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6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by

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Ethics Theory

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1. What is ethics?
1. Ethics vs Morals vs Values Click Here For Video
2. How do we know what is ethical? Lectures

3. Deciding factors in an action
4. Ethical vs Legal vs Norms
2. Values and Virtues
1. Integrity
 3. Ethical dilemmas 

1. Con퀎�ict of Interest Click Here for Demo
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6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by

2. How to solve?
4. Emotional Intelligence
1. Emotions
2. Components of EI
3. What is EI?
4. How EI helps? TEST SERIES
5. Attitude
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2. Persuasion
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6. Power and Authority
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7. Corporate Ethics
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2. Work Culture
3. Corporate Social Responsibility
8. Professional Ethics
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1. Ethical Skills
2. Code of  Ethics and Code of Conduct Quiz – June 24, 2018
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 June 25, 2018
9. Environmental Ethics
June
1. What is Ethics? 25,2018
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We hear the word ‘ethics’ now and then. Often we confuse between the words ethics,  June
values and morals. In this article, we shall try to clear these confusions. 25, 2018

Ethics is a wider term encompassing values and morals. It is the branch of Quiz- June 22,2018
knowledge that deals with moral principles.  Ethics is a branch of philosophy which  June 24, 2018
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deals with the questions like what is good or bad and why. In our society there are
many institutions that tell us what is good or bad, right from our family. Ethics as a June

branch of knowledge tries to analyse the various systems.The various in퀎�uences in 24,2018
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our ethical thoughts are the social norms, law of land(constitution), religion,  June
knowledge etc. 24, 2018

Quiz – June 21, 2018
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 June 22, 2018

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2 How do we know what is ethical?   In our daily life. we can follow the following principles to know what is ethical http://iesgeneralstudies.1 Ethics vs Morals vs Values Noti䙵cation – September The difference is explained by the following diagram 2018 Last date to apply.com/ethics­theory/ 3/20 .6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by How to crack Eng… Motivational lecture Motivational lectu… Important dates for ESE Mains exam 2018 Date: 01-07-18 Preliminary exam 2019 1.October 2018 Exam Date – January 2019 1.

take labour reforms. If No. It will help 90% of workers. for favouring a particular contractor. Then your action is unethical Thus ‘Adhering to Quality’ becomes a moral Will it bring greatest good to greatest number of people? Utilitarianism says that actions are right if they are useful or for the bene䙵t of a majority Finds applications in governance For example. For example. your action is moral. you are going to cheat on your friend. owing to work pressure. where as the 10% who are already enjoying the protective laws will lose.” Which means “Are you willing to permit everyone to adopt the action?” If Yes.com/ethics­theory/ 4/20 . Utilitarian principle will give ‘yes’ for the reforms Will it violates others basic rights? Based on the belief that all human have the right to live with dignity If an action violates the basic rights of anyone else. Then the action is unethical. Is it pleasant to you and your friend? No. For example. it is unethical For example. Thus ‘TRUST’ becomes a virtue Is it desirable?  Check with the Categorical imperative – “Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of nature. He/she cannot take the right to life of others for granted Thus ‘Adhering to safety practices’ is a moral responsibility The ethicality of an action can be judged in different ways   http://iesgeneralstudies. you decided to go for a substandard building material.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by Is it sensible? Use of our own senses to judge the action. if accident happens. But this negligence can cost life of travellers. your action is immoral. A railway engineer decided to skip the mandatory safety checks of the track. as a civil engineer. Think whether you permit this if the same is going to be your own house? No.

Situation 2. The consequences of the action 4. whether he or she had the free will to act 5.3 Deciding factors in an action The morality of an action depends on its 1.4 Ethical vs Legal vs Norms Ethical or Moral Legal Norms The actions are Aims to maintain morality Are rules of behaviour in  judged based on society or organisation  May be codi䙵ed or un certain principles as codi䙵ed They comes from values. ie the way adopted 3. discussed above http://iesgeneralstudies. The options available to the actor  1. The situation of the actor.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by The branch of ethics which explores morality is called META ETHICS 1.com/ethics­theory/ 5/20 . The motive of the action 2. How the action is done. Individual’s role 3. Scale of the effect of actions So the action should be judged based on  1.

