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7990 Vol. 56, No.

28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics Research Article

Analysis on multifocal contact lens design based

on optical power distribution with NURBS
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
Department of Ophthalmology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
*Corresponding author:

Received 7 July 2017; revised 30 August 2017; accepted 3 September 2017; posted 6 September 2017 (Doc. ID 301949);
published 29 September 2017

This paper aims to develop and analyze the design method of multifocal contact lenses to obtain curvature con-
tinuity in the optical surfaces with the high addition (Add) powers by adjusting non-uniform rational B-spline
(NURBS) curves. The paper has developed mathematical formulae to generate the optical power distributions in
which the powers continuously change from either near or distant center to the opposite focal length in the
periphery of the optical region with different change rates and Add power values. This developed method
can efficiently adjust and optimize three parameters, including control points, weight, and knots of the
NURBS, to be anterior optical lens surface profiles to adapt for these given power profiles. The result shows
that the proposed contact lenses not only achieve smooth and continuous anterior optical surfaces, but also satisfy
various optical power distributions with high Add power values for different pupil diameters. Then, these designs
of contact lenses can be feasibly converted to the computer-aided design format for analysis and manufacture for
molding or single-point diamond turning. Experimental results of this method have been tested and proven when
both the power distributions of simulation of lenses and the actual machined samples match the original specified
powers provided by clinical demands of a multifocal contact lens. Future integration with variant clinical de-
mands and optimization rules of lens design can be explored for a progressive contact lens. © 2017 Optical
Society of America

OCIS codes: (080.3630) Lenses; (350.4600) Optical engineering; (080.4225) Nonspherical lens design; (170.4460) Ophthalmic
optics and devices.

1. INTRODUCTION to correct presbyopia is simultaneous bifocal or multifocal CLs

Presbyopia is a natural condition in which the accommodation that provide a number of concentric optical regions, such as a
amplitude of human eye significantly decreases, and people distant vision for focusing to infinity objects and a near vision
cannot focus close objects easily. That occurs when the crystal- for focusing close objects within the area of the pupil on the
line lens of the human eye loses elasticity and becomes more retina at the same time [5–8]. There are many types of simul-
rigid after age 40 [1,2]. Although presbyopia cannot be cured taneous multifocal CLs, which are available in the market
completely, there are some available methods to assist in [9–13] with different optical power distributions.
correcting the effects of presbyopia such as presbyopia glasses, As shown in Fig. 1, the powers of bi-concentric, multi-
contact lenses (CLs), or surgery [3]. concentric, aspheric, and zonal aspheric CLs distributed varied
CLs have been popular in the worldwide market because from the center zone to the peripheral zone. The optical powers
they provide not only a good optical correction but are also may have discontinuous distributions in bi-concentric and
comfortable and fashionable to wear. Accordingly, the demand multi-concentric multifocal CLs or continuous distributions
for presbyopia CLs is very high due to the quickly increasing in aspheric and zonal multifocal CLs from near/distant power
number of ageing people in the world [4]. To meet the bigger to distant/near power. This study focuses on designing the mul-
market size, the lens designers should continuously improve tifocal CLs that have continuous power distributions.
lens shapes, materials, and manufacturing methods. In general, to correct the refractive error of the presbyopic
Currently, presbyopic patients have many options to correct people, CLs are designed to adapt the given powers. The given
their refractive error with CLs. One of the most common CLs power is the demand of each person, thus lens shapes are

