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Lufthansa Resource

Technical Training

Training Manual
Fundamentals

Physics
IR Part 66 CAT B1 M2

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Technical Training Ltd For Training Purposes Only
Book No: IR Part 66 CAT A M1 E Cwmbran S. Wales Lufthansa 1995
For training purposes and internal use only.
Copyright by Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH.
All rights reserved. No parts of this training
manual may be sold or reproduced in any form
without permission of:

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MODULE 2 PHYSICS

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Page: 1
PHYSICS
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M2 Technical Training
MODULE 2

1. CONVERSIONS
We are often required to express a measurement written in the metric system to We set up our conversion as follows:
an equivalent unit in the English (Imperial) system. Sometimes we must change
an English or Metric unit to an equivalent but smaller or larger unit. A table of
m = 3.78slugs x 14.59Kg x 1,000g = 55,150g

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“Conversions Factors” is essential for all of these unit changes. Table 1--1 is a
table of “Conversion Factors”. Use this table for reference whenever you need to
convert from one unit to another. The answer could also be written 5.52 x 104. This form of notation is known as
Any unit of length can be converted to any other length. The same holds for area, standard form notation (also Scientific or Engineering). This positive
volume, mass, force, speed, acceleration, pressure, time, energy and power. exponent tells us that the number written in ordinary notation can be found by
moving the decimal in the first factor four places to the right.
Suppose that a length is measured as 45.6m and you need to know this length in
feet. The conversion can be done by looking up a conversion factor that relates
these two units. Two different conversion factors can be found in the table. Standard form can also be used to express very small numbers. In this case the
exponent of ten is a negative number. This exponent tells us to move the decimal
in the first factor to the left.
1m = 3.281ft. or 1ft. = 0.3048
Either of these conversion factors can be used. Study the following two
calculations. Study the below table of numbers written both in scientific notation and in
ordinary notation.

3.281ft.
L = 45.6m × = 150ft.
1m
Ordinary Notation Scientific/Engineering Form
We could also have used the other conversion factor for our calculation.
45,000,000 4.50 x 107
0.000345 3.45 x 10--4
1ft.
L = 45.6m × = 150ft. 350,000 3.50 x 105
0.3048m
0.0674 6.74 x 10--2
Sometimes it is necessary to use several conversion factors to accomplish the 12,000,000,000 1.20 x 1010
necessary conversion.
0.00000783 7.83 x 10--6
Suppose we wish to change a mass of 3.78 slugs to grams. from our
conversion table, we note that there is no direct conversion factor. However, we
see that the two conversion factors below will be needed.
1 slug = 14.59Kg
1,000g = 1Kg

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MODULE 2

CONVERSION FACTORS TABLE 1--1


Length Mass
1in. = 2.54cm 1 amu = 1.66 x 10--27kg
1m = 39.37in. or 3.281ft. 1000kg = 1 metric tonne = 0.984 tons

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1ft. = 0.3048m 1000g = 1kg
12in. = 1ft. 1 slug = 14.59kg
3ft. = 1yd.
1yd = 0.9144m
Force & Weight
1km = 0.621 miles 1N = 0.2248lb
1 mile = 1.61Km = 5,280ft. 1lb = 4.448N
1lb = 16oz

Area
1m2 = 10.76ft2
Velocity
1m2 = 10,000cm2 1mph = 1.47ft/sec
1ft2 = 0.0929m2 = 144in2 1m/sec = 3.281ft/sec
1in2 = 6.452cm2 1 knot = 1.688ft/sec
1 knot = 1.151mph
1 knot = 1.852km/hr
Volume 1mph = 1.61km/hr
1m3 = 1,000,000cm3
1ft3 = 1728in3 = 0.0283m3
1 litre = 1000cm3 = 1.0576qt
Energy
1ft3 = 7.481gal 1J = 0.738ft.lb
1 gal = 8 pints 1 cal = 4.186 J
1 gal = 4,546 litres = (3.785 litres in American) 1 Btu = 252 cal

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MODULE 2

Solve the following conversion Problems


1. Convert the following numbers to Scientific/Engineering notation: 10. The maximum speed of a Piper Seneca III is 196 knots. What is its speed
i. 456,000 in miles/hr?
ii. 0.000457
iii. 23,700 11. Determine the number of seconds in 5.5 hours.

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2. Convert the following Scientific/Engineering notation numbers to ordinary 12. Convert 625 m/s into Km/hr.
notation:
i. 2.34 x 104
ii. 2.34 x 10--4
iii. 4.90 x 102
iv. 7.82 x 10--5

3. The wing span of a learjet model 24 is 10.84 metres. Express the wingspan
in feet.

4. The cabin door width of a learjet model 24 is 3.00 ft. Express this door width
in metres.

6. The floor area of a Boeing 707--230 is 106m2. Express this area in ft2.

7. Convert a speed of 45mph to ft/sec.

8. The silver sabre has a maximum rate of climb of 4,800 ft/min. Determine the
rate of climb in ft/sec.

9. The maximum speed of a Piper Saratoga fitted with a three blade propeller
is 152 knots. Calculate the speed in Km/hr.

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MODULE 2

2. MASS, WEIGHT, DENSITY, PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE.


MASS
In physics the term for what we have up to now referred to as the amount of
substance or matter is “Mass”. A natural unit for mass is the mass of a proton or

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neutron. This unit has a special name the “Atomic Mass Unit” (amu). This unit
is useful in those sciences which deal with atomic and nuclear matter. In
measuring the mass of objects which we encounter daily, this unit is much too
small and therefore very inconvenient. For example, the mass of a bowling ball
expressed in amus would be about 4,390,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.
One kilogram equals 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 amu (6.02 x 1026)
Since one amu is the mass of a proton or neutron we know immediately that a
kilogram of anything has this combined number of protons and neutrons contained
in it.
The kilogram is the SI unit of mass. In the English system the standard unit of
mass is the slug.
The conversion is:
1 slug = 14.59kg = 8,789,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 amu
The mass of an object is described as the amount of matter in an object and is
constant regardless of its location. For example, an astronaut has the same mass
on earth as when in space. However, an astronaut’s weight is much less in space
than it is on earth. Another definition sometimes used for mass is the
measurements of an objects resistance to change its state of rest to motion. This
is seen by comparing the force required to move a jet as compared to a single
engine aircraft. Because the jet has a greater resistance to change, it has a greater
mass. The mass of an object may be found by dividing the weight of the object
by the acceleration of gravity, which 32.2 ft/sec every second an object falls or 9.8
m/s2 in the metric system.

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MODULE 2

WEIGHT Example:
The weight of a piece of aluminium is 32oz, convert this weight to grams.
Weight is defined as the gravitational pull of the earth on a given body. The
direction of this force is toward the geometrical centre of the earth.
Physicists are very careful to distinguish between “Mass & Weight”. The mass of convert ounces to lbs 32 ÷ 16 = 2lbs
an object is the same wherever this object is in the universe. The mass of a stone convert lbs to Newtons 2lbs x 4.448N = 8.90N

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is the same if the stone is on the earth, on mars, in a spaceship or some place in
the milky way galaxy. If the stone is not on the earth but is in a space station
Therefore: Mass = Weight ÷ Gravity
orbiting the earth some distance from the earth’s surface, the weight of the stone
is different from its weight on the earths surface. If the stone is on the planet mars, = 8.90N ÷ 9.8N/kg
we speak of its “weight on mars”, the gravitational pull of mars on the stone. = 0.908kg or 908 grams.
The greater the mass of an object on the surface of the earth, the greater is the
weight of this object. These two quantities are approximately proportional to each Note we can convert from pounds to Newtons since both are units of weight and
other as long as the body remains on the surface of the earth. The word we can convert from kilograms to slugs since both are units of mass.
“approximately” refers to the fact that the pull of the earth on a body of a given mass
varies slightly with the position of the body on the earths surface.
However, if we want to find a mass if we know a weight or a weight if we know a
For example, a body that weighs 57.3lbs at the North Pole would weigh 57.0lbs
mass we must use the equation:
at a place on the equator. The body at either pole is slightly closer to the centre
of the earth than at the equator. The pull of the earth on the body is greater at the
poles and slightly smaller at other places on the earth. However, we usually M = W/g or W = mg
neglect this slight difference.
The mass of a body can be measured in slugs or kilograms and it’s weight in
pounds or Newtons. The equation relating mass and weight is:

Weight (w) = Mass (m) x gravity (g)

With regards to weight, we should note that 2.2lbs equals 1kg. Hence 2.2lbs is
the weight of the substance and 1kg is the mass.

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MODULE 2

DENSITY
Equal volumes of different substances vary considerably in their mass. For
instance aircraft are made chiefly from aluminium alloys which, volume for When measuring the density of a gas, temperature and pressure must be
volume, have a mass half that of steel, but are just as strong. The lightness or considered. Standard conditions for the measurement of gas density is
heaviness of a material is referred to as its density. established as 0 C and a pressure of 29.9 inches of mercury which is the

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average pressure of the atmosphere at sea level.

Density ( ) = Mass kg/m3 or g/cm3


Volume

Other algebraic forms of this same equation are:

m= V or V=m

The density of a substance is its weight per unit volume. The density of solids
and liquids varies with temperature. However, the density of a gas varies with
temperature and pressure. To find the density of a substance, divide the
weight (mass) of the substance by its volume. See above.

Example:
The liquid which fills a certain container weighs 1,497.6 pounds. The container
is 4ft long, 3ft wide and 2ft deep. Therefore its volume is 24 cubic ft. based on
this the liquids density is 62.4lbs/ft3

1, 497.6
62.4 pounds per cubic foot =
24ft 3

Because the density of solids and liquids vary with temperature, a standard
temperature of 4 C is used when measuring the density of each. Although
temperature changes do not change the volume of a substance through
thermal expansion or contraction. This changes a substances weight per unit
volume.

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MODULE 2

SPECIFIC GRAVITY
It is often necessary to compare the density of one substance with that of
another. For this reason, a standard is needed from which all other materials
can be compared. The standard when comparing the densities of all liquids
and\solids is water at 4 C. The standard for gases is air.

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In physics the word “specific” refers to a ratio. Therefore, specific gravity is
calculated by comparing the weight of a definite volume of substance with the
weight of an equal volume of water. The following formulas are used to find
specific gravity (sp. gr.) of liguids and solids.

sp. gr. = Weight of a Substance


Weight of equal volume of Water

sp. gr. = Density of a Substance


Density of Water

The same formulas are used to find the density of gases by substituting air for
water. Specific gravity is not expressed in units, but as a pure number.
A device called a hydrometer is used to measure the specfic gravity of liquids.
This device has a tubular shaped glass float contained in a larger glass tube.
The float is weighted and has a vertically graduated scale. The scale is read at
the surface of the liquid in which the float is immersed. A reading of 1000 is
shown when the float is immersed in pure water. When filled with a liquid
having a density greater than pure water, the float rises and indicates a greater
specific gravity. For liquids of lesser density, the float sinks below 1000.

The specfic gravity of a liquid is measured with a hydrometer.

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MODULE 2

Liquids Kg/m3 Slug/ft3 Oak 720 1.4


Water 1000 1.940 Ebony 1200 2.33
Sea Water 1030 2.00
Benzine 879 1.71

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Alcohol 789 1.53
Non--Metals Kg/m3 Slug/ft3
Gasoline 680 1.32
Ice (32degF, 0degC) 922 1.79
Kerosene 800 1.55
Sulpuric Acid 1831 3.55 Concrete 2300 4.48
Mercury 13600 26.3 Glass 2,600 4.97
Granite 2700 5.25

Metals Kg/m3 Slug/ft3


Aluminium 2700 5.25

Cast Iron 7200 14.0


Copper 8890 17.3
Gold 19300 37.5
Lead 11340 22.0
Nickel 8850 17.2
Silver 10500 20.4
Steel 7800 15.1
Tungsten 19000 37.0
Zinc 7140 13.9
Brass 8700 16.9

Woods Kg/m3 Slug/ft3


Balsa 130 0.25
Pine 480 0.93
Maple 640 1.24

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MODULE 2

PRESSURE
Pressure is defined as the force divided by the area on which the force acts.
For example, the pressure exerted on the ground by a body depends on the
area of the body in contact with the ground. A person wearing ice skates will
exert a far greater pressure than a person wearing shoes.

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The equation defining presssure is:
Pressure = Force or Force = Pressure × Area
Area

Example:
On a day when the atmosphere pressure is 14.8 lbs./in2, what is the force
acting on a desk top having an area of 240in2

Force = Pressure × Area = 14.8lbs./in2 x 240in2


Force = 3,5550lbs.

The molecules making up a gas are in ceaseless motion. They collide and
rebound from any solid surface which they encounter. These collisions result in
a net push or force on the surface. As we have said, this force, divided by the
area of the surface over which it is exerted, is called pressure.
The metric unit of pressure is the N/m2 (Newton per square metre) which is
less than the pressure a sheet exerts on you while you lie in bed. This pressure
(1 N/m2) has been named the Pascal (Pa) in honour of the french scientist and
mathematician, Blaise Pascal, who did much to advance our knowledge of
fluids. The pascal is a very small unit expressed in thousands of Pascals or
KiloPascal (KPa). For example, normal atmospheric pressure is nearly 101
KPa. Another unit just about equal to normal atmospheric pressure is the bar.
Our bar is defined to be 100 KPa.
The English unit of pressure is the lbs./ft2 or the lbs./in2 (psi). Another unit of
pressure is the atmosphere (atm) which equals 14.7 lbs./in2.

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MODULE 2
Atmospheric Pressure Absolute & gauge pressure
On our earth, we live under a blanket of air. The density of air decreases with All of the pressure measuring instruments which the aircraft mechanic is likely to
altitude. At sea level, the average atmospheric pressure is 14.7 lbs./in2. Various use are designed to register the extent to which the pressure being measured
types of barometers are used to measure atmospheric pressure. differs from the ambient pressure. The term “ambient pressure” refers to the
pressure in the area immediately surrounding the object under study.

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The mercury barometer is a narrow vertical glass tube which is inverted in a dish For example, a tyre gauge registering 32.0lbs./in2 is telling us that the pressure
of mercury. The small space above the mercury column is a perfect inside the tyre is 32.0lbs./in2 greater than the pressure outside the tyre. On a day
vacuum. As the air molecules bombard the surface of the mercury in the dish, they when the atmospheric pressure is 14.6lbs./in2, the actual pressure the gas is
balance the mercury in the column since there are no bombarding exerting on the inner walls of the tyre is 46.6lbs./in2 (32.0 + 14.6).
molecules above the mercury in the column. The height of the mercury column The actual pressure the gas is exerting on the walls of its container is called the
varies slightly from day to day as the atmospheric pressure changes. At absolute pressure. The general relation which connects gauge pressure, absolute
standard pressure (14.7 lbs./in2) the mercury column is 760mm high. In the pressure and atmospheric pressure is:
English system the height of the mercury column is 29.92 inches. Sometimes we
use the height of mercury (Hg) column as a unit for stating pressure.
Pabs = Pg + Patm
We can say:
The zero on the absolute pressure scale is the pressure exerted by a perfect
1 Atmosphere = 14.7 = 760 mmHg = 29.92 inHg vaccuum.
Let assume that the atmoshepric pressure on a certain day is 15lbs./in2. The table
(Note: Since mercury expands with an increase in ambient temperature, the below gives the gauge pressure and the absolute pressure for several different
barometer must be corrected to that which it would read at the accepted value of examples.
room temperature 20 C or 68 F)
The equation Pabs = Pg + Patm is satisfied in each entry.

Absolute Pressure Gauge Pressure


lb/in2 lb/in2
Inside a tyre 49 34
Pressure cooker 35 20
Outside air 15 0
Cabin pressure of an a/c 11 --4
Perfect vacuum 0 --15

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MODULE 2

TEMPERATURE These are also formulas that change from centigrade reading to a Kelvin
reading and from a Fahrenheit reading to a Rankin reading. These formulas are
Our common notion of hot and cold has its precise expression in the concept of very important to us at this time since we will have to use absolute
temperature. As objects are heated their molecules move faster. In a solid the temperatures in the gas laws.
molecules vibrate more rapidly. In liquids and gases the molecules move all over
in the container at a faster rate of speed. These variations in speed of the

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molecules cause objects to expand when they are heated. These formulas are
This expansion can be used to construct instruments called thermometers. The
ordinary mercury thermometer uses the expansion of a volume of mercury K = C + 273 and R = F + 460
contained in a bulb to indicate temperature.
A number of temperature scales are currently in use. The Fahrenheit scale is the
we have used most extensively. On this scale the freezing point of water is 32 Boiling point Freezing Absolute
and its boiling point is 212 . The metric scale is the Celsius or centigrade scale. of Water point of Water zero
On this scale the freezing point of water is zero and the boiling point is 100 .
Centigrade 100deg 0deg --273deg
In theory, if we cool any substance enough, we can cause all molecular motion to
cease. We call this lowest possible temperature “absolute zero”. Ordinary gases Kelvin 373 273 0
like air would be rock soild at this temperature. Low temperature physicists have Fahrenheit 212deg 32deg --460deg
never been able to reach this extremely low temperature in their laboratories.
Rankin 672deg 492deg 0deg
However, they have come close to a fraction of a centigrade degree. Absolute zero
is a limiting temperature which can never be reached. Two other temperature
scales are used by engineering and experimental scientists. In both of these Note:
scales the zero of the scale is placed at absolute zero, the coldest possible
temperature. These scales are the metric Kelvin scale and the English Rankin Kelvin hasd no sign infront of the K.
scale. The accurate conversion factor for C to K is +273.15.
There are formulas that enable us to change from centigrade reading to a
Fahrenheit reading and vice versa. These formulas are:

C = 5 (F 32) and F = 9 + 32
9 5

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MODULE 2

Solve the following problems


14. Change 450oR to degrees F.
1. What is the mass of a body having a weight of 45N.
15. 20 tons of jet A fuel has a specific gravity of 0.8, the calculate the volume of
2. What is the weight of a body having a mass of 23kg. volume in litres.

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3. What is the mass of a body having a weight of 350lbs. 16. What is the mass of 18000 litres of Jet A fuel having a Sp Gr of 0.8.

4. What is the weight of a body having a mass of 23.6 slugs.

5. What is the weight (in lbs) of the corn flakes in a box where the mass is
listed as 680g.

6. What is the mass in grams of 2.5 lbs of grease.

7. What is the specific gravity of kerosene.

8. what is the specific gravity of aluminium.

9. What is the weight of 85 gallons of kerosene.

10. On a day when the barometric (or atmospheric) pressure is 14.9 lbs/in2 and
the pressure gauge on a tyre reads 34.6 lbs/in2, what is the absolute pressure
inside this tyre.

11. If the absolute pressure inside a tyre is 55.0 lbs/in2 and the pressure gauge
reads 40.3 lbs/in2, what is the atmospheric pressure.

