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Name: Abid Nadeem

Nationality: Pakistani

Date of Birth: September 15, 1971

Present Address: Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong
Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Phone: 852-27844324 (office)
852-94179112 (cell)

Fax: 852-27887612

E-Mail: a.nadeem@plink.cityu.edu.hk (present)
abidnadeem@yahoo.com (permanent)

Declaration

‘All statements of fact in this report are true and correct and I have made claims of acquired
competencies in good faith. The report is my own work and is a true representation of my
personal competence in written English. I confirm that I understand that members of the
engineering team in Australia are required to display a commitment to exercising professional
and ethical responsibility in all aspects of their work’.

/ /

(Abid Nadeem) (Date)

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Continuing Professional Development
I have developed my career through steadily participating in various capability-enhancing activities
since 1994 when I graduated as Civil Engineer from University of Engineering and Technology (UET)
Lahore Pakistan. I describe my Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities as follows.

1. In April 1998, I graduated from the School of Civil Engineering (SCE), Asian Institute of
Technology (AIT) Bangkok, Thailand as Master of Engineering in ‘Construction Engineering and
Management’ with a GPA of 3.79 and 4th position in a batch of 30 graduates. My coursework was
focussed on the fields of project management, information technology, contract administration, etc
with reference to construction engineering. During thesis phase, I conducted research on multi-
criteria decision making for evaluating risks of BOT (build operate transfer) projects in Pakistan.
2. During September to November 1999, I attended a Series of ‘Workshops on Teaching
Enhancement’ organized by the Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching, City
University of Hong Kong, which helped to enhance my teaching skills in terms of knowing students,
planning teaching, professional assessment of student performance and promoting learning with
technology.
3. During September to November 2000, I participated in various short training courses to learn ‘Web
Development Applications, Statistical Modelling and Bibliography Management’ at City
University of Hong Kong. I got the training of software namely, MS FrontPage, SPSS and
EndNote in these courses. These courses improved my capability to apply information technology
for my ongoing professional duties.
4. In December 2000, I attended the ‘International Conference on High Performance Concrete
(HPC): workability, strength and durability’ at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
I presented a research paper on strengthening HPC beams with FRP and steel plates. This
conference provided me the knowledge of latest innovations in HPC technology covering a wide
range of applications in civil engineering practice.
5. In June 2001, I attended the ‘3rd International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions:
Environment and Loading (CONSEC’01)’ in Vancouver, Canada. I presented a research paper on
the tensile strength of HPC under elevated temperatures. This conference provided me the
knowledge of latest developments in the field of concrete subjected to various severe conditions
including fire and elevated temperatures. I got useful feedback regarding my ongoing research in
the field of elevated temperature performance of HPC from conference participants doing research
in the similar fields.
6. In August 2001, I got the membership of ‘ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers)’, member
ID: 382604, to keep myself aware of the latest information on technical and professional issues
related to civil engineering especially those related to construction, building materials and
structures.
7. In November 2001, I attended a seminar on ‘Corrosion, Technology and Quality Assurance of
Reinforced Concrete’ organized by the Materials Division of the Hong Kong Institution of
Engineers (HKIE) at City University of Hong Kong. Corrosion is one of the severe problems in
reinforced concrete structures. It provided me the latest knowledge about controlling corrosion of
steel in concrete structures.
8. In August 2002, I attended a seminar on ‘How to tackle Building Dilapidation Problem in Hong
Kong’ organized by the Asian Institute of Intelligent Buildings, City University of Hong Kong.
This seminar enhanced my understanding of the building maintenance and refurbishments works
and their environmental and social implications.

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nespak. Lahore Pakistan from September 1995 to August 1996. BACKGROUND Lahore is the second largest city of Pakistan with a population of 6 million. Being in the Geotechnical Division of my company. The design of pile foundations comprised of 206 cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles of 1 m diameter at 2 m centre-to- centre spacing ranging from 20 to 35 m depth. Resident Engineer Project Engineer Site Engineers Site Inspectors Skilled/Unskilled Labour Figure 1: Organizational Chart 3 .pk). The construction contract was awarded to a local construction company with an overall project duration of 18 months. Since the volume of traffic has increased tremendously during the last decade. I was assigned to supervise foundation and retaining wall works for the project. longer delays and traffic jams are frequent at the crossings of Canal Road with other roads. CAREER EPISODE 1 INTRODUCTION This career episode is about my field experience working as a Project Engineer with National Engineering Services Pakistan Limited (NESPAK) (http://www. designing and progress reporting. crosses six major roads of the city. I used both construction management and engineering skills while working on this project.com. The Lahore Development Authority (the client) decided to undertake detailed study of the problem and employed NESPAK to perform detailed investigations and prepare feasibility report for the suggested solution of the problem. It was suggested to construct underpass along the canal at all of the six major crossing roads. The client approved the proposal and awarded the detailed design. which runs along the canal banks. NESPAK is a multi-discipline engineering consultancy. I was employed in the Geotechnical Division of NESPAK and worked on an urban development project for the construction of 2nd underpass bridge at Lahore Canal. Reinforced concrete retaining walls ranged in height from 1 to 10 m and about 4 km total length. construction supervision and contract management of the project to NESPAK. In the next section. I have depicted an overview of my duties with regard to this project. The organizational chart of this project regarding my involvement is shown in Figure 1 and my position has been highlighted. My duties on this project were related to construction supervision. the Canal Road. In Lahore.

