You are on page 1of 38

The Respiratory System

Femi Otulaja, PhD Gate House room 111 Office phone #: 0117176075 Email: Femi.Otulaja@wits.ac.za

Topics to Cover on The Respiratory System

Basic structures of the human respiratory system and their functions

Tissues associated with the respiratory system Mechanics and regulation of breathing

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide exchange in the lungs and the tissues

Function of haemoglobin (transport of Oxygen & Carbon dioxide in the blood) and factors influencing the oxygen-haemologin dissociation curve

Lesson’s Learning Goals/Outcomes

Identify and describe the organs and tissues of the human respiratory system and their

functions

Identify and describe the associated organs/tissues of the respiratory system and how they function to assist the respiratory

system

APES 1000 Introduction to Medical Science (Half Course)

The Respiratory System

We can live for days without food or water but cannot

live for more than a few minutes without oxygen. Respiratory gases exchange is very important between

animals/humans and the environment, why?

All cell require energy and certain raw materials to survive, grow and reproduce

To do so, cells rely on aerobic metabolism, i.e. use up oxygen (O2) to create carbon dioxide (CO2) as wastes product

O2 is need to produce most of the ATP needed by the cells. Without O2, cellular processes cannot continue

Cells need to remove CO2 to survive also as build up of CO2 is harmful

The Respiratory System Some Facts

Normal atmospheric air contains approx. 21% Oxygen when inhaled

Air being exhaled contains approx. 17%

Humans utilize 19% (4/21 x 100) of oxygen inhaled; 81% of oxygen is available in exhaled air

There are enough residual oxygen available for CPR when

you do a mouth-to-mouth CPR

Oxygen available to a patient in a mouth-to-mouth is about 16%

If mouth-to-mouth is done through a mask, you can increase oxygen available to 40%

The greater the oxygen concentration, the more efficient the gaseous exchange in the lungs

Respiration

What happens to the air we breath?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP) Respiration/Metabolism

• What happens to the air we breath? – C 6 H 12 O 6 +

6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 Photosynthesis

• What happens to the air we breath? – C 6 H 12 O 6 +

Photosynthesis  Cellular Respiration What are the processes of respiration?

Respiration Four (4) Processes

The term respiration encompasses are four (4)

processes

Breathing (ventilation)

Movement of air into & out of the lungs

External respiration

Exchanges of gases between inhaled air and blood

Internal respiration

Exchange of gases between the blood & tissue fluid

Cellular respiration

The process of using oxygen (O2) to produce ATP within the cells

Generates carbon dioxide (CO2) as waste product

Respiration takes place throughout the body

The Respiratory System Two Major Parts

The Respiratory System is divided into two parts

Upper Respiratory System or Tract

Respiratory structures in the head and neck

Lower Respiratory System or Tract

Respiratory structures in the neck and chest

http://serc.carleton.edu/download/images/37789/labeled_diagram_lungsrespirato.v2.png <a href=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Res piratory_system_complete_en.svg " id="pdf-obj-8-2" src="pdf-obj-8-2.jpg">

http://serc.carleton.edu/download/images/37789/labeled_diagram_lungsrespirato.v2.png

https://serc.carleton.edu/details/images/37789.html

Basic Structures - Anatomy What apparatus do humans use to breath? Nose Nasal cavity Tongue Mouth
Basic Structures - Anatomy
What apparatus do humans use to breath?
Nose
Nasal cavity
Tongue
Mouth
Pharynx (Throat)
Epiglottis
Larynx (Voice box)
Pleural membranes
Trachea (Windpipe)
Lung
Intercostal
Bronchi &
Bronchioles
muscle
Alveoli
Ribs
Left lung
Right lung
Diaphragm
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
UPPER TRACT

Components of the Upper Respiratory Tract

Sinuses Nasal cavity External nose Opening of the auditory tube Nostril Pharynx Mouth Tongue Epiglottis Glottis
Sinuses
Nasal cavity
External nose
Opening of the auditory tube
Nostril
Pharynx
Mouth
Tongue
Epiglottis
Glottis
Larynx
Trachea
Esophagus

Upper Respiratory Tract

The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils (nares), sinuses (frontal & sphenoid),

nasal cavity (contains the conchae), mouth,

throat (pharynx), glottis, epiglottis and voice box (larynx)

The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that secretes mucus

Nose external (visible part) and internal (nasal cavity)

Forms

Functions

External nose consists of cartilage and two nasal bones

The nose and nasal cavity form the main external opening for the respiratory system and are the

behind the cartilage; varies in

first section of the body's airway that allow air to

size and shape.

move air in and out of the body.

