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New York 10014 Key components: Seatposts and saddles 66 SpecialSales@dk. Ben Spurrier 02 GETTING STARTED 34 Tools and techniques: Workshop tools 36 First American Edition. a Division of Penguin Random House LLC Maintenance and repair: Lubricating your bicycle 44 17 18 19 20 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Maintenance and repair: Protecting your frame 46 001–193224–July/2017 Maintenance and repair: Emergency repairs 48 All rights reserved. WHEELS 72 A WORLD OF IDEAS: Chooser guide: Wheels 74 SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW Key components: Wire-spoke wheels 76 www. 345 Hudson Street. Sam Kennedy. Phil Gamble Managing Editor Gareth Jones Bicycle anatomy: Off-road bikes 12 Senior Managing Art Editor Lee Griffiths Components: Utility bikes 14 Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Components: Road bikes 16 Art Director Karen Self Creative Director Phil Ormerod Components: Off-road bikes 18 Publisher Liz Wheeler Seating position: Road bikes 20 Jacket Editor Claire Gell Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh Seating position: Off-road bikes 22 Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Accessories: Essential gear 24 Preproduction Producer Jacqueline Street Producer Mandy Inness Accessories: Bicycle technology 26 Picture Research Jenny Lane Accessories: Utility equipment 28 US Editor Kayla Dugger US Managing Editor Lori Hand Clothing: Road riding 30 Clothing: Off-road riding 32 Illustrator Brendan McCaffrey Consultants Luke Edward-Evans. Brendan McCaffrey. fund-raising. no part of this publication may be reproduced. Ray Bryant. contact: DK Publishing Special Maintaining a handlebar: Replacing handlebar grips 64 Markets. Katie John. Key components: Handlebars and stems 58 ISBN 978-1-4654-5915-2 Removing and replacing: Drop and straight handlebars 60 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased Maintaining a handlebar: Replacing handlebar tape 62 in bulk for sales promotions. 2017 Published in the United States by DK Publishing Tools and techniques: Workshop techniques 38 345 Hudson Street. Tash Kahn.dkimages. Removing and reinstalling a wheel: Quick-release front wheels 78 . without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. in any STEERING AND SADDLE 50 form. For details. or transmitted. recording. New York. stored in or introduced into a retrieval system. or by any means (electronic. Phil Quill Authors Claire Beaumont. Contents Introduction 6 01 DK London Senior Editor Chauney Dunford Senior Art Editor Gillian Andrews KNOW YOUR BICYCLE 8 Editors Hannah Bowen. photocopying. Richard Gilbert. Hugo Wilkinson Designers Stephen Bere. or otherwise). New York 10014 Maintenance and repair: M-checks 40 Maintenance and repair: Cleaning your bicycle 42 Copyright © 2017 Dorling Kindersley Limited DK. or educational use. Servicing a headset: Threaded headsets 54 A catalog record for this book is available from Servicing a headset: Threadless headsets 56 the Library of Congress. 03 Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved Adjusting a seatpost: Seatpost maintenance 68 Printed and bound in China Installing a seatpost: Dropper seatposts 70 04 All images © Dorling Kindersley Limited For further information see: www. Key components: Headsets 52 Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. Bicycle anatomy: Road bikes 10 Katie Cavanagh. New York.

saddle.Removing and reinstalling a wheel: Wheels with a cassette 80 Chooser guide: Cranksets 162 Removing and reinstalling a wheel: Wheels with a hub gear 82 Key components: Cranksets 164 Replacing a tire: Clincher tires 84 Removing and reinstalling a crankset: Shimano Hollowtech II 166 Replacing a tire: Tubeless tires 86 Removing and reinstalling a crankset: Square taper-types 168 Servicing a wheel: Tightening loose spokes 88 Removing and reinstalling a crankset: Campagnolo Ultra-Torque 170 Key components: Wheel hubs 90 Removing and reinstalling a crankset: SRAM Red 172 Servicing a wheel bearing: Press-fit cartridge types 92 Key components: Bottom brackets 174 Servicing a wheel bearing: Cup and cone types 94 Replacing a bottom bracket: Campagnolo Ultra-Torque 176 Replacing a bottom bracket: Cartridge types 178 05 BRAKES 96 Replacing a bottom bracket: Shimano HollowTech II Chooser guide: Pedals Servicing pedals: Greasing axle bearings 180 182 184 Chooser guide: Brakes 98 Fitting cleats: Cycling shoes and cleats 186 Key components: Rim brakes 100 Installing brake cables: Drop handlebars Installing brake cables: Straight handlebars Servicing hydraulic brakes: Replacing hoses 102 104 106 07 SUSPENSION 188 Servicing hydraulic brakes: Bleeding the system 108 Chooser guide: Suspension 190 Maintaining mechanical brakes: Replacing brake pads 110 Key components: Suspension forks 192 Adjusting mechanical brakes: V-brakes 112 Adjusting front suspension: Setting the front sag 194 Adjusting mechanical brakes: Cantilever brakes 114 Maintaining front suspension: Tuning suspension forks 196 Adjusting mechanical brakes: Dual-pivot brakes 116 Servicing front suspension: The lower legs 198 Key components: Hydraulic disc brakes 118 Key components: Rear suspension 200 Servicing mechanical brakes: Disc brakes 120 Adjusting rear suspension: Setting the rear sag 202 Key components: Roller brakes 122 Installing and adjusting brake cables: Roller brake cables 124 08 OWNER’S GUIDE 204 06 DRIVETRAIN 126 Regular maintenance: Planner Troubleshooting: Steering. wheels 206 208 Chooser guide: Drivetrain systems 128 Troubleshooting: Rim brakes 210 Key components: Manual shifters 130 Troubleshooting: Disc brakes 212 Installing gear cables: External gear cables 132 Troubleshooting: Drivetrain 214 Installing gear cables: Internal gear cables 134 Key components: Electronic shifting 136 Adjusting electronic shifters: Shimano Di2 systems 138 Key components: Front derailleurs 140 Installing and adjusting a derailleur: Front derailleurs 142 Glossary 216 Key components: Rear derailleurs 144 Installing a derailleur: Rear derailleurs 146 Index 220 Adjusting a derailleur: Rear derailleurs 148 Acknowledgments 224 Key components: Hub gears 150 Adjusting hub gears: Shimano Alfine 8 152 Adjusting hub gears: Sturmey-Archer three-speed 154 Key components: Chains and cassettes 156 Removing and replacing a bicycle chain: Bicycle chains 158 Removing and servicing a cassette: Rear cassettes 160 .

