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# Non-Iterative Distributed Model Predictive Control

## Institute of Control Systems

Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Kaiserslautern

## 2018 American Control Conference, Milwaukee, USA

27.06.2018
Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Outline

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 2/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 3/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Distributed Control
Infrastructure systems
• examples: water distribution networks, electric
power system, building automation
• spatially distributed
• often large-scale
Centralized control
• simple and well-known approach
• but often infeasible due lack of
communicational/computational power
• undesired due to privacy reasons
Distributed control
• decomposition of the plant in subsystems
• local controller for each subsystem
• communication to improve the performance

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 4/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## Constrained Linear Systems

Example set-up:
• Overall plant consists of M subsystems
• Linear time-invariant dynamically coupled
subsystems ∀t ∈ N, ∀i ∈ I1:M

## Σi : x i,t+1 = Aii x i,t + B ii u i,t + Aij x j,t ,

X
| {z } j∈N
i
local dynamics | {z }
coupled dynamics

## • Ni : set of subsystems that influences the

dynamics of i (neighbors)
• Communication with neighbors
• local MPC controller for each subsystem
• Local constraints on inputs and states:

x i,t ∈ Xi , u i,t ∈ Ui , ∀t ∈ N

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## Drawback of Existing DMPC Algorithms

• Challenging communication burden for high
performance satisfaction
Objectives Event-Triggered Communication
• Reduce communication effort for control of
constrained linear systems
• exchange information if there is a necessity
Related Work and Contribution
• Iterative DMPC with event-triggered
communication: [GS16]
• This paper: non-iterative DMPC with
event-triggered communication

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 6/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 7/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## Proposed Control Method

Main Idea:
• Predictors using decoupled models to predict neighbor states
• Event trigger that monitors actual state and state of local predictor
• Event: Communication of state values with neighbors
• Robust MPC controller ([CRZ01]) to account for inaccuracies

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 8/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## x̂ i,t+1 = Aii x̂ i,t + B i û i,t

• Events are generated according to the rule

x̂ i,t = Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ,if x i,t − (Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ) ∈ Ei (x i,t )
(

/ Ei (x i,t )

## • The predictor can be implemented as û i,t is known from initialization.

• The error due to the event-triggered communication is bounded by

x i,t − x̂ i,t ∈ Ei (x i,t ) ⇔ x i,t − x̂ i,t ∈ Eiabs ∧ x i,t − x̂ i,t ∈ Eirel (x i,t )

## • relative trigger set: E rel (x i ) = z i |z T S ei z i ≤ x T S xi x i


i i i
• convex and compact absolute trigger set E abs with 0 ∈ E abs
i i

## Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 9/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

MPC Controller
Prediction model for i ∈ I1:M over r ∈ I0:N−1 :

X
(local model)
j∈Ni

## x̌ [i]j,t+r +1 = Ajj x̌ j,t+r

[i]
+ B j û j,t+r
[i]
(neighbor model)
ū i,t+r = v̄ i,t+r + K ii x̄ i,t+r + j∈N K ij x̄ j,t+r
X
(local input)
i

## û [i]j,t+r = v̌ j,t+r + K jj x̌ j,t+r

[i]
(neighbor input)
with x̄ i,t = x i,t (local measurement)
x̄ j,t
[i]
= x̂ j,t (neighbor state from predictor)
v̂ j,t+r (obtained from initialization)

N−1
li (ū i,t+r − K ii x̄ i,t+r − K ij x̄ [i]j,t+r ), li (v i ) = kv i k2Li
X X
Cost function: JN,i =
r =0 j∈Ni

## Constraints: x̄ i,t+r ∈ X̄ir , ū i,t+r ∈ Ūir , x̄ i,t+N ∈ X̄if , v̄ i,t+r − v̌ i,t+r ∈ Vi

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Algorithm

• Measure x i,t
• If t = 0: Initialization
• Solve Initialization Problem
• Exchange the sequence V̂ i,0
• Evaluate the event trigger

## x̂ i,t = Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 x i,t − (Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ) ∈ Ei (x i,t )