1559-128X/17/287990-08 Journal © 2017 Optical Society of America

Research Article Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics 7991

designers in creating smooth arbitrary shapes. NURBS has

been adopted as a standard curve in current commercial
computer-aided design (CAD) software packages. Therefore,
some researchers have used NURBS for progressive Add lenses
[20–22]. However, these studies have not mentioned methods
to generate the power distributions of multifocal CLs.
Accordingly, the powers of the real samples have not been
compared with those of the design or simulation models.
This study is devoted to developing the efficient design
method of the presbyopic multifocal CLs to solve discontinuity
problems and increase Add powers by applying the NURBS
curves. In this research, the mathematical formulae are created
Fig. 1. Simultaneous multifocal CLs for presbyopic correction:
(a) bi-concentric Cls (left, center-near; right, center-distance); to generate various lens power distributions for different de-
(b) multi-concentric CLs; (c) aspheric CLs (left, center-near; right, mands of patients by using the normal cumulative distribution
center-distance); (d) zonal aspheric CLs (left, center-near; right, function (CDF). Then, three parameters (knots, weights, and
center-distance). control points) of the cubic NURBS curves are optimized
by using a global optimization algorithm to fit these given
power profiles. After that, the designs of the multifocal CLs
different. There are many kinds of curves used to design the are presented in three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional
lens shapes, such as conic, aspheric, polynomial, and parametric (2D) CAD models for analyzing in optical software or
curves. The lens profiles may include one or a few optical zones, manufacturing on an ophthalmic lathe to make hard lenses.
including near, intermediate, and distant zones, with different The power maps of four different polymethyl methacrylate
(PMMA) lens samples are compared with those of the design
addition (Add) power values. The lens designers have to find
models to evaluate the proposed method. The applicability of
curves that are not only suitable for their optical purposes, but
this method is proven after analyzing the power distributions of
also manufacturable and measurable. However, these require-
the lens models and the measurement data of the real lenses.
ments are not easily achieved simultaneously in the current
design of multifocal CLs.
To increase the Add power and reduce the dependence on 2. METHODOLOGY
the pupil size of the aspheric contact lensesCLs, the aspheric
A. Power Generation
and spherical surfaces are combined in one design [9–12].
The multifocal CL designed in this research is considered as a
A spherical central circular area transitions through an aspheric
rotational and symmetric lens, as shown in Fig. 2. It has an
intermediate to a spherical outer zone in the optical region. The
optical region, including two surfaces, i.e., anterior and pos-
powers of the central zone and outer zone are distinct from each
terior optical surfaces. The posterior optical surface profile is a
other. One power is to correct near vision, and other is to cor-
base of either a spherical or aspheric curve to fit the human eye.
rect distant vision. In the same approach, many aspheric multi-
The optical region in the anterior surface is called a multi-
focal CLs are designed with variable eccentricities over the
focal region that comprises from one to three concentric optical
optical zone to optimize the lens centration, optical vision, and zones having, respectively, determined different values of opti-
Add power. The resulting lenses have a zonal aspheric anterior cal power. The widths of these zones can be changed to satisfy
surface with three different Add powers (low, mid, and high), the particular requirements of patients. For the general case, the
which cover from 0.75 to 3.0 D [10,13]. To increase Add optical region includes three zones in which the optical power
powers, the optical region of multifocal CLs may combine a few of the center zone and outer zone are constant and different
aspheric curves, and the designers have to maintain a smooth from each other. The center zone corrects near vision, the outer
connection between these curves in both design and manufac- zone corrects distant vision, and vice versa. The optical power
turing processes [14–17]. in the intermediate zone gradually varies from the center and
To solve discontinuity problems and increase Add powers, outer zones. Beside the three-zone profile, the power formulae
conic functions and polynomial functions (odd polynomials, of two other cases that have one or two zones in the optical
even polynomials, extended polynomials, Zernike polynomials, region are modified from the general formula.
Q-polynomial functions, etc.) can be linearly combined to-
gether in one function to represent smooth and freeform optical
surfaces quite well [18]. However, many polynomial functions
cannot be used to represent some conic sections, such as circles
or ellipses. In mathematics, it is known that rational functions
[19] can be represented by those special curves. Rational func-
tions, such as the rational Bezier curve and non-uniform
rational B-spline (NURBS), have been applied to lens design
[20–29]. Although, the computation of NURBS curves are
more complex than that of other curves, especially for lens
design with constraints, it is still a good tool to support the Fig. 2. Proposed design of multifocal CLs using the NURBS curve.
7992 Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics Research Article