you need to keep your bike in the information you need to get the best use out of best possible condition. the interplay of pedals. Advice on suitable clothing. The "Getting Started" chapter shows you how steering. it will benefit from a good maintenance routine. and maintain each part of your bike. adjust. we show you how to tools. on a and get you close to every part of your bike. Bikes do not run on your your bike in everyday riding. It’s also great of tools will slowly build. As you decide to replace learning how to fix and maintain your bike at home or repair certain parts of your bike. The chapter also shows to know that you can be miles from home and fix a you how to carry out routine jobs. and provides This book uses high-quality CGI illustrations to information on dealing with emergency repairs. rider accessories. your bike and lubricating moving parts. Each chapter shows you how Starting with the essentials to care for a specific system on your bike. with unique terms and names explained. this guide first explains the include advice on choosing the best components design and components of many different types of for your type of bike. track. energy. tools that you will need. parts. THE COMPLETE BIKE OWNER'S MANUAL Introduction Bikes can take you far and wide. With no hands in the way to obscure detail and vivid imagery. detail every component of your bike. wheels. chain. and to get the best and setting your riding position will give you the out of every ride. Chapters To lay the groundwork. 6 / INTRODUCTION . In this book. or over mountains. and money. such as cleaning problem in the unlikely event of mechanical failure. and gear and brake systems gives power and to set up a workshop and use bicycle maintenance control to your bike. an in-depth look at the key bikes. and install. Setting up your own workshop is easy. muscles alone. the Maintenance and repairs step-by-step instructions offer unprecedented clarity Whether you ride your bike on the road. there are just a handful of essential and low-cost Whether you are a skilled mechanic or a beginner. your collection will save you time.

will help you to enjoy efficient. or the way some parts fit onto the bike. grit. not changed. major brands often have their own safe riding for the full lifespan of your bicycle. Removing worn parts and replacing with new ones is tackled chapter by chapter with the step-by-step All of this information. and these parts will need to be replaced. Changing the handlebar. for the size of bearings. Annotated images (Shimano. However. gear planner plus diagnostic and troubleshooting tips at changes. the size of the chain or cables. The general use will degrade most components over step-by-step sequences show every stage of these time. is advice on how to spot signs of trouble before costs If you want to improve your cycling performance. without the risk of getting stranded on a ride. together with a maintenance guides. and perform the variations between the three major brands maintenance on particular parts. road salt. adjust. make the ride smoother. Regular care will keep your bike running smoothly and safely. and but will have a beneficial effect on performance. and suspension have the end of the book. More complex jobs such as Replacing and upgrading parts replacing the drivetrain (the engine) of the bike or Regular maintenance helps to stave off wear and installing new suspension forks are expensive upgrades tear. and how to make on-the-go adjustments you to change gears faster and more precisely. detailed exploded diagrams and cutaways upgrading specific parts of your bicycle will help to show you how each part of your bicycle works make it lighter. and saddle are fairly straightforward tasks. poor weather. procedures so you can tackle them with ease. stem. spiral. While the general principles of braking. SRAM. CLAIRE BEAUMONT—CO-AUTHOR and information on how to set. There look out for when purchasing replacement parts. wheel construction. and enable together. Each chapter covers INTRODUCTION / 7 . and Campagnolo) and what to and workshop tips cover a variety of models. proprietary systems—for example.



Seat post thus transferring more power to the pedals. and Saddle cover Saddle rails intended for use on smooth asphalt. while gears make cycling easier. Frames are light and Brake shoe rigid. Drop handlebars allow the rider to sit in a more aerodynamic. single-speed bikes. with steel and aluminum popular with the Brake pad Frame consumer market. BICYCLE ANATOMY Road bikes Saddle Road bikes are sleek and lightweight. forward-leaning position. and External brake cable e-bikes (electric bikes) all use components Caliper arm known as the drivetrain to power the bike. and carbon fiber and titanium Top tube used more widely at competition level. Seat clamp enabling them to cover long distances at a fast Seat clamp bolt Seatpost pace. Their narrow wheels and thin tires mean they are able to roll quickly over smooth surfaces. hybrids. Seat tube Seat stay Chainstay Down tube Valve Quick-release lever Left-hand Rear hub crankarm Quick-release skewer Rear dropout Hub Freehub body Bottom bracket Rear derailleur Derailleur body Jockey pulleys Cassette Barrel adjuster Lockring Cassette 10 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . Rear brake clamp Racing bikes.