With this change. I initiated the idea of a computer assisted documentation management system that indexed electronically the project documents according to various features of the project. the need to handle documents arose because of the volume of project documents increased with time. I also assigned duties of site inspectors to carry out on site operations which included sampling concrete for laboratory testing. 2. some underground hard rocks that impeded the pile advancement and existing crossing sewer lines at some locations. developed an application in MS Access to file the documents with their features electronically and to retrieve the information quickly. I demonstrated the use of this application to the site office assistant and instructed to further build on the database of documents on weekly basis. During the course of the project. I worked in collaboration with the contractor’s site engineer to revise the schedule. This could delay the target completion time of the project. which indicated the completion time for these two work packages to be 10 months. I briefed them the piling and retaining walls operations involved in the project and how to monitor the progress using daily reports and schedules. I presented the idea to the RE for approval. It was specified that the depth of pile should not be less than 20 m from ground level and exact depth of pile to be determined based on actual soil/rock conditions at depths of 20 m or below which could satisfy the pile load capacity and settlements limits in the design specifications. estimated delay. Necessary adjustments to the schedule were made so that the delay was recovered. For the supervision of each work package. the deep excavations were re-scheduled at later dates and shallow excavations were performed earlier. project participants. I pointed out this shortcoming to the contractor and instructed to increase the excavation capacity by mobilizing an additional excavator at the site. This 4 . nature of the obstruction. then. 4. ensuring the quality of concrete and checking reinforcement details used in piles. Both the site engineers were required to get the details of the daily activities in association with the site inspectors and contractor’s supervisors and submit to me at least twice a week. The productivity of excavation was low at deep excavation locations because of the low capacity excavator used by the contractor and was delaying the retaining walls construction. The contractor then agreed to mobilize the extra excavator within 7 days.PERSONAL WORKPLACE ACTIVITIES 1. I worked out a procedure for obstructions handling to assess the effect of such problems on project. To make them familiar with the project. 6. The excavation and sheet pile driving operations often met with difficulties in the form of flooding of pits after excavation due to heavy rains. I assigned one site engineer and one site inspector. I demonstrated to the site engineers the criteria to use in designing for pile depth. The schedule was revised with MS Project and it was used in the project for planing operations and progress monitoring. recording subsurface soil/rock types at various depths. I wrote to the contractor to re-schedule piling and retaining walls activities to complete in 8 months. The contractor submitted the schedule for piling and retaining walls operations. 5. I instructed my staff to prepare a specific form for this purpose which was to be filled in to record the location. I made weekly progress monitoring reports of both work packages in specific format and submitted to the Resident Engineer (RE). Two site engineers and two site inspectors assisted me in the project tasks. I. document types. I assigned a part of the project tasks to them. In this way. 3. time. 7. On the project supervision side. etc. etc. I carried out the calculations for the required depth of piles at different locations.

It became possible with this process to check the validity of possible future claims of the contractor for awarding extra time or cost for completing the project. information was submitted to me and the delays/disruptions. I predicted the risk of settlements in the existing road besides the retaining walls. I carried out the design and analysis of the retaining walls. I contacted with the concerned departments through client to get drawings of these utilities at the project site. 10. which has to be revised. increased cost and delays in the piling operations. I found that at four locations. the client instructed to decrease the underpass height to reduce the cost of the project. I. The new drawings thus reduced the unexpected occurrences of hard strata in boring operations and helped to minimize the delays and cost of the project. For this purpose. recommended to the client to arrange for the relocation of these utilities in coordination with other departments. The damage to these utilities could cause a severe loss or at least disconnection of supply of these utilities to the public. 11. It caused the advancement of bore extremely difficult at times and the contractor had to employ extra time and to operate boring rig near to its design capacity. Traffic routes had to be redefined based on the occupied area around piles or retaining walls in coordination with Traffic Police. That caused frequent breakdown of boring rigs. and shops. I called for great care to the contractor while using the area around each pile to carry out the operation. If the road settled more than the permissible limits. In the early part of the project. The occurrence of unexpected hard strata at intermediate depths was a big problem while boring the holes for pile construction at many locations. the alignment of piles crossed the utility lines. The delays were classified into excusable. To ensure the safety on road. nuisance caused by noise. I instructed to rectify it without delay by refilling and/or reconstructing the settled section. Client agreed to undertake the relocation task and the piling at those locations was re-scheduled. After recognizing the potential damage of this risk. improved drawings were obtained after revision. I instructed the contractor to monitor settlements on the roads adjacent to retaining walls by fixing rigid level points on the road surface at an interval of 3 m. therefore. 12. These utilities could be gas pipeline. Retaining wall structure consisted of two significant parts as footing and wall. in the project were recorded. 8. offices. I used AutoCAD to generate the revised subsurface cross sections along the alignment of piles. 9. The levels were measured every alternate day during the sheet pile driving operations and twice a week after the piling for a period of six weeks to monitor the road settlement. I identified that the piling operation could cause the risk of disrupting underground utilities as the site was in a well built-up area. Different scenarios were taken into account depending on the level of ground water table and the uplift of water at the footing was also considered. etc. This change affected the design of retaining walls. To reduce this problem. electricity or telephone cables. construction in the vicinity of houses. I suggested to the contractor to minimize the disturbance caused due to these operations by better planning the activities. I decided to take counter measures. if any. The boring operations caused environmental and social problems in the form of disturbance to traffic due to equipment movement. Therefore. I updated the information in the original subsurface investigation report by entering the actual subsurface strata information of the previously bored piles and located the potential problem areas along the alignment of piles. etc. non-excusable and compensatory delays according to the delay liability on behalf of project participants. I used ACI (American Concrete 5 .

