (A) were unrealistic about their opportunities in business management


Keyword: women believed if they got an MBA
Pembahasan: Menurut bacaan, Charlotte Taylor percaya bahwa perempuan pada 1970-an kurang
yakin tentang peluang mereka dalam manajemen bisnis (were unrealistic about their opportunities
in business management).

25. The author mentions the “shoebox under the bed” in the third paragraph in order to…

(A) show the frugality of women in business


(B) show the resourcefulness of Sandra Kurtzig
(C) point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited
(D) suggest that the company needed to expand

Jawab: (C) point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited
Keyword: to hold the company’s cash
Pembahasan: Penulis menyebutkan “shoebox under the bed” dalam paragraf ketiga untuk
menunjukkan bahwa pada awalnya sumberdaya keuangan dari bisnis Sandra Kurtzig’s terbatas
(point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited).

26. In the third paragraph, the word “this” refers to…

(A) women becoming entrepreneurs


(B) women buying cosmetics and clothing
(C) women working in “women’s fields”
(D) women staying at home

Jawab: (C) women working in “women’s fields”


Keyword: women entrepreneurs worked in women’s fields
Pembahasan: Kata “this” pada paragraf ke 3 mengacu pada perempuan yang bekerja di “bidang
perempuan” (women working in “women’s fields”).

27. The expression “keep tabs on” in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to …

(A) recognize the appearance of


(B) keep records of
(C) provide transportation for
(D) pay the salaries of

Jawab: (B) keep records of


Keyword: let weekly newspapers
Pembahasan: Ungkapan “keep tabs on = mengawasi” pada paragraf ke 3 memiliki arti terdekat
dengan keep records of (menyimpan rekaman).
• recognize the appearance of = mengakui tampilan
• provide transportation for = menyediakan transportasi untuk
• pay the salaries of = membayar gaji
28. The word “hurdles” in the last paragraph can be best replaced by…

(A) fences
(B) obstacles
(C) questions
(D) small groups

Jawab: (B) obstacles


Keyword: especially problem in raising money
Pembahasan: Kata “hurdles = rintangan” dalam paragraf terakhir dapat digantikan dengan kata
obstacles (hambatan).
• fences = pagar
• obstacles = hambatan
• questions = pertanyaan
• small groups = kelompok kecil

29. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that businesses operated by women are
small because …

(A) women prefer a small intimate setting


(B) women can’t deal with money
(C) women are not able to borrow money easily
(D) many women fail at large businesses

Jawab: (C) women are not able to borrow money easily


Keyword: especially problem in raising money
Pembahasan: Bisnis yang dioperasikan oleh wanita masih kecil karena mereka tidak dapat
meminjam uang dengan mudah (women are not able to borrow money easily).

30. The author’s attitude about the future of women in business is …

(A) skeptical
(B) optimistic
(C) frustrated
(D) negative

Jawab: (B) optimistic


Keyword: but the situation is changing
Pembahasan: Sikap penulis tentang masa depan wanita dalamm bisnis adalah optimis (optimistic)

Reading Comprehension Passage 5


This rapid transcontinental settlement and these new urban industrial circumstances of the last half of the
19“’ century were accomp

anied by the development of a national literature of great abundance and variety. Line New themes, new
forms, new subjects, new regions, new authors, new audiences all emerged in the literature of this half
century. As a result, at the onset of World War I, the spirit and substance of American literature
had evolved remarkably, just as its center of production had shifted from Boston to New York In the late
1880s and the sources of its energy to Chicago and the Midwest. No longer was itproduced, at

least in its popular forms, in the main by solemn, typically moralistic men from New England and the Old
South; no longer were polite, well-dressed, grammatically correct, middle-class young people the only
central characters in its narratives no longer were these narratives to be set in exotic places and remote
times; no longer, indeed, were fiction, poetry, drama, and formal history the chief acceptable forms of
literary expression; no longer, finally, was literature read primarily by young, middle class women. In sum,
American literature in these

years fulfilled in considerable measure the condition Walt Whitman called for inl867 in describing Leaves
of Grass: It treats, he said of his own major work, each state and region as peers “and expands from
them, and includes the world … connecting an American citizen with the citizens of all nations.” At the
same time, these years saw the emergence of what has been designated “the literature of argument,”
powerful works in sociology, philosophy, psychology, many of them impelled by the spirit of exposur

e and reform. Just as America learned to play a role in this half century as an autonomous international
political, economic, and military power, so did its literature establish itself as a producer of major works.

31. The main idea of this passage is …

(A) that the new American literature was less provincial than the old
(B) that World War I caused a dramatic change in America
(C) that centers of culture shifted from East to West
(D) that most people were wary of the new literature

Jawab: (A) that the new American literature was less provincial
Keyword: were accompanied by the development of a national literature
Pembahasan: Gagasan utama dari bacaan ini adalah sastra Amerika baru kurang kedaerahan dari
yang lawas (that the new American literature was less provincial than the old).

32. It can be inferred from lines 1-3 that the previous passage probably discussed …

(A) the Importance of tradition to writers


(B) new developments in industrialization and population shifts
(C) the fashions and values of 19th century America
(D) the limitations of American literature to this time

Jawab: (B) new developments In Industrialization and population shifts


Keyword: the rapid transcontinental settlement and these new urban Industrial
Pembahasan: Yang dapat disimpulkan dari kalimat 1 adalah perkembangan pergeseran
industrialisasl dan populasi yang baru (new developments in industrialization and population
shifts).

33. The word “evolved” is closest in meaning to…

(A) became famous


(B) turned back
(C) diminished
(D) changed

Jawab: (D) changed


Keyword: had shifted from
Pembahasan: evolved – berevolusi became famous = menjadi terkenal turned back = berbalik
diminished = berkurang changed = berubah

34. The word “it” refers to…

(A) the population


(B) the energy
(C) American literature
(D) the manufacturing
Jawab: (C) American literature Keyword: the spirit and substance of American literature
Keyword: the spirit and substance of American literature
Pembahasan: Kata “it” mengacu pada sastra Amerika (American literature).

35. The word “exotic” is closest in meaning to…

(A) urban
(B) unusual
(C) well-known
(D) old-fashioned

Jawab : (B) unusual Keyword Pembahasan


Keyword: exotic places and remote times
Pembahasan: Kata “exotic” = eksotis arti yang terdekat unusual = tidak biasa
• urban = perkotaan
• unusual = tidak biasa
• well-known = terkenal
• old-fashioned = kuno

36. The author uses the word “indeed” for what purpose?

(A) to emphasize the contrast he is making


(B) for variety in a lengthy paragraph
(C) to wind down his argument
(D) to show a favorable attitude to these forms of literature

Jawab: (A) to emphasize the contrast he is making


Keyword: no longer
Pembahasan: Penulis menggunakan kata ” indeed = benar” untuk menekankan kontras (to
emphasize the contrast he is making).

37. The phrase “these years” in line 17 refers to …

(A) 1850-1900
(B) the 1900s
(C) the early 1800s
(D) the present

Jawab: (A) 1850-1900


Keyword: in late 1880s
Pembahasan: Ungkapan “these years = bertahun-tahun” dalam mengacu pada 1850-1900.

38. It can be inferred from the passage that Walt Whitman…

(A) disliked urban life


(B) was disapproving of the new literature
(C) wrote Leaves of Grass
(D) was an international diplomat

Jawab: (C) wrote Leaves of Grass Keyword: in describing Leaves of Grass


Keyword: in describing Leaves of Grass
Pembahasan: Hal yang dapat disimpulkan tentang Walt Whitman adalah menulis Leaves of Grass.