12. Change 20oC to degrees F.

13. Change 86oF to degrees C

14. Change 383 K to degrees C

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MODULE 2

3. WORK, POWER & FORCE


Work, power, force & motion are important concepts of physics. As an aircraft FORCE
maintenance technician, you must understand these concepts and be able to
use the associated formulae to fully comprehend simple machines like pulleys, The word “force” generally denotes a push or a pull. When a body is acted
upon by a resultant force it will begin to move. If the body is already moving a

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levers or gears.
force may alter its speed, direction or bring it to rest. We therefore define force
WORK as follows:
Force is that which changes a body’s state of rest or of uniform motion in a
In ordinary conversation the word “work” refers to almost any kind of physical
straight line.
or mental activity, but in science and mathematics it has one meaning only.
Work is done when a force produces motion. An engine pulling a train does
work, so does a crane when it raises a load against the pull of the earth. Many machines use a mechanical advantage to change the amount of force
Similarly, a workman who is employed to carry bricks up a ladder and on to a required to move an object. Some of the simplest mechanical advantage
scaffold platform also performs work. devices used are levers, inclined planes, pulleys and gears.
Work is said to be done when the point of application of a force moves and is
measured by the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction Mechanical advantage is calculated by dividing the weight, or resistance (R) of
of the force. an object by the effort (E) used to move the object. This is seen in the formula:
Work (Joules) = Force (Newtons) x Distance (metres)
Mechanical Advantage (MA) = Resistance (R)
In the metric system the unit of work is the Joule. One joule is the work done Effort (E)
by a force of one Newton acting through a distance of one metre. In the
English system, work is typically measured in Foot--pounds. One foot--pound
is equal to one pound of force applied to an object through the distance of one A mechanical advantage of 4 indicates that for every 1 pound of force applied,
foot. you are able to move 4 pounds of resistance.
One pound is equal to 4.448 newtons.
We define can define two types of “mechanical advantage”. the actual mechanical
Example: advantage (AMA) this is the ratio of the output force to the input force. The actual
If you wish to calculate the work done by a man of mass 65 kg in climbing a mechanical advantage tells us how much easier it is for the worker. The ideal
ladder 4m high, convert weight to newtons by multiplying 9.8 (acceleration of mechanical advantage (IMA) is the mechanical advantage that would exist if there
gravity). were no friction in the machine. It is the ratio of input distance to the output
distance.
Work = (65 x 9.8) x 4
= 2,548 Joules AMA = F0 ÷ Fi IMA = Di ÷ D0

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MODULE 2
Example:
A worker is able to raise a body weighing 300lbs. By applying a force of 75lbs. what
is the AMA of the machine that he is using.

AMA = F0 ÷ Fi

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= 300 ÷ 75
= 4

A worker applied his force through a distance of 15ft. The load is raised a distance
of 2.5ft. What is the IMA of the machine that he used.

IMA = Di ÷ D0
= 15 ÷ 2.5
= 6

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MODULE 2

LEVERS
A lever is a device used to gain a mechanical advantage. In its basic form, the
lever is a seesaw that has a weight at each end. The weight on one end of the
seesaw tends to rotate the board counter--clockwise while the weight on the
other end tends to rotate the board clockwise. Each weight produces a

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moment or turning force. The moment of an object is calculated by multiplying
the objects weight by the distance the object is from the balance point or
fulcrum.
A lever is balanced when the algebraic sum of the moments is zero. In other
words, a 10 pound weight located six feet to the left of a fulcrum has a moment
of negative 60 foot--pounds while a10 pound weight located six feet to the right
of a fulcrum has a moment of positive 60 foot--pounds. Since the sum of the
moments is zero, the lever is balanced.

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MODULE 2
First--Class Lever
The figure below illustrates a practical application of a first--class lever. The
end of a four foot bar is placed under a 100--pound weight, so the fulcrum is
6inches from the weights centre of gravity. This leaves 3.5 feet between the
weight and the point at which the force, or effort is applied. When effort (E) is
applied, it acts in the direction opposite the weights movement. To calculate

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the amount of effort (E) required to lift the weight, you must calculate the
moments on each side of the fulcrum.
This is done using the formula:
L=R
l E
Where:
L = length of effort arm
l = length of resistance arm
R = resistance
Although less effort is required to lift 100--pound weight, a lever does not
E = effort force
reduce the amount of work done. Remember, work is the product of force and
distance therefore, when you examine the ratio of the distances moved on
3.5ft either side of the fulcrum, you notice that the effort arm must move 21 inches
= 100lbs to move the resistance arm 3 inches. The work done on each side is the
0.5ft E
same.

3.5 × E = 0.5 × 100


3in x 100lbs = 21in x 14.28lbs
(0.5 × 100)
E= 300in--lbs = 300in--lbs
3.5
E = 14.28 pounds

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MODULE 2
Second--Class Lever
Unlike the first class lever, the second class lever has the fulcrum at one end of
the lever and effort is applied to the opposite end. The resistance, or weight, is
typically placed near the fulcrum between the two ends. The most common sec-
ond class lever is the wheelbarrow. When using a wheelbarrow, the lever, or
handle, is used to gain mechanical advantage to reduce the effort required to carry

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a load. For example, if a wheelbarrow has 200 pounds of weight
concentrated 12 inches from the wheel axle and effort is applied 48inches from the
axle, only 50 pounds of effort is needed to lift the weight. You can calculate this
by using the same relationship derived for a first class lever. The
mechanical advantage gained using a second class lever is the same as that
gained when using a first class lever. The only difference is that the resistance and
effort on the second class lever move in the same direction.

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MODULE 2
Third--Class Lever
In aviation, the third class lever is primarily used to move a resistance a greater
distance than the effort applied. This is accomplished by applying the effort
between the fulcrum and the resistance. However, when doing this, a greater
effort is required to produce movement. An example of a third class lever is a
landing gear retracting mechanism. The effort required to retract the landing

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gear is applied near the fulcrum while the resistance is at the opposite end of
the lever.

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MODULE 2
Inclined Planes Example
Another way to gain mechanical advantage is through the inclined plane. An Determine the amount of effort required to roll a 500 pound barrel up a 12 foot
inclined plane achieves an advantage by allowing a large resistance to be inclined plane to platform that is 4 feet high.
moved by a small effort over a long distance. The amount of effort required is
calculated through the formula:

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L=R
l E

Where:
L = length of the ramp
l = height of the ramp
R = weight or resistance of the object
E = effort required to raise or lower the object

By using an inclined plane, 500 pounds of resistance is moved by an effort of


166.7 pounds. The mechanical advantage gained is the ratio of the ramp to
the height of the platform 3:1.

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MODULE 2

Solve the following problems

1. Find the mass of an object which accelerates at 5m/s2 when acted on by a 11. How much work is done in raising a 45kg body a distance of 3m and how
net force of one newton. many kilowatts of power are required to do this work in 30 seconds.

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2. Find the acceleration of a 3 slug object experiencing a net force of 12lbs. 12. An aircraft engine weighing 12,000N is lifted by a 3.6Kw motor a distance
of 10m. What timme was needed.
3. Find the net force on a 5 slug object which is accelerating at 3ft/m2 .
13. A hand powered hoist is used to lift an aircraft engine weighing 3,000lbs a
vertical distance of 8ft. If the worker required 4 minutes to do this. what
4. A learjet model 24 of mass 6000 kg is observed to accelerate at the start of horsepower was developed by the mechanic.
its take off at 4m/s2 , what is the net forward force acting on the plane at this
time.
14. How long does it take a 5Kw to raise a load weighing 6,000lbs a vertical
distance of 20ft. (convert Kw to ft.lb/sec).
5. It takes a force of 80lbs to raise a body that weighs 240lbs. What is the
actual mechanical advantage of the machine that was used.

6. A load is raised a distance of 6ft by a force acting through a distance of 18ft.


What is the ideal mechanical advantage of the machine that was used.

7. How much work is done by a person in raising a 45lb bucket of water from
the bottom of a well that is 75ft deep, assume the speed of the bucket as it is
lifted is constant.

8. A tugboat exerts a constant force of 5,000N on a ship moving at constant


speed through a harbour. How much work does the tugboat do on the ship in a
distance of 3Km.

9. A father has his son on his shoulders who has a mass of 25kg, he lowers the
child slowly to the ground, a distance of 6ft. How much work does the father
do.

10. How much power is used by the father, if it takes him 3 seconds to lower
the child.

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4. PULLEYS
Pulleys are another type of simple machine that allow you to gain mechanical ad-
vantage. A single fixed pulley is identical to a first class lever. The fulcrum is the
centre of the pulley and the arms that extend outward from the fulcrum are identical

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in length. Therefore, the mechanical advantage of a single fixed pulley is 1. When
using a pulley in this fashion, the effort required to raise an object is equal to the
objects weight.
If a single pulley is not fixed, it takes on the characteristics of a second class lever.
In other words, both the effort and weight act in the same direction. When a pulley
is used this way, a mechanical advantage of 2 is gained.
A common method used to determine the mechanical advantage of a pulley sys-
tem is to count the number of ropes that move or support a moveable pulley.
Another thing to keep in mind when using pulleys is that as mechanical
advantage is gained, the distance the effort is applied increases. In other words,
with a mechanical advantage of 2, for every 1 foot the resistance moves, effort
must be applied to 2 feet of rope. This relationship holds true wherever using a
pulley system to gain mechanical advantage.

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MODULE 2

5. GEARS
There is no application of the basic machine that is used more than the gear.
The gear is used in clocks and watches, in automobiles and aircraft, and in just
about every type of mechanical device. Gears are used to gain mechanical

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advantage, or to change the direction of movement.
To gain a mechanical advantage when using gears, the number of teeth on
either the drive gear or driven gear is varied. For example, if both the drive
gear and the driven gear have the identical number of teeth, no mechanical
advantage is gained. However, if a drive gear has 50 teeth and a driven gear
has 100 teeth a mechanical advantage of 2 is gained. In other words, the
amount of power required to turn the driven gear is reduced by half.
Another thing to keep in mind is that the revolution ratio between two gears is
opposite the ratio of their teeth. Using the earlier example of a drive gear with External spur gears provide a mechanical advantage and reverse the rotational
50 teeth, and a driven gear with 100 teeth, the gear ratio is 1:2. However, for direction of the drive shafts. However, a spur gear system with internal teeth
every one turn of the drive gear the driven gear makes one--half turn. This provides a mechanical advantage without reversing the rotational direction.
results in a revolution ratio of 2:1.

SPUR GEARS
There are many types of gears in use. Spur gears their teeth cut straight
across their circumference and are used to connect two parallel shafts. When
both gears have external teeth, the shafts turn in opposite directions. If it is
necessary for both shafts to turn in the same direction, one gear must have
internal teeth.

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MODULE 2

BEVEL GEARS WORM GEARS


If a drive shaft and driven shaft are not parallel to each other, bevel gears are When an extreme amount of mechanical advantage is needed. a worm gear is
used. However, because the teeth on bevel gears are external, the used. A worm gear uses a spiral ridge around a shaft for the drive gear with
rotational direction of each shaft is opposite. Tail rotor gear boxes on the shafts usually at right angles to each other. One complete rotation of the
helicopters typically use bevel gears. drive shaft moves the driven gear one tooth.

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A worm gear system provides a very high mechanical advantage.

With bevel gears, the angle between the drive shaft is typically 90 degrees.
However, the angle can be any value less the 180 degrees.

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MODULE 2

SUN AND PLANET GEARS


Planetary gears system are typically used to reduce the propeller shaft speed
on more powerful aircraft engines. This allows the engine to turn at a higher
rpm and develop more more. In a planetary gear system, the propeller mounts
on a spider like cage that holds the planetary gears. These planetary gears

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rotate around a fixed central sun gear.

In a planetary gear system, the propeller mounts to a cage that holds the
planetary gears. As the ring gear turns, the planetary gears rotate around a
fixed sun gear.
In some planetary gear systems, the sun gear is the drive gear and the ring
gear is fixed in the nose section of the engine. In this situation, the planetary
gears act as simple idler gears in the system.

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MODULE 2

6. STRESS AND STRAIN


When an external force acts on a body, it is opposed by an internal force called
stress. The English measure for stress is pounds per square foot, or pounds
per square inch. Stress is shown as the ratio:

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Stress = External Force
Area of Applied Force

There are different types of stress in mechanical bodies. They are Tension,
Compression, Torsion, Bending and Shear.

TENSION
Tension describes forces that tend to pull an object apart. Flexible steel cable
used in aircraft control systems is an example of a component that is designed
to withstand tension loads. Steel cable is easily bent and has little opposition
to other types of stress. However, when subjected to purely tensional load it
performs exceptionally well.

COMPRESSION
Compression is the resistance to an external force that tries to push an object
together. Aircraft rivets are driven with a compressive force. When
compression stresses are applied to a rivet, the rivet shank expands until it fills
the hole and forms a butt to hold materials together.

An aircraft rivet is upset by the application of compression


stresses

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BENDING TORSION
In flight, the force of lift tries to bend an aircraft’s wings upward. When this A torsional stress is applied to a material when it is twisted. Torsion is actually
happens the skin on top of the wing is subjected to a compression force, while a combination of both tension and compression. For example, when an object
the skin below the wing is pulled by a tension force. When the aircraft is on the is subjected to torsional stress, torsional stress, torsional stresses operate
ground the force of gravity reverses the stresses. In this case, the top of the diagonally across the object while compression stresses act at right angles to

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wing is submitted to tension stress while the lower skin experiences the tension stresses.
compression stress. An engine crankshaft is a component whose primary stress is torsion. The
pistons pushing down on the connecting rods rotate the crankshaft against the
opposition caused by the propeller. The resulting stresses attempt to twist the
crankshaft.

Like torsional stress, bending stresses are a combination of tension


and compression.

Torsional stresses are a combination of tension and compres-


sion stresses.

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SHEAR STRAIN
A shear stress tries to slice a body apart. A clevis bolt in an aircraft control As stated earlier, stress is a force within an object that opposes an applied
system is designed to withstand shear loads. Clevis bolts are made of a high external force. Strain is the deformation of an object that is caused by stress.
strength steel and are fitted with a thin nut that is held in place by a cotter pin. Hooke’s law states that if strain does not exceed the elastic limit of a body, it is
Whenever a control cable moves, shear forces are applied to the bolt. directly proportional to the applied stress. This fact allows beams and springs

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However, when no force is present, the clevis bolt is free to turn in its hole. to be used as measuring devices. For example, as force is applied to a hand
torque wrench, its deformation, or bending, is directly proportional to the strain
it is subjected to. Therefore, the amount of torque deflection can be measured
and used as an indication of the amount of stress applied to a bolt.
Stress and strain will be covered in more detail in the chapter on Hooke’s Law.

When the control cable moves, the forces created attempt to


slice the bolt apart, or shear it.

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MODULE 2

7. NEWTON’S LAWS
Introduction The importance of the law of inertia is that it trells us what to expect in the
The rapid advance in aviation in the first half of the last century can be absence of forces, either rest (no motion) or straight line motion at constant
attributed in large part to a science of motion which was presented to the world speed. A passenger’s uncomfortable experience of being thrown forward when

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three centuries ago by Sir Isaac Newton, a British physicist. Published in 1686, an aircraft comes to a sudden stop at the terminal is an example of this
Newton’s treatise on motion, the Principia, showed how all observed motions principle in action. A more violent example is the collision of a vehicle with a
could explain on the basis of three laws. The application of these laws have stationary object. The vehicle is often brought to an abrupt stop.
led to great technological advances in the aerodynamics, structure and Uncontrained passengers continue to move with the velocity they had just prior
powerplant of aircraft. It is safe to say that any future improvements in the to the collision only to be brought to rest ( all too frequently with tragic
performance of aircraft will be based on these laws. consequences) by surfaces within the vehicles (dashboards, windshields, etc.).
A less dramatic example of Newton’s first law comes from the invigorating
NEWTON’S FIRST LAW activity of shovelling snow. Scooping up a shovel full of snow, a person swings
The old magicians trick of pulling a cloth out from under a full table setting is the shovel and then brings it to a sudden stop. The snow having acquired the
not only a reflection of the magicians skill but also an affirmation of a natural velocity of the shovel continues its motion leaving the shovel and going off onto
tendency which dishes and silverware share with all matter. This natural the snow pile.
tendency for objects at rest to remain at rest can be attested to by any child
who ever tried kicking a large rock out of the path.
It is also a well known fact that once a gun is fired, the command “stop” has no
effect on the bullet. Only the intervention of some object can stop or deflect it
from its course. This characteristic of matter to persist in its state of rest or
continue in whatever state of motion it happens to be in is called inertia. This
property is the basis of a principle of motion which was first enunciated by
Galileo in the early part of the 17th century and later adopted by Newton as his
first law of motion.
The first law of motion is called the law of inertia. It states:
A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion continues to move at
a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force.

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MODULE 2

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW NEWTON’S THIRD LAW


A Learjet accelerates down the runway a distance 3,000ft, takes off and begins Newton’s third law is sometimes referred to as the law of action and reaction.
its climb at 6,000ft/min quickly reaching a cruising altitude of 35,000ft, where it This law focuses on the fact that forces, the pushes and pulls responsible for
levels off at a speed of 260 knots. Subsequently, the aircraft may have to both the stability of structures as well as the acceleration of an object, arise
perform a variety of manoeuvres involving changes in heading, elevation and from the interaction of two objects. A push, for example, must involve two

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speed. Every aspect of the aircraft’s motion is governed by the external forces objects, the object being pushed and the object doing the pushing.
acting on its wings, fuselage, control surfaces and powerplant. The skilled pilot
using his controls continually adjusts these forces to make the aircraft perform
Newton’s third law states:
as desired.
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
The interplay between force and motion is the subject of Newton’s Second law.
An understanding of this law not only provides insight into the flight of an air- The thirds law states that no matter what the circumstances, when one object
craft, but allows us to analyse the motion of any object. exerts a force on a second object the second must exert an equal and
oppositely directed force on the first. an apple hanging from a tree is pulled by
the earth with a force which we call its weight. Newton’s third law tells us that
Newton’s second law states: the apple must pull back on the earth with an exactly equal force. The weight
The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the applied of the apple is a force on the apple by the earth, directed downward.
force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. The force which the apple exerts back on the eart, is a pull on the earth
directed upward. Another force acting on the apple is the upward pull exerted
Forcenet = Mass x Acceleration = F = ma by the branch. The law of action and reaction tells us that the apple must be
pulling down on the branch with the same magnitude of force.
Poeple are often confused by this principle because it implies, for instance, that
An increase in velocity with time is measured in the metric system in m/sec. In
in a tug of war the winning team pulls no harder than the losing team. Equally
the English system it is measured in ft/sec. This is an important relationship
enigmatic is how a horse and wagon manage to move forward if the wagon
when working with the acceleration of gravity. For example, if a body is
pulls back on the horse with the same force the horse pulls forward on the
allowed to fall freely under the effect of gravity, it accelerates uniformly at 32.17
wagon. We can understand the results of the tug of war by realising that the
ft/sec every second it falls.
motion of the winning team (or losing team) is not determined exclusively by
The second law states that a net or unbalanced force acting on an object the pull of the other team, but also the force which the ground generates on the
equals the mass of the object times the acceleration of that object. team members feet when they “dig in”. Recall, it is the net force, the sum of all
the acting forces which determine the motion of an object.

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8. THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION & CIRCULAR MOTION


SPEED & VELOCITY ACCELERATION
When a body is moving in a straight line with constant speed it is not Extending our treatment of motion to include the concept of acceleration.
accelerating. We say, that it is moving with constant velocity. If a body’s Acceleration (for straight line motion) is the rate of change of speed in time.

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velocity is not constant, it is accelerating. A body accelerates if it is changing We define acceleration (for straight line motion) in the following:
its speed and/or its direction.
When we discuss a body’s straight line motion, then we do not have any a = v -- u
change in direction. In this instance, any acceleration is due to a change in
t
speed.
In using this formula, acceleration (a) may be either positive or negative. If
Special formulas which deal with straight line motion use certain symbols to
final velocity (v) is less than initial velocity (u), then our value of acceleration (a)
represent specific quantities. These symbols are summarised below:
turns out to be a negative number.