Components continue to Steering evolve. smooth tires has not changed. Upper race and bearing Stem cap Head tube Top tube Crown race and bearing Front brake Caliper arm Quick- release Steerer lever tube Valve Front wheel Hub Spoke Rim Drivetrain Quick-release Front nut derailleur Chain Chainring Right-hand crankarm Tires Tire bead Tire Inner tube Pedal Pedal axle Foot retention mechanism Pedal body BICYCLE ANATOMY—ROAD BIKES / 11 . Bike controls Brake lever Gear-shift lever Handlebar Handlebar tape THE ASSEMBLED BIKE The basic shape of a road bike was developed in the 19th century. but the basic format of the frame and Stem utilization of thin.

BICYCLE ANATOMY Off-road bikes Off-road bikes come in all shapes and sizes. wider tires. and 6 in (15cm) of dual Rear brake suspension. while tubeless tires Seatpost allow riders to run lower pressures without the clamp risk of pinch punctures. while downhill bikes come with Brake pad Disc brake caliper longer travel suspension and relaxed frame Brake caliper adapter Hydraulic brake hose angles. with larger Seatpost Top tube Seat stay wheels and 4 in (10cm) of front—sometimes dual— Seat tube Chainstay suspension. Front and rear disc brakes give the best stopping power. Pedal Rear hub Rear dropout Hub Quick-release lever Bottom Rear disc bracket brake rotor Cassette Freehub body Cogs Lockring Rear derailleur Derailleur cage Barrel adjuster Jockey pulleys 12 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . Enduro/trail bikes feature smaller Down tube wheels. making them stable at speed. Cross-country racers Seat clamp Seat clamp bolt Frame usually have carbon-fiber frames. and some have Saddle rails rear suspension as well. Saddle Saddle cover Most feature front suspension.

sloping top tube Handlebar grip that provides more clearance or “standover height. Flat handlebars provide a more upright Steering Handlebar stem riding position and better control of the bike.” as well as a higher front end for rough terrain. with a much lower. Upper race and bearing Head tube Steerer tube Stem cap Crown race and bearing Front brake Front brake caliper mechanism Front disc rotor Valve Fork crown Fork stanchion Slider Front wheel Rim tape Hub Spoke Rim Tires Tire bead Tubeless tire Drivetrain Front derailleur Chainring Chain Right-hand crankarm Pedal Pedal axle Pedal body BICYCLE ANATOMY—OFF-ROAD BIKES / 13 . THE ASSEMBLED BIKE Bike controls Brake lever Off-road bikes are a very different shape than a Gear-shift lever road bike.

They are heavier maintained in a similar way to newer designs. and sometimes luggage panniers. COMMON COMPONENTS LOCATOR With padded seats. durable drivetrains. Some models feature front suspension to smooth over bumps. and durability. upright riding style Gears Single speed. but are reliability. or may have derailleur or hub gears Saddle Padded in soft material Frame Steel or aluminum. but nevertheless easy to rather than for sporting pursuits. flat handlebars. Utility bikes often utilize simple. Flat handlebar utility bikes are built for comfort and convenience. typically 12–26 in (30–65 cm) across 14 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . COMPONENTS Utility bikes Being designed for reliable everyday use. robust bikes offer an ideal combination of comfort. children’s bikes can be plastic Wheels Steel spoked. Comfortable saddle 24-speed gear system Rim brakes Steel frame Plastic chainguard Brakes Typically rim brakes. components and older technology. some may have hub brakes Handlebar Flat for a comfortable. utility ride. than sports bikes.

140–149). Hub (pp.150–155) Gears Derailleur (pp. Hub (pp. Many bike components feature standard fittings.98–117).98–117). SHOPPER BIKES HYBRID BIKES Brakes Rim (pp.150–155) Suspension None Suspension None COMPONENTS—UTILIT Y BIKES / 15 . Disc (pp. Hub (pp.98–117) Brakes Rim (pp. Hub (pp.150–155) Gears Single speed Suspension None Suspension None E-BIKES CARGO BIKES Brakes Rim (pp. Hub (pp. although these can be upgraded or replaced to suit your needs.122–125).122–125) Brakes Rim (pp.140–149).122–125) Gears Derailleur (pp.98–117).122–125) Brakes Rim (pp. Buyer’s tip: Utility bikes often feature basic parts.150–155) Gears Derailleur (pp.150–155) Suspension None Suspension None FOLDING BIKES FIXED/SINGLE-SPEED BIKES Brakes Rim (pp. so they can be easily swapped.98–117).140–149). Hub (pp.118–121) Gears Derailleur (pp.98–117) Gears Derailleur (pp.140–149).140–149). Hub (pp. Hub (pp. Hub (pp.

or 11-speed derailleur gears Saddle Light and narrow. Aerodynamic saddle 11-speed gearing Rim brakes Carbon frame Spoked wheels Brakes Typically rim brakes. and razor- performance over comfort. or advanced bikes feature cutting-edge even an intense commute. prioritizing wind-cheating carbon frames. often with minimal padding Frame Carbon. road bikes are technology with computer-designed. The most sharp. instant electronic gear-shifting. COMPONENTS Road bikes Whether intended for touring. aluminum. titanium. may have cable or hydraulic disc Handlebar Drop bars Gears 2 x 10. while narrow sadddles offer minimal padding. or lightweight steel Wheels 700c with aluminum or carbon rims 16 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . Slim tires and lightweight wheels are aerodynamic but provide little insulation from bumps in Drop handlebar the road. COMMON COMPONENTS LOCATOR Road bikes sacrifice both durability and comfort in the pursuit of speed. racing. designed with speed in mind.