39. All of the following can be inferred from the passage about the new literature EXCEPT…
(A) it was not highly regarded Internationally
(B) it introduced new american themes, characters, and settings
(C) itbrokewithmanyliterarytraditionsofthepast
(D) it spoke to the issue of reform and change

Jawab: (A) it was not highly regarded internationally


Keyword: 50 did its literature establish itself
Pembahasan: Simpulan di atas adalah benar tentang “new literature” literatur baru kecuali sangat
tidak dihargai secara internasional (It was not highly regarded internationally).

40. This passage would probably be read in which of the following academic courses?

(A) European history


(B) American literature
(C) Current events
(D) International affairs

Jawab: (B) American literature


Keyword: substance of American literature
Pembahasan: Bagian ini mungkin akan dibaca di mana di kelas sastra Amerika.

Reading Comprehension Passage 6

Scientists do not yet thoroughly understand just how the body of an individual becomes sensitive to a
substance that is harmless or even wholesome for the average person. Milk, wheat, and egg, for
example. Line rank among the most healthful and widely used foods. Yet these foods can cause persons
sensitive to them to suffer greatly. At first, the body of the individual is not harmed by coming into contact
with the substance. After a varying interval of time, usually longer than a few weeks, the body becomes
sensitive to it, and an allergy has begun to develop. Sometimes it’s hard to figure out if you have a food
allergy since it can show up so many different ways.

Your symptoms could be caused by many other problems. You may have rashes, hives, joint pains
mimicking arthritis, headaches, irritability, or depression. The most common food allergies are to milk,
eggs, seafood, wheat, nuts, seeds, chocolate, oranges, and tomatoes. Many of these allergies will not
develop if these foods are not fed to an infant until her or his intestines mature at around seven months.

Breast milk also tends to be protective. Migraines can be set off by foods containing tyramine,
phenethylamine, monosodium glutamate, or sodium nitrate. Common foods which contain these are
chocolate, aged cheeses, sour cream, red wine, pickled herring, chicken livers, avocados, ripe bananas,
cured meats, many Oriental and prepared foods (read the labels!). Some people have been successful in
treating their migraines with supplements of B-vitamins, particularly B6 and niacin.

Children who are hyperactive may benefit from eliminating food additives, especially colorings, and
foods high in salicylates from their diets. A few of these are almonds, green peppers, peaches, tea,
grapes. This is the diet made popular by Benjamin Feingold, who has written the book Why your Child is
30 Hyperactive. Other researchers have had mixed results when testing whether the diet is effective.

41. The topic of this passage is…

(A) reactions to foods


(B) food and nutrition
(C) infants and allergies
(D) a good diet
Jawab: (A) reactions to foods
Keyword: an individual becomes sensitive to a substance
Pembahasan: Topik dari bacaan tersebut adalah reaksi terhadap makan (reactios of foods).

42. According to the passage, the difficulty in diagnosing allergies to foods is due to …

(A) the vast number of different foods we eat


(B) lack of a proper treatment plan
(C) the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to other problems
(D) the use of prepared formula to feed babies

Jawab: (C) the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to other problems


Keyword: it can show up so many different ways
Pembahasan: Menurut bagian ini, kesutitan dalam mendiagnosis alergi terhadap makanan adalah
karena kemiripan gejala alergi dengan masalah lain (the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to
other problems).

43. The word “symptoms” in line 8 is closest in meaning to …

(A) indications
(B) diet
(C) diagnosis
(D) prescriptions

Jawab: (A) indications


Keyword: could be caused by many other problems
Pembahasan:
• symptoms = gejala
• indications = indikasi
• diet = diet
• diagnosis = diagnosis
• prescriptions = resep

44. The phrase “set off” is closest the meaning …

(A) relieved
(B) identified
(C) avoided
(D) triggered

Jawab: (D) triggered


Keyword: by foods containing
Pembahasan: Ungkapan “set off” adalah paling mirip dengan arti triggered = dipicu
• relieved = lega
• identified= diidentifikasi
• avoided= dihindari

45. What can be inferred about babies from this passage?

(A) They can eat almost anything.


(B) They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants.
(C) They gain little benefit from being breastfed.
(D)They may become hyperactive if fed solid food too early.

Jawab: (B) They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants.


Keyword: many of these allergies will not develop. If these foods are not fed to an infant until
Pembahasan: Simpulan tentang bayi adalah mereka harus memiliki pola makanan yang dibatasi
dengan hati-hati (They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants).

46. The word “hyperactive” is closest in meaning to …

(A) overly active


(B) unusually low activity
(C) excited
(D) inquisitive

Jawab: (A) overly active


Keyword: children who are hyperactive
Pembahasan: Kata “hiperaktif” mirip dengan overly active (terlalu aktif)
• overly active = terlalu aktif
• unusually low activity = aktivitas luar biasa rendah
• excited = bersemangat
• inquisitive = ingin tahu

47. The author states that the reason that infants need to avoid certain foods related to allergies has to do
with the infants…

(A) lack of teeth


(B) poor metabolism
(C) underdeveloped intestinal tract
(D) inability to swallow solid foods

Jawab: (C) underdeveloped intestinal tract


Keyword: until her or his intestines mature
Pembahasan: Dinyatakan dalam bacaan bahwa alasan bahwa bayi perlu menghindari makanan
tertentu yang berhubungan dengan alergi karena saluran pencernaan yang belum berkembang
baik.

Reading Comprehension Passage 7


A curfew is a specific type of law instituted by those In power. It is one that requires citizens to be off the
streets and out of public places at specified hours.

There are active curfew laws in some communities in the United States today; these laws are currently
functioning. The existing curfew laws generally refer to minors. These laws usually indicate the hour
when the children must be off the streets and out of public unless they are with their parents.

Curfew laws have a long tradition. William of Normandy introduced the custom to the British Isles after his
invasion there in 1066. At curfew time, a bell was rung. The pealing of the bell indicated that citizens
should extinguish any burning fires and clear the streets for the night. The word curfew actually
developed at this time from the Norman French expression couvre-feu or cover the fire.

48. The word “minors” in paragraph 2 could be best replaced by …

(A) children
(B) communities
(C) public
(D) citizens

Jawab: (A) children


Keyword: generally refer to minors
Pembahasan: Minors = belum dewasa
• children = anak-anak
• communities = komunitas
• public = publik
• citizens = warga

49. Look at the word “pealing” in paragraph 3. This word is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) ringing
(B) uncovering
(C) breaking
(D) burning

Jawab: (A) ringing


Keyword: a bell was rung
Pembahasan: Pealing = bunyi
• ringing = dering
• uncovering = mengungkap
• breaking = pemecahan
• burning = pembakaran

50. Citizens should extinguish any burning fires, (paragraph 3). Word extinguish is closest in meaning
to…

(A) put in
(B) put on
(C) put off
(D) put out

Jawab: (D) put out


Keyword: should extinguish any burning fire
Pembahasan: Extinguish = padam
• put in =memasukkan
• put on = memakai
• put off =menunda
• put out = memadamkan

Time: Approximately 55 Minutes


50 Questions
DIRECTIONS
In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it.
For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), to each question.
Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to
the letter of the answer you have chosen. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of
what is stated or implied in that passage.

READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE:


The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to draw attention to the
importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at daybreak
and communal festivities have been celebrated, people have been in rough agreement with their
neighbors as to the time of day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it
not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the
massive daily transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very
fabric of modem society would begin to unravel.

Example I
What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) In modem society we must make more time for our neighbors.
(B) The traditions of society are timeless.
(C) An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
(D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.

The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is to be measured in
order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose (C).