After this explanation. I supervised the work of draftsperson of our company who prepared shop drawings of retailing walls using AutoCAD. I also monitored revisions to immediately mark rejected and updated drawings with suitable stamps for future referencing. the client agreed and accepted the results of test pile. I organized the test data in worksheets using MS Excel and analysed the results. design of retaining walls and shop drawings to the Resident Engineer (RE) who submitted the design to the client for their approval. 16. 15. I received reports from site engineers and inspectors on regular basis and developed weekly progress monitoring reports and sent the copy to the RE. I found that the settlements in the pile were within permissible limits. I assigned the site inspectors check the quality of concrete used in the pile construction by regularly performing compressive strength tests of concrete samples obtained at site during concreting operations. to achieve the construction quality standards. During the piling operation. I calculated the reinforcement drawings were prepared afterwards. I issued a notice to the contractor to mobilize a higher capacity hydraulically operated crane and an additional concrete mixer to increase concrete production at site. 6 . The client examined the results and mentioned that there was small discrepancy between the diameter of test pile and actual piles due to which the capacity of the actual piles was overestimated. I along with the RE attended these meetings. I re-evaluated and interpreted that the overestimation in pile capacity was still in the acceptable limits and the results of test pile were valid. In addition to supervising design revisions. grade of steel etc in order to make the design further economical. Institute) standard design method and calculated maximum moments at the base of retaining walls. Moreover. I implemented construction materials testing program for regular inspection of the quality of materials by instructing the contractor to submit laboratory testing reports of the construction materials whenever they receive the new batch of materials at site. I instructed the site inspectors to regularly check the level of boring rig during drilling operations for vertical alignment of piles and the provision of circular disc shaped spacers in steel cages for proper concrete cover around steel cages. I noticed that the contractor used a low capacity crane to carry heavy steel cages and concrete into the pile bore and using a wheel mounted rotary mixer for concrete production. using different diameter steel. these provisions were insufficient and were causing breakdowns and reduced productivity in pile construction. In addition. I submitted the test results to the client. I selected the location for test pile keeping in view the space requirements and vicinity to the actual piles and delegated one site engineer and one site inspectors to supervise the construction of test pile and to collect the test data. regular weekly meetings were conducted with the contractor and the client. A full scale pile load test was conducted to ascertain the quality of pile construction at site. 13. From the size and criticality of operations. The contractor then to followed the instructions and promised to mobilize new arrangements within one week. 14. I discussed the progress of the contractor and the issues related to the operational difficulties in the project. I submitted the analysis. 17. This process called for the design and consequently shop drawing revisions. I supervised the test in accordance with ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standards. The client’s engineers reviewed the design and suggested alternatives for alterations like reducing thickness of walls.

Moreover.18. I got opportunities to practically utilize my engineering and management skills by working on this project. progress monitoring. The contractor also came up with occasional claims for the delays in the project owing to the alleged faults of the client and consultant. I also guided fellow site engineers and technicians to learn and use these tools. I evaluated the claims and took suitable actions to either refute or accept the claims. I sharpened my skills in communication. construction problem solving and teamwork. drafting and design aids to execute various tasks in this project. The delays were in the most part counteracted with proper engineering practice and supervision. I recommended the payment to the contractor by the client. application of engineering knowledge. contractor’s insufficiency in terms of some resources mobilization. This was based on the factual evidences I gathered throughout the course of the project in the form of progress reports from my subordinates and my own observations. task assignment. etc. scheduling. I employed various computing tools related to worksheets. unforeseen underground conditions. I examined the bills and verified the actual progress made by the contractor. SUMMARY The progress of the project was mostly according to the schedule with the exception of a few delays due to rains. On the basis of actual progress. The contractor submitted monthly bills for approval. 7 .

Hong Kong (http://www. I conducted a thorough literature review on construction delays analysis and delays mitigation. I worked on the project titled ‘Applying Case Based Reasoning for Construction Delays Mitigation’ from July 1998 to August 1999. The organization chart for this project has been given in Figure 2 highlighting my position. delays analysis was done to establish the length of delays caused by contractor. reports and internet to gather information about the delays problem in construction industry. Contractors try to minimize the additional cost incurred on delays mitigation. conference proceedings. I have described the account of my involvement in this project in the following section. It has been used for capturing and manipulating unstructured experience and knowledge. books. BACKGROUND Time overruns in the form of delays are very common in construction projects. to build a conceptual framework for delays mitigation and to develop a prototype model for delays mitigation using case based reasoning approach. In the first phase.edu. I consulted relevant journals. The delay mitigation is performed by employing extra resources to speed up the activities. report writing and producing publications for journals and conferences. My major duties in this project ranged were data collection. City University of Hong Kong. the project manager’s planning experience is important for the selection of the best possible time-cost relationship for expedited activities. CBR was chosen to model the process of construction delays mitigation in this project. modelling. which incurs additional cost to the contractor.cityu.bc. which I conducted as a Research Assistant at the Department of Building and Construction. the nature of the delays mitigation problem. In practice.hk). The second phase is the time-cost optimization using CBR and the third phase is schedule re-estimation to get the desired time recovery. I divided the overall process into three phases. Principal Investigator Research Assistant Research Student Figure 2: Organization Chart PERSONAL WORKPLACE ACTIVITIES 1. Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is the artificial intelligence technique that captures previous decisions made in the domain of a problem and reuses/adapts the retrieved decisions to suit for the new problem. I 8 . to explore ways for delays mitigation. Considering. data analysis.CAREER EPISODE 2 INTRODUCTION This career episode is about the research. The contractor is primarily held responsible for delays mitigation often due to contractual liability. The objectives of this project were to investigate the causes of delays in construction projects.