Divided into two chambers by

Nose is the entry point of air. Nostrils contains receptors for the sense of smell also nose hair

the nasal septum.

that help filter inhaled air and screens foreign

Contain the nostrils or nares

particles.

Internal nose (nasal cavity)

There are paranasal sinuses in the nasal cochlea

lined with moist, mucus

producing, epithelial tissues that are covered with cilia (tiny hair-like projections)

Nasal cavity is well supplied with blood vessels to

warms inhaled (incoming) air; epithelial tissue produces mucus and with aid of cilia traps dust, pathogens and other particles which the cilia

moves to the back of the nasal cavity and

  • http://adrenalfatiguesolution.com/anatomy-of-the- pharynx. Provides resonating chamber that give voice its characteristic tone

respiratory-system/

Sinuses, Mouth & Tongue, Pharynx (throat)

Air spaces inside the skull; lined with tissue that secretes mucus

Produce mucus that traps foreign particles. Sinuses drain into the nasal cavity. Tear ducts from the eyes also drain into the nasal cavity

Bony chamber with the muscular tongue;

Larger space for air does not contain the warming and filtering mechanism of the nose and nostril,

connected to the

hence don’t breath through your mouth except in

pharynx

yawning.

Space behind the tonsil.

Connects the mouth and the nasal cavity to the larynx. Upper pharynx (from nasal cavity to roof of

mouth) has the two auditory tubes (Eustachian

tubes that drains the middle ear and used to

equalize air pressure between the middle ear and

outside air) open into it.

Lower pharynx is the common passage for food, liquids (to the esophagus) and air (to the trachea).

Larynx (Voice box) Extend 2 inches below 1. Keeps the airway open the pharynx. The larynxwww.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html " id="pdf-obj-14-2" src="pdf-obj-14-2.jpg">

Larynx (Voice box)

Extend 2 inches below

  • 1. Keeps the airway open

the pharynx. The larynx contains the Epiglottis and the vocal cords.

  • 2. Route food, liquid and air

  • 3. Assist in production of sound

Epiglottis (a flap of tissue) tips and closes the Glottis (space

below the Pharynx) during swallowing to direct food and liquids

Epiglottis is the flexible flap of cartilage located at the opening of the

Larynx

to the Esophagus; hence it is difficult to talk while swallowing. Remains open when air is flowing through to the Larynx. Vocal cord produces sound by vibration like a string instrument; it

is controlled by skeletal muscle.

Vocal cord relaxes when you are not talking. They stretch across

Vocal cord consists of two folds of connective

tissue that surrounds

the opening of the airway (Glottis) - they

are supported by

ligaments and enclosed

within the Adam’s

apple (a cartilaginous structure)

the tracheal opening and vibrate as air passes through them when you start talking

Larynx (Voice box) Extend 2 inches below 1. Keeps the airway open the pharynx. The larynxwww.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html " id="pdf-obj-14-47" src="pdf-obj-14-47.jpg">
Larynx (Voice box) Extend 2 inches below 1. Keeps the airway open the pharynx. The larynxwww.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html " id="pdf-obj-14-49" src="pdf-obj-14-49.jpg">

Components of the Upper Respiratory Tract

Epiglottis Vocal Larynx Closed Cords glottis Opening into larynx Upper (glottis trachea open) Position of the
Epiglottis
Vocal
Larynx
Closed
Cords
glottis
Opening
into larynx
Upper
(glottis
trachea
open)
Position of the vocal cords
during quiet breathing
Position of the vocal cords
during sound production