Example II
In line 4, the phrase “this tradition” refers to....
(A) the practice of starting the business day at dawn
(B) friendly relations between neighbors
(C) the railroad’s reliance on time schedules
(D) people’s agreement on the measurement of time

The phrase “this tradition” refers to the preceding clause, “people have been in rough agreement
with their neighbors as to the time of day.” Therefore, you should choose (D).

Now begin work on the questions.


Questions 1-5
A distinctively American architecture began with Frank Lloyd Wright, who had taken to heart the
admonition that form should follow function and who thought of buildings not as separate
architectural entities but as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the community, and the
society. In a very real way the houses of colonial New England and some of the southern plantations
had been functional, but Wright was the first architect to make functionalism the authoritative
principle for public as well as for domestic buildings. As early as 1906 he built the Unity Temple in
Oak Park, Illinois, the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical
architecture in the United States. Thereafter he turned his genius to such miscellaneous structures
as houses, schools, office buildings, and factories, among them the famous Larkin Building in
Buffalo, New York, and the Johnson Wax Company building in Racine, Wisconsin.

1. The phrase “taken to heart” in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
(A) Taken seriously
(B) Criticized
(C) Memorized
(D) Taken offence

2. In what way did Wright’s public buildings differ from most of those built by earlier architects?
(A) They were built on a larger scale.
(B) Their materials came from the southern United States.
(C) They looked more like private homes.
(D) Their designs were based on how they would be used.

3. The author mentions the Unity Temple because, it


(A) was Wright’s first building
(B) influenced the architecture of subsequent churches
(C) demonstrated traditional ecclesiastical architecture
(D) was the largest church Wright ever designed

4. The passage mentions that all of the following structures were built by Wright EXCEPT
(A) factories
(B) public buildings
(C) offices
(D) southern plantations

5. Which of the following statements best reflects one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural
principles?
(A) Beautiful design is more important than utility.
(B) Ecclesiastical architecture should be derived from traditional designs.
(C) A building should fit into its surroundings.
(D) The architecture of public buildings does not need to be revolutionary

Questions 6-16
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that flow outward in all directions with little regard for
any underlying terrain and those that are confined by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents,
appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land covered with
ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet spread out over the
ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in southern
Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers deep at its
thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth, those covering
Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also flows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000 square
kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a number in
northeastern Canada, on Baffin Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally called
mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls
their flow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it flows outward in several
directions is called an ice field. The difference between an ice field and an ice cap is subtle.
Essentially, the flow of an ice field is somewhat controlled by surrounding terrain and thus does not
have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several ice fields in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and
Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the cirque
and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land and have a
characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, flows down valleys, curves
around their corners, and falls over cliffs.

6. What does the passage mainly discuss?


(A) Where major glaciers are located
(B) How glaciers shape the land
(C) How glaciers are formed
(D) The different kinds of glaciers

7. The word “massive” in line 3 is closest in meaning to


(A) huge
(B) strange
(C) cold
(D) recent
8. It can be inferred that ice sheets are so named for which of the following reasons?
(A) They are confined to mountain valleys.
(B) They cover large areas of land.
(C) They are thicker in some areas than in others.
(D) They have a characteristic circular shape.

9. According to the passage, ice shelves can be found


(A) covering an entire continent
(B) buried within the mountains
(C) spreading into the ocean
(D) filling deep valleys

10. According to the passage, where was the Cordilleran Ice Sheet thickest?
(A) Alaska
(B) Greenland
(C) Alberta
(D) Antarctica

11. The word “rare” in line 12 is closest in meaning to


(A) small
(B) unusual
(C) valuable
(D) widespread

12. According to the passage (paragraph 5), ice fields resemble ice caps in which of the following
ways?
(A) Their shape
(B) Their flow
(C) Their texture
(D) Their location

13. The word “it” in line 16 refers to


(A) glacier
(B) cap
(C) difference
(D) terrain

14. The word “subtle” in line 17 is closest in meaning to


(A) slight
(B) common
(C) important
(D) measurable

15. All of the following are alpine glaciers EXCEPT


(A) cirque glaciers
(B) ice caps
(C) valley glaciers
(D) ice fields

16. Which of the following types of glaciers does the author use to illustrate the two basic types of
glaciers mentioned in line 1?
(A) Ice fields and cirques
(B) Cirques and alpine glaciers
(C) Ice sheets and ice shelves
(D) Ice sheets and mountain glaciers

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Questions 17-26
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest that a
close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made and used
primitive tools long before the species became extinct I million Line years ago. It may even have
made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo habilis, or “handy man,”
began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus, coexisted with Australopithecus
robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The earliest
fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million years ago and
contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more species of apelike hominids.
The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time
such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal thumb tip,
the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely human” muscle, the
flexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more recent ancestors. That muscle
gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip
objects, including tools. The researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially
digging tools, in the same layers of sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their
successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding teeth that were
used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and fibrous underground plant parts. They walked upright, which
would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts had previously believed that Homo
habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus because the former’s ability to use tools
gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools
means that researchers will have to seek other explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their
reliance on naturally occurring plants led to their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or
perhaps Homo habilis, with their bigger brains, were simply able tomake more sophisticated tools.
17. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that all of the following may have made and used tools
EXCEPT.
(A) Australopithecus robustus
(B) Homo erectus
(C) Homo habilis
(D) Australopithecus robustus’ ancestors

18. The word “extensive” in line 9 is closest in meaning to


(A) numerous
(B) exposed
(C) ancient
(D) valuable

19. Which of the following does the author mention as the most important recent discovery made in
the Swartkrans cave?
(A) Tools
(B) Teeth
(C) Plant fossils
(D) Hand bones

20. What does the third paragraph ‘mainly discuss?


(A) Features of Australopithecus robustus’ hand
(B) Purposes for which hominids used tools
(C) Methods used to determine the age of fossils
(D) Significant plant fossils found in layers of sediment

21. It can be inferred from the description in the last paragraph that Australopithecus robustus was
so named because of the species’
(A) ancestors
(B) thumb
(C) build
(D) diet

22. The word “supplant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to


(A) exploit
(B) displace
(C) understand
(D) imitate

23. The word “them” in line 23 refers to


(A) tools
(B) Homo habilis
(C) Australopithecus robustus
(D) experts

24. What does the author suggest is unclear about Australopithecus robustus?
(A) Whether they used tools
(B) What they most likely ate
(C) Whether they are closely related to humans
(D) Why they became extinct

25. The phrase “reliance on” in line 24 is closest in meaning to


(A) impact on
(B) dependence on
(C) tolerance of
(D) discovery of

26. Where in the passage does the author mention the materials from which tools were made?
(A) Lines 7-9
(B) Lines 12-13
(C) Lines 15-17
(D) Lines 21-23

Questions 27-38
The first two decades of this century were dominated by the microbe hunters. These hunters had
tracked down one after another of the microbes responsible for the most dreaded scourges of many
centuries: tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria. But there, remained some terrible diseases for which no
microbe could be incriminated: scurvy, pellagra, rickets, beriberi. Then it was discovered that these
diseases were caused by the lack of vitamins, a trace substance in the diet. The diseases could be
prevented or cured by consuming foods that contained the vitamins. And so in the decades of the
1920’s and 1930’s, nutrition became a science and the vitamin hunters replaced the microbe
hunters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, biochemists strived to learn why each of the vitamins was essential for
health. They discovered that key enzymes in metabolism depend on one or another of the vitamins
as coenzymes to perform the chemistry that provides cells with energy for growth and function. Now,
these enzyme hunters occupied center stage.
You are aware that the enzyme hunters have been replaced by a new breed of hunters who are
tracking genes-the blueprints for each of the enzymes-and are discovering the defective genes that
cause inherited diseases-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. These gene hunters, or genetic engineers, use
recombinant DNA technology to identify and clone genes and introduce them into bacterial cells and
plants to create factories for the massive production of hormones and vaccines for medicine and for
better crops for agriculture. Biotechnology has become a multibillion-dollar industry.
In view of the inexorable progress in science, we can expect that the gene hunters will be replaced
in the spotlight. When and by whom? Which kind of hunter will dominate the scene in the last
decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? I wonder whether the hunters
who will occupy the spotlight will be neurobiologists who apply the techniques of the enzyme and
gene hunters to the functions of the brain: What to call them? The head hunters. I will return to them
later.