98–117). TOURING BIKES GRAVEL BIKES Brakes Rim (pp. Disc (pp.98–117).140–149).140–149) Suspension None Suspension None CYCLOCROSS BIKES ENDURANCE BIKES Brakes Rim (pp. Hub (pp. Reducing rotational weight makes a big difference in how the bike accelerates and how fast it feels.150–155) Gears Derailleur (pp.140–149).118–121) Brakes Rim (pp. Hub (pp. Disc (pp.150–155) Suspension None Suspension None TRACK BIKES TRIATHLON/TIME TRIAL BIKES Brakes None Brakes Rim (pp.150–155) Gears Derailleur (pp.98–117).98–117) Gears Single speed Gears Derailleur (pp.140–149).118–121) Gears Derailleur (pp. Disc (pp. Hub (pp. Hub (pp.140–149). Disc (pp.150–155) Suspension None Suspension None COMPONENTS—ROAD BIKES / 17 .118–121) Gears Derailleur (pp.98–117). Buyer’s tip: Wheels and tires are often the first components that are worth upgrading.118–121) Brakes Rim (pp.

knobby tires that of designs. 27. cable. from entry-level models best may be tubed or tubeless. COMPONENTS Off-road bikes Off-road or mountain bikes come in a range Being equipped with wide. Many models also feature disc brakes. COMMON COMPONENTS LOCATOR Good suspension and wide. 1 x 11.5 cm) 18 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . tough tires are essential when trail riding on a mountain bike. and 29 in (73. the bike’s suspension system limits shocks. carbon. or hydraulic Handlebar Flat and wide for maximum control Gears 1 x 10.5 in (70 cm). Flat handlebar Saddle on dropper seatpost 30-speed gear system Hydraulic disc brakes Carbon frame Spoked wheels Brakes Typically disc. or steel Wheels Often 26 in (66 cm). or 3 x 9 are common variants Saddle Robust and often fitted to a dropper seatpost Frame Aluminum. mountain bike suited to gravel trails to bikes designed tires offer excellent grip and traction while for steep and rocky mountain descents. which may even be hydraulically powered for precise braking control.

192–203) COMPONENTS—OFF-ROAD BIKES / 19 .118–121) Gears Derailleur (pp.98–117).140–149) Gears Derailleur (pp.118–121) Brakes Rim (pp. wintry conditions.140–149) Suspension Front (pp. HARDTAIL BIKES CROSS-COUNTRY BIKES Brakes Rim (pp. Disc (pp. Disc (pp. Disc (pp.192–203) DOWNHILL BIKES FAT BIKES Brakes Disc (pp.98–117). Buyer’s tip: Tires make a huge difference. faster option in the summer.140–149) Suspension Front (pp.140–149) Gears Derailleur (pp. Change back to a lighter.192–203) Suspension None DIRT/TRIALS BIKES E-MOUNTAIN BIKES Brakes Rim (pp.98–117).192–199). In wet. none Suspension Front or full (pp. muddy.192–199) Suspension Full (pp. a “mud” tire will offer far greater grip.118–121) Brakes Disc (pp.118–121) Brakes Disc (pp.140–149) Suspension Full (pp.118–121) Gears Derailleur (pp.118–121) Gears Single speed Gears Derailleur (pp.

First. 6 o’clock position. and from the saddle the lower crank is at the slight bend in Heel of shoe just nose to the center of the handlebar. horizontally from the sitting in the saddle when Straight leg with saddle nose to the BB center. SEATING POSITION Road bikes Road bike riding is all about riding your bike Slight bend in elbow efficiently. spirit level. position by ensuring you have ◾ Set your cleat position (see pp. handlebar in easy reach of rider power output. efficient riding. the knee grazing pedal 20 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . ideally with the when your leg is extended. cycling shoe barely touches ◾ Record your existing set-up by measuring from the center of the bottom bracket (BB) to the pedal when you are the top of the saddle. seatpost until your leg is ◾ Pump up the tires to the correct pressure. opposite). handlebar. and Find an efficient pedaling hex keys. A good riding position that Long stem puts suits your desired combination of comfort. ruler. and aerodynamics can help. rear wheel mounted on an indoor trainer so you To check this. adjust the can sit on the saddle and pedal while stationary. straight and the heel of your ◾ Put on your normal riding gear and cycling shoes. Leg slightly bent at knee provides power output Ball of foot rests on pedal axle for efficient energy transfer from legs BEFORE YOU START 1 SADDLE HEIGHT ◾ Collect a tape measure. and then adjust the contact points— 5 4 saddle. and pedals— Level saddle evenly to fit your requirements and find distributes bodyweight a neutral position for safe.186-187). so you can get as far and as fast brings body lower and reduces wind resistance as you choose. you should choose a bike with the 1 3 2 correct-sized frame (see box. a slight bend in your knee ◾ Set your bike on a level surface.