re-ordering the remaining tasks in the project and as a last resort accelerating the remaining tasks by employing extra resources. I started data collection on delays mitigation in construction projects with exploratory interviews of project managers from local construction companies with the assistance of a Research Student (RS). 6. The procedure included the sending of covering letter to interviewee to explain the purpose of the study. materials. In the case of web based forms. qualitative and quantitative research methods and construction productivity. took an initiative to propose that the delay analysis should be integrated into the delay mitigation system so that it would be fair for all parties involved in the project. The contents of the recordings were analysed and notes were prepared from each interview’s recording. the delay mitigation techniques/solutions were provided to the respondent and asked to propose an alternative solution in case of disagreement with the proposed solutions. 5. The questions about the nature and causes of delays and the ways for mitigation were asked. explored various fields to get the related information which included decision-making. I selected the respondent companies from Hong Kong Contractors’ Directory which could meet a minimum market capital requirement of HK$ 4 million for the government projects with the suggestion of the Principal Investigator (PI). I extracted five categories of delays mitigation solutions from the exploratory interviews. Most of the delay analysis techniques required schedule updating and I used MS Project for demonstration. client. 2. The paper based forms were sent to the companies via mail with covering letter describing the objectives of research and the respondents were asked to fill in with their input and send back to us either by mail or fax. based the methodology on capturing past experiences in delays mitigation to mitigate the delays in new project. 4. labour. The data collection was further expanded by preforming a questionnaire survey which was structured on the basis of causes. seeking to change in specifications. I. For each cause of delay. Approximately one hour duration was set for each interview and the interviews were recorded with the permission of interviewee. construction planning and scheduling. therefore. I investigated the existing delays analysis techniques and found that none of the techniques apportioned the delays to the client and the contractor with reference to the delays mitigation. contractor. I studied various schedule compression techniques. artificial intelligence. Prioritizing the task of delays analysis in the development of delay mitigation system was a critical step for the appropriateness of outcomes of the system. I. A total of 147 sets of 9 . During the literature review. the respondents could send their feedback using internet. plant/equipment and external sources. construction law. 3. A total of 15 interviews were conducted and I assigned ten of the interviews to the RS. I resolved it by performing delays analysis after introducing necessary modifications in the existing delays analysis techniques. therefore. The causes of delays were obtained from the literature review and exploratory interviews and were categorized into eight factors related to project. contacting the invitees on phone for interview arrangement and taking appointments. I found that the normal practice of applying time-cost relationships based on the normal estimating techniques was inappropriate in practical situations of delays mitigation and might not reach at the best solution. construction information technology. effects and mitigation of delays. These included the implementation of substitute construction method. designer. I prepared questionnaire in both paper and web forms and offered the respondents to choose any of the two media according to their convenience.

we developed the system to store input from the respondents in the background as database files using MS Access in which different fields were predefined. This model addressed in more detail the issues related to delay identification. The online form was uploaded to a host remote computer (Server) which was connected to the internet and that made access to the form possible to the respondents. Delay identification focused on the delayed tasks and remaining tasks on critical path. Data input about the new project is required and the crashing activity is obtained as output of the system. 8. The web based questionnaire was an innovative idea and was prepared for the convenience of respondents as the internet was commonly used in Hong Kong in many industries. 10 . estimation. For each contractor related delay the delay mitigation ways were also ranked. I found a high potential in CBR for this task. For this purpose. The overall response rate was 34% of which about two-third respondents used web based submission of questionnaires. I initiated modelling of delays mitigation problem using Case Based Reasoning (CBR) which had potential for the solution of unstructured information. I undertook self-learning of web development applications like MS FrontPage and Netscape Composer. etc obtained from the retrieved solution and using estimating techniques. I analysed the results obtained from the data collection techniques and found that it was not possible from this information to recommend a specific delay mitigation approach for a new project unless it was organized in a structured manner. questionnaires were sent. Problem fields contained the delays in the project and solution fields contained the delay mitigation ways adopted in the project. data input and output. delay analysis. choosing crashing activity. I analysed the data obtained from the respondents using worksheets application MS Excel. The form was designed to provide the ability to select most of the options conveniently. The average experience of the respondents was 17 years. 7. only a few activities are considered for crashing and the choosing the right crashing activity is critical for the success of delays mitigation. I used MS FrontPage to develop online web based questionnaire as it was more user-friendly. A set of practical methods to alleviate delays was also obtained for each delay factor. For this purpose. I categorized the features as those related to project identity. The system then retrieves the nearest match for the new project which has the known solution field. Once the crashing activity is selected. 11. Each case presented the features of the project related to the delays problem. A new case (project) is entered into the system whose project identity and problem fields are known and solution field is unknown. I assigned the RS to follow up the questionnaires with the respondents. The user then assigns the similarity weights of project identity and problem fields between the case base projects and new project based on his/her experience. Delay analysis determined the liability of the contractor for delays. I further expanded the system architecture for CBR-DM to develop a framework of delays mitigation model. The solution field of the retrieved case can be used for the new project after adapting to the conditions of new project. problem and solution fields. I ranked the contractor related and overall delay factors based on the responses. 10. 9. it is estimated for additional resources. Working with the RS. I created system architecture of Case Based Reasoning for Delays Mitigation (CBR-DM) which included the formation of a case base. re-scheduling. The schedule is then be updated and the delays are recovered. In practical situations.

Publishing papers out of this research helped me to present the research findings to the professionals in this field and to get acknowledgment and self-confidence. 2000.12. 13. Manchester. I modelled the framework for delays mitigation on commercially available CBR software REMIND. UK. remaining tasks at the point of delay. etc. indexing and adaptation strategies. I improved my skills to collect. These included the comprehensive literature review. analysis and modelling that helped me strengthen my computing skills. July 7- 9. exploratory interviews and questionnaire survey. 11 . retrieval. manage and analyse information needed for the project. Based on the research done in this project. length of delays. The modelling of delays mitigation was first conceptually developed in the form of system architecture and framework and implemented on CBR software ‘REMIND’. The software provides the mechanism for specifying the project features. causes of delays. SUMMARY Working on this project. I prepared and submitted a report on ‘Case Based Reasoning Modelling for Construction Delay Mitigation’ to the PI. Another paper titled ‘Improving Existing Delay Analysis Techniques for the Establishment of Delay Liabilities’ has been submitted for publication in the International Journal of Project Management. UK and is currently under review by the publishers. I published a paper titled ‘Applying Delay Analysis to Establish the Extent of Delays for Mitigation’ at the CIB W103 Conference on Construction Conflict: Avoidance and Resolution. constraints. I used various computer applications on this project to implement the tasks of data collection. The input to these variables was used for case searching. The input variables designed were the site conditions. As the case base increased in volume. inductive retrieval was proposed for narrowing down the search space which was further narrowed down with nearest neighbour retrieval and the crashing activity was obtained.