Vav = average velocity


t = time Example:
u = initial velocity The formulas i through iv are used in many practical physics problems. Each
formula involves four quantities. When a problem is given to you to solve, be
v = final velocity
sure to determine which of these three quantities are given to you, and which
a = acceleration quantity is to be found. Choose the formula which involves these four
s = distance covered * quantities. If the formula is not solved for the unknown quantity, solve for this
* Note that “s” is the traditional notation for distance in almost all physics quantity algebraically. Finally substitute the known quantities and solve for the
textbooks. This choice reduces confusion with the symbol “d” for derivative, a unknown quantity.
concept from calculus.
There is a formula dealing with the motion of a body that you have used for
many years.
distance (s) = average speed (Vav) x time (t)
Using our above symbols, we could write:
s = Vav x t
Note for the rate, we have used the average speed. We all know that even
though sometimes speed changes, we can always talk about the average
speed. If we travel at an average speed of 50 mph for 6 hours, we cover 300
miles.

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Example: Example:
An automobile has an initial speed of 50ft/sec and a final speed of 75ft/sec. A body started from rest and has been falling freely for 3 seconds. At what
While it is undergoing this change of speed, it travels a distance of 125ft. What speed is it falling?
is its acceleration? u=0 t = 3sec a = 32ft/sec2 V=?
In attacking this problem it is wise to write down exactly what is known and

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what is unknown.
Use formula ii,
u = 50ft/sec v = 75ft/sec
v = u + at
s = 125ft a=?
v = 0 + 32 x 3
Formula iv involves these four quantities. Note that i, ii, iii do not involve these
v = 96ft/sec or 65mph
exact four quantities.

v2 = u2 + 2as

Some numerical data should clarify the preceding statements. If a compact body,
such as a stone, is dropped (not thrown) from a height of 324ft above the surface
ofthe earth, it will take about 4.5 secs for the body to reach the ground. it will have
obtained a speed of 144ft/sec (98mph). At this speed, the effects of air resistance
are still quite negligible. Above this speed 144ft/sec (98mph), the effects of air re-
sistance must be observed.
Therefore, we can conclude that the fall of a body from a height of 324ft or less
can be handled quite accurately with the ordinary acceleration formulas. The
value of the acceleration will be either 9.8m/sec2 or 32ft/sec2 if the body is
rising and therefore decreasing its speed the values of the acceleration will be
--9.8m/sec2 or 32ft/sec2.
If a body falls from a height greater than 324ft above the surface of the earth, the
air resistance becomes very important. As we have said, a height of 324ft corre-
sponds to a fall of 4.5secs. When the time of fall increases to about 8 secs, the
speed of fall has increased in a non--linear manner from 98mph to 115mph. As
the time of fall increases beyond 8 seconds the speed of fall
remains constant at about 115mph. This speed of fall is called the “terminal veloc-
ity”.

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MODULE 2

CIRCULAR MOTION
A ball whirled in a circle experiences an acceleration toward the centre of the Example:
circle. This can be proven by considering that the ball is continually changing What centripetal force is needed to keep a 3 slug ball moving in a circular path
direction as it moves in a circle. Newton’s first law tells us that the ball would of radius 2ft and speed 4ft/sec.
prefer to follow a straight path, and that for it to deviate from a straight path,

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force must be applied.
Centripetal Force (F) = Mass (m) x Velocity2 (V2)
It is a direct result of Newton’s first law that a hammer thrower must continually
Radius (R)
pull towards the centre of rotation, appying his full weight to make the hammer
accelerate continually towards the centre of rotation. As soon as the athlete
stops applying the force towards the centre (releases the hammer) the hammer
travels in a straight line, at a tangent to the circle.
The acceleration is in the same direction as the force which makes it move in a
circle. This force is called centripetal force (from the Latin meaning centre
seeking). Since we have a constant change in the direction of the motion of
the hammer, we have a constant acceleration. This is called centripetal
acceleration and can be calculated by the square of the velocity divided by the
radius of the circular path.

Centripetal Acceleration = Velocity2 (V2)


Radius (R)

For circular motion,


Centripetal Force (F) = Mass (m) x Velocity2 (V2)
Radius (R)

Newton’s second law when applied to bodies moving in a circular path states
that the force directed toward the centre of the path must equal the mass of the
body times the square of the speed of the body divided by the radius of the
path. This force is called the centripetal force.

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MODULE 2

PENDULAR MOTION
General Movement of a pendulum
A pendulum is a weight, suspended in the earth’s gravitational field which is Observations taken during experiments show that, provided the pendulum has
free to pivot at it’s top end. Pendular motion describes the movement which a displacement of only a few degrees, then the periodic time remains constant
the pendulum will undergo if it is given a small displacement from it’s vertical even as the movement slows down. This observation was first made by the

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position and is then allowed to swing freely under gravity. For experimental physicist Galileo Gallilei in Italy in the 17th century and he was quick to realise
purposes, a pendulum can be constructed by attaching a small weight to a that the pendulum could be very useful in the manufacture of clocks which up
piece of non extendible string and suspending the string by it’s top end. to that time were not particularly accurate. It can also be observed that the
mass of the bob makes no difference to the periodic time. This can be readily
Terminology seen when two people of different sizes sit on swings in a park and, as long as
When describing pendular motion the angular displacement of the pendulum the swings are the same length, they will swing with the same periodic time. If,
from it’s rest position to it’s maximum swing position is known as the angular however we change the length of one of the swings then the shorter one will
amplitude and one complete swing to and fro is known as one oscillation or have a reduced periodic time compared to the longer one. We can describe
vibration. The length of the pendulum is defined as the distance from the pivot this relationship by saying that the square of the periodic time is
point to the centre of gravity of the bob and the time taken to complete one proportional to the length of the pendulum.
oscillation is referred to as the periodic time. 2
Or in mathematical terms T = Constant
l

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Pivot

Pendulum
Length.

Amplitude Bob

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Figure 1 A Simple Pendulum
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MODULE 2

9. FRICTION & ENERGY


FRICTION Coefficients of Friction
When a body rests on a horizontal surface or is dragged or rolled on such a Material mu Start mu Slide
surface there is always contact between the lower body surface and the

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horizontal surface. This contact results in friction. Friction is work done as the Steel on Steel 0.15 0.09
surfaces rub against each other. This work heats the surface and always Steel on Ice 0.03 0.01
results in wasted work.
Leather on Wood 0.5 0.4
We need to define a force known as the normal force. A body resting on a
horizontal surface experiences two forces, the downward force due to the Oak on Oak 0.5 0.3
gravitational pull of the earth on the body (weight of the body), and the upward Rubber on dry Concrete 1.0 0.7
push of the surface itself on the body (the normal force).
Rubber on wet Concrete 0.7 0.5
The weight (w) and the normal force (N) are equal to each other. There are
three kinds of friction:
1. Starting friction -- is present at the instant when a body, which has been at The coefficient of starting friction -- start
rest, just begins to move under the application of a force. Sometimes this The coefficient of sliding friction -- slide
instant when the body begins to slide is called “break away”.
2. Sliding friction -- is present as a body is sliding over another surface. Sliding
Coefficients of sliding friction are less than the coefficients of starting friction.
friction is present when the surface of the body and the surface on which it
This means that the force needed to start a body sliding is greater than the
slides are moving relative to each other.
force needed to keep a body sliding with constant speed.
3. Rolling friction -- is present between a rolling body and the surface on which
When we deal with a body that rolls over a flat surface, we have another
it rolls. As in the case of sliding friction, the body and surface are moving
coefficient of friction to consider, the coefficient of rolling friction.
relative to each other.
The coefficients of rolling friction ( roll) are very small. Therefore rolling friction
In all three cases, the friction equation is the same.
is much smaller than either starting or sliding friction.

F = N
Rubber tyres on dry concrete 0.02
Roller bearings 0.001 to 0.003
The symbol (the Greek letter mu) is called the coefficient of friction. Every
pair of flat surfaces has two different coefficients of friction.

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Lufthansa Resource EASA PART 66
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MODULE 2
Example:
A steel body weighing 100lbs is resting on a horizontal steel surface. how many
pounds of force are necessary to start the body sliding. What force is
necessary to keep this body sliding at constant speed?

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w = N = 100lbs
F= N

Force to start sliding motion = 0.15 x 100lbs = 15lbs


Force to keep body sliding = 0.09 x 100lbs = 9lbs

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PHYSICSP
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MODULE 2

ENERGY
General Gravitational Potential Energy
The concept of energy is one of the most important concepts in all of physical Another equally important situation where an agent easily can do work on a
science. We often hear of energy sourses, alternate energy, shortage of body occurs when the agent raises a body vertically in a gravitational field, at
energy, conservation of energy, light energy, heat energy, electrical energy, the surface of the earth. In this case, the work done on the body again equals

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sound energy, etc. so what is the meaning of the word “energy”. the force applied multiplied by the distance the body is raised.
Energy is defined as the “Capacity to do Work”. This definition is only a partial
definition. However, it has the advantage of immediately relating the concept W = Fs
of energy to the concept of work. These two ideas are intimately related to
W = Weight of Body x Distance Raised
each other.
Energy is a quality that a body has after work has been done on this body.
Once work has been done on a body of mass (m) this body has energy. The We recall that w = mg. Also since distance is a vertical distance we use the
body can then do work on other bodies. symbol “h” for height. In our dicussion we will assume that the symbol “h”
always represents the vertical distance of the body above the surface of the
Study the following situation.
earth.
A body of mass (m) was resting on a horizontal air table. A player exerted a
Therefore, we write:
horizontal force (F) on this mass through a distance (s). Since the angle
between the force and the displacement was zero degree angle, the work done W = mgh
this body was simply Fs. At the instant the player removed his hand from the
body we note two facts. The body accelerated while the force (F) was acting Again we have a case where an agent did work on a body and the body has
on the body and the body has acquired a velocity (v) during this time of acquired “energy”. This type of eneergy is known as gravitational potential
acceleration (a). The body has moved through a distance (s) in time (t). energy. However, we usually symbolise it as “PE”.
The equation we have obtained is the defining equation for a quatity known as
kinetic energy. Usually, we use the symbol KE for kinetic energy.
PE = mgh

KE = ½ mV2
If we neglect air resistance (which results in loss of energy to heat), we note
that there is a conservation of kinetic and potential energy of a body moving in
a gravitational field. As a body falls from a height (h) and moves closer to the
surface of the earth, its potential energy decreases and its kinetic energy
increases while it is falling. Therefore, there is an easy way of finding the
speed of a falling body during any instant of its fall.
The units for energy are the same as the units for work, the joule (j) in the
metric system and the foot--pound in the English system.

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MODULE 2
Example:
A body of mass, 10kg falls to the earth from a height of 300m above the
surface of the earth. What is the speed of this body just before it touches
ground?

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PE = KE
mgh = ½mV2
10 x 9.8 x 300 = ½ x 10 x V2
2940 = 5 x V2
2940 = V2
5
5880 = V = 76.7 m/sec

The kinetic energy that the body has just before it reaches the ground
immediately changes to sound energy and heat energy on impact. It may also
“squash” anybody in its path or make an indetation in the earth, this is strain
energy (energy to deform).

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CWM NiP JUNE 2005 Page: 41
PHYSICSP
Lufthansa Resource EASA PART 66
M2 Technical Training
MODULE 2

Solve the following problems

1. A car 2 miles in 6 minutes. What is its average speed. 12. A boy is swinging a stone at the end of a string. The stone is moving in a
circular path. The speed of the stone is 5ft/sec and the radius of the path is
1.5ft what is the centripetal acceleration of the stone.
2. A car acceleartes from rest at 5m/s2 for 5 seconds, what speed does it

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reach.
13. An aircraft with a weight of 85,000lbs is towed over a concrete surface.
What force must the towing vehicle exert to keep the aircraft rolling.
3. A car is travelling at 50m/s and stops in 5 seconds. what was the
acceleartion rate.
14. It is necessary to slide a 200lb refrigerator with rubber feet over a wet
concrete surface. What force is necessary to start the motion and what force is
4. Calculate the speed of an aircraft if it travels 200m down the runway in 10 necessary to keep the motion going.
seconds.

15. What is the potential energy of an object that as a mass of 25kg and lifted
5. A cyclist travels 150m in 15 seconds, what is the speed of the cyclist. through a distance of 4m.

6. A car starts from rest and reache a speed of 25m/s in 5 seconds, calculate 16. How much kinetic energy does the object have if it falls for 0.2 seconds.
the cars acceleration.

17. A pile driver of mass 1000kg, hits a post 3m below it. It moves the 10mm.
7. An aircraft is moving at 200m/s at a constant acceleration of 10m/s2 for 30 What is the kinetic energy of the pile driver.
seconds. What is the speed of the aircraft.

8. An aircraft is moving at 300m/s when the brakes are applied for 25 seconds
and decelerates the aircraft speed by 5m/s2 . what is the aircraft speed after
releasing the brakes.

9. A ball thrown upwards at 25m/s, how long before it stops travelling.

10. An object falls and reaches 49m/s, how long did the fall take.

11. What centripetal force is needed to keep a 3 slug ball moving in a circular
path of radius 2ft and speed 4ft/sec.

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MODULE 2

10. HOOKE’S LAW (STRESS & STRAIN)


Introduction
Structural integrity is a major factor in aircraft design and construction. No
production aircraft leaves the ground before undergoing extensive analysis of how

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it will fly, the stresses it will tolerate and its maximum safe capability.
Every aircraft is subject to structural stress. Stress acts on an aircraft whether on
the ground or in flight and is defined as a load applied to a unit area of material.
Stress produces a deflection or deformation in the material called strain. Stress
is always accompanied by strain.
Current production of general aviation aircraft are constructed of various
materials, the primary being aluminium alloys. Rivets, bolts, screws and special
bonding adhesives are used to hold the sheetmetal in place.
Regardless of the method of attachment of the material, every part of the fuselage
must carry a load, or resist a stress placed on it. Design of interior supporting and
forming pieces, and the outside metal skin all have a role to play in assuring an
overall safe structure capable of withstanding expected loads and stresses.
The stress a particular part must withstand is carefully calculated by engineers.
Also, the material a part is made from is extremely important and is selected by
designers based on its known properties. Aluminium alloy is the primary material
for the exterior skin on modern aircraft. This material possesses a good strength
to weight ratio, is easy to form, resists corrosion, and is relatively inexpensive.
Remember there are five basic structural stresses to which aircraft are
subjected to:
i. Tension
ii. Compression
iv. Shear
v. Bending

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MODULE 2

TENSILE STRESS
What is known as Axial or Normal Stress, is defined as the force perpendicular In fact, if we look at a metal rod in simple tension as shown above, we see that there
to the cross sectional area of the member divided by the cross sectional area. will be an elongation (or deformation) due to the tension. If we then graph the
tension (force) verses the deformation we obtain a result as shown below. We see
Or: that if our metal rod is tested by increasing the tension in the rod, the deformation
increases. In the first region the deformation increases in proportion to the force.

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Stress = Force That is, if the amount of force is doubled, the amount of deformation is doubled.
Area
units lb/in2 or N/m2 This is the form of Hooke’s Law and could be written this way: F K
In the figure below, a solid rod of length L, is under simple tension due to force (deformation), where K is a constant depending on the material (and is
F, as shown. If we divide that axial force, F by the cross sectional area of the sometimes called the spring constant). After enough force has been applied the
rod A, this would be the axial stress in the member. Axial stress is the material enters the elastic region, where the force and the deformation are not
equivalent of pressure in a gas or liquid. As you remember, pressure is the proportional, but rather a small amount of increase in force produces a large
force/unit area. So axial stress is really the pressure in a solid member. Now amount of deformation. In this region, the rod often begins to “neck down”, that
the question becomes, how much pressure can a material bear before it fails. is, the diameter becomes smaller as the rod is about to fail. Finally the rod actually
breaks.

The point at which the Elastic Region ends is called the elastic limit, or the
proportional limit. In reality, these two points are not quite the same. The Elastic
Limit is the point at which permanent deformation occurs, that is, after the elastic
limit, if the force is taken off the sample, it will not return to its original size and
shape, permanent deformation has occurred.

The Proportional Limit is the point at which the deformation is no longer directly
proportional to the applied force (Hooke’s Law no longer applies). Although these
two points are slightly different, we will treat them as the same in this course.

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MODULE 2

Rather than examining the applied force and resulting deformation, we will We may write:
instead graph the axial stress verses the axial strain. We defined the axial
stress earlier.
Strain = Deformation
The axial strain is defined as the fractional change in length or:
Original Length

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Where Lo is the original length of the member.
Strain = Deformation of member ÷ Original length of member
Strain has no units, since its length divided by length, however it is sometimes
expressed as in/in (or Inches per inch) in some texts.
The Stress verses Strain graph has the same shape and regions as the force
verses deformation graph (see below). In the elastic (linear) region, since
stress is directly proportional to strain, the ratio of stress/strain will be a
constant (and actually equal to the slope of the linear portion of the graph).
The constant is known as Youngs Modulus, and is usually symbolised by an E
or Y. We will use E for Youngs Modulus.

Hence Youngs Modulus = Stress


Strain

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MODULE 2

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MODULE 2

YOUNG’S MODULUS Some examples of Bulk modulus for different materials are given in the tables.
The value of Youngs Modulus, which is a measure of the amount of force
Youngs Modulus E Bulk Modulus B
needed to produce a unit deformation depends on the material. See table.
To summarise our stress/strain/Hooke’s law relationship up to this point we Material lb/in2 lb/in2
have: Aluminum 10 x 106 10 x 106

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Stress = Force Brass 13 x 106 8.5 x 106
Area
Copper 16 x 106 17 x 106
Strain = Deformation Glass 7.8 x 106 5.2 x 106
Original Length
Iron 13 x 106 1.45 x 106
Youngs Modulus = Stress Steel 29 x 106 23 x 106
Strain Ethyl Alcohol 0.16 x 106
Oil 0.25 x 106
Related Definitions Water 0.31 x 106
Bulk Modulus Mercury 4.0 x 106
The bulk modulus gives the change in volume of a solid substance as the
pressure on it is changed. The formula for bulk modulus is very similar to that
of for Youngs modulus:
Elastic Limit Ultimate Stress
Bulk Modulus (B) = Pressure = F/A = Pressure x Vo
Material lb/in2 lb/in2
Volumetric Strain V/Vo V
Aluminum 1.9 x 104 2.1 x 104
Brass 5.5 x 104 6.6 x 104
Poisson’s Ratio
Copper 2.3 x 104 4.9 x 104
As a member is stresses in tension, its length increases (axial strain) and its
width decreases (transverse strain). Poisson’s Ratio is the ration of transverse Iron 2.4 x 104 4.7 x 104
strain to the axial strain in a stressed member. Annealed Steel 3.6 x 104 7.1 x 104
Spring Steel 6.0 x 104 10 x 104

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MODULE 2

Cantilever
A cantilever structure, the beam is under bending stress (which is greatest at
the root end) and the shear stress (which is constant along the beam).

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Terms for Behaviour of Materials
Elastic -- Material deforms under stress but returns to its original size and
shape when the stress is released. There is no permanent deformation.
Some elastic strain, like in a rubber band, can be large, but in metals it is
usually small.
Brittle -- Material deforms by fracturing. Glass is typically brittle.
Ductile -- Materials deforms without breaking. Metals and most plastics are
ductile.
Viscous -- Materials that deform steadily under stress. Purely viscous
materials like liquids deform under even the smallest stress. Even metals
may behave like viscous materials under high temperatures and pressure.
This known as creep and affects plastics far more than metals.