Z x
1 t−μ2
Px  P distance  Add pffiffiffiffiffi e − 2σ2 dt: (5)
σ 2π 0
In Eqs. (1), (4), and (5), the power distributions depend
on the radius of the center zone x c , the width of the intermedi-
ate optical zone W im , the Add power, and the center-near
power P near or the center-distance power P distance. Therefore,
the change rate and the shape of the power distribution can
be controlled by these factors. x c , W im , Add, and P near or
P distance are the setting parameters based on the wearer’s visual
requirement and pupil size. In general, the pupil diameter is
an individual characteristic, and it varies with age and lighting
conditions. For presbyopic patients, the average pupil diameter
is from 2 to 6 mm [7,31–33], thus, the diameter of the optical
region Dop should be from 6.0 to 8.0 mm to cover over the
pupil. Since the optical region in the anterior surface of the
proposed CL may have three zones (center, intermediate, and
Fig. 3. Illustration of the power distributions: (a) using Eqs. (4) and outer), the widths of these three zone should be chosen to pro-
(2), three-zone profile; (b) using Eqs. (6) and (7), two-zone profile; vide a good optical performance with the different pupil sizes.
(c) using Eqs. (6) and (8), one-zone profile. In this research, the center zone diameter of the CL is chosen to
be less than 4.0 mm, or x c is less than 2 mm. The range of the
overall diameter of the hard CL is 10 to 11 mm.
Since the proposed CL is symmetric, the halves of the an- Besides the three-zone profiles, the general power distribu-
terior optical surface profile and power profile are presented. tion formula can be degrated to be two-zone and one-zone
To present the three-zone power profile in which two constant profiles. First, for the optical region having two zones (center
lines connect together by a smooth curve, the CDF of the zone and intermediate zone) in Fig. 3(b), Eq. (1) can be
normal distribution [30] is a suitable choice. Thus, the power modified as
distribution from the lens center to the boundary of the optical Z x
1 t−μ2
region in Fig. 3(a) is determined by using the CDF in the P mod x  P center  2Add pffiffiffiffiffi e − 2σ2 dt; (6)
following equation: σ 2π 0
Z x where
1 t−μ2
Px  P center  Add pffiffiffiffiffi e − 2σ2 dt; (1)
σ 2π 0 Dop
μ  x c  W im ; σ  W im ∕3 and W im  − x c : (7)
where 2
Second, when x c equals zero, the power gradually changes
μ  x c  W im ∕2; σ  W im ∕6; (2)
from the center axis to the boundary of the optical region in
Fig. 3(c). Therefore, the optical region of this lens has one zone
P center is the constant optical power of the near/
(intermediate zone). Eq. (6) is used to present the one-zone
distance-center zone,
power profile with
x c is the radius of the center zone, Add is the Add power,
W im is the width of the intermediate optical zone, Dop
μ  W im ; σ  W im ∕3 and W im  : (8)
0 ≤ W im ≤ : (3) This kind of profile can be used to illustrate the power dis-
2 tribution of the aspheric CL.
Dop , is the optical region diameter, Since Eqs. (1) and (6) are flexibly altered with different
x is the radial distance from the lens center, input parameters, the levels of the Add powers are not limited
the sign “−” is for the center-near, and “+” is for the center- from low to high with various diameters of optical zones.
distance. B. Optimization of Anterior Optical Surface Profile
When the radius of the center zone x c and the width of the After the optical power profile is determined, a freeform
intermediate zone W im are given, the values of μ and σ that are NURBS curve is optimized by using a nonlinear optimization
calculated by Eq. (2) are substituted into Eq. (1). Thus, the algorithm to be an anterior optical surface profile and satisfy the
shape of the Px curve will be changed with the different given given power distribution.
parameters x c and W im . Then, Eq. (1) can be rewritten when
the optical center is the near vision as 1. NURBS Summary
Z x A NURBS curve of degree p defines the Cu curve as a piece-
1 t−μ2
Px  P near − Add pffiffiffiffiffi e − 2σ2 dt: (4) wise rational polynomial function of a parameter u,
σ 2π 0 Ph
i0 N i;p uwi P i
Similarly, when the optical center is the distant vision, the Cu  Ph ; (9)
power equation is i0 N i;p uwi
Research Article Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics 7993