Structure associated with sound production

Components of the Lower Respiratory Tract

Trachea Larynx Pleural cavity Alveoli Pleural membrane lining thoracic cavity Thoracic cavity Pleural membrane attached to
Trachea
Larynx
Pleural cavity
Alveoli
Pleural membrane
lining thoracic cavity
Thoracic
cavity
Pleural membrane
attached to the surface of
the lungs
Three
lobes of
Rib
the right
lung
Two lobes of
the left lung
Muscle
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Diaphragm
Cardiac cavity (Note the notch on
the left lung; space for the HEART)
 

Respiratory Organs & their Functions

 

Consist of a series of flexible C-shaped

incomplete rings of

cartilage held together by

connective tissue and smooth muscle. The inside

Transport air to the lungs. The cartilage keeps the trachea open at all times and allows the trachea to change diameter slightly

when you cough or breathe heavily.

Inner surface is lined with cilia-covered epithelial tissue that secretes mucus. The mucus traps foreign particles and the cilia move the particles upward, away from the lungs. When foreign

is lined by epithelial tissue

particle blocks the trachea, choking results and death can

Respiratory Organs & their Functions Consist of a series of flexible C-shaped incomplete rings of cartilagewww.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the- www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html respiratory-system.html " id="pdf-obj-17-25" src="pdf-obj-17-25.jpg">

happen within minutes

Respiratory Organs & their Functions Consist of a series of flexible C-shaped incomplete rings of cartilagewww.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the- www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html respiratory-system.html " id="pdf-obj-17-29" src="pdf-obj-17-29.jpg">

Respiratory Organs & their Functions

Bronchi walls contain fibrous connective tissue and smooth muscle reinforced with cartilage lined with ciliated and

Bronchi and bronchioles transport air. In addition, they clean the air, warm it up to body temperature and moisturize/humidify (saturate the air with water vapor) before the air reaches the delicate gas-exchange surfaces of the lungs.

mucus secreting epithelial

The thin, watery mucus produced by the epithelial cells of the bronchi

cells. As the bronchi become

and bronchioles traps dust, bacteria and other smaller particles and the

and bronchioles traps dust, bacteria and other smaller particles and the

smaller and smaller the amount of cartilage diminishes. The bronchioles

(air ways) lack cartilage. The smaller bronchioles are 1 mm or less in are mainly a thin layer of smooth muscles

cilia of these cells move in a wave-like motion to move the accumulated mucus and trapped particles upward to the pharynx to be swallowed or coughed out.

surrounded by small amount

surrounded by small amount

of elastic connective tissue. Smaller bronchioles terminate in the alveoli (air sacs) inside

the lungs

Basic Structures Lower Respiratory Tract

Pleural cavity – is a thin space Pulmonary pleural (parietal) membrane lining thoracic cavity filled with
Pleural cavity –
is a thin space
Pulmonary pleural
(parietal) membrane lining
thoracic cavity
filled with a
clear fluid
Rib
Trachea
Muscle
Thoracic cavity
Pulmonary pleural
membrane (visceral)
Three
attached to the lung
lobes of
the right
lung
Two lobes of
the left lung
Diaphragm
Heart (enclosed in pericardium
in the cardiac cavity)

Lower Respiratory Organs & their Functions

The Right and Left Lungs are very soft and frothy organs consisting of supportive tissues enclosing the bronchi, bronchioles, blood vessels, and areas of gas exchange. Both right and left lungs occupy the chest (thoracic) cavity.

The lungs are a system of branching airways. They are soft and frothy organs containing three million air-filled sacs called alveoli (singular: alveolus). Main

Lungs do not have skeletal muscles to

The two lungs are separated from each other by the heart. Right lung has three lobes and left lung has two lobes and partially surrounds the heart (cardiac notch). Each lobe can function independently of each other.

function of the lungs is gas exchange.

move them. The lungs expand passively as

Shape of the lungs follows the contour of the rib cage and

the surrounding bones and muscles

the chest cavity with the base shaped to fit against the

fluid reduces friction in the pleural membranes as the

expand the size of the chest cavity.

convex surface of the diaphragm. Each lung is enclosed in two layers of thin epithelial membranes called the Pleural membranes. One part of the pleural membrane lines the surface of the lungs and the other lines the surface of the thoracic cavity. The two linings are separated by a small space called the pleural cavity and contain a small amount of watery fluid. The

<a href=http://www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory- " id="pdf-obj-20-41" src="pdf-obj-20-41.jpg">

lungs and chest walls move during breathing

Basic Structures Inside Trachea & Bronchi

Healthy airway Smoker’s airway
Healthy airway
Smoker’s airway

Alveoli - arranged in clusters at the end of every bronchiole like grape clusters.