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PHYSICS
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MODULE 2

Solve the following problems

1. A steel bolt with a cross sectional area of 0.1in2 and a length of 6.0” is
subjected to a force of 580lbs. what is the increase in length of the bolt.

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2. A copper rod has a cross sectional area of 0.04in2 and a length of 24”. what
longitudinal force must be applied to cause this rod to stretch by 0.0024”.

3. An aluminium brace inside a wing of a plane has a cross sectional area of


0.2in2. what is the greatest longitudinal force that can be applied to the brace
without causing the brace to be permanently deformed.

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MODULE 2

11. TORQUE
Consider the diagrams below. We define torque as the force (F) applied to a
body that is provided at a point (0) multiplied by the distance from the pivot
point to the place where the force is applied and multiplied by the sine of the

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angle between r and F. We will use the Greek letter Tau ( ) for torque. The
distance or lever arm is symbolised by the letter r.
Defining the equation:
= r x F x Sin
From the diagram below we note that = 90 . This is by far the most common
case. Since sin 90 = 1, this common case reduces to the more simple
equation:
=rxF
Remember that in those cases where is not 90 , the full equation must be
used. Also note that the unit for torque is the lb.ft, lb.in or the Nm.

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MODULE 2
Torque Wrench Calculations When applying torque the wrench handle should be lightly gripped and force
A simple way of calculating the scale reading required without using the applied smoothly at 90 to the axis of the wrench.
formula is set out in the following example, for which the specified torque
loading is 300lb.in and the length of the wrench and spanner are 10 and 5 Couples
inches respectively. A “couple” is a pair of forces of magnitude F that are equal and opposite but
applied at points separated by distance d perpendicular to the forces. The

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i. Force required on wrench handle to produce a torque of 300lb.in is 300lb.in
divided by the distance between nut and wrench handle; combined moment of the forces produces a torque Fd on the object on which
they act.
which is 300 lb.in = 20lb
An example is the cutting of an internal thread with a tap and tap wrench. The
10in + 5in force applied at one end of the wrench handle, multiplied by the distance to the
ii. Scale reading when force on handle is 20lb is 20lb x 10in = 200lb.in. centre of rotation is just half of the torque felt at the tap itself, since there is an
Force must therefore be applied to the wrench handle until a reading of equal torque applied at the other wrench handle.
200lb.in is shown on the wrench scale, and this will represent a 300lb.in torque Torque applied by a couple:
load applied to the nut. With the “break” type wrench, the adjustment must be = One of the forces (F) x distance to centre of rotation (r) x 2
preset at 200lb.in.
= One of the forces (F) x distance between the forces (d) = Fd
For the purpose of conversion, 1lb.in = 115kg cm or 0.113 Nm.
Another example is the forces applied to a car steering wheel.
When using an extension spanner with a torque wrench, the spanner and
wrench should be as nearly as possible in line. If it is necessary to diverge by
more than 15 from a straight line (intervening structure), then the direct
distance (D) between the nut and wrench handle must be substituted for L + X
in the formula for calculating wrench scale reading. The scale reading in this
instance will be equal to the specified torque

Whenever a torque wrench is used, it must be confirmed that the specified


torque and the wrench scale are in the same units, if not, then the specified
torque should be converted, by calculation, to the units shown on the wrench
scale, and any measurement taken in appropriate units.

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MODULE 2

Solve the following problems

1. Calculate the torque applied to a nut and bolt by a 12” spanner when a force
of 12lb is applied perpendicular at the end of the spanner.

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2. How much force is required to torque a nut and bolt to 50 Nm with a wrench
0.5m long.

3. A nut is to be torqued to 50in.lb. A torque wrench of 172 in is used with an


extension of 3”. What setting should the torque wrench be adjusted to.

4. A ships wheel has a couple applied to it by the captain of 60Nm. The


diameter of the wheel is 0.8m. What is the force applied on just oneside of the
wheel.

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MODULE 2

12. ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE


Archimedes Principle states that when an object is submerged in a liquid, the
object displaces a volume of liquid equal to its volume and is supported by a force
equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. The force that supports the object is

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known as the liquids “buoyant force”.

For example, when a 100 cubic inch block weighing 9.7 pounds is attached to a
spring scale and lowered into a full container of water, 100 cubic inches of water
overflows out of the container. The weight of 100 cubic inches of water is 3.6
pounds, therefore the bouyant force acting on the block is 3.6 pounds and the
spring scale reads 6.1 pounds.

If the object immersed has a specfic gravity that is less than liquid, the object
displaces its own weight of the liquid and floats. The effect of bouyance is not only
present in liquids, but also in gases. Hot air balloons are able to rise because they
are filled with heated air that is less dense than the air they displace.

A body immersed in a fliud is bouyed up by a force equal to the


weight of the fluid it displaces.

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MODULE 2
Archimedes Principle Applied to Bodies that Float
A body will float in any fluid that has a weight density greater than the weight How far will the block rise? it will rise until the BF exactly equals its weight. In our
density of the body. For example a body of weight density 63.4lb/ft3 would float in example it will rise until the BF has been reduced 96lbs (the weight of the block).
ocean water (D = 64.4lb/ft3) and sink in lake water (D = 62.4lb/ft3). The BF will be reduced as the block emerges from the water. In our example, it
will rise until 25% of the blocks volume is above the water surface. It follows that
75% of 2ft3 (1.5ft3) will be below the water surface. When this occurs, the BF on

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When bodies float they can float “high” or “low”. The ratio of the weight density of
the block is (64.4lb/ft3 x 1.5ft3) equals 96.6lbs. Note again that the BF equals the
the floating body relative to the weight density of the liquid determines exactly how
weight of the block while the block is floating.
high or low a body will float.

The ratio of the weight density of the block (48.3lbs/ft3) to the weight density of the
In order to understand Archimedes Principle as applied to floating bodies, let us
ocean water (64.4lbs/ft3) was 0.75. We recall that 75% of the floating block was
consider a submarine and imagine that a block of wood of density 48.3lb/ft3 and
under water. This is generally true and makes a much easier procedure to
volume 2ft3 is thrust out of the hatch of a submarine into the ocean water. We know
determine how low a block will float in a given liquid.
intuitively that this block of wood will rise to the ocean surface.

The weight of the block is 48.3lb/ft3 x 2ft3 = 96.6lbs. As long as the block is below
the water surface (while it is rising to the top), it displaces 2ft3 of ocean water.

We know that:
BF = weight of displaced ocean water
= 64.4lb/ft3 x 2ft3
= 128.8lbs.

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MODULE 2
In dealing with bodies that float, it is important to note that boats, made of materials One final comment should be made regarding submarines. Submarines cruising
more dense than water, are shaped in such a way that the total weight density is at a definite depth in ocean water have a total weight density equal to the weight
less than water. In order to understand this, consider the row boat with contents density of ocean water 64.4lbs/ft3. This means that the total weight of the
(people, lunch, fishing gear, etc.). Note in the diagram shown some of the boat submarine (metal shell, air, crew, load, ballast, etc.) divided by the total volume is
(dotted lines) is below the water surface. Suppose that the row boat floats in such 64.4lbs/ft3. The ballast used in submarines is ocean water. These vessels can take
a way that it displaces 8cu ft. of lake water. The weight of the displaced water is on water or pump out water. If the submarine wants to descend, it takes on water.

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8cu ft. times density of water 62.4lbs/ft3 equates to 499lbs. If it wants to rise towards the surface it pumps out water.

Therefore, the BF is 499lbs. The boat and contents must weigh 499lbs to float at Example:
this level. If the boat weighs 150lbs the contents must weigh 349lbs. A block of oak (Density = 45lbs/ft3) is placed in a tank of benzene (Density =
54.9lbs/ft3). The oak floats since its weight density is less than the weight density
of benzene. What percentage of the oak will be below the surface of the benzene.

We find the ratio of the two weight densities;

45lbs/ft3 = 0.82
54.9lbs/ft3

We conclude that 82% of the oak block will be below the surface of the benzene.

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MODULE 2

Weight Densities at 68F Weight Densities at 68F


Liquids N/m3 lbs/ft3 Solid Metals N/m3 lbs/ft3
Water 9,807 62.4 Aluminum 26,500 169

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Ocean Water 10,100 64.4 Cast Iron 70,600 449
Benzene 8,620 54.9 Copper 87,200 555
Carbon Tetrachloride 15,630 99.5 Gold 189,300 1,205
Ethyl Alcohol 7,740 49.3 Lead 111,200 708
Gasoline 6,670 42.5 Magnesium 17,100 109
Kerosene 7,850 49.9 Nickel 86,800 553
Lubricating Oil 8,830 56.2 Silver 103,000 656
Methyl Alcohol 7,770 49.4 Tungsten 186,000 1,190
Sulfuric Acid 100% 17,960 114.3 Zinc 70,000 446
Turpentine 8,560 54.5

Weight Densities at 68F


Weight Densities at 68F Woods N/m3 lbs/ft3
Nonmetallic Solids N/m3 lbs/ft3 Balsa 1,270 8
Ice 9,040 57.5 Pine 4,700 30
Concrete 22,600 144 Maple 6,300 40
Earth, packed 14,700 94 Oak 7,100 45
Glass 25,500 160
Granite 26,500 169

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MODULE 2

Solve the following Problems

1. A solid aluminium object of volume 250ft3 is resting on the ocean floor. A


salvage crew plans to raise this object. What force will be needed.

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2. A solid steel body of volume 125ft3 is to be raised by a salvaging crew to the
surface of a lake. what force will be needed.

3. What percentage of an iceberg is below the durface of the ocean.

4. A canoe is floating in such a way that it displaces 6 cu.ft of lake water. If the
canoe weighs 100lbs. What is the weight of its contents.

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MODULE 2

13. THERMAL EXPANSION


The temperature of a body is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the
molecules of that body. It follows that molecules of warm liquids and gases move
around faster in their containers than molecules of cool liquids and gases. As a

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solid is heated its molecules vibrate faster about their equilibrium positions. As a
result of this increased motion of molecules as they are heated, solids and liquids
expand as the temperature is raised.

Let’s look at how temperature is related to molecular motion later. Firstly let’s look
at what happens to materials when they change temperature. For instance, you
have a jam jar that’s lid is stuck and you want to remove it. One common way is
by running the jar under hot water so that the jar lid expands and can come off the
jar. If temperature is a measure of how fast things are moving, when a solid heats
up, the molecules vibrate about their positions. At higher temperatures, they
vibrate more and the molecules actually grows in size. When a material is cooled,
the molecules do not move as much and the material shrinks.

If we look at a long strip of metal, with length Lo, we might want to find out what
its change in length is under certain conditions. This is important, for instance, in
building roads that must undergo temperature extremes. Experimentally, we find
that the change in length is directly related to the change in temperature and to
the initial length of the bar. The dependence on the initial length of the bar comes
about because there are that many more molecules moving, so the change in
length will be greater than that of a shorter bar.

Think back to our jam jar scenario, when you heat the lid, you are also heating the
glass, too. Glass does expand but, not at the same rate as the material from which
the lid is made. This means that we somehow have to account for the fact that
different materials expand or contract by different amounts under the same
temperature change.

The way we account for different rates of different materials in our equation is via
the “Coefficient of Linear Expansion”, . has units of / C (pronounced per
degree celcius).

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MODULE 2

LINEAR EXPANSION
A rod of a substance will increase its length for a given temperature change. The Coefficient of Linear expansion
increase in length depends on the original length of the rod, the temperature
change, and the material of the rod. The increase in size of the object comes about Substance per F
by the fact that an increase in temperature results in an increase in kinetic energy Aluminum 13 x 10--6

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of the molecules or atoms which make up the material. Increasing the movement
of the molecules forces it to occupy more space. Brass 10 x 10--6
Concrete (varies) 5 x 10--6
We define alpha ( ), the coefficient of linear expansion. Tables of values for Copper 9.4 x 10--6
various substances are found in handbooks of physics.
Glass (pyrex) 1.6 x 10--6
Ice 28 x 10--6
The formula is:
L = Lo T Iron 6.6 x 10--6
Lead 16 x 10--6
In this formula, Steel 11 x 10--6

Lo = The original length of the rod


= The coefficient of linear expansion VOLUME EXPANSION
L = The change in length of the rod Three dimensional solid bodies experience volume expansion. Formula as
T = The change in temperature follows:
V = 3 Vo T

AREA EXPANSION In this formula,


Two dimensional solid bodies also experience thermal area expansion. The Vo = The original volume of the rod
formula is as follows: = The coefficient of linear expansion
A = 2 Ao T V = The change in volume of the body
T = The change in temperature
In this formula,

Ao = The original area of the rod


= The coefficient of linear expansion
A = The change in area of the body
T = The change in temperature

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MODULE 2
Expansion of Liquids & Gases The Interesting Case of Water
We have a minor problem with our expression for the thermal expansion of solids, Most materials expand when heated and contract when cooled.Water is an
which is that it only works for solids. Neither liquids or gases have a fixed shape exception. between 0 C and 4 C, water actually expands when cooled. above
when left on their own. The expression also fails if you have to consider the this range, it behaves normally. water therefore has its greatest density at 4 C.
expansion of a solid in all directions. Beta ( ) is called the coefficient of volume This turns out to be quite important forthings that live underwater. In the winter,

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expansion. For solids, is approximately equal to 3 . This is true only when the you notice that the top of the pondalways freezes first. As the temperature
change in volume is small compared to the original volume. The problem is that decreases, there is a temperature gradient in the water.
for liquids and gases, is very large and this formula sometimes will not work.
The top will cooler than the bottom because it is in contact with the cold air.
Liquids also experience thermal expansion. We introduce beta , the coefficient When the water on top of the lake reaches 4 C, it becomes denser and sinks
of volume expansion. There are also tables of the coefficient of volume expansion. to the bottom of the lake, being replaced by warmer water from the bottom.
The water that is now on top cools to 4 C, and so on, until the whole lake is at
4 C.
Formula:
V = Vo T
The surface water cools even more, but now it is less dense than the water
below it, so it stays on top of the lake and turns to ice (which is even less
Generally liquids expand more than solids, and gases much more than liquids, for dense than cold water). If the ice sank instead of floating, the lake would freeze
any given change in temperature. This is because the molecules of liquids are not all the way through and pretty much everything inside would die. The layer of
tied to each other and have more room and freedom to vibrate than do the ice additionally acts as an insulator, keeping the rest of the water away from
molecules or atoms in solids. The molecules of gases of course are completely the surface and the colder environment.
free to move, and will move much more vigorously when heated than either solids
or liquids.

Coefficient of Volume Expansion


Liquids per F
Ethyl Alcohol 0.60 x 10--3
Methyl Alcohol 0.66 x 10--3
Benzene 0.69 x 10--3
Gasoline 0.58 x 10--3

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MODULE 2

Solve the following Problems

1. A 90ft aluminium rail is put in place on a hot summer day when the
temperature is 85 F. What is the decrease in length of this rail when the
temperature is 35 F.

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2. A 150ft steel rail is put in place when the temperature is 35 F. What is the
increase in length of this rail when the temperature is 95 F.

3. A concrete bridge is laid down in sections with space between sections to


allow for expansion. The length of one section is 250ft. The lowest recorded
temperature in the area is --45 F and the highest recorded temperature is
115 F. How much space should the builders leave between each section.

4. The volume of an aluminium tank is 200 gallons on a day when the


temperature is 30 F. It is completely filled with gasoline from a supply truck.
The temperature rises to 70 F when a warm front moves in. How many gallons
of gasoline overflow.

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MODULE 2

14. MOMENTUM
Definition of Momentum By using Newtons two laws we can derive the following equation. The equation
Momentum is a vector quantity defined as the product of mass times velocity. note tells us that the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum
that velocity (V) is also a vector quantity. we write the defining equation as: after the collision. Sometimes we say simply that “Momentum is Conserved”.

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Momentum = mV
m1 V1’ + m2 V2’ = m1 V1’ + m2 V2”
Momentum is a very important quantity when we are dealing with collisions,
because it is conserved in all such cases. The simplest example of the conservation of momentum is in recoil problems
Example:
A boy and a man are both on ice skates on a pond. The mass of the boy is 20kg
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM and the mass of the man is 80Kg. They push on each other and move in the
In a collisioin, there are always at least two bodies that collide. We will deal only opposite directions. If the recoil velocity of the boy is 80m/sec, what is the recoil
with collisions of two bodies. We will also limit our discussion to collisions occurring of the man.
in one dimension. Such collisions are called “head--on” collisions. first we note that both the man and boy are at rest before the collision occurs.

At this time, we need to recall two of newtons law’s. We need Newton’s second m1 V1’ + m2 V2’ = m1 V1’ + m2 V2”
law, F = ma, and newton’s third law, which tells us that if two bodies collide, the 20 x 0 + 80 x 0 = 20 x 80 + 80 x V2”
force that the first body exerts on the second body is equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction to the force that the second body exerts on the first body. Also 0 = 1600 + 80 x V2”
recall that the acceleration (a) equals the change in the velocity divided by the time. --1600 = 80 x V2”
V2” = --20m/sec.
Let us visualize two bodies of masses, M1 and M2 on a one dimensional track. The negative sign indicates that the man recoils in the opposite direction from the
If these two bodies collide, we have four different velocities to consider. we name boy.
these velocities very carefully.

V1’ = the velocity of body one before the collision.


V1” = the velocity of body one after the collision.

V2’ = the velocity of body two before the collision.


V2” = the velocity of body two after the collision.

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Collision Problems
Whenever two bodies collide, momentum is always conserved. This is simply thee Example
result of applying Newtons second and third laws as we have done in the preceding A truck of mass 1550Kg is moving east at 60m/sec. A car of mass 1250Kg is
discussion. travelling weat at 90m/sec. the vehicles collide and stick together after impact.
What is the velocity of the combined mass after the collision has occurred.

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Sometimes kinetic energy is also conserved in a collision. This happens when the
bodies are so hard that there is very little deformation of the bodies in the actual
m1 V1’ + m2 V2’ = (m1 + m2) V”
collision process. Billiard balls are a good example. These collisions are known as
elastic collisions. We will derive a formula for determining the velocities of the 1550 x 60 + 1250 x --90 = (1550 + 1250) V”
bodies after the collision has occurred. --19500 = 2800 V”
V” = --6.96m/sec.
Another type of collision that we will discuss is the perfectly inelastic collision. In
this type of collision, the bodies are deformed so much that they actually stick Since the calculated velocity has a negative sign, we conclude that the combined
together after the collision. An example would be the collision of two masses of mas is travelling west after the impact occurred.
putty. We will also do some problems for this type of collision.
Our answer is that the wreckage atarts to move west with a speed of 6.96m/sec.
Sometimes the principle of conservation of momentum in the case of an inelastic
collision can be used by the police to determine the speed of a vehicle engaged
Inelastic Collisions
in a head--on collision.
We use the conservation of momentum for dealing with this type of collision. As
we have said, the colliding bodies stick together after impact. therefore, the
equation is simply:
m1 V1’ + m2 V2’ = (m1 + m2) V”
Note that we use the symbol V” for the common velocity of the two bodies (which
are now one body) after the collision.

It is important to include the signs of the velocities of the bodies in setting up


momentum equations. As usual, we use a positive sign for east and a negative
sign for west, a positive sign for noth and a negative sign for south.