where P o ; P 1 ; …; P h are control points, wo ; w1 ; …; wh NURBS curve, three parameters, i.e., weights, control points,
are weights, and N i;p u is the ith B-spline basic func- and knots, are optimized to satisfy the required (given) power
 of degree p defined on  the knot vector U 
distribution. Therefore, the objective function in this research
0; …; 0; up2 ; …; uh1 ; 1; …; 1 is to minimize the root mean square (RMS) error between the
|fflfflffl{zfflfflffl} |fflfflffl{zfflfflffl} ; lens power (Pw i ) on the NURBS lens and the required power
p1 p1
 (Pw i ), which is determined from Eqs. (1) or (6) at point i along
1 if ui ≤ u ≤ ui1 the radial direction, shown in Eq. (16). The stop criterion
N i;0 u  ;
0 otherwise (maximum RMS error) is chosen to be small enough to ensure
u − ui uip1 − u the optical quality of the NURBS CL.
N i;p u  N i;p−1 u  N u: After the base curve radius, material, and center thickness
uip − ui uip1 − ui1 i1;p−1
are selected, the curvature of every point on the anterior optical
(10) surface profile is optimized by a nonlinear optimization algo-
Using rational basis functions, rithm, i.e., the simulated annealing algorithm [35–37], in this
study. Since the curvature and the cubic NURBS relate to each
N i;p uwi other by Eqs. (9), (13), and (14), the knot vector, control
R i;p u  Ph : (11)
j0 N j;p uwj points, and weights values are optimized to let the NURBS
curve be the anterior optical surface profile.
NURBS curve can be written as
However, if the center axis of the multifocal CL is assumed
h to be on a vertical axis, the tangent of the NURBS curve at
Cu  R i;p P i : (12) the peak point (0, 0) in Fig. 4 should be in the horizontal
direction to make the smooth anterior profile at this point.
The curvature of an arbitrary point on the NURBS curve is In other words, the line P 0 P 1 connecting the two first control
jC 0 u × C 0 0 uj points P 0 and P 1 must be perpendicular to the center axis.
k : (13) Therefore, this constraint is added to optimization in which
jC 0 uj3
the XY coordinate of P 0 is (0, 0), and the Y coordinate
The radius of curvature of that point is of P 1 is 0.
R : (14) C. Analysis, Manufacture and Measurement
After optimization, the peripheral curves are determined [38].
Due to the shape, the NURBS curve is flexibly changed Three peripheral posterior curves are defined based on the base
by modifying any parameter among the three parameters, curve, the known diameters, and the edge lift. The anterior
i.e., knot vector, control points, and weights values, and the peripheral curve is calculated with the given optical diameter,
optimized NURBS curve easily adapt a complex design. total diameter, center thickness, axial edge thickness, overall sag
2. Optimization Problem of the posterior surface, and the sag of the front optical zone.
Normally, the CLs are considered thick lenses when determin- In this research, the posterior edge has a round shape. Then,
ing the optical powers. The refractive power can be determined the 3D models of the proposed CLs are created in CAD/
via the back vertex power (BVP) [34] by the following computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. After that,
equation: these models are imported to an optical software to analyze
optical performance before fabrication. In this research, Zemax
n − 1kf software is used here to verify the optimized results of this
Pw  1 − nkb  ; (15)
1 − t c 1 − 1nkf method.
To manufacture, the optimized NURBS curves of four
where kb , k f are the curvatures of the anterior and the posterior
different cases are presented as drawing exchange formats
surfaces, n is the refractive index of the lens material, and t c is
(DXF), and then full 2D CLs are generated. These CAD files
the center thickness of the CL:
Pn  are converted to MiniFiles for machining. PMMA CLs are
i1 Pw i − Pw i 
2 1∕2
RMS  ; or
Pn  n−1k
2 !1∕2
i1 1 − nkbi  1−t1−1kf i − Pw i
RMS  n fi i :
For the specific material and center thickness, the optical
power of the multifocal CL is the combination of the curvatures
of the anterior and posterior surfaces. Since the anterior optical
surface profile of the conventional aspheric multifocal CL com-
bines a few conic curves, such as spherical and aspheric curves, a
cubic NURBS curve is selected to provide enough flexibility for
smoothly connecting all optical zones. To determine the cubic Fig. 4. NURBS curve with control points.
7994 Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics Research Article