27. What is the main topic of the passage?


(A) The microbe hunters
(B) The potential of genetic engineering
(C) The progress of modem medical research
(D) The discovery of enzymes

28. The word “which” in line 4 refers to


(A) diseases
(B) microbe
(C) cholera
(D) diphtheria

29. The word “incriminated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to


(A) investigated
(B) blamed
(C) eliminated
(D) produced

30. Which of the following can be cured by a change in diet?


(A) Tuberculosis
(B) Cholera
(C) Cystic fibrosis
(D) Pellagra

31. The word “strived” in line 9 is closest in meaning to


(A) failed
(B) tried
(C) experimented
(D) studied
32. How do vitamins influence health?
(A) They are necessary for some enzymes to function.
(B) They protect the body from microbes.
(C) They keep food from spoiling.
(D) They are broken down by cells to produce energy.

33. In the third paragraph, the author compares cells that have been genetically altered by
biotechnicians to
(A) gardens
(B) factories
(C) hunters
(D) spotlights

34. The word “them” in line 16 refers to


(A) cells and plants
(B) hormones
(C) genes
(D) gene hunters or genetic engineers

35. The phrase “occupy the spotlight” in line 22 is closest in meaning to


(A) receive the most attention
(B) go the furthest
(C) conquer territory
(D) lighten the load

36. The author implies that the most important medical research topic of the future will be
(A) the functions of the brain
(B) inherited diseases
(C) the operation of vitamins
(D) the structure of genes

37. Which of the following best describes the author’stone in the last paragraph of the passage?
(A) Critical
(B) Speculative
(C) Appreciative
(D) Emotional

38. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
(A) The focus of medical research will change in the next two decades.
(B) Medical breakthroughs often depend on luck.
(C) Medical research throughout the twentieth century has been dominated by microbe hunters.
(D) Most diseases are caused by defective genes.

Questions 39-50
In the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had tremendous natural resources that could be
exploited in order to develop heavy industry. Most of the raw materials that are valuable in the
manufacture of machinery, transportation facilities, and consumer goods lay ready to be worked into
wealth. Iron, coal, and oil-the basic ingredients of industrial growth-were plentiful and needed only
the application of technical expertise, organizational skill, and labor.
One crucial development in this movement toward industrialization was the growth of the railroads.
The railway network expanded rapidly until the railroad map of the United States looked like a
spider’s web, with the steel filaments connecting all important sources of raw materials, their places
of manufacture, and their centers of distribution. The railroads contributed to the industrial growth not
only by connecting these major centers, but also by themselves consuming enormous amounts of
fuel, iron, and coal.
Many factors influenced emerging modes of production. For example, machine tools, the tools used
to make goods, were steadily improved in the latter part of the nineteenth century-always with an
eye to speedier production and lower unit costs. The products of the factories were rapidly absorbed
by the growing cities that sheltered the workers and the distributors. The increased urban population
was nourished by the increased farm production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use
of the new farm machinery. American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still
had surpluses for sale to the industrial centers of Europe.

The labor that ran the factories and built the railways was recruited in part from American farm areas
where people were being displaced by farm machinery, in part from Asia, and in part from Europe.
Europe now began to send tides of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe-most of whom
were originally poor farmers but who settled in American industrial cities. The money to finance this
tremendous expansion of the American economy still came from European financiers for the most
part, but the Americans were approaching the day when their expansion could be financed in their
own “money market.”

39. What does the passage mainly discuss?


(A) The history of railroads in the United States
(B) The major United States industrial centers
(C) Factors that affected industrialization in the United States
(D) The role of agriculture in the nineteenth century

40. The word “ingredients” in line 4 is closest in meaning to


(A) minerals
(B) products
(C) methods
(D) components

41.Why does the author mention “a spider’s web” in line 8?


(A) To emphasize the railroad’s consumption of oil and coal
(B) To describe the complex structure of the railway system
(C) To explain the problems brought on by railway expansion
(D) To describe the difficulties involved in the distribution of raw materials

42. The word “themselves” in line 10 refers to


(A) sources
(B) centers
(C) railroads
(D) places

43. According to the passage, all of the following were true of railroads in the United States in the
nineteenth century EXCEPT that
(A) they connected important industrial cities
(B) they were necessary to the industrialization process
(C) they were expanded in a short time
(D) they used relatively small quantities of natural resources

44. According to the passage, what was one effect of the improvement of machine tools?
(A) Lower manufacturing costs
(B) Better distribution of goods
(C) More efficient transportation of natural resources
(D) A reduction in industrial jobs

45. According to the passage, who were the biggest consumers of manufactured products?
(A) Railway workers
(B) Farmers
(C) City dwellers
(D) Europeans

46. The word “nourished” in line 16 is closest in meaning to


(A) protected
(B) fed
(C) housed
(D) paid

47. Which of the following is NOT true of United States farmers in the nineteenth century?
(A) They lost some jobs because of mechanization.
(B) They were unable to produce sufficient food for urban areas.
(C) They raised their productivity by using new machinery.
(D) They sold food to European countries.

48. According to the passage, what did the United States supply to European cities?
(A) Machine tools
(B) Money
(C) Raw materials
(D) Agricultural produce

49. The word “ran” in line 19 is closest in meaning to


(A) operated
(B) hurried
(C) constructed
(D) owned

50. Where in the passage does the author mention the financial aspect of industrial expansion?
(A) Lines 1-2
(B) Lines 9-11
(C) Lines 17-18
(D) Lines 22-25

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Pembahasan Soal Jawaban Reading Comprehension
Questions 1-5
A distinctively American architecture began with Frank Lloyd Wright, who had taken to heart the
admonition that form should follow function and who thought of buildings not as separate
architectural entities but as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the community, and the
society. In a very real way the houses of colonial New England and some of the southern plantations
had been functional, but Wright was the first architect to make functionalism the authoritative
principle for public as well as for domestic buildings. As early as 1906 he built the Unity Temple in
Oak Park, Illinois, the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical
architecture in the United States. Thereafter he turned his genius to such miscellaneous structures
as houses, schools, office buildings, and factories, among them the famous Larkin Building in
Buffalo, New York, and the Johnson Wax Company building in Racine, Wisconsin.
Terjemahan
Arsitektur khas Amerika dimulai oleh Frank Lloyd Wright, yang telah dikenal bahwa bentuk harus
mengikuti fungsi dan siapa yang berpikir bangunan tidak dipisahkan oleh arsitektur tetapi sebagai
bagian keseluruhan organik yang termasuk tanah, masyarakat, dan kumpulan masyarakat. Dalam
cara yang sangat nyata ,rumah-rumah kolonial New England dan beberapa perkebunan Selatan
telah berfungsi, tetapi Wright adalah arsitek pertama yang membuat fungsionalisme prinsip otoritatif
untuk umum juga domestik. Sejak 1906, ia membangun Persatuan Candi di Oak Park, Illinois,
gereja-Gereja yang pertama dari yang melakukan begitu banyak merevolusi arsitektur gereja di
Amerika Serikat. Kemudian menggunakan kejeniusannya untuk struktur yang berbeda-bedaseperti
rumah, sekolah, bangunan perkantoran dan pabrik-pabrik, di antaranya Gedung Larkin terkenal di
Buffalo, New York, dan perusahaan bangunan Johnson Wax di Racine, Wisconsin.