BACKGROUND This project is related to High Performance Concrete (HPC) which is being increasingly used in Hong Kong for the construction of high rise buildings. As a member of the project team. The main objectives of the project are to identify the characteristics of damage to HPC due to elevated temperatures. to analyse and model the data and to presented the findings in the form of project report and research papers for related conferences or journals. Changes in concrete at both micro and macro levels are interrelated with each other. which I am performing as Postgraduate Research Fellow at the Department of Building and Construction. So the study was made on both macro and micro level aspects. to guide the laboratory staff and research students to carry out the testing. HPC has significant improvements over normal strength concrete (NSC) in terms of economy. to develop mechanism for the damage. subways. large span bridges. The organization chart of the project team is shown in Figure 3 and my position in the team has been highlighted in Figure 3. Metakaolin (MK) and Pulverised Fuel Ash/Fly Ash (PFA) were added to modify concrete composition to enhance the properties of HPC and possible improvements in fire resistance. I my duties were to develop the experimental testing plan in consultation with the Principal Investigator (PI) to accomplish the research objectives. Considering this weakness of HPC. Principal Investigator Postgraduate Research Fellow Laboratory Staff Research (Technician & Students Workers) Figure 3: Organization Chart 12 . However. City University of Hong Kong from May 2000 to present. However. etc. post fire concrete exhibits deterioration in its mechanical properties both at macro and micro levels. tunnels. architecture and durability. I am working on a research project “Strength. the research was undertaken to evaluate the performance of HPC subjected to the elevated temperatures. it has also been found that HPC is more brittle than NSC and is thought to have decreased fire resistance. to find the ways improve the elevated temperatures performance of HPC. Durability and Microstructure of Metakaolin and Fly Ash Incorporated HPC Subjected to Elevated Temperatures”. Concrete is a non-flammable material and has fire resistance for normal fire exposures up to times as given in fire design codes. CAREER EPISODE 3 INTRODUCTION This career episode is about the research work.

curing age. data analysis and report writing. heating rates. water sorption test (WST) and water permeability test (WPT) were also included to broaden the stiffness and durability performance parameters. I found that the current state of knowledge in this area was segregated and various techniques and testing programs to assess the fire performance of concrete were under implementation all over the world. testing. casting. This classification was useful in setting the methodology for the research project. 3. I developed a detailed schedule with a total duration of three years. The reviewed studies were different from each other in terms of the different variables chosen in the studies. The mechanical properties of concrete are affected under elevated temperatures. The other set of mixes was based on the variations among mixes in terms of proportions of MK and PFA and having a strength grade of 100 MPa. cutting into thin slices and vacuuming and epoxy impregnation. 2. flexural strength. These techniques are originally used in the fields of applied physics and material sciences and I made special considerations for application of these techniques to suit for the needs in my project. peak temperature levels. curing. peak temperature exposure times and cooling methods. 5. Major activities were identified in the initial plan and field level activities were assigned to perform each test. materials. conference proceedings. heating. I adopted special considerations to prepare the specimens for durability and microstructure testing for obtaining representative samples. One set of mixes varied in terms of varying compressive strengths from 50 to 130 MPa using Portland cement and 10% silica fume. The sources to locate the information were journals. edited books. 4. It involved the mix design of various mixes. For better comprehension of the reviewed studies. I acknowledged that mechanical properties alone provide limited explanation of the behaviour of concrete under elevated temperatures and microstructure properties should be investigated to support the results from mechanical properties testing. mixing. The microstructure investigations were thus included in the program of the project. specimens and tests. Other parameters included the curing conditions. data collection. I planned a number of tests to carry out the experimental part of the project which included compressive strength. direct and indirect tensile strength. modulus of elasticity and chloride ion permeability. I took an initiative to classify the studies based on factors incorporating the characteristics of heating. The time duration for each field level activity was estimated based on the standard time for activity and the experience of laboratory staff and their interrelationships were established. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and micro indentation hardness testing (MHT) for this purpose and learnt to use the apparatus and software for these techniques by going through their operation manuals and discussing with the equipment operators. Field level activities included the estimation of materials. I fixed the various parameters for the project program from the knowledge gained from literature review and my personal experience. I chose Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). I input all the information 13 . Some infrequently used tests like stiffness damage tests (SDT).PERSONAL WORKPLACE ACTIVITIES 1. I conducted a detailed literature review of the fire performance of both normal strength and high strength concrete. I discussed the initial plan and major considerations with the Principal Investigator (PI) to further refine and make some adjustments. past dissertations and reports from the agencies working in the similar fields and the internet. Image Analysis (IA). These considerations included heating the specimens very slowly to protect the hydrated state of the specimen.

I helped them to learn the necessary functions of the software to use with the machine. 9. 11. They applied SEM and MHT tests for metals and ceramics materials. This is the steady state which was aimed to achieve during the heating operation. about field level activities and summary activities of a test into MS Project and created a detailed schedule. 7. I allocated most of the simple testing to laboratory staff and research student which included strength testing and durability testing. As our department did not have equipment for SEM and MHT.. SEM. These forms were to be manually filled by the person performing the tests. This type of data was about the strength and durability characteristics of concrete and it was related to the testing conditions regarding age and type of concrete. Prediction equations were also derived for these relationships. 8. I decided to perform more advanced level tests such as SDT. cooling methods. I allocated different jobs based on the complexity of the task to laboratory staff and research student. etc. IA. Ltd. The stiffness damage test required special equipments in the form of a data logger. peak temperature. 6. To solve this problem. In addition. I undertook the microstructural studies which revealed the basic units of concrete at micro level as hydrated cement paste (hcp) and interfacial transition zone (ITZ). I invited quotations from different suppliers about the equipment. During heating the specimens. I practised using machine and developed methodology to perform SDT efficiently. Eventually. I started to collect data about the test results from laboratory staff and the RS. the machine was computer controlled and the laboratory staff was not much familiar with the use of new software to control the loading machine. I selected one supplier to give me a presentation of the features of their equipment. it was required to estimate the time taken by the temperature at the centre of specimen to increase to the level of surface temperature. On advice of the PI. They did not have experience for concrete. and force control testing Machine from MTS (MTS system Corporation). The equipment was installed in the laboratory and I invited the supplier’s engineer to give us demonstrations about the use of equipment for various types of tests including SDT. FTIR and MHT. I talked to the concerned technicians and made some modifications in the standard methods to suit for the new conditions due to the use of concrete. The necessary calculations and plotting of graphs was performed in worksheets using MS Excel. I employed my knowledge of engineering mathematics and finite element method to set up differential equations for heat conduction for the specimens and solved the equations numerically by finite element method. I contacted other departments and found that the Applied Physics Department had the equipment for these tests. 12. curing conditions. I reported to the PI about the suitability of equipment from the selected supplier and it was decided to buy the equipment keeping in view the current and future use and versatility of equipment. As. I prepared the data entry tables for the tests to be performed in the project. I discussed our testing requirements about SDT. A number of relationships emerged which were regularly updated on weekly basis as the results from the tests became available. force and dual function load testing machine and a compressometer fitted with two LVDTs (Linear Variable Differential Transducers). HCP is the main binding medium of concrete consisting of the hydration products of cement and other 14 . heating rate. 10. After analysing their quotations. the data logger was bought from Tokyo Sokki Kenkyujo Co.