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Elastic Collisions
Elastic collisions are collisions that occur between bodies that deform very little in Substitute in equation (2):
the collision. Therefore we assume that no energy is lost. An example of such a 3 -- (--4) = V2” -- V1”
collisiion is the collision between pool balls.
7 = V2” -- V1” (4)

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In elastic collisions, both kinetic energy and momentum are conserved. In an
rewrite equations (3) and (4) putting the unknowns in the left members and in
ordinary elastic collision problem, we know the nasses and the velocities of two
order.
bodies that will collide. We want to predict, by mathematical calculation, the
velocities the bodies will have after the collision has occurred, the two unknowns. (3) 2 V1’ + 3V2” = --6
If we write the two conservation equations, we have two equations in these two (4) --V1” + V2” = 7
unknowns. It is possible to solve these two equations for these two unknowns.
However, one of the conservation equations, the energy equation, is a “second
We now have two equations and two unknowns. There are several methods of
order” equation. A “second order” equation contains the squares of the unknowns.
solving such a system of equations. We will use the method of addition. in this
This makes the solution more difficult. Instead, we will use an algebraic trick! The
method we multiply either or both of the equations by constants to make the
two conservation equations can be solved together producing a third equation.
coefficient of one of the unknowns in the one equation a positive number and to
This third equation and the momentum cnservation equation provide the two first
make the coefficient of this same unknown in the other equation a negative number
order equations that we will use in solving elastic collision problems.
of the same magnitude.
We then add the two equations to eliminate one of the unknowns. We then solve
The following two equations have been obtained algebraically and must be used for the other unknow by substituting in either equation.
for carrying out elastic collision calculations.
(1) m1 V1’ + m2 V2’ = m1 V1’ + m2 V2”
Multiply (4) by the number 2
(2) V1’ -- V2’ = V2” -- V1”
--2V2” + 2V1” = 14 (5)
Add (3) and (5)
Example:
5V2” = 8
A billard ball of mass 2Kg is moving east at 3m/sec and undergoes an elastic
V2” = 1.6m/sec
collision with another billiard ball of mass 3Kg moving west at 4m/sec. Find the
velocities of the two balls after the collision. Substitute this value back into (4)
m1 = 2 V1’ = 3 (east) m2 = 3 V2’ = --4 (west) --V1” + 1.6 = 7
V1” = --5.4m/sec
Substitute in equation (1):
2 x3 + 3 x --4 = 2 V1’ + 3V2” We note that we interpret a positive sign for the velocity as motion east and
negative sign as motion west.
--6 = 2 V1’ + 3V2” (3)
Our final result is that the 2Kg ball is moving west with a speed of 5.4m/sec after
the collision and the 3Kg ball is moving east with a speed of 1.6m/sec sfter the
collision.

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MODULE 2

Solve the following problems

1.A gun of mass 5kg fires a bullet of mass 20grams. The velocity of the bullet after
firing, is 750 m/sec. what is the recoil velocity of the gun.

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2. An astronaut on a space walk has a mass of 5 slugs and is at rest relative to
the space station. He is working with a tool having a mass of 0.5 slug. he
accidentally throws this tool away from himself with a speed of 6ft/sec. With what
speed does the astronaut recoil.

3. An automobile having mass 1500Kg is travelling east on an expressway at


30m/sec. It overtakes a truck of mass 2000Kg also travelling east and moving with
a speed of 25m/sec. the automobile rear--ends the truck. The vehicles become
locked togehter in this collision and continue east. what is the velocity of this
combined mass.

4. Two balls of putty become one mass of putty in a collision. The first, of mass
6kg, was originally moving east at 10m/sec, and the second, of mass 4kg was
originally moving west at 9m/sec. what is the velocity of the total mass after the
collision has occurred.

5. A 3kg ball is moving right with a speed of 3m/sec before a collision with a 2kg
ball originally moving left at 2m/sec. what are the directions and speeds of the two
ballls after the collision.

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MODULE 2

15. HEAT
We recall that temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy, and 1 calorie = 4.186 Joules, there are 1055 joules in 1 Btu. Since 1 lb = 2.2 kg,
therefore the average velocity, of the molecules of the substance whose 1 Btu/lb = 2326 J/kg.
temperature is being measured.

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Heat is a measure of the total energy of molecular motion. The more molecules
We note that the calorie is the famous dietary Calorie. The body stores excess food
that are moving, the greater is the heat energy. Let us compare a teaspoon of water
as fat and we measure the Calories in a certain foodstuff by burning these
at 100 F with a cup of water at 50 F. The molecules of water in the teaspoon are foodstuffs and measuring the heat produced.
moving faster than the molecules of water in the cup. However, since we have so
many more molecules in the cup, the heat energy in the cup is greater than the In the solution to heat problems, we will limit our discussion to the English system,
heat energy in the teaspoon. If the teaspoon of water is placed on a large block since this is the system that is most often used in our society.
of ice and the cup of water also placed on the this block of ice, the cup of water As heat is added to a body its temperature increases. However, the same amount
at 50 F would melt more ice than the teaspoon of water at 100 F. of heat added to a piece of aluminium and a piece of copper will not produce the
same temperature change. Aluminium and copper have different “specific heats”.
There are definite units for measuring heat energy. The units are the Btu (British
The important equation is the following:
Thermal unit) and the metric units are Calorie (C).
Definitions: Q = wC T (imperial)
1 British Thermal unit (Btu) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature
of 1lb of water 1 F
In this equation:

1 Calorie = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of


Q = heat gained or lost (Btu)
water 1 C.
w = weight of the body (lb)
(Note: 1 Calorie = 4186 J, 1 Btu = 0,252 Cal)
C = the specific heat of the substance (J/kg F)

1 calorie = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water T = the temperature change ( F or R)
1 C
Q = mC T (metric)
1 Celsius Heat Unit (CHU) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature
of 1lb of water 1 C In this equation:

(Note: The CHU is a mix of English and Metric units and is rarely used) Q = heat gained or lost (J)
w = weight of the body (kg)
When we talk about the heat content of fuel (which must be burnt to be released) C = the specific heat of the substance (J/kg C)
commonly called the heat of combustion, we talk about Calories per lb of fuel, or T = the temperature change ( C or K)
Btu per lb of fuel, or Joules per kg of fuel. Since 1 Btu = 252 calories and

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Platinum 0.134 0.032


It is important to note that this equation deals with substances that are not Silver 0.234 0.056
changing their states of matter. Another equation will deal with heat added or lost
as body changes from one state (solid, liquid or gas) to another. Tin 0.230 0.055
Zinc 0.393 0.094

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Since there are two equations, (depending on whether you are using English or Solids
Metric units) there are also two sets of Specific Heat capacity constants. See table.
Asbestos 0.84 0.20
Ashes 0.84 0.20
Specific Heat Capacities Asphalt 0.80 0.19
Liquids KJ/Kg K Btu/lb F brick 0.92 0.22
Acetic Acid 2.13 0.51 Carbon 0.71 0.17
Alcohol 2.93 0.70 Coal 1.31 0.314
Ammonia 0.47 0.11 Coke 0.85 0.203
Paraffin 2.14 0.51 Concrete 1.13 0.27
Petroleum 2.09 0.50 Cork 2.03 0.485
Turpentine 1.98 0.33 Glass 0.84 0.20
Fresh Water 4.19 1.00 Granite 0.75 0.18
Sea water 4C 3.94 0.93 Ice 2.11 0.504
Wood 2.3 -- 2.7 0.55 -- 0.65

Specific Heat Capacities


Metals KJ/Kg K Btu/lb F
Aluminium 0.912 0.212
Copper 0.389 0.093
Gold 0/130 0.031
Iron 0.460 0.110
Lead 0.130 0.031
Mercury 0.138 0.033
Nickel 0.452 0.108

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Example: In setting up the wC T left and right members of the above equation, we will not
How much heat must be supplied to raise the temperature of a 32lb aluminium include the units. however, we will note that the weights must be in lbs and the
fitting from 60 F to 90 F. temperature changes in Fahrenheit degress (F).

Q = wC T (imperial) 0.93 x 5,000 x (100 -- T) = 1.00 x 7,000 x (T -- 40)

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465,000 -- 4,6500T = 7,000T -- 280,000
Q = 0.212 Btu/lb.ft x 32lbs x 30 F 745,000 = 11,650T
Q = 204 Btu. T = 63.9 F

HEAT EXCHANGE
When hot bodies and cool bodies are mixed heat exchange occurs. The heat lost
by the hot body equals the heat gained by the cold body:

Heat Lost = Heat Gained

On each side of this equation there is a Q = wC T term. In writing an expression


for T, we always express this change as the larger temperature minus the
smaller temperature.

Example:
If 5,000lbs of sea water at 100 F are mixed with 7,00lbs of ordinary water
(freshwater) at 40 F, what is the final temperature of the mixture.
Note, if the final temperature is T, the temperature 100 is more than T and the
temperature 40 is less than T. Therefore the temperature change of the sea water
is (100 -- T) and the temperature change of the ordinary is (T -- 40).

Heat Lost = Heat Gained

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MODULE 2

16. THE THREE STATES OF MATTER LIQUID

All matters exists in one of three states -- Solid, Liquid or Gas. The following
characterises the three states:

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SOLID

i. Much greater forces of attraction between the particles in a liquid compared


to gases, but not quite as much as in solids.
ii. Particles quite close together but still arranged at random throughout the
container, there is a little close range order as you can get clumps of particles
i. The greatest forces of attraction are between the particles in a solid and they clinging together temporarily.
pack together in a neat and ordered arrangement. iii. particles moving rapidly in all directions but more frequently colliding with
ii. The particles are too strongly held together to allow movement from place to each other than in gases.
place but the particles vibrate about there position in the structure. iv. with increase in temperature, the particles move faster as they gain kinetic
iii. With increase in temperature, the particles vibrate faster and more strongly energy.
as they gain kinetic energy.
The Properties of a Liquid
i. Liquids have a much greater density than gases (heavier) because the
The Properties of a Solid particles are much closer together.
i. Solids have the greatest density (heaviest) because the particles are ii. Liquids flow freely despite the forces of attraction between the particles
closest together. but liquids are not as fluid as gases.
ii. Solids cannot flow freely like gases or liquids because the particles are iii. Liquids have a surface, and a fixed volume (at a particular temperature)
strongly held in fixed positions. because of the increased particle attraction, but the shape is not fixed and is
merely that of the container itself.
iii. Solids have fixed surface and volume (at a particular temperature) be-
cause of the strong particle attraction. iv. Liquids are not readily compressed because of the lack of empty space
between the particles.
iv. Solids are extremely difficult to compress because there is no real
“empty” space between the particles. v. Liquids will expand on heating (contract on cooling) but nothing like as
much as gases because of the greater particle attraction restricting the ex-
v. Solids will expand a little on heating but nothing like as much as liquids
pansion. When heated, the liquid particles gain kinetic energy and hit the
because of the greater particle attraction restricting the expansion (contract
sides of the container more frequently, and more significantly, they hit with a
on cooling). The expansion is caused by the increased strength of particle
greater force, so in a sealed container the pressure produced can be
vibration.
considerable.

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GAS The Properties of a Gas


i. Gases have a low density (light) because the particles are so spaced out in the
container (density = Mass ÷ Volume).
ii. Gases flow freely because there are no effective forces of attraction between
the particles.

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iii. Gases have no surface, and no fixed shape or volume, and because of lack of
particle attraction, they spread out and fill any container.
iv. Gases are readily compressed because of the empty space between the
particles.
v. If the container volume can change, gases readily expand on heating because
i. Almost no forces of attraction between the particles which are completely free of the lack of particle attraction, and readily contract on cooling. On heating, gas
of each other. particles gain kinetic energy and hit the sides of the container more frequently, and
ii. Particles widely spaced and scattered at random throughout the container so more significantly, they hit with a greater force. Depending on the container
there is no order in the system. situation, either or both of the pressure or volume will increase (reverse on
cooling).
iii. Particles moving rapidly in all directions, frequently colliding with each other and
the side of the container. vi. The natural rapid and random movement of the particles means that gases
iv. With increase in temperature, the particles move faster as they gain kinetic readily spread or diffuse. Diffusion is fastest in gases where there is more space
energy. for them to move and the rate of diffusion increases with increase temperature.

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MODULE 2

CHANGES OF STATE
We can use the diagrams shown below, to explain changes of state and the energy
changes involved.

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Melting (solid to liquid)
Evaporation & Boiling (liquid to gas)
When a solid is heated the particles vibrate more strongly and the particle
In evaporation and boiling the highest kinetic energy molecules can escape from attractive forces are weakened. Eventually, at the melting point, the attractive
the attractive forces of the other liquid particles. The particles lose any order and forces are too weak to hold the structure together and the solid melts. The particles
become completely free. Energy is needed to overcome the attractive forces in the become free to move around and lose their order arrangement. Energy is needed
liquid and is taken in from the surroundings. This means heat is taken in to overcome the attractive forces, so heat is taken in from the surroundings and
(endothermic). Boiling is rapid evaporation at a fixed temperature called the boiling melting is an endothermic process
point and requires continuous addition of heat. Evaporation takes place more
slowly at any temperature between the melting point and boiling point and results
in the liquid becoming cooler. Freezing (liquid to solid)
On cooling, liquid particles lose kinetic energy and become more strongly attracted
to each other. Eventually at the freezing point the forces of attraction are sufficient
Condensing (gas to liquid)
to remove any remaining freedom and the particles come together to form the
On cooling, gas particles lose kinetic energy and eventually become attracted ordered solid arrangement. Since heat must be removed to the surroundings
togehter to form a liquid. There is an increase in order as the particles are much freezing is an exothermic process.
closer together and can form clumps of molecules. The process requires heat to
be lost to the surroundings i.e. heat given out, so condensation is exothermic.

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Cooling & Heating Curves

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Note: The temperature stays constant during the state changes of condensing and
freezing.
A cooling curve summarises the changes:
gas liquid solid

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Note: The temperature stays constant during the state changes of melting and The principle of latent heat (especially of vaporisation) is what is behind the
boiling. operation of fridge and air conditioning system, water injection of gas turbine
engines, and the cooling effect you feel when you perspire.
Since “fusion” (to melt) is the opposite of “solidification”, the Latent Heat of Fusion
is the same as the Latent Heat of Solidification. Also, since “vaporisation” is the That principle is that if you make a fluid vaporise, it extracts heat (latent heat) to
opposite of “condensation”, the Latent Heat of Vaporisatioin is the same as the cause it to vaporise, but the fluid does not change temperature.
Latent Heat of Condensation.
A heating curve summarises the changes:
solid liquid gas

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MODULE 2

METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER


Heat can be transferred from one place to another by one or more of the following Conduction
processes: Is the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. It is the transfer
and distribution of heat energy from atom to atom within the substance. For
example, a spoon in a cup of hot soup becomes warmer because heat from the
Convection

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soup is conducted allong the spoon. Conduction is most effective in solids, but it
Is the transfer of heat by actual movement of the warmed matter. Heat leaves a can happen in fluids. Have you ever noticed that metals tend to feel cold? They
coffee cup as the currents of steam and air rise. Convection is the transfer of heat only feel cold because they conduct heat away from your hand. You perceive the
energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents. Think of air and water currents heat that is leaving your hands as cold.
(it can also happen in some solids, like sand). The heat moves with the fluid.
Consider this; convection is responsible for making macaroni rise and fall in a pot
of heated water. The warmer portions of the water are less dense and therefore,
they rise. Meanwhile, the cooler portions of the water fall because they are denser.

Radiation
Electromagnetic waves that directly transport energy through space. Sunlight is
a form of radiation that is radiated through space to our planet at the speed of light
without the aid of fluids or solids. The energy travels through nothingless. Because
there is no solids touching the sun and our planet, conduction is not responsible
for bringing heat to Earth. Since there are no fluids in space, convection is not
responsible. Thus, radiation brings heat to our planet.

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Heat Transfer Example:
We know that heat flows through insulting materials from the warm side to the cool An outside wall of a house has total cross--sectional area of 2,000ft2. The
side. It is possible to predict how many Btu will flow through a given insulator in thickness of the fibreboard insulation is 3 inches. The inside temperature is 70 F
a given amount of time. and the outside temperature is 20 F. What is the heat loss per hour through this
outside wall.

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The equation is:
Q (KA T) Q (KA T)
=
t = L t L

This equation is less difficult than it seems at first. We will carefully define each Q
symbol. t = 0.42 x 2,000 x 50
3
Q = heat flow in Btu Q
t = 14,000 Btu/hr.
t = time in hours
A = the surface area of the insulation in square feet
T = the temperature difference in F
L = the thickness of the insulation in inches
K = the thermal conductivity of the material from which the insulation
is made

Thermal Conductivities
(Btu--In./ft2 - HR -- F)
Air 0.17
Corkboard 0.30
Cotton 0.54
Fibreboard 0.42
Foam Plastic 0.30
Glass Wool 0.27

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MODULE 2

Solve the following Problems

1. How much heat must be supplied to raise the temperature of 67lbs of ethyl
alcohol from 32 F to 76 F.

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2. how much heat is given up as 780lbs of steel cool from 90 F to 40 F.

3. If 1lb of vodka (alcohol) at 90 F is mixed with 0.2lb of water at 40 F what is


the final temperature.

4. If 3lbs of hot water at 200 F are poured into a 1.5lbs aluminium container at
40 F, what is the final temperature.

5. A house has an outside wall area of 3,00ft2. These walls are insulated with
corkboard 4” thick. The inside temperature is 75 F and the outside
temperature is 15 F. What is the heat loss per hour through these outside
walls.

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MODULE 2

17. BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE


The Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli developed a principle that
explains the relationship between potential and kinetic energy in a fluid. As
discussed earlier, all matter contains potential energy and/or kinetic energy. In a

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fluid, the potential energy is that caused by the pressure of the fluid, while the
kinetic energy is that caused by the fluids movement. Although you cannot create
or destroy energy, it is possible to exchange potential energy for kinetic energy or
vice versa.
A venturi tube is a specially shaped tube that is narrower in the middle than at the
ends. As fluid enters the tube, it is travelling at a known velocity and pressure.
When fluid enters the restriction, it must speed up, or increase its kinetic energy.
However, when the kinetic energy increases, the potential energy decreases.
Then as the fluid continues through the tube, both velocity and pressure return to
their original values.

Bernoulli’s principle states that when energy is neither added to nor taken from a fluid in motion, the
potential energy, or pressure decreases when the kinetic energy or velocity increases.

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MODULE 2

THE VENTURI TUBE


A venturi tube is a tube constructed in such a way that the cross--sectional area If we consider the types of energy involved in the flowing fluid, we find that there
of the tube changes from a larger area to a smaller area and finally back to the are three types -- potential (gravitational), pressure and kinetic energies. Consider
same larger area. As a fluid flows through this tube the velocity changes from a only the two positions in the venturi, the wide part (1) and the narrow section (2),
lower velocity to a higher velocity and finally back to the same velocity. We note and consider the conservation of energy principle.

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that, if the rate (volume per second of fluid flow is to remain constant, the fluid must
flow faster when it is flowing through the smaller area.
Potential Energy at 1 Potential Energy at 2
+ +
Pressure energy at 1 = Pressure Energy at 2
+ +
Kinetic Energy at 1 Kinetic Energy at 2

The above is assumed since the total energy in the fluid cannot change, only
transferred from one form to another. This is the basis for Bernoulli’s Formula.

Since the venturi in this case is horizontal, there is no change in potential energy,
and so the potential energies can be cancelled from the formula;

Pressure energy at 1 Pressure Energy at 2


+ = +
The height of the fluid column in the vertical tubes at the three places shown in the Kinetic Energy at 1 Kinetic Energy at 2
above picture, is an indication of the fluid pressure. As we expect from Bernoulli’s
Principle, the pressure is greater where the velocity is lower and vice versa. Venturi
tubes in different shapes and sizes are often used in aircraft systems. Since kinetic energy is ½mV 2 where m = mass of fluid, V = velocity of fluid
and pressure energy is m P where P = pressure, = density of fluid.