1. The phrase “taken to heart” in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
Jawab : A → Taken seriously
Pembahasan : Frasa taken to heart adalah bentuk ungkapan idiomatik dan memiliki arti “melakukan
dengan sepenuh hati/serius”.

2. In what way did Wright’s public buildings differ from most of those built by earlier architects?
Jawab : D → Their designs were based on how they would be used.
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat “…that form should follow function…” menunjukkan bahwa desain
seharusnya berdasarkan pada fungsinya, untuk apa nantinya bangunan itu digunakan dan jawaban
yang demikian ditemukan di pilihan D.

3. The author mentions the Unity Temple because, it


Jawab : B → influenced the architecture of subsequent churches
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat “…the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize
ecclesiastical architecture in the United States” menyatakan bahwa bangunan itu sangat
mempengaruhi desain bangunan-bangunan selanjutnya. Jawaban yang mengandung ide serupa
ada pada pilihan B.

4. The passage mentions that all of the following structures were built by Wright EXCEPT
Jawab : D → southern plantations
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat terakhir jelas bahwa offices, factories dan public building, termasuk
churches adalah karyanya. Sedangkan South Plantations bukanlah hasil karyanya karena sudah
didesain oleh orang terdahulu seperti yang disebutkan dalam bacaan.
5. Which of the following statements best reflects one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural
principles?
Jawab : C → A building should fit into its surroundings.
Pembahasan : Kalimat “…as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the community, and
the society” menyatakan bahwa bangunan seharusnya dianggap sebagai bagian dari keseluruhan
lingkungan dan masyarakat sekitarnya sehingga dengan kata lain bangunan tersebut harus sesuai
dengan lingkungannya.

Questions 6-16
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that flow outward in all directions with little regard for
any underlying terrain and those that are confined by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents,
appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land covered with
ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet spread out over the
ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in southern
Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers deep at its
thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth, those covering
Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also flows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000 square
kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a number in
northeastern Canada, on Baffin Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally called
mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls
their flow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it flows outward in several
directions is called an ice field. The difference between an ice field and an ice cap is subtle.
Essentially, the flow of an ice field is somewhat controlled by surrounding terrain and thus does not
have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several ice fields in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and
Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the cirque
and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land and have a
characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, flows down valleys, curves
around their corners, and falls over cliffs.

Terjemahan
Ada dua jenis dasar gletser, yang mengalir ke luar dalam semua arah dengan kurang
memperhatikan setiap daerah yang mendasari dan orang-orang yang dibatasi oleh medan untuk
suatu jalan tertentu.
Kategori pertama gletser mencakup selimut yang besar yang mencakup seluruh benua, tepat
disebut lembaran es. Harus ada lebih dari 50.000 kilometer persegi tanah yang ditutupi dengan es
untuk gletser untuk memenuhi syarat sebagai lembar es.
Ketika bagian dari lembaran es menyebar samudera, mereka membentuk es rak. Sekitar 20.000
tahun yang lalu Cordilleran es lembar meliputi hampir semua pegunungan di Alaska Selatan,
Kanada Barat dan barat Amerika Serikat. Itu adalah sekitar 3 kilometer yang mendalam pada titik
tertebal di northern Alberta. Sekarang yang ada hanya dua lembar yang tersisa di dunia, orang-
orang yang meliputi Greenland dan Antartika.
Badan domelike es yang juga mengalir keluar di segala penjuru tetapi mencakup kurang dari
50.000 kilometer persegi yang disebut topi es. Meskipun ice caps langka saat ini, ada beberapa di
timur laut Kanada, Baffin Island, dan di Kepulauan Ratu Elizabeth.
Kategori kedua gletser termasuk orang-orang dari berbagai bentuk dan ukuran yang umumnya
disebut gunung atau alpine gletser. Gunung gletser biasanya diidentifikasi dengan bentang alam
yang mengendalikan aliran mereka. Salah satu bentuk gunung gletser yang menyerupai topi es
yang mengalir ke luar dalam beberapa arah disebut medan es. Perbedaan antara medan es dan
topi es halus. Pada dasarnya, arus medan es agak dikendalikan oleh daerah sekitarnya dan dengan
demikian tidak memiliki bentuk seperti topi. Ada beberapa bidang es di Wrangell. St Elias, dan
pegunungan Chugach di Alaska dan British Columbia Utara.
Kurang spektakuler daripada besar es bidang yang paling umum jenis gunung gletser: cirque dan
lembah gletser. Cirque gletser ditemukan dalam depresi di permukaan tanah dan memiliki bentuk
melingkar yang khas. Es lembah gletser, terikat oleh daerah, mengalir ke lembah, kurva yang
disudut-sudut mereka dan jatuh diatas tebing.

6. What does the passage mainly discuss?


Jawab : D → The different kinds of glaciers
Pembahasan : Ide pokok teks di atas dapat ditemukan pada paragraf pertama kalimat pertama
yang menjelaskan dua jenis gletser yang berbeda dan selanjutnya masing-masing dijelaskan lebih
lanjut pada paragraf berikutnya.

7. The word “massive” in line 3 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : A → huge
Pembahasan : Padanan kata massive adalah huge (sangat besar).

8. It can be inferred that ice sheets are so named for which of the following reasons?
Jawab : B → They cover large areas of land.
Pembahasan : Frasa whole continents pada kalimat those massive blankets that cover whole
continents appropriately called ice sheet menunjukkan bahwa daratan yang tertutup gletser
mencakup wilayah yang sangat luas, hampir keseluruhan daratan.

9. According to the passage, ice shelves can be found


Jawab : C → spreading into the ocean
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada kalimat terakhir paragraf kedua bahwa jika ice
sheet tersebar (spread out) di lautan akan terbentuk ice shelves.

10. According to the passage, where was the Cordilleran Ice Sheet thickest?
Jawab : C → Alberta
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada baris ke-8: it was about 3 kilometers deep at its
thickest point in northern Alberta.

11. The word “rare” in line 11 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : B → unusual
Pembahasan : Rare berarti jarang atau tidak biasa ditemukan sehingga jawaban yang paling
mendekati arti dari rare adalah unusual.

12. According to the passage (paragraph 5), ice fields resemble ice caps in which of the following
ways?
Jawab : B → Their flow
Pembahasan : Kalimat Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls their
flow dan dijelaskan lebih lanjut pada kalimat One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap
in that it flows outward in several directions is called an ice field menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan
ice caps dipengaruhi oleh alirannya (their flow).

13. The word “it” in line 15 refers to


Jawab : A → glacier
Pembahasan : It pada kalimat di atas merujuk pada mountain glacier atau gletser.
14. The word ”subtle” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : A → slight
Pembahasan : Padanan kata subtle adalah slight yang keduanya memiliki arti “tipis, halus, atau
sedikit”.

15. All of the following are alpine glaciers EXCEPT


Jawab : B → ice caps
Pembahasan : Jenis alpine/mountain glacier adalah ice fields, cirque glaciers dan valley glaciers
yang semuanya dipengaruhi oleh aliran dan tidak memiliki domelike cap seperti ice caps.

16. Which of the following types of glaciers does the author use to illustrate the two basic types of
glaciers mentioned in line 1?
Jawab : D → Ice sheets and mountain glaciers
Pembahasan : Ada dua jenis gletser yaitu ice sheet yang mengalir keluar ke segala arah dan
mountain glacier yang arah alirannya terbatas hanya di aliran tertentu.