16. Vancouver. I monitored the research progress by preparing monthly progress reports for submission to the PI. Microhardness number is the hardness of specimen’s surface at micro level and it is the indication of the quality of the specimen. I performed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The decrease in microhardness number described the weakening of the strength of concrete and corresponded to the results from SEM and image analysis. I used MS Project to conveniently update the project tasks. The high temperature affected these phases and caused transformation of the phases. Singapore. Up to now. the results of different concrete mixes when subjected to different temperature schemes. 2. The deterioration in the macro properties is thought to be due to the weakening of hcp and/or ITZ. Therefore. Another paper titled ‘Effect of cooling method on residual compressive strength of high strength concrete cured for 28 days and 180 days and heated to elevated temperatures’ has been published in the proceedings of the 26th conference on Our World in Concrete and Structures. Canada and discussed my project with researchers and professionals from all over the world. binding materials. I 15 . The images were carefully selected to represent the sample. I employed microhardness testing to quantitatively compare in terms of Microhardness number. C-S-H (calcium silicate hydrate) broke down into different compounds weakening the overall structure and hence was the cause of considerable drop in strength after concrete was heated to a temperature of 600C or above. I presented one of such research paper titled ‘Effect of elevated temperatures on the flexural and split cylinder strengths of HSC’ in 3rd International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions: Environment & Loading. USA. calcium hydroxide and unhydrated cement particles in both hcp and ITZ. In June 2001. UK. which employed infrared light spectrum through the powdered specimens to help understand the composition of the phases that exist inside a cement paste after hydration and exposure to elevated temperatures. ‘Strength and Durability Performance of HPC Incorporating Pozzolans at Elevated Temperatures’ submitted to Structural Survey. I found that cement phase changed when it was heated to temperature around 550C. The analysis of results from this study has helped to produce five papers so far from this study in different journals and conferences. The identified features were pores. 1. Comparison of the images of heated and unheated specimens revealed a coarsening of pores effect in hcp in heated specimens and the effect kept on increasing with the increase in temperature. I analysed the images quantitative comparison using Image Pro Plus software which highlighted and calculated the areas of different features in the image. ‘Cooling method effect on residual compressive strength of high performance concrete subjected to elevated temperature’ submitted to Building and Environment. I used scanning electron microscopy to get images at the microstructural level of concrete in the range of 100 μm dimension. I investigated the hardness both in cement paste and ITZ. 14. 13. Two more papers have been submitted. 15. 26-28 August 2001. ITZ is the weak link between aggregate particles and hcp. it provided an argument to explain the loss of strength and durability in heated concrete. 17. I explored the deterioration phenomenon using microstructural investigations. The monthly progress reports also included the summary of results available at the time of report compilation. UK. I have obtained a sufficient amount of data from the experimental results of the project. A paper on the tensile strength properties of HPC under elevated temperatures has been accepted for publication in Fire Technology Journal. I took special care to prepare the specimen and produce a well polished and plane specimen for better results.

I prepared annual project reports which described the results in detail. I employed my report writing skills and technical knowledge to write research papers for refereed journals and conferences. 16 . assigning duties and making progress reports. communicating with colleagues. attended fortnightly meetings with the PI to discuss the updated state of the project. Moreover. The major part of the project involved the application of engineering and technical knowledge. required the application of management skills. and ways to keep the project on track and being focussed on objectives. 18. Currently. the research is in progress on the compilation of SDT and microstructure tests results and will be completed by April 2003. however. encountered difficulties. I practiced my technical knowledge in this project by conducting the literature survey. experimental testing and analysing the results and my management skills by planning the research program. The implementation of project. SUMMARY The study is potentially helpful for improving existing specifications related to fire resistant design of pozzolanic concrete incorporating PFA and MK. research findings and recommendations to improve the performance of concrete under elevated temperature.