Fig. 5. Equipment: (a) Optoform 40 ophthalmic lathe; (b) Contest

Plus device [39].

Fig. 6. Required power profiles.

manufactured by a single-point diamond turning (SPDT)
machine, such as the Optoform 40 ophthalmic lathe at
Fantasee Incorporated in New Taipei City, Taiwan, as shown
in Fig. 5(a). The power maps of these samples are measured at some end h values. These results can be explained by some
on a Contest Plus device [39] in Fig. 5(b). of the main following reasons. When h increases, the NURBS
Finally, the measurement datum of the actual multifocal curve can be altered locally to fit with the required design, then
CL samples are compared with those of the simulation lenses the local curvature is changed. Since the curvature relates to the
and the original designs to evaluate the applicability of the power, the power curve can have many small ripples that makes
developed design method. the RMS increase at a high h value. Therefore, in this research,
the number of control points should be set from 9 to 11.
3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION To prove the applicability of the NURBS curve, the ex-
In this section, the design method is analyzed on four PMMA tended polynomial functions that combine aspheric functions
multifocal CLs with different power distributions as case study. and polynomial functions are also applied to present the above
The first two cases are one-zone power profiles, the third one four cases. These functions are commonly used to design multi-
is a two-zone profile and the other is a three-zone profile, as focal CLs with simpler formulae. Their coefficients are opti-
shown in Fig. 6. Equations (1) and (6) have been used for both mized to satisfy the required power profiles. The RMS errors
center-near and center-distance lenses. If the Add power value of the power of the four cases using the NURBS curve and the
is high, the changing rate of power will increase, and the cur- third to the ninth extended polynomial curves are recorded in
vature of front curve will be a larger variation. Thus, the Add Table 2. As shown in Table 2, the RMS errors in the cases using
power is chosen to be equal to 5.0 D (high value) to analyze the the extended polynomial functions increase with higher orders.
feasibility of such a developed method. The main design Since those curves have more bending points at a higher order,
parameters of these multifocal CLs are listed in Table 1. their curvature alters considerably. This makes the MRS error
From the above given power distributions, three parameters, higher than that of the lower-order curve. However, even at
i.e., control points, knots, and weights of the cubic NURBS low orders, the RMS errors of the extended polynomial are still
curves, are optimized to be the anterior lens curve in each case much larger than these values of the NURBS curves. Especially
by the simulated annealing algorithm. This study uses a step since the extended polynomial functions present their limita-
size (0.05 mm) in radial direction; thus, the number of points tion in Case 3 and Case 4 when the required power profiles
used to compute the RMS error of the optical power is 61 are more complex than two other cases. In contrast to the
points (the semi-chord length is 3 mm). The small step size extended polynomials, all cases using the NURBS curve have
will cost more computing time, but the RMS error will be very small RMS values. It shows that the NURBS curves have a
smaller, while the bigger step will increase RMS error but good applicability for designing both simple and complex
reduce computing time. Since the CL requires high precision, multifocal CLs.
the step size should be chosen from 0.01 to 0.05 mm, or the From the optimized results, the NURBS curves are drawn in
number of data points is from 61 to 301. CAD/CAM softwares because they are standard curves in these
As mentioned before, control points, knots, and weights softwares. After revolving, the 3D models of the CLs are ob-
play very important roles in representing the freeform curve. tained in the standard for the exchange of product model data
However, the parametric NURBS curve still depends on other (STEP), stereolithography (STL), or initial graphics exchange
factor that is number of control points h. The question is how specification (IGS) formats to analyze optical performance.
to select the number of control points h that can guarantee two Those lens models are imported to ZEMAX software to verify
criteria, i.e., accuracy and smoothness, for the proposed ante- the power distributions of the proposed models by simulating
rior curve. Since Case 4 is the most complex, the RMS errors of power maps, as shown in Fig. 8.
this case are used to analyze the relation among them and the In Fig. 8, the power maps are very similar to the required
number of control points. As illustrated in Fig. 7, when num- powers. The difference of the power distributions among these
ber of control points increases from 6 to 14, the RMS error cases (one-zone, two-zone, and three-zone profiles) can be ob-
decreases quickly at some starting h values, then, it increases served quite clearly. The powers at the lens centers are around
Research Article Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics 7995