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MODULE 2
Thus:
P1 P2
m + ½mV 21 = m + ½mV 22

note that the mass, m has no suffix since mass flow rate is constant regardless

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of the area of flow. The density , is also a constant since the fluid is considered
incompressible (even air, providing its velocity is subsonic).

Cancelling the mass, m from the equation and multiplying each term by the
density, gives:

P 1 + ½ V 21 = P 2 + ½ V 22

This is the standard mathematical form of the Bernoulli’s equation. It can be


rearranged to give the pressure difference.
For example the difference between the upper and lower surfaces of a wing.

P1 P 2 = ½ V22 ½ V21

Factorising;

P1 P 2 = ½ V22 V21

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MODULE 2
Application of Bernoulli’s to Aerofoil Sections The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line of a wing and the relative
The relative wind direction is the direction of the airflow with respect to the wing wind direction.
and is opposite to the path of flight.

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The cross--sectional area of a wing at rest and subject to atmospheric pressure
which on average is 14.7lbs.
The chord line of a wing is a straight line connecting the leading edge of a wing
to its trailing edge.

A force of 14.7lbs can be imagined as acting perpendicular to every square inch


of the wing. The resultant of these 14.7lbs force vectors is zero and therefore has
no effect on the dynamics of the plane.

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MODULE 2
It is the motion of air past the wing that alters the pressure pattern. Whether the In the example below, the speed past the upper surface of the wing is (1.05
wing is in motion through the air or the air is flowing past a stationary wing the result (200mph) and the speed past the lower surface if the wing is (0.975 (200mph).
is the same. For example, if a plane is moving through stationary air at a speed
of 200mph, the effect is the same (as far as the plane and air are concerned) as
The following symbols apply:
if the plane were stationary and the air was moving with velocity 200mph past the
plane.

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There is a thin layer of air in direct contact with the wing surface, which due to skin
friction, is actually stationary (relative to the wing). This is called the boundary
layer. In these discussions we will disregard the boundary layer and assume that
the airflow is unaffected by friction.

As air streams past the wing of a plane, the speed of the air past the upper surface
of the wing is greater than the speed of the air past the lower surface of the wing.
These exact speeds are determined by the shape of the wing and the angle of
attack.

For example, if the speed of the relative wind (equal to the speed of the plane) is P1 = pressure on the upper surface of the wing
200mph, the speed of the air past the upper surfaceof the wing may be 210mph P2 = pressure on the lower surface of the wing
and the speed of air past the lower surface of the wing may be 195mph. As
V0 = relative wind velocity
indicated above, the exact values for a given case depend on the shape of the wing
and the angle of attack. V1 = wind velocity over upper surface
V2 = wind velocity lower surface
= density of the air

If we apply Bernoulli’s Principle

P 1 + ½ V 21 = P 2 + ½ V 22

Note: the ones (1) refer to the upper surface and the two’s (2) apply to the lower
surface of the wing.

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MODULE 2
When finding the lift on a wing, the pressure difference between the upper and
lower surfaces is found from the above equation, and since,
Force = Pressure x Area, simply multiply the calculated pressure difference by the
area of the wing:

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P = ½ V 22 V 21 and Lift (or force) = P x Area

Note: in some questions the weight of the aircraft will be quoted. If the aircraft is
flying straight and level, the lift = weight.

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MODULE 2

18. FLUID DYNAMICS


Viscosity Laminar Flow
The factor which most affects the behaviour of a fluid in motion is the viscosity This is an example of a type of steady flow where the particles of a particular
of the fluid. This is the fluid’s own resistance to flow and is due to internal fric- streamline all travel at the same speed but each adjacent streamline is travel-

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tion within the fluid. In a liquid this internal friction is caused by intermolecular ling at a different speed. This is due to the viscosity of the fluid. For example,
attraction and in a gas it is caused by the interchange of molecules between if a fluid is flowing next to the skin of an aircraft then the layer of air next to the
the different layers. The viscosity of the fluid will be influenced by the tempera- skin will not be moving at all relative to the skin. The next layer will be moving
ture, normally the hotter the liquid becomes, the lower the viscosity. This is at a low velocity, the next layer slightly faster and so on until the full, free
called a positive coefficient of viscosity, a few materials have a negative coeffi- stream velocity is reached. This arrangement is normally the most desirable
cient of viscosity and increase their viscosity with temperature. on an aircraft because it causes the least air resistance (drag) on the aircraft.
For this reason, the aircraft is made with a smooth shape to encourage laminar
Fluid Flow flow, this smoothing of the shape is called streamlining.
The fluid can flow in different ways depending on the shape of the duct in which In the diagrams below we can see examples of laminar flow inside a duct. The
it is contained and on the viscosity of the fluid. effect of the fluid’s viscosity can be seen as the layer immediately adjacent to
If the flow is disorderly then the speed and direction of the particles passing a the wall of the duct is not moving at all and each subsequent layer is moving a
particular point will be constantly changing, this is known as Turbulent Flow. little faster. The more viscous the fluid then the greater this effect would be.
If the flow is steady then all the particles passing a particular point will have the
same direction and speed. This is known as Steady Flow.

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MODULE 2

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Cross Section of Fluid Flow Showing Laminar Flow

Three Dimensional View of Fluid Flow in a Circular Duct

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Figure 2 Fluid Flow in a Duct
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MODULE 2

Solve the following Problems

1. Plane having wing area 500ft2 is moving at 300ft/sec. The speed of the air
moving past the top surface of the wing is 400ft/sec and the speed of the air
past the bottom surface of the wing is 200 ft/sec. The density of the air is

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0.0025 slug /ft3.

2. a plane has a wing area 400ft2 is cruising at 230ft/sec. The speed of the air
moving past the top surface of the wing is 240ft/sec and the speed of the air
past the bottom surface of the wing is 230ft/sec. The density of the air is
0.0025 slug /ft3. What is the weight of the plane.

3. A plane cruising at 310ft/sec. The speed of the air moving past the top
surface of the wing is 340ft/sec and the speed of the air past the bottom
surface of the wing is 300ft/sec. The density of the air is 0.001slug /ft3. The
weight of the plane is 12,800lbs. what is the wing area.

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MODULE 2

FLUID PRESSURE & HYDRAULICS


Fluid Mechanics Gasoline has a specific gravity of 0.72, which means its weight is 72% that of
A fluid is any substance that flows or conforms to the outline of a container. Both water, or 0.026 pounds per cubic inch. Therefore, a column with a base of 1 square
liquids and gases are fluids that follow many of the same rules. However, for all inch and 1,000 inches high results in a pressure of 26.0 pounds per square inch.

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practical purposes, liquids are considered incompressible, while gases are To achieve a pressure of 1psi, the column must be 38.5 inches high.
compressible.
A practical example of how you use this information is when you are adjusting the
Much of the science of flight is based on the principle of fluid mechanics. For float level on a carburetor. Assume the carburetor specifications require an
example, the air that supports an aircraft in flight and the liquid that flows in application of 3psi to the inlet of the carburetor. As stated earlier, a column of water
hydraulic systems both transmit force through fluid mechanics. 1,000 inches high exerts a pressure of 36.1. Therefore, a column 83.1 inches
height results in a pressure of 3psi. However, since you are working on a
carburetor, gasoline is used instead of water. The specific gravity of gasoline is
Fluid Pressure 0.72. Therefore, to determine the height of a column of gasoline required to
The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is determined by the height of the produce 3psi, divide the height of a column of water required to produce 3psi by
column and is not affected by the volume of the liquid. For example, pure water 0.72. The column of gasoline must be 115.4 inches high (83.1in ÷ 0.72 = 115.4in).
weighs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, which is equivalent to 0.00361 pounds per
cubic inch. if you stack 1,000 cubic inches of water vertically in a column with a
base of one square inch, the column would extend 1,000 inches high and would With this known, connect a small container of gasoline to the carburetor by a peice
weigh 36.1 pounds. There would also be a pressure, or force per unit area of 36.1 of small diameter tubing. Suspend the container so the level of the liquid is 115.4
pounds per square inch at the bottom of the column. The amount of fluid has no inches above the inlet valve of the carburetor. This applies the correct pressure
effect on the pressure at the bottom of the column. at the inlet.

A given pressure
head of a liquid may
The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is determined by the
be produced by
height of the column and is not affected by the volume of the
raising a container of
liquid.
the to a specified
height.

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PASCAL’S LAW
Pascal’s Law explains that when pressure is applied to a confined liquid, the liquid This means that the piston in the larger cylinder has an area of 10 square inches,
exerts an equal pressure at right angles to the container that encloses it. For and one pound of pressure acts on every square inch of the piston, the resulting
example, assume a cylinder is filled with a liquid and fitted with a one square inch force applied to the larger piston is 10 pounds.
piston. When a force of one pound is applied to the piston, the resulting pressure

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of the confined liquid is one pound per square inch everywhere in the container.
When gaining mechanical advantage this way it is important to note that the
pistons do not move the same distance. In the previous example, when the small
piston moves inward 5 inches, it displaces 5 cubic inches of fluid. When this is
spread out over the 10 square inches of the larger piston, the larger piston only
moves one--half inch.

The pressure produced in a hydraulic cylinder acts at right


angles to the cylinder.

You can find the amount of force (F) produced by a hydraulic piston by multiplying
the area (A) of the piston by the pressure (P) exerted by the fluid. This is expressed
in the formula F = A x P. For example, when 800psi of fluid pressure is supplied
to a cylinder with a piston area of 10 square inches, 8,000 pounds of force is
generated.To determine the area needed to produce a given amount of pressure,
divide the force produced by the pressure applied.
A mechanical advantage may be obtained in a hydraulic system by using a piston with a small area
to force fluid into a cylinder with a larger piston. For example, when applying a force of 1 pound
Force (lb) = Pressure (psi) x Area (sq.in)
to a 1 square inch piston, you push upward against the 10 square inch piston with a force of 10
pounds.
Since the shape of a container has no effect on pressure, connecting one cylinder
to a large cylinder results in a gain in mechanical advantage. For example, a
cylinder with a 1 square inch piston is connected to a cylinder with a 10 square inch
piston. When 1 pound of force is applied to the smaller piston, the resulting
pressure inside both cylinders is 1psi.

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MODULE 2
Differential Areas
As stated earlier, the amount of force produced by a piston is calculated by
multiplying the area of the piston by the pressure applied to the fluid. However,
consider a piston that is subjected to pressure on both ends. For example, a
cylinder has a piston with a surface area of four square inches on one side, while
the other side is connected to a one square inch rod. When 1,000psi of pressure

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is applied to the side of the piston without the rod. 4,000 pounds of force is
produced (4sq.in x 1,000psi = 4,000lbs). However, when the same amount of
pressure is applied to the opposite side, the fluid acts on only three square inches.
Therefore, only 3,000 pounds of force is produced (3 sq.in x 1,000psi = 3,000lbs).

A pressure of 1,000psi produces 4,000 pounds of force moving the piston outward, but because
the area of the rod decreases the piston area, the same pressure produces only 3,000 pounds of
force moving the piston inward.

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MODULE 2
Relationship of Force, Pressure & Head
In dealing with fluids, forces are usually considered in relation to the areas over The dynamic factors of inertia and friction are related to the static factors. Velocity
which they are applied. As previously discussed, a force acting over a unit area head and friction head are obtained at the expense of static head. However, a
is a pressure, and pressure can alternately be stated in pounds per square inch portion of the velocity head can always be reconverted to static head. Force, which
or in terms of head, which is the vertical height of the column of fluid whose weight can be produced by pressure or head when dealing with fluids, is necessary to start
would produce that pressure. a body moving if it is at rest, and is present in some form when the motion of the

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body is arrested; therefore, whenever a fluid is given velocity, some part of its
original static head is used to impart this velocity, which then exists as velocity
In most of the applications of fluid power, applied forces greatly outweigh all other
head.
forces, and the fluid is entirely confined. Under these circumstances it is
customary to think of the forces involved in terms of pressures. Since the term
head is encountered frequently in the study of fluid power, it is necessary to Operation of Hydraulic Components
underdstand what it means and how it is related to pressure and force. To transmit and control power through pressurised fluids, an arrangement of
interconnected components is required. Such an arrangement is commonly
At this point you need to review some terms in general use. Gravity head, when referred to as a sysyem. The number and arrangement of the components vary
it is important enough to be considered, is sometimes referred to as head. The from system to system, depending on the particular application. In many
effect of atmospheric pressure is referred to as atmospheric pressure. applications, one main system supplies power to several sub--systems, which are
(Atmospheric pressure is frequently and improperly referred to as suction.) Inertia sometimes referred to as circuits. The complete system may be a small compact
effect, because it is always directly related to velocity, is usually called velocity unit, more often, however, the components are located at widely separated points
head, and friction because it represents a loss of pressure or head , is usually for convenient control operation of the system.
referred to as friction.
The basic components of a fluid power system are essentially the same,
Static & Dynamic Factors regardless of whether the system uses a hydraulic or a pneumatic medium. There
are five basic components used in a system.
Gravity, applied forces and atmospheric pressure are static factors that apply
equally to fluids at rest or in motion, while inertia and friction are dynamic factors
that apply only to fluids in motion. The mathematical sum of gravity, applied force, These basic components are as follows:
and atmospheric pressure is the static pressure obtained at any one point in a fluid
at any given time. Static pressure exists in addition to any dynamic factors that
1. Reservoir or Receiver
may also be present at the same time.
2. Pump or Compressor
3. Lines (pipe, tubing or flexible hose)
Remember, Pascal’s Law states that a pressure set up in a fluid acts equally in all
directions and at right angles to the containing surfaces. This covers the situation 4. Directional Conrtrol Valve (DCV)
only for fluids at rest or practically at rest. It is true only for the factors making up 5. Actuating Device
static head. Obviously, when velocity becomes a factor it must have a direction,
and as previously explained, the force related to the velocity must also have a
direction, so that Pascal’s law alone does not apply to the dynamic factors of fluid
power.

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MODULE 2
Several applications of fluid power require only a simple system, that is, a system
which uses only a few components in addition to the five basic components. A few
of these applications are presented in the following paragraphs. We will explain
the operation of these systems briefly at this time so you will know the purpose of
each component and can better understand how hydraulics is used in the
operation of these systems.

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1250 LBS
Hydraulic Jack
The hydraulic jack is prehaps one of the simplest forms of a fluid power system.
By moving the handle of a small device, an individual can lift a load weighing
Output Piston 250 Sq.in.
several tons. A small initial force exerted on the handle is transmitted by a fluid to
a much larger area. to understand this better, see diagram below. The small input
25 LBS
piston has an area of 5 square inches and is directly connected to a large cylinder
with an output piston having an area of 250 square inches. The top of this piston Input Piston
forms a lift platform. If a force of 25 pounds is applied to the input piston, it produces
5 Sq.in.
a pressure of 5psi in the fluid, that is, of course, if a sufficient amount of resistance
force is acting against the top of the output piston.

Disregarding friction loss, this pressure acting on the 250 square inch area of the
output piston will support a resistance of 1,250 pounds. In other words, this
pressure could overcome a force of slightly under 1,250 pounds. An input force
of 25 pounds has been transformed into a working force of more than half a ton;
however, for this to be true, the distance travelled by the input piston must be 50 5 LBS/sq.in.
times greater than the distance travelled by the output piston. thus, for every inch
that the input piston moves, the output piston will move only one--fiftieth of an inch.

This would be ideal if the output piston needed to move only a short distance.
However, in most instances, the output piston would have to be capable of moving
a greater distance to serve a practical application. The diagram shown is not
capable of moving the output piston further than that shown, therefore, some other
means must be used to raise the output piston to a greater height.

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MODULE 2
Hydraulic Accumulators
An accumulator is a pressure storage reservoir in which hydraulic fluid is stored Thus when the hydraulic pressure has reached its working level of 3000psi, the
under pressure from an external source. The storage of fluid under pressure air/nitrogen pressure is also 3000psi.
serves several purposes in hydraulic systems.
It is the additional pressure supplied to the air/nitrogen by the hydraulic pressure,

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In some aircraft hydraulic systems it is necessary to maintain the system pressure which can be used to feed back the pressure to the hydraulic fluid if the hydraulic
within a specific pressure range for long periods of time. It is very difficult to fluid pressure falls below that of the air/nitrogen. However, when the air/nitrogen
maintain a closed system without some leakage, either external or internal. Even gauge indicates 1000psi, the hydraulic pressure is zero, since the air/nitrogen has
a small leak can cause a decrease in pressure. By using an accumulator, leakage expanded back to its original pre--charge pressure.
can be compensated for and the system pressure can be maintained within an
acceptable range for long periods of time.

Accumulators also damp out fluctuations in pressure due to the operatioin of


services such as control surfaces and landing gear. They can supply extra
pressure when all the hydraulic services are being operated at one time (flaps,
control surfaces, landing gear etc.) and when the hydraulic pump is unable to cope.
They can also be used in an emergency when all other hydraulic power pressure
supplies (pumps etc) have failed. A large modern aircraft can be controlled on
accumulator power alone, for up to an hour.

Accumulators also compensate for thermal expansion and contraction of the liquid
due to variations in temperature. The accumulator consists of an air chamber,
which is charged with air or nitrogen. This is called the pre--charge pressure and
is usually about 1000psi. This pressure is measured when there is no hydraulic
pressure. The air chamber is the under side of the piston. (see diagram) With no
hydraulic pressure, the air/nitrogen pressure will push the piston to the top of the
accumulator to indicate the air/nitrogen pressure.

When the hydraulic pumps are switched on, the hydraulic pressure (acting on top
of the piston, in opposition to the air/nitrogen pressure) begins to rise. When the
hydraulic pressure exceeds the air/nitrogen pre--charge pressure (1000psi), the
piston will begin to move down and further compress the air/nitrogen pressure.

At all times that the hydraulic pressure is above the air/nitrogen pre--charge
pressure of 1000psi, the air/nitrogen and the hydraulic pressure are equal.

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MODULE 2

Bleed Vent

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Hydraulic Oil Connection Piston Rod (tailrod)

Cylinder Head
Hole for Tie rod

Split Ring for retaining Cylinder Head

Tailrod Seal & Backup rings

Cylinder (barrel)

O-- ring & backup rings (not visible)

Oil Chamber
Piston seal & Backup rings
Tie Rod

Piston

Piston Seal & Backup rings

Accumulator Support

Air Chamber Quad-- ring & backup rings head seal

HP Air Connector Cylinder head

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MODULE 2

Solve the following Problems

1. Calculate the pressure on a gas when a force of 3100N is exerted on a


piston of diameter 2cm.

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2. Calculate the force exerted when a pressure of 1bar acts on a piston of
diameter 8cm which has a piston rod of diameter 2cm taking some of the
piston area.

3. The piston face area in a hydraulic jack is 0.3 sq.in. The rod cross sectional
area is 0.1 sq.in. Calculate the force and direction the ram rod will move if a
pressure of 12psi enters into both sides of the cylinder chamber.

4. A brake cylinder has a piston diameter of 0.4ins. It feeds pressure to 4


identical wheel cylinders, each having just one piston of diameter 2ins. what is
the force on one wheel brake when the driver applies a force of 80lbs to the
master cylinder.