2.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by Has a mechanism to They are speci䙵c like codes enforce it of conduct Every moral things All legal may not be moral  Ex: Do not use cell phones may not be legal Ex. He or she will be con䙵dent 4.Honesty.  Openness. Forthrightness.1 Integrity Integrity refers to quality of a person’s character 1. Absence of integrity makes one vulnerable   http://iesgeneralstudies. Means absence of con퀎�icts within a person 2. Sincerity. The person will have clarity in thoughts 3. Values and Virtues If values are the goal. Probity etc are the virtues that helps to attain integrity. There will be no con퀎�ict and confusion between priorities in life 5. For example integrity is a value. Righteousness. which in class room Every illegal things discriminates women.  Virtues are innate good qualities or morals within people. virtues are the way to get there.com/ethics­theory/ 6/20 .Triple talaq. Incorruptibility. was Give seat to elders in a may not be immoral legal untill the court public place etc declared it as   unconstitutional   The branch of ethics which deals the question what is good and bad is called NORMATIVE ETHICS 2.

The common ethical dilemmas are 1. Ethical dilemmas Are situations in which there is a choice to be made between two options. Reporting malpractices – When you come to know that your friend or relative is doing malpractice. neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable fashion . Can you accept gifts from him during festivals? 2.1 Con╇�ict of Interest Is a situation that has the potential to undermine the impartiality of a person because of the possibility of a clash between the person’s self-interest and professional interest or public interest. 3. and the contractor who carries out projects in your department and you are good friends. in which your relative or friend is also participating   4. Breaching con䙵dentiality – When your spouse or relatives ask for critical information from our o穑�ce.2 How to solve? http://iesgeneralstudies. To prioritize one ethical principle over another 2.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by 3.com/ethics­theory/ 7/20 . Affecting impartiality – You happens to be in an interview panel to select candidates for job. When personal values come into con퀎�ict with the professional values – This is normally called as con퀎�ict of interest. The common dilemmas are 1. Receiving gifts – You are working as an engineer. which is not supposed to be disclosed 3. will you report to authority? 3.

Listen to your voice of conscience – This will buy time and prevents impulsive actions 2.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by 3. But now Emotional Intelligence is recognised as playing a major role in a person’s success.1 Emotions Emotions  are recorded experiences in the brain.  in cases like any commercial interests con퀎�icting with o穑�ce work 6. 2. Today companies worldwide routinely look through the lens of EI in hiring. Hasn’t there be situations where you just do not know why are you sad? Analyse what happened and 䙵nd the actual cause 3. While reasoning is used in exploring various options. http://iesgeneralstudies.2 Components of EI The emotional intelligence is the ability to    to identify and manage your own emotions and the emotions of others. 4. Give preference to larger good. compared to a smaller good(Social responsibility)  5. Emotional decisions seems to be spontaneous or impulsive. Have salience. Declare any con퀎�ict of interest early. These emotions have a signi䙵cant role  in decision making along with reasoning. and sometimes there is no right answer. Once you have proper perception and correct attribution. Perception – are you correctly recognising your emotions? Won’t you confuse sometimes whether you are sad. 4. emotions are used to decide among various options. Be responsible – Do not ignore your responsibility. Respect other’s fundamental rights 4.2 How to solve? For ethical dilemmas there is no easy answer. you know when and how your emotions   occur. or angry or disgusted? Observe carefully own emotions and recognise them. For example. Thus you can manage them. and developing their employees. They are 1. This requires 1. however compelling the other factors may be 3. Management – is knowledge when and how to use your emotions. promoting. ie the emotions are either  +ve or -ve. an engineer has to take care of safety. But some basic principles can be followed. Attribution – is assigning reasons for your emotions.com/ethics­theory/ 8/20 . Rescue yourself from situations like being in an interview panel where friend is also participating 4. Emotional Intelligence Academic aptitude (IQ) was once considered the most important part of intelligence. You have to decide what’s best for your personal relations and your profession.

EI plays a major role in handling the unforeseen situations. they are very good at expressing their emotions. Expression – emotions are to be expressed. Maintaining good relations with others 2. 4. There is a way to express it. Use emotions in decision making – by using emotional information to guide thinking and behaviour 4. Gives con䙵dence to tackle any problems in public and personal life 5.  2. A person with EI. Achieve self motivation   5. Understand own emotions. 4.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by 4.3 What is EI? Thus emotional intelligence is about how well one is managing his or her own emotions and relations. Better expression of emotions 3.good interpersonal and leadership skills 4. 1. Attitude http://iesgeneralstudies. with right attribution 3. See good leaders. Gives mastery over a situation particularly in can of dilemmas. Understand others emotions – Ex.com/ethics­theory/ 9/20 . Can regulate own emotions – Ex.4 How EI helps? EI helps a person in 1.managing anger.