The combine surface area of all the alveoli in the lungs covers nearly 800 square feet, approx., 40 times the surface of the skin. This large surface area and the thinness of the squamous

A single alveolus is a thin bubble of

epithelial cell facilitate gas exchange with nearby pulmonary

living squamous epithelial cell only one cell layer thick. Each alveolus contains epithelial cells that secrete surfactant (a lipoprotein)

capillaries. In the pulmonary capillaries (arterioles and venules) carry blood into close contact with air in the alveoli. Only two living cells membranes (one that makes up the alveoli and one that

that coats the inside of the alveoli and reduce surface tension the attraction of water molecules to each other. Without surfactant, hydrostatic forces

makes up the capillaries) separate blood and air. A series of arteries and arterioles terminating in the pulmonary capillaries bring deoxygenated blood in contact with the alveoli and venules and veins of the pulmonary

of surface tension can collapse the

capillaries collect oxygenated blood from the alveoli and

alveoli

return it to the heart

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/alve

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/alve

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/alve

oli.jpg

Basic Structures - Alveoli

Small pulmonary vein Capillary Blood flow Air in Alveolus Bronchiole Small pulmonary artery Epithelial cell of
Small pulmonary vein
Capillary
Blood flow
Air in Alveolus
Bronchiole
Small pulmonary artery
Epithelial cell of alveolus
Bronchioles end in clusters of alveoli, each surrounded
by capillaries
Pulmonary venule
Pulmonary arteriole
Capillary network on
surface of alveolus
Surface of alveoli covered with capillaries

Gas exchange between the blood and alveoli

Associated Organs of Respiration & their Functions

Intercostal muscles and Intercostal muscles consist skeletal muscle Receives nerve impulse from the respiratory center of
Intercostal
muscles and
Intercostal muscles
consist skeletal muscle
Receives nerve impulse from the
respiratory center of the medulla oblongata
bones of the
attached to the bones
to contract or relax. Contracting moves the
rib cage
of the ribs
ribs upward and outward during inhalation
(inspiration) and relaxing moves the ribs
downward and inward (back to position)
during exhalation (expiration)
http://christineshipjoint.blogspot.co.za/2
014/11/intercostals.html
http://christineshipjoint.blogspot.co.za/2014/11/intercostals.html

Pulmonary Circulation Cardiovascular System

Pulmonary Circulation – Cardiovascular System
Pulmonary Circulation – Cardiovascular System

Associated Organs of Respiration & their Functions

The Diaphragm A broad sheet of skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It is dome-shaped when relaxed

Receives nerve impulse from the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata to contract or relax. When diaphragm contracts, it flattens and pulls its center downward; this increases the volume of the pleural space causes the pressure in the lungs to reduce compare to outside air (atmosphere), air rushes into the lungs (inhalation or inspiration). When the diaphragm relaxes and returns to its dome shape, the volume of pleural cavity becomes smaller, the pressure in the lungs increase higher than the outside

Receives nerve impulse from the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata to contract or relax. When
air (atmosphere) and air flows out of the lungs (exhalation or expiration)

air (atmosphere) and air flows out of the lungs (exhalation or expiration)

Associated Organs of Respiration & their Functions

Neurons in the respiratory center (group of nerve The NS regulates the rate and depth of
Neurons in the respiratory
center (group of nerve
The NS regulates the rate and depth of breathing in order
to maintain homeostasis of the concentration of CO 2 , H +
and O 2 .
cells) in the pons and
medulla oblongata
http://www.emptynosesyndrome.org/respirator
y-system/control-of-respiration/
https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/regulation-of-breathing.jpg

Mechanism of Respiration - Four Processes (revisit)

Breathing (Ventilation)

Air moving into (inhale) & out (exhale) of the lungs

What muscles & cartilages are responsible? Is the brain involved?