or install a behind the handlebar. of your pelvis by setting ◾ Check you have sufficient “standover clearance” your saddle at a neutral when standing with your legs either side of the top angle. set the bar stretched. Workshop tip: Make any adjustments gradually. the end of the ruler should pass over the pedal axle. and are described in cm—from 48–60cm— through the sit bones or as S/M/L/XL. A good technique to hub level with. set length is to hold the drops and the bar 3–4in (8–10cm) below the saddle. flip the stem. excess transfer of body weight onto your arms and hands. Position the saddle so that your forward knee is over the pedal axle when you sit with the cranks horizontal. with the front tube.or low- swap the stem for a rise stem. If the can remove the hub is visible in front. 1–2in (2–5cm) between your groin and the frame two-thirds of the saddle horizontal. but any more distances vertically and horizontally from the center than this may cause painful pressure of the bottom bracket to the top of the top tube— on your groin and perineum and when buying a bike. sit on the saddle in your normal riding position and hold a ruler against your kneecap. shorter one. For recreational riding. since you cannot alter these later. and try them out by riding to judge the effect on your position and comfort. Bear in mind that your ideal position may alter over time as your fitness. the saddle. if you can see it stem. stem and reposition you need a longer the spacers. or ½–1in (1–2cm) below. high. flexibility. For ensure you have the right a more aerodynamic road bike riding position. 5 STEM LENGTH 4 HANDLEBAR HEIGHT Your stem length needs to be long Adjust the height of your handlebar for your enough that you can grip the hoods Clear needs by moving it in relation to the mid-point of comfortably without feeling line to your saddle. End of ruler passes pedal axle 2 SADDLE ANGLE ROAD BIKE SIZING Ensure your weight ◾ Road bikes are sized according to the length of the is evenly distributed seat tube. To check. is ideal. you obscure the hub. To alter look down at the wheel hub. 3 SADDLE FORE/AFT Move the saddle along its rails to Knee in line adjust your center of gravity and with pedal axle ensure that you are well balanced when riding. height of the Spacers The handlebar should handlebars. and aspirations change. SEATING POSITION—ROAD BIKES / 21 . You can alter this angle by up to 2 ◾ Consider a bike’s “stack” and “reach”—the degrees for comfort.

186–87) distributed for effective suspension and traction ◾ Adjust suspension to normal riding settings (see pp. straightedge.194–95. For efficient pedaling when climbing. a good benchmark is to set the saddle at hip height. and control to respond rapidly to twisting trails. use the road-bike saddle- height method (see step 1. SEATING POSITION Off-road bikes Mountain biking is a more fluid form of cycling than Relaxed wrists road riding. handlebar. and changes in gradient.21). hex keys Bodyweight evenly ◾ Set your cleat position (see pp. p. and pedal cleats—to suit your riding style. 202–03). set dropper seatpost to normal (see pp.5–5 cm) below the hip. balanced handling. angle even tire traction. rough terrain. or absorbing bumps. jumping. and bottom bracket (BB). For trail riding. level. 7 1 2 3 6 4 5 BEFORE YOU START Slightly angled saddle improves climbing position ◾ Gather tools—tape measure. 22 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . and the saddle slightly nose-up efficient suspension Set saddle angle so you can grip it between a few degrees performance. For downhill riding. 2 SADDLE ANGLE 3 SADDLE FORE/AFT Changing the angle of the Slide the saddle along Set saddle to saddle helps you adapt the rails until its center avoid cramped your bike and riding aligns with the midpoint or stretched position for the ride you between the rear axle position are on. Finding the right position involves setting the contact points—saddle. For trail riding. technical riding is easier with the saddle 1–2 in (2.70–71) 1 SADDLE HEIGHT Adjust the seatpost to set the saddle at a comfortable position. angle the saddle slightly This puts your body in nose-down for a better a position that gives seating position on climbs. Riders shift between different positions for provide grip and climbing. Downhill. descending. your thighs on fast from horizontal descents and corners.

and sweep back from the middle precise ◾ If choosing a new bike. Tubeless tires allow very low pressures (20–25 psi) without risking pinch flats. wrists and back. Stem angle also affects for lower handling—a high-rise stem gives a stable position position. Workshop tip: High tire pressures (40 psi) suit aggressive. place brake and of 45 degrees from gear levers the brake and gear-shift horizontal for a neutral. SEATING POSITION—OFF-ROAD BIKES / 23 . 4 RISER-BAR ANGLE MOUNTAIN BIKE SIZING Most mountain bikes are equipped Low-rise ◾ Mountain bikes are sized by seat-tube length. but make sure you are not cramped . Use a low-rise stem or place the spacers above the stem for a more agile position. one finger for best levers so your wrist is set the gear-shift lever where you can easily power and relaxed and straight. as this can cause lower (8 0–1 in back pain. Shorter stems (2–2. slide the brake fit.75 2–2 0 0m or overreaching. (You might need to slot it in between grip the grip and brake lever to achieve this.” You should be 2–3 in (5–8cm) clamp and twist the bar so that above the top tube when standing astride it. check for sufficient of the handlebar. adopt your normal lever along the bar until riding position—seated you can pull it with just or standing on the your index and/or middle finger. longer Spacers on ones (3–4 in/80–100mm) are best for top of stem climbing. with Brake with pedals—and angle the your hand still in its normal grip position. when viewed from the side the ◾ “Stack” and “reach”—measured vertically and rise is angled parallel with the horizontally from BB center to top of top tube— front fork. but steering will be less precise. reach it. farther forward puts excess weight over the front wheel and impairs handling. Release the steering “standover clearance. Angling the bar farther are the key dimensions for figuring out whether a back will place pressure on the bike is long and high enough for you. while low pressures (25–35 psi) are better for muddy riding. levers where you can easily relaxed wrist position reach them. Next. usually with riser bars—the ends rise up stem for in inches—from 13 to 24 in—or as XS/S/M/L/XL.75 in/50– 3–4 70mm) are best for rapid steering. Holding the with good access to the grip in your usual riding controls.) 5 STEM POSITION m) Choose a stem that suits your style of 0m ( 5 0–7 in m) riding. For a personal position. fast riding on dry trails. 7 GEAR/BRAKE LEVER ANGLE 6 GEAR/BRAKE LEVER POSITION Angle your gear and Forearm For optimum braking power aligned with brake levers at a slant and steering control.