Table 1. Given Parameters of the Hard (PMMA) Contact Lensesa

Center Add Base Curves Overall Diameters
Case Power (D) Powers (D) (mm) (mm) D op (mm) t c (mm) x c (mm) W im (mm)
1 −2.5 (CN) 5.0 7.5 10.5 6.0 0.14 0 3
2 −4.0 (CD) 5.0 7.5 10.5 6.0 0.14 0 3
3 −4.0 (CD) 5.0 7.5 10.5 6.0 0.14 1.4 1.6
4 −2.0 (CD) 5.0 7.5 10.5 6.0 0.14 0.8 1.2
CN, center-near; CD, center-distance.

The locations of these centers have not been controlled in the

optimization process. However, the power value in Case 3 only
changes very quickly at the small areas that are outer brown and
the red rings on the optical region, thus, this simulation result
of Case 3 can be accepted.
From above simulation results, the 3D lens models can be
used not only to analyze their own optical performance, but
also to combine with the human eye model, for example, the
Luo–Brennan model (1997) [2] in Fig. 9. In the near future,
Fig. 7. Relations between number of control points and RMS error this proposed method will be applied to designing the multi-
of power.
focal CL for specific human eye models to adjust to various
clinical demands, such as reducing aberration.
After simulation, the CAD lens models are transferred to
−2.5, −4.0, −4.0, and −2.0 D, respectively, and they are equal computer numerical control (CNC) manufacturing devices,
to the design values. In the first two cases, the powers change such as a SPDT machine to fabricate the hard CL.
gradually from the lens center to the outer boundary of the The real lenses are manufactured by a commercial SPDT
optical zone because of the use of one-zone profiles. Whereas, machine, such as the Optoform 40 ophthalmic lathe, shown
the optical power zones of Case 3 and Case 4 are illustrated by in Fig. 10. The optimized NURBS curves of the four cases
different color zones. In the original designs, Case 3 has the are presented as DXF formats, and then full 2D lenses are gen-
biggest center zone among the four cases, and this is illustrated erated. After that, the CAD files are converted to MiniFiles
very clearly by the deep blue area. As shown in the power map for machining. Four lens samples are manufactured in Fig. 10.
of Case 4, the red center zone and the green outer zone, having The power maps of these samples are measured by the Contest
constant powers, are connected by the brown intermediate Plus device, shown in Fig. 11.
zone. This result matches with the original design of the As observed in Fig. 11, the powers at the lens centers are
three-zone power. As observed in the power maps, the changing around −2.44, 3.7, −4.0, and −2.3 D, respectively. These values
rates in Case 3 and Case 4 are higher, since the widths of the are very close to the required powers at the centers of Case 1,
intermediate zones are smaller. In Case 3, the outside of the Case 2, Case 3, and Case 4. The Add power values of the two
deep blue center zone is where the power changes very quickly. first lenses are around 5.5 and 5.3 D, respectively, and they are
The simulation Add powers of Cases 1 and 2 are close to 5.0 D, similar to the design values. The center-near zone of Case 3
while they are around 11.0 D in Case 3 and 7.0 D in Case 4. in Fig. 11 is illustrated very clearly by a green area, where the
The Add values of Cases 3 and 4 are higher than the design power is constant. The Add value of this case is a high value and
values. Case 3 has the Add value that is much different from around 11.0 D. That value is the same as the Add of the sim-
the original design. This problem may relate to the centers ulation result. Similar to the simulation result, the power in-
of curvature of the points on the anterior lens curve in the creases quickly in the area near the boundary of the optical
intermediate zone. Because the curvatures of every point in reason, the lens of Case 3 can still be accepted. In Case 4, three
this zone are various, their centers are in different locations. zones (center, intermediate, and outer zones) are presented

