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Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Channels

Charles H. Bennett, ~ ) Gilles Brassard, ( ) Claude Crepeau, ( ) ( )

Richard Jozsa, ( ) Asher Peres, ~4) and William K. Wootters( )

' IBM Research Division, T. J. watson Research Center, Yorktomn Heights, ¹m York 10598

( lDepartement IIto, Universite de Montreal, C. P OI28, Su. ccursale "A", Montreal, Quebec, Canada HBC 817

( lLaboratoire d'Informatique de 1'Ecole Normale Superieure, g5 rue d'Ulm, 7M80 Paris CEDEX 05, France~ i

l lDepartment stitute of Technology, MOOO Haifa, Israel

of Physics, Technion Israel In—

l lDepartment

of Physics, Williams College, Williamstoivn, Massachusetts OIP67

(Received 2 December 1992)

An unknown quantum state ]P) can be disassembled into, then later reconstructed from, purely

classical information and purely nonclassical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations. To do

so the sender, "Alice, " and the receiver, "Bob," must prearrange the sharing of an EPR-correlated

pair of particles. Alice makes a joint measurement on her EPR particle and the unknown quantum

system, and sends Bob the classical result of this measurement. Knowing this, Bob can convert the

state of his EPR particle into an exact replica of the unknown state ]P) which Alice destroyed.

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EP R) [1] pairs of particles A trivial way for Alice to provide Bob with all the in-

raises the question of their use for information transfer. formation in [P) would be to send the particle itself. If she

Einstein himself used the word "telepathically" in this wants to avoid transferring the original particle, she can

contempt [2]. It is known that instantaneous information make it. interact unitarily with another system, or "an-

transfer is definitely impossible [3]. Here, we show that cilla, " initially in a known state ~ap), in such a way that

EPR correlations can nevertheless assist in the "telepor- after the interaction the original particle is left in a stan-

tation" of an intact quantum state from one place to dard state ~Pp) and the ancilla is in an unknown state

another, by a sender who knows neither the state to be ]a) containing complete information about ~P). If Al-

teleported nor the location of the intended receiver. ice now sends Bob the ancilla (perhaps technically easier

Suppose one observer, whom we shall call "Alice, " has than sending the original particle), Bob can reverse her

been given a quantum system such as a photon or spin-& actions to prepare a replica of her original state ~P). This

particle, prepared in a state ]P) unknown to her, and she "spin-exchange measurement" [4] illustrates an essential

wishes to communicate to another observer, "Bob," suf- feature of quantum information: it can be swapped from

ficient information about the quantum system for him to one system to another, but it cannot be duplicated or

make an accurate copy of it. Knowing the state vector "cloned" [5]. In this regard it is quite unlike classical

]P) itself would be sufficient information, but in general information, which can be duplicated at will. The most

there is no way to learn it. Only if Alice knows before- tangible manifestation of the nonclassicality of quantum

hand that ~qb) belongs to a given orthonormal set can she information is the violation of Bell s inequalities [6) ob-

make a measurement whose result will allow her to make served [7] in experiments on EPR states. Other rnanifes-

an accurate copy of [P). Conversely, if the possibilities tations include the possibility of quantum cryptography

for ~P) include two or more nonorthogonal states, then no [8), quantum parallel computation [9], and the superior-

measurement will yield sufhcient information to prepare ity of interactive measurements for extracting informa-

VOLUME 70, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 29 MARcH 1993

tion from a pair of identically prepared particles [10]. the other (particle 3) is given to Bob. Although this

The spin-exchange method of sending full information establishes the possibility of nonclassical correlations be-

to Bob still lumps classical and nonclassical information tween Alice and Bob, the EPR pair at this stage contains

together in a single transmission. Below, we show how no information about IP). Indeed the entire system, com-

Alice can divide the full information encoded in I&/) into prising Alice's unknown particle 1 and the EPR pair,

two parts, one purely classical and the other purely non- is in a pure product state, I/i) I@&3 ), involving neither

classical, and send them to Bob through two diferent classical correlation nor quantum entanglement between

channels. Having received these two transmissions, Bob the unknown particle and the EPR pair. Therefore no

can construct an accurate replica of IP). Of course Alice's measurement on either member of the EPR pair, or both

original IP) is destroyed in the process, as it must be to together, can yield any information about P&. An entan- I

obey the no-cloning theorem. We call the process we are glement between these two subsystems is brought about

about to describe teleportation, a term from science fic- in the next step.