All are essential of a bike’s wheel and the width of its tire. Hex keys Spoke wrench Pick tool Puncture repair kit Nylon tire levers Multi-tool 24 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . It will usually use when inflating wide tires but may take have space for a spare tube. long barrels are easy to so as not to restrict movement when riding. so make sure to find the best pieces of gear for your needs. C02 C02 Frame Traditional Waterproof pump inflator canister pump ON-ROAD TOOL KIT Chain breaker Consisting of a multi-tool. and a small multi-tool. so it is worth taking the time valves vary. Make sure that the lever multi-tool you take with you on a ride is equipped with tools to suit the fittings on your bike. you have the right pump. tire longer to reach the high pressures required levers. and a puncture repair kit. Larger versions also allow on a road bike. Their tools for a cyclist. Tire a basic tool kit is useful for all basic repairs. discreet saddlebag to the rails of your saddle Pumps with broad. Some are necessary Inner tubes vary for personal safety. Screw top Valve head Tool bag Rubber grip Mini. and others make cycling according to the diameter more convenient or comfortable. ACCESSORIES Essential gear There are some pieces of equipment that you will INNER TUBES use on almost every ride. you to carry spare clothing. a puncture repair kit. Schrader Long presta Presta valve tube valve tube valve tube SADDLEBAGS PUMPS Clip a small. tire levers.

Bolt U-lock Chain lock Cable lock High-clearance Mini-fender fender LIGHTS Modern LED bike lamps can rival car headlights. Road/touring full fender set LED with Clip-on Emergency front Night-riding rubber clip light and rear LEDs lights ACCESSORIES—ESSENTIAL GEAR / 25 . Off-road fenders the various parts of your bike. Road bikes often have bottle cages. Flashing lights alert traffic Battery to your presence. not just in the summer months. need regular cleaning to prevent them from clogging up. Mouthpiece Bottle cage Bottle Triathlon bottle Hydration pack Backpack and hydration pack LOCKS AND SECURITY FENDERS Many types of locks are available. while high-powered pack beams are great for off-road riding. with multiple Fenders keep your clothes and bike security devices required in some cases to padlock clean in the rain. while off-road cyclists frequently use hydration packs. WATER BOTTLES AND STORAGE Hydration is essential when riding.

and effective. Wireless make tracking your performance much easier. Heart rate monitors and power meters traveled. Higher-end versions can be uploaded with to ensure that your training is both targeted detailed maps and offer turn-by-turn navigation. GPS has transformed bike navigation. smaller GPS devices are increasingly Heart rate monitors are an affordable way common. computer will calculate largely eliminating the need for you to carry your speed and the distance you have maps. power meters track the exerting yourself. ACCESSORIES Bike technology Bike and accessory manufacturers are quick to COMPUTERS develop and adapt cutting-edge technology. Built-in heart Heart rate rate monitor watch Compact model GPS watch Strap monitor Monitor GPS phone Mini GPS Full-color GPS Velcro monitor helmet POWER METERS A sophisticated training tool. computer computer GPS HEART RATE MONITORS Super-accurate. In Even the simplest bike particular. devices are more expensive but Wired digital bike Large-screen look neater. Heel Hub clip attachment Power meter sensor Pedal power meter Hub meter Crankarm power meter 26 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . you can use them to keep yourself cycling at the give you an instant measurement of how much you are correct intensity for the duration of your bike ride. In addition to recording your training amount of effort you are putting into your cycling to progress. Modern versions can be linked to your smartphone and any training apps you may have.

Front headlights Radar Crash Rear light Smart Helmet with device sensor camera bike lock built-in lights ACCESSORIES—BIKE TECHNOLOGY / 27 . Some versions can even simultaneously charge your smartphone. Smash- proof lens CAMERAS MISCELLANEOUS Mounted on a helmet New devices use GPS technology or directly on a bike. Helmet- Cycle Camera mounted camera light camera LED guide lights POWER GENERATORS/DYNAMOS Handlebar Mini- Modern generators are a convenient way of running lights and are more navigation tool speakers environmentally friendly than battery-powered LEDs. Charging powered LED cable Optical touchpad Smart device charger Smart eyewear with heads-up Generator and light Smartphone charger performance display SAFETY AND SECURITY Radar sensors warn you about nearby traffic. while the latest powerful downhill exploits or record mini-speakers can now fit in a evidence of any accidents. to make it possible for you to a lightweight camera is a navigate or keep track of your helpful piece of equipment training progress with a single that can be used to relive glance. and smart locks eliminate the need to carry keys. bottle cage. Generator. while light-up helmets ensure that you will remain visible in all weather.

making them particularly suited to off-road riding. For shorter journeys. Handlebar bag They are often lighter and provide a more balanced ride. transporting gear on the to all bikes. ACCESSORIES Utility equipment For both touring and commuting. a backpack or messenger bag can often be Fork more convenient and easier to use. which offer easier rack rack access to their contents. Seat pack Top tube bag Full-frame Food Micro Handlebar and bag pouch saddlebag seat pack 28 / KNOW YOUR BICYCLE . accommodate large rear panniers. Longer chainstays are necessary to bike is more comfortable. attachment BACKPACKS/MESSENGER BAGS Rear post attachment Backpacks can handle bigger. heavier loads more comfortably than Front pannier Rear pannier messenger bags. these bags affect handling less than traditional panniers. Messenger Roll-top Mountain bag backpack bike backpack Front pannier bags Double rear pannier bags FRAME BAGS By distributing weight within your bike’s frame. it is inevitable RACKS AND PANNIERS that you will need to carry things with you. Pannier racks carry big loads but cannot be attached Over long distances. and lightweight forks will not be able to accomodate front racks.