External Respiration

Gas exchange between inhaled air and the blood

Where does this take place?

Internal Respiration

Gas exchange between blood & tissue fluid

Where does this take place?

Cellular Respiration

Use of oxygen within the cells to produce ATP & generating carbon dioxide as waste product

Mechanism of Breathing

Process of breathing involves a pressure gradient

Getting air in and out of the lungs is cyclic and requires muscular (skeletal muscles) actions

Lungs do not have skeletal muscle; hence lungs expand passively as a result of associated bones, muscles and nerve actions

which expands and contracts the chest cavity and which changes in pressure gradient to happen

Understand that (Boyles law):

Gas pressure is caused by colliding molecules of gas

When volume of gas in a closed space increases ( ), the pressure inside the space decreases ( )

When volume in a closed space decreases ( ), the gas pressure increases ( )

Gases flow from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure

Because lungs do not have skeletal muscle of their own, the

expansion of contraction of the chest cavity also expands or

contract the lungs

Mechanism of Breathing

Mechanism of Breathing Relaxed state • At rest both the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles are

Relaxed state

At rest both the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles are relaxed. The relaxed diaphragm is dome-shaped. But not for long

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/respiratory-cycle.jpg

Mechanism of Breathing

Mechanism of Breathing Inspiration (Inhalation) • Inspiration (inhalation) begins when the diaphragm receive signal to contract;

Inspiration (Inhalation)

Inspiration (inhalation) begins when the

diaphragm receive signal to contract; by

contracting, it flattens by pulling the center downward.

At same time, the intercostal muscles also contract, pulling the ribs upward

and outward.

These two actions increase the volume of the pleural cavity and lowers the pressure within the pleural space.

The elastic lungs expand; this

lowers/reduces air pressure inside the

lungs (compared or relative to the outside (atmospheric pressure) and also increasing the volume of the lungs. So, naturally, air rushes into the lungs

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/respiratory-cycle.jpg

Mechanism of Breathing

Mechanism of Breathing Expiration (Exhalation) • Muscles contraction ends as they receive impulses from the respiratory
Mechanism of Breathing Expiration (Exhalation) • Muscles contraction ends as they receive impulses from the respiratory

Expiration (Exhalation)

Muscles contraction ends as they

receive impulses from the

respiratory center and they begin to relax

Diaphragm returns to its dome- shape and intercostal muscle relax

returning the rib cage downward

and inward (their resting state)

Pleural cavity decreases thereby decreasing the volume of the lungs.

Decreased volume cause pressure

inside the lungs to increase relative

to outside (atmospheric) pressure and air obeys Boyles law and flows out

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/respiratory-cycle.jpg

Mechanisms of Breathing

Mechanisms of Breathing https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/respiratory-cycle.jpg

https://naturalscience2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/respiratory-cycle.jpg

Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors

Inadequate breathing

- Negative feedback correction Decreased cerebrospinal fluid pH Central Chemoreceptors
- Negative feedback
correction
Decreased
cerebrospinal fluid pH
Central Chemoreceptors

Increased blood CO2

concentration (Pco2)

Decreased blood pH

Peripheral chemoreceptors (aortic and carotid bodies)

Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors Inadequate breathing - Negative feedback correction Decreased cerebrospinal fluid pH Central
Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors Inadequate breathing - Negative feedback correction Decreased cerebrospinal fluid pH Central
Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors Inadequate breathing - Negative feedback correction Decreased cerebrospinal fluid pH Central
Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors Inadequate breathing - Negative feedback correction Decreased cerebrospinal fluid pH Central

Increased breathing

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medulla_oblongata

Brain stem respiratory center

Medulla oblongata

Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors

Regulation of breathing by chemoreceptors http://www.slideshare.net/LawrenceJames/regulation-of-respiration

http://www.slideshare.net/LawrenceJames/regulation-of-respiration