Questions 17-26
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest that a
close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made and used
primitive tools long before the species became extinct 1 million Line years ago. It may even have
made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo habilis, or “handy man,”
began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus, coexisted with Australopithecus
robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The earliest
fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million years ago and
contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more species of apelike hominids.
The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time
such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal thumb tip,
the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely human” muscle, the
flexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more recent ancestors. That muscle
gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip
objects, including tools. The researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially
digging tools, in the same layers of sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their
successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding teeth that were
used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and fibrous underground plant parts. They walked upright, which
would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts had previously believed that Homo
habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus because the former’s ability to use tools
gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools
means that researchers will have to seek other explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their
reliance on naturally occurring plants led to their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or
perhaps Homo habilis, with their bigger brains, were simply able tomake more sophisticated tools.

Terjemahan
Alat dan tulang tangan yang digali dari kompleks gua Swartkrans di Afrika Selatan telah menjadi
informasi bahwa kerabat dekat awal manusia yang dikenal sebagai Australopithecus robustus telah
dibuat dan alat primitif telah digunakan jauh sebelum spesies punah 1 juta tahun lalu. Bahkan
mungkin alat primitif telah dibuat dan digunakan jauh sebelum leluhur manusia langsung, Homo
habilis atau ‘manusia pembantu’ mulai melakukannya. Homo habilis dan penerusnya, Homo erectus
berdampingan dengan Australopithecus robustus di dataran Afrika Selatan selama lebih dari satu
juta tahun.
Gua Swartkrans di Afrika Selatan telah di bawah penggalian sejak tahun 1940-an. Fosil pertama
yang mengandung lapisan batuan sedimen di gua berasal dari sekitar 1,9 juta tahun yang lalu dan
berisi bangkai binatang, alat-alat primitif, dan dua atau lebih spesies hominid yang seprti kera.
Penemuan baru-baru ini menemukan tulang dari tangan Australopithecus robustus, pertama kalinya
seperti tulang telah ditemukan sebelumnya.
Fitur yang paling penting dari tangan Australopithecus robustus adalah ujung jari distal pollical,
tulang di jempol. Tulang itu memiliki titik lanjutan untuk otot ’manusia unik ’, otot flexor pollicis
longus, yang sebelumnya telah ditemukan hanya di jaman nenek-moyang yang terdahulu. Otot yang
memberikan Australopithecus robustut jempol, bengkak fitur yang akan memungkinkan mereka
untuk mencengkeram objek, termasuk alat. Para peneliti juga menemukan tulang primitif dan alat-
alat batu, terutama menggali alat-alat, pada lapisan sedimen yang sama.

Australopithecus robustus yang lebih berat dibangun-lebih ’kuat’ dalam antropologi-daripada


penerus mereka. Mereka memiliki wajah yang lebar, jaws berat, dan dapat penghancur besar dan
penggilingan gigi yang digunakan untuk makan buah-buahan yang keras, benih, dan bagian
berserat bawah tanah tanaman. Mereka berjalan tegak, yang akan memungkinkan mereka untuk
membawa dan menggunakan alat-alat. Kebanyakan ahli sebelumnya telah percaya bahwa Homo
habilis mampu menggantikan Australopithecus robustus karena lebih dahulu mampu untuk
menggunakan alat-alat memberi mereka keunggulan bawaan. Penemuan bahwa Australopithecus
robustus juga menggunakan alat berarti bahwa para peneliti harus mencari penjelasan lain untuk
kepunahan mereka. Mungkin mereka ketergantungan pada tanaman alami yang menyebabkan
kejatuhan mereka sebagai iklim menjadi pengering dan pendingin, atau mungkin Homo habilis,
dengan otak mereka yang lebih besar, yang hanya dapat membuat alat-alat yang lebih canggih.

17. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that all of the following may have made and used tools
EXCEPT
Jawab : D → Australopithecus robustus’ ancestors
Pembahasan : Paragraf di atas menjelaskan bahwa alat-alat primitif itu mulai digunakan oleh
Australophitecus robustus bersama-sama dengan Homo Habilis dan penerusnya, Homo erectus.
Berarti yang bukan adalah nenek moyang Australophitecus robustus.

18. The word “extensive” in line 9 is


Jawab : A → numerous
Pembahasan : Extensive memiliki arti luas atau dalam jumlah besar sehingga kata yang paling
dekat artinya dengan kata tersebut adalah numerous.

19. Which of the following does the author mention as the most important recent discovery made in
the Swartkrans cave?
Jawab : D → Hand bones
Pembahasan : Jawaban tersebut bisa dilihat pada paragraf 2 kalimat The key recent discovery
involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time such bones have been
found yang menyatakan bahwa penemuan yang paling penting adalah hand bones.

20. What does the third paragraph ‘mainly discuss?


Jawab : A → Features of Australopithecus robustus’ hand
Pembahasan : Jawaban sangat jelas ditemukan pada kalimat pertama paragraf tersebut yaitu
membahas tentang ciri (feature) dari Australopithecus robustus.

21. It can be inferred from the description in the last paragraph that Australopithecus robustus was
so named because of the species’
Jawab : C → build
Pembahasan : Paragraf 4 kalimat pertama, Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built-more
“robust” in anthropological terms-than their successors menjelaskan bahwa kata robustus berasal
dari robust, istilah antropologi yang merujuk pada perawakan atau bentuk fisik (build) dengan ciri-ciri
yang dijelaskan pada kalimat selanjutnya.

22. The word “supplant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : B → displace
Pembahasan : Kata supplant memiliki arti “menggantikan” sehingga kata yang paling dekat artinya
dengan kata tersebut pada pilihan yang tersedia adalah displace (menggantikan).

23. The word “them” in line 23 refers to


Jawab : B → Homo habilis
Pembahasan : Them pada kalimat tersebut merujuk pada subjek yang disebutkan sebelumnya yaitu
Homo habilis.

24. What does the author suggest is unclear about Australopithecus robustus?
Jawab : D → Why they became extinct
Pembahasan : Jawaban tersebut bisa ditemukan pada paragraf terakhir kalimat The discovery that
Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other
explanations for their extinction yang menyarankan kepada para peneliti untuk mencari sebab-sebab
lain kepunahan jenis manusia primitif tersebut.

25. The phrase “reliance on” in line 24 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : B → dependence on
Pembahasan : Reliance on memiliki arti kebergantungan yang bersesuaian dengan kata
dependence on (ketergantungan).

26. Where in the passage does the author mention the materials from which tools were made?
Jawab : C → Lines 15-17
Pembahasan : Penulis menyebutkan beberapa alat serta asal bahannya pada baris 15-17: “…an
opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers
also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of
sediments.” Yaitu bentuk tulang yang memungkinkan mereka mencengkeram alat dan alat dari batu
untuk peralatan menggali.

Questions 27-38
The first two decades of this century were dominated by the microbe hunters. These hunters had
tracked down one after another of the microbes responsible for the most dreaded scourges of many
centuries: tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria. But there, remained some terrible diseases for which no
microbe could be incriminated: scurvy, pellagra, rickets, beriberi. Then it was discovered that these
diseases were caused by the lack of vitamins, a trace substance in the diet. The diseases could be
prevented or cured by consuming foods that contained the vitamins. And so in the decades of the
1920’s and 1930’s, nutrition became a science and the vitamin hunters replaced the microbe
hunters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, biochemists strived to learn why each of the vitamins was essential for
health. They discovered that key enzymes in metabolism depend on one or another of the vitamins
as coenzymes to perform the chemistry that provides cells with energy for growth and function. Now,
these enzyme hunters occupied center stage.
You are aware that the enzyme hunters have been replaced by a new breed of hunters who are
tracking genes-the blueprints for each of the enzymes-and are discovering the defective genes that
cause inherited diseases-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. These gene hunters, or genetic engineers, use
recombinant DNA technology to identify and clone genes and introduce them into bacterial cells and
plants to create factories for the massive production of hormones and vaccines for medicine and for
better crops for agriculture. Biotechnology has become a multibillion-dollar industry.
In view of the inexorable progress in science, we can expect that the gene hunters will be replaced
in the spotlight. When and by whom? Which kind of hunter will dominate the scene in the last
decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? I wonder whether the hunters
who will occupy the spotlight will be neurobiologists who apply the techniques of the enzyme and
gene hunters to the functions of the brain: What to call them? The head hunters. I will return to them
later.

