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Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Kaiserslautern

27.06.2018

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Outline

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Distributed Control

Infrastructure systems

• examples: water distribution networks, electric

power system, building automation

• spatially distributed

• often large-scale

Centralized control

• simple and well-known approach

• but often infeasible due lack of

communicational/computational power

• undesired due to privacy reasons

Distributed control

• decomposition of the plant in subsystems

• local controller for each subsystem

• communication to improve the performance

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Example set-up:

• Overall plant consists of M subsystems

• Linear time-invariant dynamically coupled

subsystems ∀t ∈ N, ∀i ∈ I1:M

X

| {z } j∈N

i

local dynamics | {z }

coupled dynamics

dynamics of i (neighbors)

• Communication with neighbors

• local MPC controller for each subsystem

• Local constraints on inputs and states:

x i,t ∈ Xi , u i,t ∈ Ui , ∀t ∈ N

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

• Challenging communication burden for high

performance satisfaction

Objectives Event-Triggered Communication

• Reduce communication effort for control of

constrained linear systems

• exchange information if there is a necessity

Related Work and Contribution

• Iterative DMPC with event-triggered

communication: [GS16]

• This paper: non-iterative DMPC with

event-triggered communication

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Main Idea:

• Predictors using decoupled models to predict neighbor states

• Event trigger that monitors actual state and state of local predictor

• Event: Communication of state values with neighbors

• Robust MPC controller ([CRZ01]) to account for inaccuracies

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

• Events are generated according to the rule

x̂ i,t = Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ,if x i,t − (Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ) ∈ Ei (x i,t )

(

/ Ei (x i,t )

• The error due to the event-triggered communication is bounded by

x i,t − x̂ i,t ∈ Ei (x i,t ) ⇔ x i,t − x̂ i,t ∈ Eiabs ∧ x i,t − x̂ i,t ∈ Eirel (x i,t )

i i i

• convex and compact absolute trigger set E abs with 0 ∈ E abs

i i

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

MPC Controller

Prediction model for i ∈ I1:M over r ∈ I0:N−1 :

X

(local model)

j∈Ni

[i]

+ B j û j,t+r

[i]

(neighbor model)

ū i,t+r = v̄ i,t+r + K ii x̄ i,t+r + j∈N K ij x̄ j,t+r

X

(local input)

i

[i]

(neighbor input)

with x̄ i,t = x i,t (local measurement)

x̄ j,t

[i]

= x̂ j,t (neighbor state from predictor)

v̂ j,t+r (obtained from initialization)

N−1

li (ū i,t+r − K ii x̄ i,t+r − K ij x̄ [i]j,t+r ), li (v i ) = kv i k2Li

X X

Cost function: JN,i =

r =0 j∈Ni

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 10/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Algorithm

• Measure x i,t

• If t = 0: Initialization

• Solve Initialization Problem

• Exchange the sequence V̂ i,0

• Evaluate the event trigger

(

,if

x i,t ,if x i,t − (Aii x̂ i,t−1 + B i û i,t−1 ) ∈/ Ei (x i,t )

• In case of event send x̂ i,t to neighbors

• Receive data x̂ j,t or update predictor x̂ j,t = Ajj x̂ j,t−1 + B j û j,t−1

• Solve MPC problem

• Update exchanged trajectory with zero: V̌ i,t+1 = v̌ Ti,t+1 , . . . , v̌ Ti,t+N−1 , 0 T

P

i

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 11/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 12/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

• Incorrect neighbor models and

possibly outdated state values

→ bounded disturbance:

Aij Ejabs ,

M

W̄i0 =

j∈Ni

W̌j0 =F jj Ejabs ⊕ B j Vj

F jk Xk ⊕ (−B j K jk ) Ekabs

Mh i

⊕

k∈Nj

terminal set (given in the paper)

Theorem 1

If initial feasible sequence V̂ i are available, then the MPC control law is recursively

feasible, x t ∈ X and u t ∈ U ∀t ∈ N.

Idea of Proof:

• e t ∈ Eiabs is bounded by the absolute part of event-trigger

• Constraint tightening and structured terminal set

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 13/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Initialization

JN,i X̌

ˇ , Ǔ

minimize ˇ

i,0 i,0

X̌

ˇ ,Ǔ

i,0

ˇ

i,0

x̌ˇi,0 = x i,0 ,

and for r ∈ I0:N−1 :

x̌ˇi,r +1 = Aii x̌ˇi,t+r + B ii ǔ i,r ,

ǔˇ i,r = v̌ˇi,r + K ii x̌ˇi,r

ǔˇ i,r ∈ Ǔˇir ,

x̌ˇi,r ∈ X̌ˇir ,

• X̌ˇir , Ǔˇir and X̌ˇif are additionally constraint tightened sets

• The set where the optimization problem is feasible is X N .

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 14/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Convergence

The closed-loop evolves according to x t+1 = Fx t + Bv ∗t − K D e t .

Assumptions:

• F = A + BK is Schur.

• For P 0, Q̃ 0, L = diag (Li ), S e = diag (S ei ) and S x = diag (S xi ):

P −F T PF −Q̃ −S x F T PBK D −F T PB

∗ S −K TD B T PBK D

e

−K D B PB 0

T T

∗ ∗ L−B T PB

Theorem 2

The closed-loop converges to the origin with region of attraction X N .

Idea of Proof:

• Use Lyapunov-like function VN∗ (x , V̌ ) = x T Px + JN∗ (x , V̌ )

• e t ∈ E rel is bounded by relative part of event-generator

• LMI condition ensures decay of VN∗ (x , V̌ ) over time

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 15/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 16/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Simulation Set-up

• each cart can be controlled locally; coupling through springs

• regulation problem with operation close to constraints

• comparison: DMPC, decentralized MPC (DeMPC), centralized MPC (CMPC)

• data can be found in the paper

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 17/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Results

2

CMPC

DMPC

1 DeMPC 1

abs rel

Velocity

index subsystem

0 3

-1

2

-2

1

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

Angle t in s

5

1 2 3 4

Input force

-5

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

t in s

Cost 563.7 563.8 564.5

communication effort 100 % 14.6 % 0%

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 18/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 Proposed Strategy

3 Analysis

4 Illustrative Example

5 Conclusion

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 19/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Conclusion

• Event-triggered communication of the state values

• Strategy: robust DMPC controller combined with predictors and event-triggers

• Discussion of initialization of the algorithm

• Guarantees: Recursive feasibility and convergence of state to the origin

• Evaluation for an illustrative example

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 20/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Questions?

Email: berkel@eit.uni-kl.de

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 21/ 21

Introduction Strategy Analysis Illustrative Example Conclusion

Systems with persistent disturbances: predictive control with restricted

constraints.

Automatica, 37:1019–1028, 2001.

Dominic Gross and Olaf Stursberg.

A cooperative distributed MPC algorithm with event-basd communication and

parallel optimization.

IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, 3(3):275–285, 2016.

Felix Berkel, Steven Liu Non-Iterative DMPC with Event-Triggered Communication 21/ 21

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