(3) target – young minds can be easily persuaded. 6. affective and behavioral components 1.  Example –   do not apply for any exams (because of hatred towards the exams) 5. and reasoning. Example – belief that all exams are di穑�cult 2.2 Persuasion Is effort to change the attitudes.1 Components Attitude has cognitive. Power and Authority Power is the ability to get things done despite resistance. The success of persuasion depends on three factors: (1) source – there is a difference when your mother tells not to eat junk food and when Virat Kohli says the same. When the attitude is formed towards a person or social group. The absence of su穑�cient resources have created this societal attitude of 䙵nding solutions through shortcuts.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by Are evaluation of various aspects of the social world such as that towards a person. Emotional(likes&dislikes) –  Feelings and emotions formed out the believes and perceptions. beliefs. but when it comes along with a emotional tone of care for family. perceptions or behaviours.1 Types of power The six types of power are Coercive Power  often the least effective but most employed(abused)  is forcing someone to do something against their will http://iesgeneralstudies. Involves judgment.  It can be either positive or negative. event. For example we Indians do ‘jugaad’ as an acceptable form of frugal engineering.com/ethics­theory/ 10/20 . more people obeys. so the packaged foods business mainly target kids in their advertisements.  Social factors have a major role in determining a person’s attitude. ideology etc. Behavioural(actions&inactions) – how attitude is expressed.  Example –   hating exams(formed from belief that all exams are di穑�cult) 3.  (2) message – many will not listen to the tra穑�c police’s message to wear helmet. object.  5. Cognitive(belief) – The  act  or  process  of  knowing and  perceiving. it creates a stereotype. Authority is a legitimate power. 6.

or expertise in the area that they are responsible for is often the most effective type of power they can often persuade others do to things for them using trust and respect 6. Traditional authority depends on established tradition or order based on some kind of a dominant power Ex – Father in a family Legal-rational authority Is grounded in clearly de䙵ned laws   Ex – the President of India 7. processes.Mahatma Gandhi.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by rely on threats.com/ethics­theory/ 11/20 . Corporate Ethics http://iesgeneralstudies. knowledge. Martin Luther King Jr.2 Types of Authority Charismatic authority leader is not only capable of but actually possesses the superior power of charisma Ex. and strategies Expert Power when an individual possesses in-depth information. bullying Reward Power is the concept of do this and get that is useful as long as the reward is perceived as having value used to increase morale Legitimate Power is the power of position or role a formalized way of ensuring that there is someone to make a decision and that someone is responsible Referent Power Is the power and ability for an individual to attract others and to build loyalty created through the values of the individual Informational Power is the power of having information that another does not have used to measure and improve tasks.

government of the land and society. The company secretary should ensure compliance with the regulations of the land The auditors will have an objective check on the 䙵nancial statements prepared by the directors The regulators Companies are regulated under the companies act. It includes Making a clear distinction between personal convenience and corporate resources Communicating externally in a truthful manner about how the company is run internally Complying with the laws in all the countries in which the company operates A three-tier governing system for companies is suggested where A supervisory board is constituted and should lay down the framework for the functioning of the board of directors -It will monitor performance as well as the value system for the company The board of directors manages the affairs of the company and oversee the functioning of the executive management The executive runs the day to day operations. It is about enhancing shareholder value on a sustainable basis while ensuring fairness. and regulators. its internal and external stakeholders. transparency and accountability in every action vis-à-vis every stakeholder – customers. vendor-partners.1 Corporate Governance Governance is about doing what is fair in a transparent manner with full accountability . It results from maintaining transparency in all actions Sound corporate governance is critical in enhancing and retaining investor trust.com/ethics­theory/ 12/20 . Company Secretary and Auditors Independent directors are custodians of corporate ethics. customers. investors. If they are listed in the stock exchange. Role of Independent directors.     http://iesgeneralstudies.  SEBI(Securities and Exchange Board of India) watches over certain operations. employees. including employees. especially to protect the small shareholders. and conducts business with. Corporate Ethics The broad area dealing with the way in which a company behaves towards. investors.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by 7. 7. creditors.

and interrelatedness with in the organisation. It increases positive emotions and well-being. Issues in accounting and auditing practices by listed companies 4. and loyalty to the organisation. Work culture is about   Beliefs.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by The Captain and the Coach     The Third Umpire   Match 䙵xing Poor Performance Personal gains at the expense of team The investors and shareholders who lost   their money The challenges are 1. It attracts employees to the organisation. Addressing issues faced by investors on voting and participation in general meetings 7. thought processes. Improves productivity – helps in higher levels of organizational effectiveness. Ensuring independence in spirit of Independent Directors and their active participation in functioning of the company 2. attitudes of the employees. connection. solidarity. It improves the cohesion ie unity. Ideologies and principles of the organisation. It helps to increase the morale of the employees Morale is expressed in self-con䙵dence. enthusiasm. Improving safeguards and disclosures pertaining to Related Party Transactions 3. http://iesgeneralstudies.2 Work Culture The work culture decides the way employees interact with each other and how an organisation functions. It stems from the people’s conviction about the righteousness or worth of their actions and the hopes of high rewards in the future.com/ethics­theory/ 13/20 . 䙵nancial performance and customer satisfaction.