Table 2. RMS Errors of the Extended Polynomials and Cubic NURBS Curves
RMS Errors
Extended Polynomial Curve
Order Cubic NURBS Curve
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Control Points
Case 1 0.0125 0.0109 0.0140 0.0935 0.1463 0.4391 0.0037
Case2 0.0304 0.0331 0.0135 0.0103 0.2278 0.8205 0.0044
Case 3 0.0375 0.0417 0.0380 0.0648 0.1118 0.5635 0.0062
Case 4 0.5348 0.5268 0.4171 0.5022 0.5408 0.5732 0.0104
7996 Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics Research Article

Fig. 8. Simulated power maps of four PMMA CLs in Zemax.

Fig. 11. Power maps of four PMMA CLs.

simulation result, the centers of curvature of the points in the

intermediate zone and outer zone should be considered to
control the Add powers of the real lens samples.
Overall, the power distributions of the fabricated lenses
agree closely with those of the simulation lenses, and both
are also in accord with the original designs.
From the above examples, the efficient applicability of the
proposed method has been proven for designing multifocal CLs
Fig. 9. Combination of the CAD model of the proposed lens and in both simple and complex cases.
the Luo–Brennan human eye model.
This study has developed an efficient design method for the
quite clearly in the power map in Fig. 11. The powers in the multifocal CLs with high Add power values based on the given
deep red center zone and green outer zone are nearly uniform to optical power distributions. In this method, the mathematical
the original design. However, the problem in Case 3 also formulae have been developed to generate various smooth
appears in Case 4. The Add power in the intermediate zone power profiles from the lens center to the optical boundary.
is around 7.5 D, which is higher than the design value but To adapt those given power distributions, the cubic NURBS
close to the simulation result. With the same reason in the curves are optimized to be the smooth anterior optical surface
profiles. Since the shape of the cubic NURBS curves are
changed flexibly by optimizing three parameters, i.e., knots,
weights, and control points, the proposed method allows for
a high degree of freedom of the optical power distributions
for the different designs of the multifocal CLs. The combina-
tion of the optical power functions and the cubic NURBS
curves provide a powerful tool for designing multifocal CLs.
The results of this method can be compatible with most CAD/
CAM software. The CAD lens model can be imported to the
optical software or CNC manufacturing devices. Four cases of
PMMA lenses have been designed and fabricated by SPDT to
verify such design methods. The power maps of the simulated
lenses and the measurement datum of the real CLs agree with
Fig. 10. Four PMMA CLs (Cases 1, 2, 3, and 4). the specified optical power distributions. Experimental results
Research Article Vol. 56, No. 28 / October 1 2017 / Applied Optics 7997

have shown the feasibility of design method. Therefore, the de- 19. L. A. Piegl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book (Springer, 1997).
20. G. M. Fuerter, “Spline surfaces as means for optical design,” Proc.
veloped design method of multifocal CLs have been proposed
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