tion meaning to make a person or object disappear while To couple the first particle with the EPR pair, Alice

an exact replica appears somewhere else. It must be em- performs a complete measurement of the von Neumann

phasized that our teleportation, unlike some science fic- type on the joint system consisting of particle 1 and parti-

tion versions, defies no physical laws. In particular, it cle 2 (her EPR particle). This measurement is performed

cannot take place instantaneously or over a spacelike in- in the Bell operator basis [ll] consisting of I@i& ) and

terval, because it requires, among other things, sending

a classical message from Alice to Bob. The net result

of teleportation is completely prosaic: the removal of IP) (I Ti& l~) + I lx) I T~&)

suitable time later. The only remarkable feature is that, (+) =

in the interim, the information in IP) has been cleanly

lc'i~ ) (I Ti) T~) I

+ li) l~))

I I

separated into classical and nonclassical parts. First we Note that these four states are a complete orthonormal

shall show how to teleport the quantum state IP& of a basis for particles 1 and 2.

spin-2 particle. Later we discuss teleportation of more It is convenient to write the unknown state of the first

complicated states. particle as

The nonclassical part is transmitted first. To do so,

two spin-& particles are prepared in an EPR singlet state lei) = ~ITi&+ l lli),

( —) = with Ial + Ibl = 1. The complete state of the three

1@~3 ) 2 3 2 3

particles before Alice's measurement is thus

The subscripts 2 and 3 label the particles in this EPR

pair. Alice's original particle, whose unknown state IP) (I Ti) T~) ls) I

— Ti) l~) I I T3) &

subscript 1 when necessary. These three particles may be

of diferent kinds, e.g. , one or more may be photons, the + (I li) I T2) L3)

I I ll) l2& I T3))

polarization degree of freedom having the same algebra

as a spin. In this equation, each direct product i)l 3) can be ex- I

0ne EPR particle (particle 2) is given to Alice, while pressed in terms of the Bell operator basis vectors IC&z )

and I@i~(+) and we obtain

),

I+i~3) = g [l@xa'& ( —~l T3) —l lls&) + l@gg') ( —~l T3) + l l13)) + IC'ig'& (&I ls) + l T3)) + IC'i~')

I (aIL3& —l I T3&)]

four measurement outcomes are equally likely, each oc- Each of these possible resultant states for Bob's EPR

curring with probability 1/4. Furthermore, after Alice s particle is related in a simple way to the original state

measurement, Bob's particle 3 will have been projected

IP) which Alice sought to teleport. In the case of the first

into one of the four pure states superposed in Eq. (5), (singlet) outcome, Bob's state is the same except for an

according to the measurement outcome. These are, re- irrelevant phase factor, so Bob need do nothing further to

spectively, produce a replica of Alice's spin. In the three other cases,

—lds) —

= — Bob must apply one of the unitary operators in Eq. (6),

(t, ), ( ~, ) its), corresponding, respectively, to 180' rotations around the

(6) z, x, and y axes, in order to convert his EPR particle into

a replica of Alice's original state IP). (If IP) represents a

(, 0) IA), (, D)

lda).

photon polarization state, a suitable combination of half-

1896

VOLUME 70, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 29 MARCH 1993

wave plates will perform these unitary operations. ) Thus P) will be reconstructed (in the spin-2 case) as a ran-

an accurate teleportation can be achieved in all cases by dom mixture of the four states of Eq. (6). For any lg),

having Alice tell Bob the classical outcome of her mea- this is a maximally mixed state, giving no information

surement, after which Bob applies the required rotation about the input state IP). It could not be otherwise, be-

to transform the state of his particle into a replica of IP). cause any correlation between the input and the guessed

Alice, on the other hand, ' is left with particles 1 and 2 in output could be used to send a superluminal signal.

(+) or (+) One may still inquire whether accurate teleportation

one of the states 4~2 ) IC~~ ), without any trace of

the original state P) . I

of a two-state particle requires a full two bits of classical

Unlike the quantum correlation of Bob's EPR particle information. Could it be done, for example, using only

3 to Alice's particle 2, the result of Alice's measurement two or three distinct classical messages instead of four,

is purely classical information, which can be transmit- or four messages of unequal probability? Later we show

ted, copied, and stored at will in any suitable physical that a full two bits of classical channel capacity are neces-

medium. In particular, this information need not be de- sary. Accurate teleportation using a classical channel of

stroyed or canceled to bring the teleportation process to any lesser capacity would allow Bob to send superlumi-

a successful conclusion: The teleportation of lg) from nal messages through the teleported particle, by guessing

Alice to Bob has the side effect of producing two bits of the classical message before it arrived (cf. Fig. 2).

random classical information, uncorrelated to lg), which Conversely one may inquire whether other states be-

are left behind at the end of the process. sides an EPR singlet can be used as the nonclassical chan-