The company which believes in diversity will include more female employees The armed forces work culture is strict hierarchical. involves the skill or ability to interpret the reactions and   feelings of others.com/ethics­theory/ 14/20 . and anti-corruption measures. Key CSR issues are : environmental management. Example Oil spills. and corporate standards of behavior . as useful as it is. labour standards and working conditions. Professional Ethics Professionals possess and use specialised knowledge and skill.  “Education without values.  In many cases.Approach”). Industries such as chemical manufacturing.3 Corporate Social Responsibility Is a  company’s    initiatives to assess and take responsibility for its effects on environmental and social wellbeing. 8. employee and community relations. Professional Ethics encompass the personal. Corporations can have detrimental effects on the environment. 8. seems rather to make man a more clever devil” So the professionals who possess skill and knowledge needs a direction. good governance. gender balance.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by For example. as those which helps in Ethical sensitivity. human rights. http://iesgeneralstudies.1 Ethical Skills Ethical skills are distinguished from the self-help skills and social skills. responsible sourcing. eco-e穑�ciency. where obedience is given more importance 7. mining.Power corporations Many corporations have pro䙵ted from the deterioration of the global environment. harm to the environment and harm to vulnerable communities go hand-in-hand CSR is the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic. stakeholder engagement. organizational. Climate change can also be attributed in large part to corporations. Ex. social equity. environmental and social imperatives (“Triple-Bottom-Line. agriculture and 䙵shing can do permanent damage to local ecosystems.

and tidy appearance etc The Social Skills includes Good behaviour. diet.  Some common questions in environmental ethics are Should humans continue deforestation for the sake of food production? Should humans continue to make gasoline-powered vehicles? Is it right for humans to knowingly cause the extinction of a species? Should we stop all developmental works to conserve the environment?  Should we continue to use coal for power generation?  The concept of Sustainable development http://iesgeneralstudies. he or she must decide which course of action is the most justi䙵able in the situation Ethical motivation is the desire to be ethical and to act and live in a manner consistent with one’s moral values.2 Code of  Ethics and Code of Conduct Are the two common ways that companies and professionals self-regulate.Forbid sexual harassment at work places 9. To achieve these. 8. No wastage and good environment etc. involves determining the best way to implement the chosen decision and having the ability and con䙵dence to persist to completion.com/ethics­theory/ 15/20 . helpfulness. initiative. Code of Ethics Referred to as a Value Statement Acts like the Constitution with general principles to guide behaviour within an organisation Outlines a set of principles that affect decision-making Code of Conduct Outlines speci䙵c behaviours that are required or prohibited  Ex.The professional bodies commonly establish codes of conduct and ethical codes for the guidance of their members. resourcefulness. punctuality. e穑�ciency. perseverance. modesty. respect for all etc Where as the Self-Help Skills are Care of possessions. self-reliance. good manners. dependability. hygiene. courage. ingenuity. duty. the ethical skills should encompass Code of conduct. Environmental Ethics Deals with relationship of man with environment. good relationships.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by Ethical judgement – if an ethical situation exists and requires action. posture. Ethical action.

2017 Ethics in Engineering Profession  Read more 21 Comments   Balkrishna says: Reply September 6.  The environmental ethics has personal dimensions such as ethical consumerism minimising waste and recycling love for nature and other living beings etc The branch of ethics concerned with particular moral issues like corporate ethics. market-oriented or centrally planned. in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The goals of economic and social development must be de䙵ned in terms of sustainability in all countries—developed or developing. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of “needs”. 2017 at 11:14 am http://iesgeneralstudies. to which overriding priority should be given. is called APPLIED ETHICS IES GS Related posts September 11. and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.com/ethics­theory/ 16/20 . environmental ethics etc.