5. An hydraulic accumulator is charged with nitrogen to 600psi. The hydraulic


pump is then switched on and it feeds 3000psi to the other side of the
accumulator piston. What will be the new pressure on the nitrogen side of the
accumulator.

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MODULE 2

19. THERMODYNAMICS
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thermodynamic Cycles
The work of Joule and others may be summed up in a statement as the first law There are two types of themodynamic cycle:
of thermodynamics: One Cycle -- Working fluid is taken in and then discarded as in gas turbine

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Energy can be neither be created nor destroyed but can only be engines which will be considered later.
transformed from one form to another. Closed Cycle -- Working fluid never leaves the system. The working fluid
undergoes a series of processes and returns to it initial state such as a
refrigeration cycle which we will see later.
In simple terms:
ENERGYin = ENERGYout
Five Basic Elements of a Thermodynamic Cycle
In mathematical terms: i. Working Substance -- A medium receives, stores and transports the
energy.
Q=W+ U

ii. Heat Source -- Supplies thermal energy to the working fluid.


U = the change in internal energy of the system
Q = net heat flow into the system during the process
iii. Heat Receiver -- Absorbs the heat (or thermal energy) from the working
W = net work done by the system during the process
substance.
States of a Substance
The state of a substance can be defined by any 2 of the following variables; iv. Pump -- Moves the working substance from the low pressure side to the
high pressure side of the cycle.
i. Temperature
ii. Pressure v. Engine -- Converts the thermal energy to work (mechanical energy).
iii. Specific Volume
iv. Internal Energy
v. Enthalpy
vi. Enthropy

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Essential Elements of Closed & Open Cycles Unheated Engine Cycle
Heated Engine Cycle The working substance receives its heat in a device that is separate from the
Heat is added in the engine itself (i.e internal combustion engine) engine.

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Thermodynamic Process
A thermodynamic process is classified by the type of working substance flow.
There are two types:
Non--Flow -- Working fluid does not flow into or out of its container (i.e inter-
nal combustion engines and reciprocating steam engines).

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Steady Flow -- Working fluid flows steadily and uniformly through some de-
vice (i.e boilers and turbines).

State Changes of a Working Substance


i. Isobaric -- the pressure remains steady during the thermodynamic process
(i.e boilers and condensers).
ii. Isenthalpic -- Enthalpy of the working fluid doesn’t change during the pro-
cess (i.e turbine throttling).
iii. Isothermal -- temperature of the working fluid remains the same (i.e ideal
pumps).
iv. Adiabatic -- no heat transferred to or from a working fluid (i.e com-
pressors).
v. Isochoric -- volume of the working fluid remains the same.

Enthalpy (H)
Enthalpy is a commbination of:
Internal energy (U)
Flow Work

Mechanical energy necessary to maintain steady flow


Flow work = PV/J (Btu)

so, H = PV + U

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MODULE 2

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


Before talking about the second law, we must talk about reversibility. Think of the
following situations:
i. Adding heat to water on a stove/oven.
ii. Shaft rotating heating the bearings.

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iii. Warming your hands by rubbing them.

In the previous examples we see the direction the energy flows.

Reversibility in thermodynamics is a process in which the reverse could be


performed transforming all energy back to its original state without any losses.

There is no such process as reversibility


No process is possible where you can remove energy from a reservoir and
produce an equal amount of work from that energy, but mechanical work can be
totally converted to heat.

what’s all this mean?


There is no perfect engine where energy can be converted
back without some input.

Entropy
Entropy is an index of unavailability of energy. In other terms, entropy can be
thought of as the amount of energy that cannot be reversed from mechanical
energy to heat energy Entropy always increases for a thermodynamic system.

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ENGINE CYCLES
When the air passes through an operating gas turbine engine, the air pressure,
the temperature and the volume change but after the air has passed through
the engine, the air pressure, the temperature and the volume go back to their
original condition.

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This full process, where the end condition of the air is equal to the start
condition, is called the working cycle of an engine.
The best way to understand the working cycle of a gas turbine is to compare it
with the process in a four stroke piston engine.
In both engines, the air passes through four different working steps beginning
with the induction, then compression, combustion and exhaust.

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Figure 3 Engine Cycles
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REFRIGERATION
General Working Cycle
Refrigeration is the name given the process of reducing the temperature of a The diagram below shows a simple refrigeration system.
body. Normally we associate the process with domestic refrigerators in which Starting at the bottom, the compressor compresses warm freon gas and
we keep food fresh but the same principle is used in air conditioning of causes it to become a hot, high pressure gas which passes to the left into the

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buildings, cars and sometimes in small aircraft. coils of the condenser. Compression of the gas is essential to the operation of
the refrigerator for two reasons, firstly the temperature of the refrigerant must
Basic principles
be raised above the ambient temperature to allow some heat energy to be
A refrigeration unit has a closed system containing a refrigerant which is a given up to the surrounding air. Secondly, the refrigerant is forced to become a
liquid with a very low boiling point, often below zero Celsius. The fluid is liquid because of the pressure and temperature in the condenser. The
generally referred to as Freon irrespective of the manufacturer’s product name. condenser is the matrix of tubes which is visible on the back of a domestic
A refrigerator has two heat exchangers, one inside and one outside. As you refrigerator.
will recall from our earlier discussion on the changes between different states
In the condenser the freon gives up some of it’s heat to the surrounding air and
of matter, the process of evaporation from requires the addition of energy. This
becomes a warm liquid.
energy comes from the relatively warm air inside the fridge and, as this energy
is absorbed into the freon, the temperature inside the fridge drops. This liquid is then expanded through the expansion valve where it loses a large
amount of heat in the transition from liquid to gas and we now have a very cold
gas in the coils of the evaporator. The energy for this evaporation, as stated
above, comes from the air surrounding the evaporator and consequently the air
is cooled. At the end of the evaporator coil the warm freon gas is then
compressed by the compressor and the cycle continues.

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Waste Heat Out


Refrigerated Air To Cold Air Reservoir
(Refrigerator, car, building, etc)

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Expansion Valve

Condenser Evaporator Coil

Compressor

Ambient Air In Ambient Air In

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Figure 4 Simple Refrigeration Unit
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HEAT PUMPS
General
The refrigeration principle explained on the previous page can be used in
reverse to create a warming effect. These are used for the cabin heating on

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some small aircraft. As you can see from the figure below, the components are
much the same as for a refrigeration unit but the air is used in a different way.

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’Waste’ Cold Air Dumped Overboard

Heat to Aircraft Cockpit

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Expansion Valve

Condenser Evaporator Coil

Compressor

Ambient Air In Ambient Air In

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Figure 5 Simple Heat Pump For A Small Aircraft
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20. GYROS
Gyros are fascinating to study and a great deal of material is available on them. Apparent Drift or Wander
For the most part, we will be connected with only two of the properties of the The figure below illustrates the behaviour of a gyro. A perfect gyro would be one
spinning gyros. The first is the tendency of a spinning gyro to remain fixed in space without any external forces acting upon it, mounted in a perfect suspension system

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if it is not acted upon by outside forces such as bearing friction. This is the property that would give it complete freedom of movement in all three axes. All the gyros
of rigidity. Rigidity is used to measure position in position gyros such as the HSI in this figure are perfect gyros. Such gyros are called free gyros.
(gyro compass) and ADI (artificial horizon).
Only four gyros are represented A, B, C & D. The other gyro symbols shown
The other property of a spinning gyro that concerns us is its right angle obstinacy. illustrate the various positions of B, C & D as the earth rotates.
It never goes in the direction that you push it, but off to one side. The diagram below
illustrates this obstinate characteristics. The rules for anticipating the actual Gyro A
direction of motion from a given applied force are shown below. Has its spin axis parallel with the spin axis of the earth, sitting on top of the North
pole. It could maintain that position indefinitely.
Gyro B
Has its spin axis parallel to the earths spin axis, and is located above the equator.
The other gyros in its group represent Gyro B as it would appear at different times
of the day. If we were to look at Gyro B sitting on a table in front of us, we would
see that the upper end of its spin axis is pointing off towards the north star. As time
goes on and the earth turns 360 , we would not see any change in its attitude on
the table. its spin axis would always point toward the north star.

Whichever way you apply the force to the axis of a gyro, it will move in a direction
90 (in the direction of rotation) to the force. The speed at which it moves is
proportional to the force applied. This action is called precession. The force of
precession is used in rate gyros, such as those in a turn and slip indicator, where
the speed of turn is measured by the force that the precessing gyro exerts on a
spring.

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Gyro C
Is situatated on the equator. The other gyros in its group represent Gryo C as it
would apper at different times of the day. If we have Gyro C in front of us on a table.
Its spin axis is parallel to the earths surface. As time goes on and it rotates, we
would see its spin axis gradually tilting upward at one end until, six hours later (90

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of earth rotation), we would see it perpendicular to the earths surface, illustrated
by the gyro shown to the right of the earth. Six hours later (behind the earth out
of sight in this drawing) the spin axis would once again be parallel to the earth, but
with the end which was first pointing east now pointing west.

Another six hours later, the spin axis would once again be perpendicular, but this
time the opposite end of the axis would be another six hours later. When we get
to the same time of day at which we started, the gyro will again be occupying its
original position .

Gyro D
Its group illustrates another changing aspect of a gyro, in different positions as
viewed from the earths surface at different times of the day. These perfect gyros
illustrate what any gyro tries to do but cannot because of its orientation of the spin
axis, always in the same direction in space.

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Transport Drift or Wander
The outer ring of gyros in the below figure demonstrates that a completely free gyro
in an aircraft circling the earth would be perpedicular to the earths surface at only
two points.
The gyros drawn in the aircraft are continuously being corrected to a vertical

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position as the aircraft moves around the surface of the earth. The corrections are
gentle and slow, since the amount of correction needed in a ten minute period, for
example, is small the gyro is relatively very stable during pitch and roll manoeuvers
of the aircraft. Such a gyro is called an earth gyro or tied gyro.
The aircraft attitude information is derived from the gyros is also used by such
systems as autopilot, radar antenna stabilisation, flight recorders and flight
directors.

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21. WAVE MOTION


TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL WAVES Progressive & Stationary Waves
Mechanical waves can be categorized into two distinct categories. The Primary, When a wave propagates, for example when a stone is dropped in a pond, then
or P-Wave, is a longitudinal wave that forms alternating areas of compression and the wave appears to move outward from the point of disturbance. The moving

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wave travels across the surface of the water and is known as a progressive wave.
rarefaction as it travels through a medium. An example of a longitudinal wave is
If the progressive wave is reflected back from the shoreline, then it can interact
a sound wave. The Secondary or S-Wave is a transverse wave, which is also
known as a shear wave. A typical example of a transverse wave is a ripple on a with waves that are still travelling outwards. If the correct speed and frequency
are generated then the resultant wave will appear to be stationary. Such a
pond.
stationary wave is known as a standing wave. Here we shall consider both types.

A Longitudinal Wave

A Transverse Wave

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THE WAVE FORMULA


There are many types of waves; light waves, sound waves, radio waves, etc. In
our first discussion of waves, we will deal with that type which is called just “wave”,
that is a water wave.

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Standing Wave

In the figure above it is important to note that the pattern of crests and troughs is
Progressive waves moving. If the stone hits the water surface at the point (P), the pattern is moving
to the right. Of course, the entire pattern is moving out from point (P) in all
Let us assume that a stone is thrown into the middle of a large, calm pond on a directions, but we are looking in only one direction. We should also note that the
day when there is no wind. If there is a perpendicular plane surface cutting the pattern is moving with a definite speed, called the wave speed. The amplitude (A)
water surface through a point where the stone hits the water, an observer would of the wave is the greatest displacement from the rest position.
see the water surface disturbed in such a way that a curve would be visible. This
curve would have a shape as shown in the figure below.

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Frequency Example:
If we consider a body that has been attached to a vertical spring, which has then What is the wavelength of a wave moving with a speed of 5ft/s. If the frequency
been displaced from its neutral position and released. The spring will oscillate has of the oscillating body which is the source of the wave is 12Hz.
been oscillating for some time, the physical situation is shown in the figure.
The frequency (f) of the oscillating body is defined as the number of complete
= v = 5ft/s = 0.417ft.

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oscillations in one second. Frequency is expressed in cycles/sec. or Hertz (Hz). F
The period (T) is defined as the time for one complete oscillation, expressed in 12 Hz
seconds.

If the oscillating body completes 6 oscillations in one second. It follows that the
time for one oscillation is one--sixth of a second. Wavelength
Another distance that we will need in our discussion of waves is the wavelength,
In this case: (Greek letter lambda). The wavelength is defined as the distance from one point
on the wave pattern to the next point in a similar position. The distance from the
F = 6Hz and T = 1 sec top of a crest to the top of the next crest is a wavelength. Also the distance from
6 the bottom of one trough to the bottom of the next trough is also the same distance,
one wavelength. The distance is also shown in the figure above.

From the above example we see that f and T are reciprocals of each other
T = 1 and f = 1
F T

We next seek a relationship between wave speed (v), frequency (f) and
wavelength ( ). The wave moves forward a distance of one wavelength in a time
of one period. The wave moves with speed (v).

Since the distance equals the speed times the time (T) we can write the equation
as:
v=f

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RESONANCE
So far we have looked at waves that are not reflected back along the medium they Let us examine the case of a helicopter which has a tail boom with a natural or
are travelling in. We now must consider reflected waves. resonant frequency of 1Hz. That is, if you were to strike the boom with your fist
it would oscillate once each second. The normal rotational speed of the rotor is
400rpm and the helicopter has 3 blades on its main rotor.
The most common example is the case of waves originating in a disturbance

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impressed on a string of definite length i.e. a string that is fixed at both ends. Many Each time a rotor blade moves over the tail boom the blade is going to cause a
musical instruments depend on such vibrations. If a sinusoidal wave disturbance downward pulse of air to strike the tail boom. The designer must determine the
is impressed on a very long cord a sinusoidal wave travels continuously along the speed at which the pulses will be equal to the resonant frequency of the boom. One
cord. However, if the sinusoidal wave meets a fixed end, a reflected wave moves cycle per second is equivalent to 60 cycles/minute. Since each of the three blades
back along the cord. causes a pulse each revolution, there will be 3 x 60 or 180 pulses/minute.
Therefore a rotor speed of 180rpm would be critical and the pilot would be warned
against operating at that speed.
The wave patterns which are observed are called the normal modes of vibration
of the cord. In the figure below the length of the cord is L. The wavelength in the
various modes of vibration are X. The n is the index of the mode. In the equations The boom also has a secondary, or overtone, resonant frequency of twice the
which follow, n has an integral value, that is n = 1, 2, 3, 4. fundamental resonant frequency, 360rpm would also have to be avoided but would
not be as critical as 180rpm. The third frequency of concern would be 3 x 180 or
540, but that is above the rotor operating speed, so is not a problem.
We can write a general relation as follows:

n = n2 L The natural frequency of vibration is also an extremely important consideration in


designing the wings, horizontal and vertical stabilisers of an aircraft. The designer
The vibration where n = 1 is called the fundamental mode of vibration of the body. must be certain that the resonant frequency when the surface is bent is different
The other vibrations are called overtone vibrations. Every body which can vibrate from that resonant frequency when it is twisted. If that is not the case, an
has a certain fundamental mode of vibration that has a definite frequency aerodynamic interaction with the elasticity of the surface can result in “flutter”
associated with it. If this frequency is impressed on the body, it will vibrate with a which can cause the surface to fracture in a fraction of a second after it begins.
relatively large amplitude. We say that the body is vibrating in resonance with the
impressed frequency.

Aircraft designers must take resonant frequencies into account when designing
aircraft structure. For example, if a component on an aeroplane or helicopter is
allowed to vibrate at its resonant frequency the amplitude of the vibration can
become very large and the component will destroy itself by vibration.

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Solve the following Problems

1. A water wave has a wavelength of 0.9ft and the wave speed is 4.5ft/sec.
what is the frequency of the disturbance setting up this wave.

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2. A wave on a cord is set up by a body oscillating at 12 Hz. The wavelength is
0.25ft. What is the wave speed.

3. A water wave is set up by a source oscillating at 12 Hz. The speed of the


wave is 24ft/sec. what is the wavelength.

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22. OPTICS AND LIGHT


NATURE OF LIGHT
General As with any type of wave the frequency is equal to the number of complete

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Light was always a mystery to early physicists, they could use light but nobody waves per second so the greater the wavelength, the smaller the frequency.
could really work out what it was, even the great English physicist Sir Isaac Additionally the speed of the wave is equal to the wavelength multiplied by the
Newton did not know what it was. It had been observed that light travelled at a frequency.
definite speed and could be influenced by the gravity of planets but it was not c= ×f
until the 1800s that it was realised that light would react to interference from Where c= speed of light,
magnetism and was therefore some kind of electromagnetic wave. Light is the = wavelength and
term generally used to describe the electromagnetic radiation which is visible to f= frequency.
the human eye but really includes frequencies which we cannot see.
Electromagnetic waves consist of a magnetic field and an electric field Example
travelling together but displaced at 90 degrees to each other each describing a
If a radar wave has a frequency of 3 × 10 10Hz, what is the wavelength?
sinusoidal pattern. A diagram of an electromagnetic wave is shown in the
figure below.
Sources of Light
Light is given off by materials at very high temperatures such as a tungsten
filament in a light bulb and in some gasses by bombarding gas molecules with
electrons such as in a gas discharge lamp. Anything which gives off light such
as the sun or a light bulb is said to be ’self-luminous’ whereas most objects that
we can see simply reflect the light which falls on them.
Speed of Light
The electromagnetic waves which make up light, travel at a definite speed
which changes depending on the medium through which it is travelling. The
speed of light in free space (a vacuum) is approximately 186,000 miles per
second or 3 × 10 8m s. This is always constant and is one of the fundamental
constants used in physics. The speed of light changes according to the
substance so in water for example the light travels much slower.

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Figure 6 Electromagnetic Wave
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Colour of Light
The differences in colour of light that we perceive with our eyes are actually
differences in the frequency or wavelength of the electromagnetic waves falling
on the retina. The higher the frequency of light, the bluer the light will appear
to us until the frequency is so high that it becomes ultra violet and is outside
the visual range of our sight. Likewise, the lower the frequency of the light, the

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redder it will appear until the frequency is so low that it becomes infra red and
again cannot be detected by our eyes.
The light waves have very small wavelengths and they are measured in
10
Angstroms. 1 Angstrom = 1 × 10 m.
Typical values for light wavelengths of different colours would be:
Red 6400 Angstrom
Yellow 5800 Angstrom
Violet 4500 Angstrom
Wavelengths greater than 6500 Angstroms and less than 4500 Angstroms will
be invisible to the eye but this does not mean that they are not there. Many
types of electromagnetic wave are invisible to the eye but can be detected by
instruments such as X-rays. We cannot see the radiation but it is detected by
the X-ray film and can be developed as an image.