I effectively employed the scheduling software MS Project for sequencing the operations in this project and progress monitoring and used worksheet application MS Excel for design calculations for pile depth and retaining walls. It gave me a good teamwork experience. I got a valuable practical experience for my professional development while working on this project. The job activities depicted in Career Episode 3 present a research project of predominantly technical character. analysis and modelling. planning. This research focussed on delays mitigation and the practical knowledge of project managers to eliminate delays from the project. I directed my subordinates on various tasks to make them more productive in their duties. I strongly believe that I hold the core competencies of a Professional Engineer and would continue to learn and exercise new skills and technology”. The addition of pozzolanic materials to HPC was tested as a solution to this problem to alter the composition and improve microstructure of HPC. I got an insight into the delays problem and its remedial measures. etc. The effective document handling helped to better assess the validity of claims from the contractor. I prepared a report and papers for conferences and journals from this research which emphasised the proper understanding of delay problem in construction and provided an approach to mitigate construction project delays. which were dealt with proper application of remedial actions and better control of operations. data collection. I developed the computer assisted document management system at project site office using MS Access for convenient indexing and quick retrieval of project documents. communicating with the Principal Investigator. research students. I endeavoured to supervise the works in efficient manner to minimize the likelihood of delays in the operations. “By activities performed on my jobs as presented in career episodes. The project execution encountered various problems. This is one of the most important issues regarding the use of HPC in modern construction owing to the vulnerability of HPC to this severe condition. I exercised my computer skills by preparing web based forms using MS FrontPage and managing the data using MS Access and MS Excel. I practiced my analytical skills to process the data collected from the experiments and made comparisons between the research parameters. I exercised my communication skills in correspondences. its execution required me to exercise my management skills as well in the shape of assigning duties to the laboratory staff. The issue were solved gradually starting from the literature survey and basing the next major task on the feedback from the previous task. I practiced my analytical and problem solving skills by implementing case based reasoning framework on computer using REMIND™. I worked with engineering professionals from my company. By the activities given in Career Episode 2. 17 . The delays in construction projects are based on the inherent uncertainties and risks of construction and thus are difficult to control. I practiced and supervised the drafting works on AutoCAD for subsurface investigation and design related tasks. the contractor and the client for various project tasks. I met with various issues to develop research methodology. meetings and workplace discussions with the project participants. and execution tasks of the project. equipment supplier. This was related to the denser structure of HPC than normal strength concrete. The experience gained from this project helped me to effectively carry out the similar jobs in the future. The research theme and objectives were purely technical. Overall. I applied my academic writing skills to write and publish research papers in conferences and journals based on the results of the project tasks. ANALYSIS OF CAREER EPISODES By the workplace activities given in Career Episode 1. I improved my understanding of high performance concrete (HPC) under elevated temperature/fire exposure while working on this project. I used my knowledge of engineering and management in design. However. I developed my skills on conducting research on an unstructured problem in construction I sharpened my communication skills by conducting exploratory interviews of the construction professionals from Hong Kong. While working on this project.

16.13. CE 3.9.2 By learning Web Development Applications to apply for CE2. CE1.4. CE2.1. CE1. and research methods to refresh my knowledge and support the execution of my project tasks By adapting techniques from other fields like scanning CE3.2. CE2.12.g.14. CE3.13 Integrates to revise the schedule for foundation works and with the engineering client officials to settle on the design of retaining walls with other By seeking a range of information from various fields CE 2. CE1. CE3.3 delays mitigation process 18 . professional methods to accomplish project tasks CE2. Fourier Transform CE3.10. CE1. CE1.2 professional like information technology.13.13.15 By publishing the research findings as reports.1 By exercising engineering and management skills while Career episode 1 Presents and working on a pile foundation construction project develops By employing various engineering techniques and CE1. social and safety issues CE1. CE3.12. planning.7 Pursues the accomplishment of project tasks e.2 development artificial intelligence.13.15.1. CE1. CE3.6 Image By performing tasks that require innovative and rational CE1.8.1.14.18 papers and conference presentations By applying engineering knowledge to implement and CE1.2 relationships for schedule recovery and proposing the capture of experiential knowledge for delays mitigation By emphasizing the integration of delays analysis with CE2. research methods etc and microstructure analysis techniques By challenging the appropriateness of normal time-cost CE 2.16 ensure proper engineering practice and quality of construction on project By resolving the environmental. Summary Statement of Competencies Element Claimed Competency How and Where Demonstrated Paragraph References Element in Career Episodes UNIT PC1: ENGINEERING PRACTICE C 1. MS FrontPage continuing and Netscape Composer professional By studying/learning about information technology. input construction law. artificial intelligence. journals CE2. electron microscopy.11 arising out of the construction C 1.16 discussing my project with the researchers and professionals from all over the world C 1. CE3. approach CE3. image analysis. CE 1. construction law.2. scheduling. CE2.15 Infrared Spectroscopy and microhardness testing to use in concrete By attending a conference to present paper and CE3. CE3.3 By collaborating with the site engineer of the contractor CE 1.14. CE3. decision making.

CE 3. coordinating remedial measures By identifying the potential settlements at existing road CE1. CE3.15 innovative results as the techniques were not originally developed engineering for concrete solutions By making special arrangements regarding equipment CE3.5 By anticipating the disturbances to public associated CE1.4 By taking special considerations for conducting CE3. Develops microstructure studies for better representation of CE3.8 potential locations for hard strata by utilizing the data from bored piles By devising the regular road settlement procedure to CE1. The microstructure testing was included in the testing program to supplement mechanical testing 19 .9 Identifies with construction operations and coordinating with the constraints on city administration for minimizing the disturbances potential By identifying the consequences of disrupting CE1.4.2 methods for getting an insight onto concrete behaviour.7 the respondents of survey C 1.7 for conducting stiffness damage test By preparing improved subsurface elevations to locate CE1.11 monitor the quality of new construction By developing web based forms for online submission by CE 2.11 surface with sheet pile operations and executing settlement monitoring exercise By identifying the limitation of mechanical testing CE3.10 engineering underground utilities with pile construction and solutions.C 1.2.13.

7 concept By conceptualizing case based reasoning system CE2. CE2.1 By instructing the contractor to increase the excavation CE1.1. CE3.8.13. design process project progress CE3. CE1.5.4 By reviewing the design of retaining walls to meet the CE1.16 outcomes in pile quality. Prepares productivity and handle problems CE2.6 and microhardness testing techniques for concrete specimens By seeking advice on the duration of activities and on CE3.12. etc operation 20 . CE3.2 By applying innovative approaches to improve CE1.15 acceptance validation C 2.11 C 2.5. Implements to meet the project requirements CE 3.10.17.3 By providing input into the design processes/parameters CE1.12 proposal and architecture and framework of delays mitigation and seeks advice implementation using REMIND software on latest technology By seeking advice to use scanning electron microscopy CE3. CE1. CE3. CE2.13 during the revisions during the retaining walls design design process C 2. CE1.8 the use of newly installed load testing machine for stiffness damage test C 2. CE1.6 By supervising full-scale pile load test CE1. documentation By setting up a monitoring procedure for drawing CE1.11. CE1. CE1.15 Reviews Design By developing periodic checking practice of materials.2. CE1.8. CE1. CE3.14 to meet the specifications By establishing documentation management processes CE1.15 requirements C 2.3 planning and By preparing/updating the project plans to monitor CE1.17 By checking the capacity of cranes and concrete mixers CE1.6 Interprets and capacity on site to attain the productivity according to scopes design the design specifications requirement By bringing into the client’s attention the disruptions to CE1.5.10 public utilities due to the project By complying with client’s requirements in revising the CE1.5.7.12 design of retaining walls By interpreting the pile load test results to satisfy design CE1.11.UNIT PC2: ENGINEERING PLANNING AND DESIGN C 2.4. CE1.7. Reviews the client’s requirements design to achieve By reviewing the pile load test results for verification and CE1. CE2.6.5 By ensuring that subsurface cross sections along the CE1.13.8 Prepares and alignment of piles indicate hard strata with more maintains probability.