Single- wheel versions are better for off-road cycling. pockets are useful for navigation. Tailfin pannier bags attached to rack OTHER RACK SYSTEMS HANDLEBAR BAGS A front or rear basket is convenient for Handlebar bags provide easy access to carrying groceries. Clear Metal basket mounted rack Tailfin quick-release rear rack map case Handlebar bag CHILD SEATS AND TRAILERS A small child can be carried in a child seat. a trailer or trailer bike Converts to stroller may be more appropriate. Seat Quick- tube release attachment Seat tube-mounted Top tube-mounted Pannier-mounted Two-seat child seat child seat child seat child trailer LUGGAGE TRAILERS Useful on shopping trips or for carrying extra gear. Waterproof Cargo Smaller cover trailer wheels Flag for Frame visibility bars Flatbed standing trailer Standing Journey trailer trailer ACCESSORIES—UTILIT Y EQUIPMENT / 29 . Top-mounted bags often important items. Luggage Map clip pocket Seatpost. As they get bigger. double-wheel trailers offer good stability. while bar-mounted map have a quick-release mechanism.

Fabrics are 2 Short-sleeved shirt with high neck to shield you from the sun. so adding and 4 as well as insects and stones. collar your body makes while pedaling 1 Wicking base layer keeps you will make a huge difference in dry and warm. Layers trap heat. CLOTHING Road riding Everyday clothes are fine for ROAD CLOTHING short trips. from the elements. Being too hot or too cold is 9 Glasses protect eyes from sun. and should be easily 1 3 removed or added to. uncomfortable. 6 Fingerless gloves are padded. 30 / KNOW YOUR BIKE . and water and extra comfort in saddle. cleats ◾ A removable waterproof or windproof shell layer that 5 protects you from the rain and offers your skin ventilation 8 when you sweat. 2 lightweight and breathable. but for longer rides Cycling clothes are designed to fit close 7 or if the weather is bad. with longer sleeves and Air vents cool head be a lot more comfortable in backs cut to accommodate a forward- leaning riding position. 7 Road helmet is lightweight and aerodynamic with good ventilation. Breathable fabrics 9 the correct gear. ◾ A middle layer of stretchable jersey that protects from the sun and helps to regulate your Shoes with body temperature. your ride experience. Wearing clothing “wick” sweat away from your skin. extra padding 4 Bib shorts are padded for absorbs shock. to evaporate. This wicks away moisture on hot days and retains heat on cold ones. while absorbant patches can be used to wipe away your sweat. removing layers is a useful way to keep your core body temperature consistent. ensuring your feet a stable platform. while Low bib shorts have comfortable straps in cut for the specific movements place of restrictive waistbands. 5 Thin wicking socks draw windproof layers protect you perspiration away from your feet. An all- weather layered outfit might consist of: ◾ A breathable base layer worn next to your skin. 6 ESSENTIAL LAYERS 8 Cycling shoes have rigid soles. 3 Sleeveless gilet (padded jacket) which enables your sweat for warmth and wind protection. you will to your body.

and warmers. rain cover rain jacket showerproof jacket Waterproof cape FOR COLD WEATHER Warm clothing is a must if you want to keep riding through the winter. your clothes will stay wet and body heat is lost. it is still possible face for you to stay dry with the right gear. and bib tights with all help to regulate body temperature. thermal vests. and you can customize your offer you added comfort. bike accessories Some garments have added reflective Cleat covers fulfil a range of functions and areas. gloves. if you cycle at night or on cloudy days. Buyer’s tip: Cotton clothes should be avoided for all but short rides. Key items include waterproof jackets and packable capes. gear with stick-on patches. as they soak up moisture instead of wicking it away. fleece High- visibility strip Insulated gloves Micro-wool socks Thermal vest Windproof. Full-length full-sleeve jacket bib tights CLOTHING—ROAD RIDING / 31 . Mirrored glasses Cycling cap Full-finger gloves Arm warmers Helmet Gloves Jacket FOR WET WEATHER While riding in the rain may be Fleece-lined Hood for warmth shields unavoidable. Overshoes Helmet Waterproof Lightweight. leaving you cold and uncomfortable. EXTRAS HI-VIS GEAR From protective glasses and cleat High-visibility clothing is essential covers to lightweight caps. Straps lined Gloves. With unevaporated sweat next to your skin.