Terjemahan
Dua dekade pertama di abad ini didominasi oleh pemburu mikroba. Pemburu ini telah melacak satu
demi satu mikroba yang bertanggung jawab untuk penyakit paling ditakuti selama berabad-abad:
tuberkulosis, kolera, difteri. Tapi masih ada beberapa penyakit mengerikan yang mikroba tidak bisa
menyerang: penyakit kudis, pellagra, rickets, beri-beri. Kemudian ditemukan bahwa penyakit ini
disebabkan oleh kekurangan vitamin, bahan makanan untuk diet. Penyakit ini dapat dicegah atau
disembuhkan dengan mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung vitamin. Jadi pada dekade tahun
1920-an dan tahun 1930-an, gizi menjadi sebuah ilmu dan pemburu vitamin digantikan pemburu
mikroba.
Di tahun 1940-an dan 1950-an, ilmuwan berusaha untuk mempelajari mengapa setiap vitamin
sangat penting untuk kesehatan. Mereka menemukan bahwa kunci enzim dalam metabolisme
tergantung pada satu sama lain dari vitamin sebagai koenzim untuk menghasilkan kimia yang
menyediakan sel dengan energi untuk pertumbuhan dan fungsinya. Sekarang, pemburu enzim ini
menduduki peringkat atas.
Kalian menyadari bahwa pemburu enzim digantikan oleh generasi baru para pemburu yang melacak
gen- biru untuk masing-masing enzim- dan menemukan kecacatan gen penyebab penyakit-
diabetes, cystic fibrosis. Pemburu gen ini, atau genetik insinyur, menggunakan teknologi kombinasi
DNA untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengkloning gen dalam sel bakteri dan tanaman untuk membuat
pabrik-pabrik untuk produksi besar-besaran hormon dan vaksin untuk obat dan untuk tanaman yang
lebih baik untuk pertanian. Bioteknologi telah menjadi multibillion-dolar industri.
Dari pandangan yang tak terelakkan tentang kemajuan di bidang ilmu pengetahuan ini, kita berharap
gen pemburu akan diganti secepatnya. Kapan dan oleh siapa? Jenis hunter yang mana yang akan
mendominasi dalam dekade terakhir abad ini dan pada awal dekade berikutnya? Aku bertanya-
tanya apakah para pemburu yang akan menempati sorotan akan neurobiologists yang menerapkan
teknik enzim dan gen pemburu fungsi otak: Disebut apa mereka itu? Kepala pemburu. Aku akan
kembali kepada mereka nanti.

27. What is the main topic of the passage?


Jawab : C → The progress of modem medical research
Pembahasan : Ide pokok bacaan di atas adalah perkembangan penelitian medis modern, mulai dari
microbe hunters, enzyme hunters hingga gene hunters yang masing-masing selanjutnya dijelaskan
dengan lebih detil.

28. The word “which” in line 3 refers to


Jawab : A → diseases
Pembahasan : Which pada kalimat tersebut merujuk pada penyakit-penyakit serius (terrible
diseases) yang tidak bisa dilawan oleh mikroba.

29. The word “incriminated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : B → blamed
Pembahasan : Incriminate memiliki arti “menyalahkan” sehingga yang paling tepat di antara pilihan
tersebut adalah blamed yang memiliki makna yang sama.

30. Which of the following can be cured by a change in diet?


Jawab : D → Pellagra
Pembahasan : Berdasarkan paragraf pertama baris 4, beberapa penyakit yang dapat disembuhkan
melalui perubahan pola makan yang lebih sehat, yaitu makanan yang banyak mengandung vitamin
seperti scurvy, pellagra, rickets dan beriberi.

31. The word “strived” in line 8 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : B → tried
Pembahasan : Strived memiliki kesamaan arti dengan attempt, try, dan make effort yang semuanya
berarti berusaha atau berjuang.

32. How do vitamins influence health?


Jawab : A → They are necessary for some enzymes to function.
Pembahasan : Fungsi vitamin terhadap kesehatan tubuh adalah untuk membantu enzim (sebagai
coenzyme) untuk menghasilkan kimia yang meyediakan sel dengan energi untuk pertumbuhan dan
fungsinya. Penjelasan ini dapat dilihat pada baris ke 9-11.

33. In the third paragraph, the author compares cells that have been genetically altered by
biotechnicians to
Jawab : B → factories
Pembahasan : Jawaban bisa ditemukan pada baris 14-17 yang membandingkan sel-sel yang
dihasilkan oleh ahli biologi melalui recombinant DNA dengan sel-sel bakteri dan tanaman yang
menciptakan pabrik-pabrik untuk memproduksi hormon dan vaksin.

34. The word “them” in line 15 refers to


Jawab : C → genes
Pembahasan : Them pada kalimat tersebut mengacu pada gen yang diidentifikasi dan dikloning
melalui rekombinan DNA.

35. The phrase “occupy the spotlight” in line 21 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : A → receive the most attention
Pembahasan : Occupy the spotlight memiliki arti “mendapatkan tempat yang dapat menarik
perhatian banyak orang” sehingga ungkapan yang paling dekat untuk menggantikan frasa tersebut
adalah receive the most attention.

36. The author implies that the most important medical research topic of the future will be
Jawab : A → the functions of the brain
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada paragraf terkahir yang menyatakan bahwa penulis
berasumsi pada masa yang akan datang, yang menjadi sorotan utama adalah mereka yang
menerapkan teknik pemburu-pemburu sebelumnya dengan fungsi otak sehingga fungsi otak
diramalkan mejadi isu utama nantinya.

37. Which of the following best describes the author’stone in the last paragraph of the passage?
Jawab : B → Speculative
Pembahasan : Nada yang tersirat dari pernyataan-pernyataannya adalah spekulatif. Ini jelas terlihat
dari pernyataannya pada paragraf terakhir di empat baris terakhir bahwa ia pun ingin tahu mana
nantinya yang akan menguasai isu penelitian medis. Di sini ia memprediksi bahwa mereka yang
mampu menggabungkan temuan yang sudah ada dan mengaitkannya dengan otak manusia.
Namun ia belum bisa mengambil kesimpulan dengan pasti karena belum terjadi.

38.With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
Jawab : A → The focus of medical research will change in the next two decades.
Pembahasan : Pernyataan penulis pada kalimat Which kind of hunter will dominate the scene in the
last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? menyiratkan bahwa ia
berpendapat bahwa akan terjadi perubahan fokus penelitian medis pada dua dekade mendatang
yang akan mendominasi ranah penelitian.