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Figure 7 Electromagnetic Spectrum
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REFLECTION
General The image observed in a plane mirror is;
When light falls on a surface then some of the light bounces off and is said to Laterally inverted but the right way up,
have been reflected. As we look at reflection we shall refer to the light falling The same size as the object,
onto the surface as the ’incident ray’ and the light coming off as the ’reflected

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Virtual,
ray’.
In the figure below it can be seen that the light falling onto a mirror surface is As far behind the mirror as the object is in front.
reflected away at an angle. It has been found by experiment that the angle of In the diagram below (right) we see a reflection in a plane mirror and it can be
incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r). The diagram below (left) seen that although the object is in front of the mirror, the image is behind the
shows this. mirror and must then be a virtual image as we could not capture this image on
a screen, we can only see it as an illusion.
Reflection at Plane Surfaces
Also from this diagram we can see that the image is the same size as the
Everyone has seen a mirror and observed their own reflection in it but where is object and is the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of it.
the reflection and why is it there? If we move towards the mirror we observe
that the reflection appears to get closer to us and as we move away so the
image moves back. From this it appears that the image is behind the mirror
but we know this is impossible as we cannot see through the mirror so the
image must be an illusion. This illusory image is known as a virtual image as
the image is not really there. A virtual image cannot be projected onto a
screen but a real image can. The mirror image that we see is also a lateral
inversion as can be seen by trying to read a number plate in the rear view
mirror of a car. If two mirrors are used then the image in the second mirror will
be inverted again and will be the right way round such as in a periscope.

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Normal line

Incident ray Reflected ray

i r
Mirror

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Figure 8 Reflection in a Plane Mirror
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Reflection at curved surfaces Convex Mirrors
The general rules discussed above for reflection can be applied to reflections in A convex mirror can be considered as the back of the spoon. If our image is
mirrors of any shape. The incident ray will fall on the mirror surface and be viewed in a convex mirror then it appears the right way up but diminished in
reflected at the same angle but on a curved or irregularly shaped mirror the size. The focal point is again half of the radius of the mirror’s curvature but this
incident ray will fall at many different angles within a small area and cause a time it is behind the mirror.
distortion of the image. Most of us have observed for example that our image In each of these cases, convex and concave, the image is beyond the mirror

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viewed in a spoon appears upside down while our image on the back or a surface and is a virtual image.
spoon appears very small. This is due to incident rays falling on a constantly
changing surface.
Concave Mirrors
A concave mirror can be thought of as the inside surface of a spoon. If the
curve is constant, ie. the mirror makes up part of a sphere, then a line drawn at
90 degrees to the centre of the surface of the mirror is known as the principal
axis. All incident rays parallel to the principal axis will be reflected by the mirror
and will be focussed on a point on the axis known as the focal point normally
denoted as F. The focal point of the mirror will be on the principal axis and at a
distance from the mirror surface of half the radius of the mirror’s curvature.
If an object is reflected in a concave mirror it can be observed that sometimes
the image is the right way up and sometimes inverted. If the object is between
the focal point and the mirror then the image will be the right way up and if the
object is further away than the focal point then the image is inverted. The
degree of magnification is dependent upon the actual distance away.

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(A)

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Image

(C)

Object

(A) Object placed between principal focus and concave mirror Object
causing virtual image.

(B) Image

(C) Object placed in front of convex mirror causing virtual image.


Object

Image

(B) Object placed beyond principal focus causing real image.

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Figure 9 Reflection in Curved Mirrors
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REFRACTION
General Laws of Refraction
We have all observed at some time that a stick placed half in, half out of a The laws surrounding refraction were established by a Dutch scientist named
pond appears to be bent at the water’s surface or that a tarmac road appears Snell who was a student of law at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands
to shimmer on a hot sunny day. These phenomena are caused by refraction. but who also had an interest in mathematics.

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As the light passes from one medium to another, such as air to water or hot air Snell’s law states that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence and the
to cold air, the light changes direction and causes the image to be distorted. sine of the angle of refraction is a constant.
This change of direction is caused by the fact that light travels at different
(sin i)
speeds through different materials. =k
(sin r)
In the figure below it can be seen that as the light passes from air into a piece
of glass at any angle other than 90 then the light will bend because it cannot The constant k is referred to as the refractive index of the second medium with
travel as fast in the glass as in the air causing the wavelength to change. If respect to the first.
light is observed crossing from the air into a block of glass and a line is drawn
at 90 to the surface of the glass (a normal line) at the point the light enters,
the light is seen to bend towards the normal. Likewise the light as it passes
from the glass into the air is seen to bend away from the normal.
If the piece of glass has parallel sides then the ray emerges in the same
direction as it entered but is displaced along the block.
A ray entering along the normal (at 90 to the surface) it is not refracted at all.
It should be noted that the refraction is different for light of different
frequencies. This can be proven in a prism where white light (which is made
up of light of many frequencies and thus many colours) can be split and the
colours of the rainbow observed. (See Newton’s experiment below). This
effect can also be observed to a lesser extent in cheap optical devices where a
multicoloured fringe can be seen and also in the atmosphere when rain is
falling whilst the sun is shining and a rainbow appears.

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Normal Line
Incident Ray

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Angle i
Air Air

Glass Water

Angle r

The reason a stick appears bent when half in, half out of the water

Refracted Ray

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Figure 10 Refraction at a Plane Surface
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NEWTON’S DISPERSION EXPERIMENT


Sir Isaac Newton experimented with light and found that if he allowed sunlight
to enter through a very small hole in a window shutter it projected a white spot
on the wall of the room. Then he placed a triangular glass prism in front of the
light and found that an area of multicoloured light was formed. Newton did not

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fully understand light but today we know that the reason for this phenomena is
that white light is made up of light of all colours and because different coloured
light is refracted at different angles, the various colours were refracted in
different directions. Newton called this coloured band the spectrum. The
process of the splitting of light into different colours is known as dispersion.
The colours of the spectrum are widely accepted to be red, orange, yellow,
green, blue, indigo,and violet but in reality there are no colour boundaries as
one colour fades seamlessly into the next and the spectrum does not stop at
red and violet but continues into the frequencies which are invisible to the
human eye, infrared and ultraviolet.

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Slit in Light Barrier

White light refracted into spectrum on


screen

White Light from Sun R


O
Y
G
B
I
Glass Prism V

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Figure 11 Dispersion of White Light Through a Prism
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LENSES
General Concave Lenses or Diverging Lenses
A lens is an optical device normally used to enhance an image and focus it A concave lens is thicker at the ends than in the middle and has two spherical
upon a certain point. Lenses form images in much the same way as curved sides. This kind of lens is also used in optical devices such as spectacles,
mirrors but by refraction rather than reflection. They are manufactured in a camera lenses etc. As in the case of the convex lens, it causes refraction of

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variety of shapes according to their intended use and by applying our the light rays falling on it but this time because of it’s different shape the effect
knowledge of refraction we can analyse the function and uses of some of these is different. The lens has a principal focus but this time the light does not focus
lenses. on this point but appears to originate from it.
The image formed by a concave lens is always virtual.
Convex Lenses or Converging Lenses
As the rays of light fall on the lens they are refracted away from each other and
A simple convex lens has two spherical convex surfaces each of the same
for this reason a concave lens is also called a diverging lens.
curvature. This is the kind of lens we have all used as a magnifying glass and
is used in many other optical devices such as spectacles, projectors etc. As The function of each type of lens can be better visualised if the lens is
discussed above, a ray of light as it enters the lens will be refracted towards considered as a series of small individual prisms and the light is considered as
the normal and as it leaves it will be refracted away. This time however the individual rays. This can be seen in the diagrams below underneath the
sides of the glass are not parallel so the light leaving the lens is travelling in a respective lens type.
different direction to the light entering. In the case of a convex lens all the rays
will be focussed on one point known as the principal focus. As this focussing
is caused by the rays of light being directed towards each other, a convex lens
is also called a converging lens.
If an object is viewed through a convex lens it is possible to obtain an image
which is either erect or inverted depending on the distance from the lens to the
object (the object distance).
If the object is closer to the lens than the principal focus then the image will be
real and inverted and will be larger than the object (magnified). This is what
happens in the human eye where the image is projected onto the retina as an
inverted image and this image is changed by the brain to give us a correct
impression of what we see.
If the object is beyond the principal focus then the image will be virtual and
erect and magnified. This is the usual way of using a magnifying glass such as
when doing a detailed inspection of a component.

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Convex Lens Concave Lens

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Figure 12 Refraction Through Convex and Concave Lenses
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FIBRE OPTICS
General Construction and Operation
Fibre optics are used in all sorts of applications for the transmission of data. A fibre optic strand has a core with a high refractive index and a sheath with a
The information is converted to a light signal which is transmitted along a low refractive index so that all of the light is reflected back into the fibre and as
hair-thin strand of glass or plastic and then at the other end the signal is little as possible is lost. This is known as ’total internal reflection’. In this way

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reconverted into information. the signal can be transmitted over large distances with little loss of signal. The
greatest loss of signal occurs at connectors and couplings.
Advantages
In the diagram below we can see, at left, a cut away view of a fibre optic cable
Fibre optics have certain advantages over metal wires; showing the internal reflection of the light along the fibre. On the right is shown
They are lighter and smaller- a fibre optic cable of 0.005in diameter with a a bundle of fibres giving some idea of their size.
protective jacket of 0.25in diameter can replace a wire bundle 3in in diameter.
This is an obvious advantage on an aircraft where space and weight are
critical.
They can carry far more information than metal wires-a single pair of fibre optic
cables can carry as much information as 64,000 telephone calls
simultaneously.
They are safer-there is no electricity being conducted so there is less risk of
damage to the cables causing a fire.

Disadvantages
The main disadvantage of fibre optic cables is that they are difficult to
terminate.
The fibres are also difficult to repair because they are so small, thinner than a
human hair.

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Bundle of fibres

Cross section of a fibre optic cable.

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Figure 13 Fibre Optic Cables
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MODULE 2

23. BASIC CHEMISTRY


Matter & EnergyMatter is defined as anything that occupies space, hence Electrons, Protons & Neutrons
everything that we can see and feel constitutes matter. It is now universally Many discoveries have been made that greatly facilitate the study of electricity and
accepted that matter is composed of molecules, which, in turn, are composed of provide new concepts concerning the nature of matter. One of the most important

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atoms. If a quantity of a common substance, such as water, is divided in half and of these discoveries has dealt with the structure of the atom. It has been found that
the half is then divided, and the resulting quarter divided, and so on, a point will an atom consists of infinitesimal particles of energy known as electrons, protons
be reached where any further division will change the nature of the water and turn and neutrons. All mater consists of two or more of these basic components. The
it into something else. simplest atom is that of hydrogen, which has one electron and one proton, as
The smallest particle into which any compound can be divided and still remain its shown in figure A. The structure of an oxygen atom is indicated in figure B.
identity is called a molecule. If a molecule of a substance is divided, it will be found
to consist of particles called atoms. An atom is the smallest possible particle of an
This atom has eight protons, eight neutrons and eight electron. The protons and
element. An element is a single substance that cannot be separated into different
neutrons form the nucleus of the atom, electrons revolve around the nucleus in
substances except by nuclear disintegration.
orbits varying in shape from elliptical to circular and may be compared to planets
as they move around the sun. A positive charge is carried by each proton, no
There are more than 100 recognised elements, several of which have been charge is carried by the neutrons, and a negative charge is carried by each
artificially created from various radioactive elements. Common elements are iron, electron. The charges carried by the electron and the proton are equal in
oxygen, aluminum, hydrogen, copper, lead, gold, silver, and so on. The smallest magnitude but opposite in nature. An atom that has an equal number of protons
division of any of these elements will still have the properties of that element. A and electrons is electrically neutral; that is, the charge carried by the electrons is
compound chemical combination of two or more different elements, and the balanced by charge carried by the protons.
smallest posssible particle of a compound is a molecule. For example, a molecule
of water (H 2O) consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. A
picture of a water molecule is illustrated.

Figure B

Figure A

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It has been explained that an atom carries two opposite charges, protons in the
nulceus have a positive charge, and electrons have a negative charge. When the
charge of the nucleus is equal to the combined charges of the electrons, the atom
is neutral, but if the atom has a shortage of electrons it will be positively charged.
Conversely, if the atom has an excess of electrons, it will be negatively charged.
A positively charged atom is called a positive ion, and a negatively charged atom

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is called a negative ion. Charged molecules are called ions. It should be noted
that protons remain within the nucleus, only electrons are added or removed from
a atom, thus creating a positive or negative ion.
Atomic Structure & Free Electrons
The path of an electron around the nucleus of an atom describes an imaginery Figure C
sphere or shell. Hydrogen and helium atoms have only one shell, but the more
complex atoms have numerous shells. Figure B illustrates this concept. When an
atom has more than two electrons, it must have more than one shell, since the first
shell will accommodate only two electrons. The number of shells in an atom As shown in figure C, the movement of free electrons does not always constitute
depends on the total number of electrons surrounding the nucleus. electric current flow. There are often several free electrons randomly drifting
The atomic structure of a substance is of interest to the electrician because it through the atoms of any conductor. It is only when these free electrons move in
determines how well the substance can conduct an electrical current. Certain the same direction that electric current exists. A power supply, such as a battery,
elements, chiefly metals, are known as conductors because an electric current typically creates a potential difference from one end of a conductor to another. A
will flow through them easily. The atoms of these elements give up electrons or strong negative charge on one end of a conductor and a positive charge on the
receive electrons in the outer orbit with little difficulty. The electrons that move from other is the means to create a useful electron flow.
one atom to another are called free electrons. The movement of free electrons
from atom to another is indicated in figure C, and it will be noted that they pass from An element can be either a conductor, nonconductor (insulator) or semiconductor
the outer shell of one atom to the outer shell of the next atom. The only electrons depending on the number of electrons in the valance orbit of the materials atoms.
shown are those in the outer oribits. The valance orbit of any atom is the outer most orbit (shell) of that atom. The
electrons in this valance orbit are known as valance electrons. All atoms desire
to have their valance orbit completely full of electrons, and the fewer valance
electrons in an atom, the easier it will accept extra electrons. therefore, atoms with
fewer than half of their valance electrons tend to easily accept (carry) the moving
electrons of an electric current flow. Such materials are called conductors.
Materials that have more than half of their valance electrons are called insulators.
Insulators will not easily accept extra electrons. Materials with exactly half of their
valance electrons are semiconductors. Semiconductors have very high
resistance to current flow in their pure state, however, when exact numbers of
electrons are added or removed, the material offers very low resistance to electric
current flow.

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The Electronic Structure of Atoms Compounds
The electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells around the nucleus and with Pure substances made up of more than 1 element which have been joined
increasing distance from the nucleus. The shells are lettered from the innermost together by a chemical reaction therefore the atoms are difficult to separate. The
shell outwards from K to Q. There are rules about the maximum number of properties of a compound are different from the atoms that make it up. Splitting
electrons allowed in each shell. of a compound is called analysis.

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The 1st shell (K) has a maximum of 2 electrons Atomic / Proton Number
Number of protons in the nucleus
The 2nd shell (L) has a maximum of 8 electrons
Mass / Nucleon Number
The 3rd shell (M) has a maximum of 18 electrons Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

The 4th shell (N) has a maximum of 32 electrons Isotope


Atoms with the same atomic number but different number of neutrons therefore
Our knowledge about the structure of atoms depends on the mathematical a different atomic mass.
formulations predicted by Neils Bohr. He suggested that electrons are distributed
in orbits and the number of electrons held in the orbit depends on the number of
the orbit. The orbits are counted outwards from the nucleus. Higher the orbit
number, the further the electrons are from the nucleus. If the orbit number is “n”,
then the maximum electrons held in the orbit is given as 2n2. The first orbit has
n = 1, and will hold 2 electrons, the second orbit has n = 2 and is capable of holding
a total of 8 electrons, similarly the third orbit will be able to contain 18 electrons
and so on.

Element
Pure substance, made up of atoms with the same number of protons.

Mixtures
Mixture of pure substances. Mixtures have the properties of the different
substances that make it up. Melt at a range of temperatures and are easy to
separate.

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This chart contains each of the known elements and their
corresponding atomic numbers and atomic masses.

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PHYSICAL NATURE OF MATTER


Matter is composed of several molecules. The molecule is the smallest unit of a Gas
substance that exhibits the physical and chemical properties of the substance. All As heat energy is continually added to a material, the molecular movement
molecules of a particular substance are exactly alike and unique to that substance. increases further until the liquid reaches a point where surface tension can no
longer hold the molecules down. At this point the molecules escape as gas or

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Matter may exist in one of three physical states, Solid, Liquid or Gas. All matter vapour. The amount of heat required to change a liquid to a gas varies with different
exists in one of these states. A physical state refers to the physical condition of liquids and the amount of pressure a liquid is under. For example, at a pressure
a compound and has no affect on a compounds chemical structure. In other words, that is lower than atmospheric, water boils at a temperature less than 212 F.
ice, water and steam are all H2O and the same type of matter appears in all of Therefore, the boiling point of a liquid is said to vary directly to pressure.
these states. All atoms and molecules in matter are constantly in motion. This Gases differ from solids and liquids in the fact that they have neither a definite
motion is caused by heat energy in the material. The degree of motion determines shape nor volume. Chemically, the molecules in a gas are exactly the same as they
the physical state of matter. were in their solid or liquid state. However, because the molecules in a gas are
spread out, gases are compressible.
Solid
A solid has a definite volume and shape, and is independent of its container. For
example, a rock that is put into a jar does not reshape itself to form to the jar. In
a solid there is very little heat energy and, therefore, the molecules or atoms
cannot move very far from their relative position. For this reason a solid is
incompressible.

Liquid
Liquids are also considered incompressible. Although the molecules of a liquid are
farther apart than those of a solid, they are still not far enough apart to make
compressing possible. In a liquid the molecules still partially bond together. This
bonding force is known as surface tension and prevents liquids from expanding
and spreading out in all directions. Surface tension is evident when a container is
slightly over filled.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
MODULE 2 PHYSICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6. STRESS AND STRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
COMPRESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1. CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BENDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
CONVERSION FACTORS TABLE 1--1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 TORSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
SHEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
STRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2. MASS, WEIGHT, DENSITY, PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7. NEWTON’S LAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
MASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 NEWTON’S FIRST LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
NEWTON’S THIRD LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
SPECIFIC GRAVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
TEMPERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8. THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION & CIRCULAR
MOTION 33
3. WORK, POWER & FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SPEED & VELOCITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 ACCELERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 CIRCULAR MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
LEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 PENDULAR MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4. PULLEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 9. FRICTION & ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


FRICTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5. GEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
SPUR GEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 10. HOOKE’S LAW (STRESS & STRAIN) . . . . . . . . 43
BEVEL GEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
WORM GEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 TENSILE STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
SUN AND PLANET GEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 YOUNG’S MODULUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
11. TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 18. FLUID DYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
FLUID PRESSURE & HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
PASCAL’S LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
12. ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
19. THERMODYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
13. THERMAL EXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
LINEAR EXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
AREA EXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 ENGINE CYCLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
VOLUME EXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 REFRIGERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
HEAT PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

14. MOMENTUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
20. GYROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

15. HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 21. WAVE MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


HEAT EXCHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL WAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
THE WAVE FORMULA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
RESONANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
16. THE THREE STATES OF MATTER . . . . . . . . . . 70
SOLID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 22. OPTICS AND LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
LIQUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
GAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 NATURE OF LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
CHANGES OF STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 REFLECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 REFRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
NEWTON’S DISPERSION EXPERIMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
LENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
17. BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 FIBRE OPTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

THE VENTURI TUBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

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23. BASIC CHEMISTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
PHYSICAL NATURE OF MATTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1 A Simple Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Figure 2 Fluid Flow in a Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 3 Engine Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Figure 4 Simple Refrigeration Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 5 Simple Heat Pump For A Small Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Figure 6 Electromagnetic Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Figure 7 Electromagnetic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Figure 8 Reflection in a Plane Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Figure 9 Reflection in Curved Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Figure 10 Refraction at a Plane Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Figure 11 Dispersion of White Light Through a Prism . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Figure 12 Refraction Through Convex and Concave Lenses . . . . 129
Figure 13 Fibre Optic Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

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