3. CE3. the related phenomena CE3.11.13. CE1. CE3.6.7 Facilitates and the project capitalises on By developing creative and flexible approaches CE1. CE2. CE2.13. effectively participants CE1. Manages CE3. CE2. CE3. CE1.3.5. CE1. CE2.6. CE1.17 By managing information relating to contractual CE1.7.17.4.4.3 By locating and reviewing relevant information.17. CE2.8.1 By coping with the unexpected conditions and changes CE1. CE3. CE3.18 liabilities and obligations By applying relevant standards while performing project CE1.8. CE3.8 Establishes and improve construction productivity and maintains By working in collaborative relationships with CE1.6.11 Information By analysing data/information to get results and explain CE2. CE3. CE3.9 delays mitigation solution C 3. CE1.8 relationships of the project with clients etc By providing regular and complete progress reports CE1. CE2. CE1. CE1. CE1.15 tasks C 3. CE1.8.7. Works colleagues from my company and other project CE1. CE2. CE3.2 change and innovation By initiating the case based reasoning approach for CE2.17. with the team CE3.5.2 By cooperating and communicating effectively with the CE1.13.6 By identifying the client’s needs to economize the design CE1.14.10.5 By working with colleagues to introduce new ideas in CE2.2. monitoring and reviewing the project work CE3. CE1. business client/contractor/supplier in planning and implementation CE3. CE1.8.8 By completing tasks in a competent and timely manner CE1. priorities and plan and progress CE1.1.15.16. CE3.5.12.17 21 . CE3.3.4 By prioritizing processes to achieve the project goals CE2. CE1.17.10 Manages Work By preparing. efficiently CE1. CE1.7.6. CE2. CE1.7. CE1. CE1.4. resources By assigning duties to use the available human resources CE1. CE3.9.5. CE3.10 C 3. CE3.11.15.6. CE2.4.1.3.12 Manages Self from the client By exercising initiative in the workplaces CE1.UNIT PC3: SELF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING WORKPLACE C 3.8 effectively C 3. CE2. CE3.4. CE3.17 By mentoring subordinates to carry out their job CE1.10. CE1.6.4.12.2.1.10 C 3.8. CE3.

CE1.4. with CE3.2. CE1. CE3. CE3.7. CE2. CE1. members of engineering team communicating with the contractor’s CE1. tasks ensuring to meet the required standards 2. effectively not only with occasions. CE1. CE2. CE2. and community at large. CE3.8.9.11.2. development of new and CE1. For example. Ability to undertake problem Achieved and executed a number of CE2.12.1.10. Ability to communicate Achieved and demonstrated at various CE1. CE3. CE1. working on the construction of an environmental and business underpass project having benefits to responsibilities and the need to the community and environment and employ principle of sustainable working on the elevated temperature development.17.13.3. CE1.10. but also with clients. solution through the the innovative solution to the problem CE1.4.12. CE1.17 revisions in career episode 1. CE1.6. CE2.6. CE2. 22 . Understanding and application Achieved and demonstrated by Career episodes 1 and 3 of social. Ability to apply knowledge of Achieved and exercised by applying it Career episodes 1 to 3 science and engineering practically in the execution of project fundamentals.15 4.GENERAL ATTRIBUTES 1. CE3.12 operational performance set for the constructed facility in career episode 1 and by developing delay mitigation system in career episode 2 5. operational performance.10. CE2.4. identification.5.11. system approach to design and designing/construction of the piles and CE2.13.11.7. by CE1. CE3. CE 1. CE 3. CE1. formulation and times to identify.14.5. customers site engineer for project schedule. with the loading machine supplier’s engineer for machine operation in career episode 3 3. Ability to utilize a whole Achieved and applied by CE1. retaining walls with a view to the CE2. CE3. CE3. with the interviewees for delay mitigation techniques career episode 2. the client’s engineer for drawing CE3.12.8.15.8. CE2.6.3. performance project of concrete using environment friendly materials fly ash and metakaolin. innovative engineering practices. Got the multicultural team member experience while working abroad in Hong Kong on two projects 6.2. Ability to function effectively Achieved and demonstrated by Career episodes 1 to 3 as an individual and in supervising and carrying out projects multidisciplinary and managing the works individually and multicultural teams with the also with colleagues from my own capacity to be team leader or organization and with other affiliates manager as well as effective to the projects. global.7. formulate and seek CE2. cultural. which have implications for sustainable development.

by getting described separately.2. conferences. 23 . 8. A capacity to undertake life Achieved and demonstrated by always CE2. Understanding of commitment Achieved and demonstrated by Career episodes 1 to 3 to professional ethical working on the projects in episode 1 responsibilities. long learning trying to develop my skills on job and CE3.14.13. CE3. trainings. CE2. and CPD activities seminars.16 participating in workshops.12. CE2.2.15. CE3. membership of the professional organizations and planning to get my skills recognized with other professional bodies.7. to 3 to exhibit commitment to my professional duties. CE3.1. practically exercising them and CE3. CE3.7.