Questions 39-50
In the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had tremendous natural resources that could be
exploited in order to develop heavy industry. Most of the raw materials that are valuable in the
manufacture of machinery, transportation facilities, and consumer goods lay ready to be worked into
wealth. Iron, coal, and oil-the basic ingredients of industrial growth-were plentiful and needed only
the application of technical expertise, organizational skill, and labor.
One crucial development in this movement toward industrialization was the growth of the railroads.
The railway network expanded rapidly until the railroad map of the United States looked like a
spider’s web, with the steel filaments connecting all important sources of raw materials, their places
of manufacture, and their centers of distribution. The railroads contributed to the industrial growth not
only by connecting these major centers, but also by themselves consuming enormous amounts of
fuel, iron, and coal.
Many factors influenced emerging modes of production. For example, machine tools, the tools used
to make goods, were steadily improved in the latter part of the nineteenth century-always with an
eye to speedier production and lower unit costs. The products of the factories were rapidly absorbed
by the growing cities that sheltered the workers and the distributors. The increased urban population
was nourished by the increased farm production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use
of the new farm machinery. American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still
had surpluses for sale to the industrial centers of Europe.
The labor that ran the factories and built the railways was recruited in part from American farm areas
where people were being displaced by farm machinery, in part from Asia, and in part from Europe.
Europe now began to send tides of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe-most of whom
were originally poor farmers but who settled in American industrial cities. The money to finance this
tremendous expansion of the American economy still came from European financiers for the most
part, but the Americans were approaching the day when their expansion could be financed in their
own “money market.”

Terjemahan
Pada pertengahan abad kesembilan belas, Amerika Serikat memiliki sumber daya alam besar yang
dapat dieksploitasi untuk mengembangkan industri berat. Sebagian besar bahan baku yang
berharga dalam pembuatan mesin, fasilitas transportasi, dan barang-barang konsumen siap untuk
bekerja. Besi, batubara dan minyak- bahan dasar pertumbuhan industri-yang berlimpah dan
diperlukan hanya oleh keahlian teknis, keterampilan organisasi dan tenaga kerja.
Salah satu perkembangan penting dalam gerakan menuju industrialisasi adalah pembuatan rel
kereta api. Jaringan kereta api berkembang pesat sampai peta kereta api Amerika Serikat tampak
seperti seekor jaring laba-laba, dengan filamen baja yang menghubungkan semua sumber bahan
baku penting, tempat pembuatan dan pusat-pusat distribusi. Rel kereta api memberikan kontribusi
terhadap pertumbuhan industri yang tidak hanya dengan menghubungkan pusat-pusat utama ini,
tetapi juga dengan mengkonsumsi jumlah besar bahan bakar, besi, dan batu bara.
Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi munculnya modus produksi. Sebagai contoh, mesin perkakas,
alat-alat yang digunakan untuk membuat barang-barang, terus ditingkatkan di bagian terakhir abad
ke-19 dengan pandangan untuk memproduksi yang lebih cepat dan biaya unit yang lebih rendah.
Produk-produk dari pabrik dengan cepat diserap oleh kota-kota berkembang yang lebih
banyak pekerja dan distributor. Peningkatan populasi urban dipelihara oleh peningkatan produksi
pertanian yang, pada gilirannya, dibuat lebih produktif dengan menggunakan mesin pertanian baru.
Produksi pertanian Amerika terus meningkatkan permintaan perkotaan dan masih memiliki surplus
dijual ke pusat-pusat industri Eropa.
Tenaga kerja yang mengendalikan pabrik dan membangun jalur kereta api direkrut sebagian dari
daerah pertanian Amerika di mana orang-orang yang digantikan oleh mesin pertanian, sebagian dari
Asia, dan sebagian dari Eropa. Eropa sekarang dimulai untuk mengirim gelombang imigran dari
Timur dan Eropa Selatan -sebagian besar adalah petani yang awalnya miskin tapi yang menetap di
kota-kota industri Amerika. Uang untuk membiayai ekspansi ini luar biasa, ekonomi Amerika masih
berasal dari dana Eropa untuk sebagian besar, tapi Amerika yang mendekati hari ketika perluasan
bisa dibiayai dengan ‘uang pasar sendiri.

39. What does the passage mainly discuss?


Jawab : C → Factors that affected industrialization in the United States
Pembahasan : Bacaan tersebut terutama membahas faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi industrialisasi
di AS yang antara lain mencakup perkemabangan rel kereta api, peralatan mesin dan tenaga kerja.

40. The word “ingredients” in line 4 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : D → components
Pembahasan : Kata ingredients mempunyai arti bahan, unsur, komponen, atau elemen yang
membentuk sesuatu. Maka jawaban yang paling tepat adalah components.

41. Why does the author mention “a spider’s web” in line 8?


Jawab : B → To describe the complex structure of the railway system
Pembahasan : Istilah spider’s web menggambarkan rumitnya susunan sistem rel kereta api pada
waktu itu seperti jaring laba-laba.

42. The word “themselves” in line 10 refers to


Jawab : C → railroads
Pembahasan : Them pada kalimat tersebut mengacu pada jalan kereta api itu sendiri yang
berkontribusi tidak hanya dalam menghubungkan kota-kota penting tetapi juga karena kereta itu
sendiri mengonsumsi bahan bakar.

43. According to the passage, all of the following were true of railroads in the United States in the
nineteenth century EXCEPT that
Jawab : D → they used relatively small quantities of natural resources.
Pembahasan : Berdasarkan informasi pada paragraf 2, jalur kereta api berkembang sangat cepat
hingga menyerupai jaring laba-laba, menghubungkan pusat-pusat kota industri di negara itu serta
berkontribusi besar dalam pertumbuhan industri. Oleh karena itu jawaban yang tidak benar adalah
pilihan D karena berlawanan dengan fakta yang ada.

44. According to the passage, what was one effect of the improvement of machine tools?
Jawab : A → Lower manufacturing costs
Pembahasan : Karena perkembangan peralatan mesin yang mulai menggantikan tenaga manusia
menjadikan biaya produksi mejadi lebih rendah.

45. According to the passage, who were the biggest consumers of manufactured products?
Jawab : C → City dwellers
Pembahasan : Kalimat The increased urban population was nourished by the increased farm
production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm machinery
menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara pesatnya pertumbuhan penduduk perkotaan dan produksi
peralatan yang dibutuhkan oleh penduduk tersebut. Dengan kata lain permintaan terbesar berasal
dari penduduk kota yang terus berkembang.

46. The word “nourished” in line 16 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : B → fed
Pembahasan : Kata nourished memiliki kesamaan arti dengan fed yang bermakna disuplai,
disediakan atau dipenuhi.
47. Which of the following is NOT true of United States farmers in the nineteenth century?
Jawab : B → They were unable to produce sufficient food for urban areas
Pembahasan : Pengaruh dari industrialisasi adalah peningkatan produksi karena perkembangan
peralatan yang ada hingga bisa menjualnya ke daratan Eropa. Namun hal ini juga berdampak pada
pengurangan tenaga kerja yang telah digantikan oleh mesin dengan perbandingan biaya produksi
yang jauh lebih rendah. Oleh karena itu jawaban yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan di atas adalah
jawaban B.

48. According to the passage, what did the United States supply to European cities?
Jawab : D → Agricultural produce
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan di kalimat terakhir paragraf 3 bahwa American
agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for sale to the
industrial centers of Europe.

49. The word “ran” in line 19 is closest in meaning to


Jawab : A → operated
Pembahasan : Run mempunyai arti menjalankan atau mengoperasikan sehingga jawaban yang
paling tepat adalah operated.

50. Where in the passage does the author mention the financial aspect of industrial expansion?
Jawab : D → Lines 22-25
Pembahasan : Pada baris 22-25 dijelaskan bahwa perkembangan industri telah merambah sampai
daratan Eropa dengan adanya arus migrasi di daratan itu dan berkontribusi besar dalam menyokong
pembiayaan perkembangan industri di Amerika karena sebagai konsumen mayoritas bagi negara
itu.