it will be saved as pdf use foxit or just save the entire webpage Shraddha says: Reply September 6. deciding between two principles is not easy. All materials are very goof and of high quality. 2017 at 1:25 pm Thank you so much sir… Santosh rai says: Reply September 6. 2017 at 7:26 am Brilliant examples !!! Thank you sagar suroshi says: Reply September 7. 2017 at 1:21 pm Sir please release pdf version for statics portion also so that we could take printout and study it. IES GS says: Reply   September 7. Or Rohingya muslim migrant. As discussed in the article. 2017 at 6:17 pm Thnk u sir… sagar suroshi says: Reply September 7. 2017 at 7:42 am How do you decide between utilitarianism and human rights? For example right to privacy provides basic human rights but fails in utilitarianism. 2017 at 4:08 pm You are correct.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by thank you sir for providing material on ethics Utpal Rai says: Reply September 6. Deporting them is as per utilitarianism but is a failure of every human to life and dignity.com/ethics­theory/ 17/20 . Internet is not available everytime. This http://iesgeneralstudies. Thank you for such initiative aman says: Reply October 5. 2017 at 9:23 pm either use pdf crowd addon to save the page or simply print the page.

Suppose you are holding a primary position for a certain interest and then you also hold a ” o穑�ce of pro䙵t” however for the betterment of the same interest. There is a need for rede䙵ning what constitutes the ‘o穑�ce of pro䙵t’ as suggested by the second ARC. 2017 at 3:44 am Actually the rule that those who are holding constitutional positions should not hold ‘o穑�ce of pro䙵t’ is made to avoid the con퀎�ict of interests. IES GS says: Reply September 9. Try to cover more example problems Amit says: Reply November 14. but rule wise it does. If yes How ?? Example the Delhi parliament secretary issue. 2017 at 8:25 am That is enough in theory section. So will that qualify for con퀎�ict of interest.com/ethics­theory/ 18/20 .. sagar suroshi says: Reply September 7. 2017 at 9:32 pm Sir I’m a bit confused in con퀎�ict of values. the post may not create a con퀎�ict of interest. 2017 at 5:28 pm Challenge noted!!! I have another doubt regarding con퀎�ict of interest. Himanshu dagur says: Reply November 9. The issue you mentioned here became debatable.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by type of dilemma is a real challenge in public policy. It’s established that they the elected members hold o穑�ce of pro䙵t as per constitution but can we also say it succumbs to con퀎�ict of interest just by knowing that they hold “o穑�ce of pro䙵t”. In ethical sense. 2017 at 9:09 am Is this enough for ies prelims exam regarding human ethivs or more topic is also there???? IES GS says: Reply November 11. simply because of the fact that the posts of parliamentary secretaries are not recognised as constitutional post. The most appropriate action should be a balanced one. So it quali䙵es as ‘o穑�ce of pro䙵t’ as per rule. Is it the con퀎�ict between the values followed by two identities and how is it different from con퀎�ict of interest ?   Amit says: Reply http://iesgeneralstudies.

. 2017 at 6:56 am Dear Sir. IES GS says: Reply November 15.. Interests can be personal. 2017 at 12:09 pm Sir at least 100 questions upload kr dijiye for practice please…… Lots of thanks if it is possible VIKAS ATTRI says: Reply November 29. Is this topic imp.!! IES GS says: November 15.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by November 14. business etc Amit says: November 16. 2017 at 9:40 pm And while practicing I faced a lot of questions on governance. Values are different for different organisations. Can you please suggest some site for practicing good problems on Ethics as in IAS problems are more descriptive then being optional   samar says: Reply February 18. 2018 at 7:43 am http://iesgeneralstudies. professional.com/ethics­theory/ 19/20 . ?? And a topic related to maxims.!! Rk singh says: Reply November 29. So questions will be based on professional ethics than the governance ethics. which is important for the civil servants. 2017 at 2:07 pm There is difference between values and interests. good governance and specially on ethical governance. 2017 at 2:08 pm IES topics speci䙵cally tells about Engineering ethics. 2017 at 8:03 am Thank you sir.

and website in this browser for the next time I comment. email. Post Comment Topics Daily News Daily Quiz Downloads Project Management June-2018 June-2018 Hyperloop Material Sceince May-2018 May-2018 Monthly Current Affairs Environment April-2018 April-2018 Daily Quiz Energy March-2018 March-2018 Question Papers ICT Daily Current Affairs 2017 Daily Quiz-2017 Economy Ethics    Copyrights @ IES GS   http://iesgeneralstudies. 2018 at 1:40 am You can refer more about the different terms mentioned here.6/26/2018 Ethics Theory – General Studies Material for UPSC ESE Paper1 by sir.com/ethics­theory/ 20/20 . Leave a Reply Your email address will not be published. Required 䙵elds are marked * Comment Name * Email * Website Save my name. these notes enough for eithics subject or do we need to refer any book? IES GS says: Reply February 25.