Since teleportation is a linear operation applied to the nel of the teleportation process. Clearly any direct prod-

quantum state IP), it will work not only with pure states, uct state of particles 2 and 3 is useless, because for such

but also with mixed or entangled states. For example, states manipulation of particle 2 has no effect on what

let Alice's original particle 1 be itself part of an EPR can be predicted about particle 3. Consider now a non-

singlet with another particle, labeled 0, which may be far factorable state IT2s) . It can readily be seen that after

away from both Alice and Bob. Then, after teleportation, Alice's measurement, Bob's particle 3 will be related to

particles 0 and 3 would be left in a singlet state, even IP&) by four fixed unitary operations if and only if IT23)

though they had originally belonged to separate EPR has the form

pairs.

All of what we have said above can be generalized (lu2) I») + I») lqs)) (9)

to systems having N & 2 orthogonal states. In place

of an EPR spin pair in the singlet state, Alice would where (Iu), lv)) and (Ip), Iq)) are any two pairs of or-

use a pair of N-state particles in a completely entangled thonormal states. These are maximally entangled states

state. For definiteness let us write this entangled state as [ll], having maximally random marginal statistics for

P .

I j

j) Ij ) /~N, where = 0, 1, . . . , N —1 labels the N

elements of an orthonormal basis for each of the N-state

measurements on either particle separately. States which

are less entangled reduce the fidelity of teleportation,

systems. As before, Alice performs a joint measurement and/or the range of states lg) that can be accurately tele-

on particles 1 and 2. One such measurement that has ported. The states in Eq. (9) are also precisely those ob-

the desired effect is the one whose eigenstates are lg„), tainable from the EPR singlet by a local one-particle uni-

defined by tary operation [12]. Their use for the nonclassical channel

is entirely equivalent to that of the singlet (1). Maximal

lg„~) = ) e "'~" j) S I(j + m) mod N) /~¹ entanglement is necessary and suKcient for faithful tele-

Once Bob learns from Alice that she has obtained the re-

sult nm, he performs on his previously entangled particle

(particle 3) the unitary transformation

k

EPR pair Two bits EPR pair

This transformation brings Bob s particle to the origi-

FIG. 1. Spacetime diagrams for (a) quantum teleporta-

nal state of Alice's particle 1, and the teleportation is

tion, and (b) 4-way coding [12]. As usual, time increases

complete. from bottom to top. The solid lines represent a classical pair

The classical message plays an essential role in telepor- of bits, the dashed lines an EPR pair of particles (which may

tation. To see why, suppose that Bob is impatient, and be of different types), and the wavy line a quantum parti-

tries to complete the teleportation by guessing Alice's cle in an unknown state IP). Alice (A) performs a quantum

classical message before it arrives. Then Alice's expected measurement, and Bob (B) a unitary operation.

1897

Vo~UME 70, NUMBER 13 PH YSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 29 M&RcH 1993

version of it, if she does not know where he is; but she can

still teleport the quantum state to him, by broadcasting

the classical information to all places where he might be.

Teleportation resembles another recent scheme for us-

ing EPR correlations to help transmit useful information.

In "4-way coding" [12] modulation of one member of an

EPR pair serves to reliably encode a 2-bit message in

the joint state of the complete pair. Teleportation and

FIG. 2. Spacetime diagram of a more complex 4-way cod-

4-way coding can be seen as variations on the same un-

ing scheme in which the modulated EPR particle (wavy line)

is teleported rather than being transmitted directly. This dia- derlying process, illustrated by the spacetime diagrams in

gram can be used to prove that a classical channel of two bits Fig. 1. Note that closed loops are involved for both pro-

of capacity is necessary for teleportation. To do so, assume cesses. Trying to draw similar "Feynman diagrams" with

on the contrary that the teleportation from A' to B' uses an tree structure, rather than loops, would lead to physically

internal classical channel of capacity C ( 2 bits, but is still

able to transmit the wavy particle's state accurately from A'

impossible processes.