(
,if
x i,t ,if x i,t − (Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ) ∈/ Ei (x i,t )
• In case of event send x̂ i,t to neighbors
• Receive data x̂ j,t or update predictor x̂ j,t = Ajj x̂ j,t−1 + B j û j,t−1
• Solve MPC problem
• Update exchanged trajectory with zero: V̌ i,t+1 = v̌ Ti,t+1 , . . . , v̌ Ti,t+N−1 , 0 T
 

## • Apply u ∗i,t = v ∗i,t + K ii x i,t + j∈N K ij x̂ j,t to plant

P
i

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## Recursive Feasibility and constraint satisfaction

• Incorrect neighbor models and
possibly outdated state values
→ bounded disturbance:

Aij Ejabs ,
M
W̄i0 =
j∈Ni

W̌j0 =F jj Ejabs ⊕ B j Vj
F jk Xk ⊕ (−B j K jk ) Ekabs
Mh i

k∈Nj

## • (structured RPI) assumption on

terminal set (given in the paper)
Theorem 1
If initial feasible sequence V̂ i are available, then the MPC control law is recursively
feasible, x t ∈ X and u t ∈ U ∀t ∈ N.
Idea of Proof:
• e t ∈ Eiabs is bounded by the absolute part of event-trigger
• Constraint tightening and structured terminal set
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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Initialization

JN,i X̌
ˇ , Ǔ
 
minimize ˇ
i,0 i,0

ˇ ,Ǔ
i,0
ˇ
i,0

## subject to x̌ˇi,N ∈ X̌ˇif ,

x̌ˇi,0 = x i,0 ,
and for r ∈ I0:N−1 :
x̌ˇi,r +1 = Aii x̌ˇi,t+r + B ii ǔ i,r ,
ǔˇ i,r = v̌ˇi,r + K ii x̌ˇi,r
ǔˇ i,r ∈ Ǔˇir ,
x̌ˇi,r ∈ X̌ˇir ,
• X̌ˇir , Ǔˇir and X̌ˇif are additionally constraint tightened sets
• The set where the optimization problem is feasible is X N .

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Convergence
The closed-loop evolves according to x t+1 = Fx t + Bv ∗t − K D e t .
Assumptions:
• F = A + BK is Schur.
• For P  0, Q̃  0, L = diag (Li ), S e = diag (S ei ) and S x = diag (S xi ):
P −F T PF −Q̃ −S x F T PBK D −F T PB
 
 ∗ S −K TD B T PBK D
e
−K D B PB 0
T T

∗ ∗ L−B T PB

Theorem 2
The closed-loop converges to the origin with region of attraction X N .

Idea of Proof:
• Use Lyapunov-like function VN∗ (x , V̌ ) = x T Px + JN∗ (x , V̌ )
• e t ∈ E rel is bounded by relative part of event-generator
• LMI condition ensures decay of VN∗ (x , V̌ ) over time

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Simulation Set-up

## • M = 4 consecutive inverted pendulums on a cart

• each cart can be controlled locally; coupling through springs
• regulation problem with operation close to constraints
• comparison: DMPC, decentralized MPC (DeMPC), centralized MPC (CMPC)
• data can be found in the paper

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Results
2
CMPC
DMPC
1 DeMPC 1
abs rel
Velocity

index subsystem
0 3

-1
2

-2
1
-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Angle t in s
5
1 2 3 4
Input force

-5
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
t in s

## CMPC DMPC DeMPC

Cost 563.7 563.8 564.5
communication effort 100 % 14.6 % 0%
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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Conclusion

## • Consideration of linear dynamically coupled subsystems subject to constraints

• Event-triggered communication of the state values
• Strategy: robust DMPC controller combined with predictors and event-triggers
• Discussion of initialization of the algorithm
• Guarantees: Recursive feasibility and convergence of state to the origin
• Evaluation for an illustrative example

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## Thank you for your attention!

Questions?

Email: berkel@eit.uni-kl.de

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Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

## L. Chisci, J. A. Rossiter, and G. Zappa.

Systems with persistent disturbances: predictive control with restricted
constraints.
Automatica, 37:1019–1028, 2001.
Dominic Gross and Olaf Stursberg.
A cooperative distributed MPC algorithm with event-basd communication and
parallel optimization.
IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, 3(3):275–285, 2016.

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