On the other hand, more complicated closed-loop di-

to B', and therefore still transmit the external two-bit mes- agrams are possible, such as Fig. 2, obtained by substi-

sage accurately from B to A. The assumed lower capacity tuting Fig. 1(a) into the wavy line of Fig. 1(b). This

( 2 of the internal channel means that if B' were to guess

the internal classical message superluminally instead of wait-

represents a 4-way coding scheme in which the modu-

lated EPR particle is teleported instead of being trans-

ing for it to arrive, his probability 2 of guessing correctly

mitted directly. Two incoming classical bits on the lower

would exceed 1/4, resulting in a probability greater than 1/4

left are reproduced reliably on the upper right, with the

for successful superluminal transmission of the external two-

bit message from B to A. This in turn entails the existence assistance of two shared EPR pairs and two other clas-

of two distinct external two-bit messages, r and s, such that sical bits, uncorrelated with the external bits, in an in-

P(r]s), the probability of superluminally receiving r if s was ternal channel from A' to O'. This diagram is of interest

sent, is less than 1/4, while P(r]r), the probability of super- because it can be used to show that a full two bits of

luminally receiving r if r was sent, is greater than 1/4. By classical channel capacity are necessary for accurate tele-

redundant coding, even this statistical difkrence between 7- portation of a two-state particle (cf. caption).

and 8 could be used to send reliable superluminal messages; Work by G. B. is supported by NSERC's E. W. R. Stea-

therefore reliable teleportation of a two-state particle cannot cie Memorial Fellowship and Quebec's FCAR. A. P. was

be achieved with a classical channel of less than two bits of supported by the Gerard Swope Fund and the Fund for

capacity. By the same argument, reliable teleportation of an Encouragement of Research. Laboratoire d'Informatique

¹tate particle requires a classical channel of 21og~(AI') bits

de 1'Ecole Normale Superieure is associee au CNRS URA

capacity.

1 327.

portation.

Although it is currently unfeasible to store separated

EPR particles for more than a brief time, if it becomes Permanent address.

feasible to do so, quantum teleportation could be quite [1] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, Phys. Rev. 47,

777 (1935); D. Bohm, Quantum Theory (Prentice Hall,

useful. Alice and Bob would only need a stockpile of Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1951).

EPR pairs (whose reliability can be tested by violations [2] A. Einstein, in Albert Einstein, Philosopher Scientist, -

of Bell's inequality [7]) and a channel capable of carry- edited by P. A. Schilpp (Library of Living Philosophers,

ing robust classical messages. Alice could then teleport Evanston, 1949) p. 85.

quantum states to Bob over arbitrarily great distances, [3] A. Shimony, in Proceedings of the International Sympo

without worrying about the eEects of attenuation and sium on Foundations of Quantum Theory (Physical So-

noise on, say, a single photon sent through a long op- ciety of Japan, Tokyo, 1984).

tical Aber. As an application of teleportation, consider [4] J. L. Park, Found. Phys. 1, 23 (1970).

the problem investigated by Peres and Wootters [10], in [5] W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, Nature (London) 299,

which Bob already has another copy of ~P). If he acquires 802 (1982).

Alice's copy, he can measure both together, thereby de- [6] J. S. Bell, Physics (Long Island City, N. Y.) 1, 195 (1964);

termining the state [P) more accurately than can be done

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969).

by making a separate measurement on each one. Finally, [7] A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett.

teleportation has the advantage of still being possible in 49, 1804 (1982); Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, Phys. Rev.

situations where Alice and Bob, after sharing their EPR Lett. 61, 2921 (1988).

pairs, have wandered about independently and no longer [8] S. Wiesner, Sigact News 15, 78 (1983); C. H. Bennett

know each others' locations. Alice cannot, reliably send and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of IEEE International

VOLUME 70, NUMBER 13 PH YSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 29 MARCH 1993

Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signa/ Process D. Deutsch and R. Jozsa, Proc. R. Soc. London A

ing, Bangalore, India (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 175— 439, 553—558 (1992); A. Berthiaume and G. Brassard,

179; A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991); C. in Proceedings of the Seventh Annual IEEE Conference

H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, Phys. Rev, on Structure in Complexity Theory, Boston, June 19M,

Lett. 68, 557—559 (1992); C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. (IEEE, New York, 1989), pp. 132—137; "Oracle Quantum

68, 3121 (1992); A. K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tap- Computing, " Proceedings of the Workshop on Physics

ster, and G. M. Palma, Phys. Rev. Let t. 69, 1293 and Computation, PhysComp 92, (IEEE, Dallas, to be

(1992); C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and M. — published) .

H. Skubiszewska, Advances in Cryptology — Crypto '94 [10] A. Peres and W. K. Wootters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1119

Proceedings, August I ggl (Springer, New York, 1992), (1991).

pp. 351—366; G. Brassard and C. Crepeau, Advances [ll] S. L. Braunstein, A. Mann, and M. Revzen, Phys. Rev.

in Cryptology— Crypto '90 Proceedings, August 1990 Lett. 68, 3259 (1992).

(Springer, New York, 1991), pp. 49—61. [12] C. H. Bennett and S. 3. Wiesner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,

[9] D. Deutsch Proc. R. Soc. London A 400, 97 (1985); 2881 (1992).

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