Comfort and flexibility are crucial 9 Glasses with orange or to off-road gear. check that it comes with the correct certification. with practical keep you insulated as well as dry. Some have interchangeable lenses—yellow ones are good for overcast or 5 dull light conditions. CLOTHING Off-road riding Looser and less form-fitting MOUNTAIN BIKE CLOTHING than road-bike clothing. 3 Softshell mountain bike jacket protects against wind and showers. ◾ Choose clear glasses that can be worn all year round. Waterproof options can 2 Baggy jersey offers you a full help you withstand splashes of range of movements. BEFORE YOU BUY 8 Ankle-height shoes with off-road cleats allow you to pedal efficiently. so be sure to shop yellow interchangable lenses. and that they do not ride up to expose your back. vented helmet fully 6 covers your head. Lightweight 4 ◾ Ensure shorts and pants allow material you to move your legs freely. 8 32 / KNOW YOUR BIKE . pockets and padded liners for 1 Wicking underlayer moves 2 extra comfort on rough. so you do Baggy mountain bike shorts not need underwear. Breathable or feature an integrated liner. Baggy shorts accommodate 9 protective knee pads and are designed to be aerodynamically slick. mud and water on the trail. ◾ When trying on tops and jackets. ◾ Helmets should fit properly. padded gloves with extra grip protect your hands. off- Off-road clothing is designed to allow road clothes prioritize freedom you as broad a range of movements as 7 of movement over the need possible. 6 Full-finger. on more extreme rides. make sure they allow you room 1 3 to stretch upward. rocky your sweat away from your skin. while full-face helmets and 4 Baggy shorts with a padded liner body armor help protect you give you a more comfortable ride. around and try clothes on before you buy. to be worn over padded lycra shorts. Always buy the right-size headgear. 7 Lightweight. terrain. Breathable fabrics air holes in jersey are hard-wearing. and shoes have durable soles with ample tread. 5 Merino socks provide warmth.

a. or folded upward to keep ears warm. buff) gloves underlayer thermal jacket bib tights CLOTHING—OFF-ROAD RIDING / 33 . Full-length bib tights form an insulating layer against your skin.k. EXTRAS CLOTHING CARE Good-quality accessories will reduce Lightweight Off-road clothes can be expensive. stretchy clothing. Hot tumble driers can wreck expensive gear. Flexible ◾ Clean your shorts after every joints ride to avoid bacteria build-up. shell Full-face helmets are vital for extreme instructions before washing them mountain biking. Windproof layer Neck warmer Insulated winter Thermal Full-sleeve. waterproof Full-length (a. Overpants protect your legs from ◾ Air-dry Lycra-based or other wheel spray. and durable water repellent sprays are also available. polycarbonate so always check the manufacturer’s the risk of broken bones and bruises. Avoid household fabric give you maximum flexibility without Full-face helmet softeners. while goggles protect in case you inadvertently damage eyes from debris. as they can damage compromising your safety. Buyer’s tip: Waterproof jackets can lose their water resistance if they become too dirty and sweaty: the fabric will start to absorb rather than repel water. Elastic Taking to the trails in wet weather waistband ◾ Zip up your jacket before putting is a lot more comfortable if you it in the machine to prevent the are wearing the right clothing. You can wear your neck warmers like scarves. and socks may come with waterproof liners. zipper tearing other clothes. gentle setting with a low spin FOR WET WEATHER speed. a material’s wicking properties. Knee and elbow pads them. Nonslip soles Wide straps for comfort Waterproof Lined Water-resistant Waterproof hardshell shoes socks overpants jacket FOR COLD WEATHER Jackets with dropped backs and high necks keep the cold out and the heat in. ◾ Wash your cycling clothes Goggles Elbow protectors Knee protectors separately—they need a cool. In-wash products can help with reproofing. ◾ Wash any mud off in the shower Antifogging before putting your clothes in lenses the washing machine. Use a detergent that works at low temperatures.



Start by purchasing the accurate gauge will basics. adding more specialized tools as needed. Needle-nose Mechanic tools Other equipment pliers are suitable for tight areas. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Workshop tools Bike tools are a low-cost investment that could STANDS AND PUMPS save you large amounts of money in the long run. Supplement this with a good set of hex keys and then. start buying tools that are designed for specific tasks. Razor-sharp ◾ Multi-tool ◾ Puncture repair kit edge ◾ Adjustable wrench ◾ Tire levers ◾ Set of wrenches ◾ Oil ◾ Pliers ◾ Grease ◾ Screwdrivers—flat-head ◾ Degreaser and Phillips Phillips and Needle-nose Pliers Cable flat-head pliers cutters screwdrivers WRENCHES AND KEYS The number and variety of available wrenches and keys can be intimidating. Shock pump Floor pump Frame stand ESSENTIAL TOOL KIT PLIERS AND SCREWDRIVERS There are some basic tools that you cannot do without. help you keep your tires and shocks at the right pressure. Choose a frame stand Having a proper tool at hand will allow you to that fits your bike carry out most maintenance tasks and keep your and workshop space. for making small adjustments. A small set of screwdrivers incorporating These will allow you to perform a range of common varying sizes of flat-head and Phillips is useful tasks in order to keep your bike on the road. as you grow in confidence. A pump with an bike at peak performance. so start by buying an adjustable wrench that you can use on a range of tasks. Ring end Adjustable wrench Set of wrenches Headset wrenches Cone wrenches Set of hex keys Pedal wrench Adjustable torque tool Torx keys 36 / GET TING STARTED .

there are many other pieces of Hydraulic disc brakes will eventually need equipment that will make maintenance tasks easier. for example. and tighten the BB. so check that the one you buy is compatible with tools that may be worth buying if you want to remove or your bike. Measuring caliper Tire pressure Caliper gauge arms Grease gun Tubeless valve core remover Master link pliers Shimano bleed kit Chain wear indicator Grips for tension Cable puller Trueing stand Bleed blocks and keys TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES—WORKSHOP TOOLS / 37 . For at their peak. Length of bike chain Chain whip BB ring wrench with preload cap tool Molded handle Chain tool Lockring tool Chainring peg spanner Splined BB Crank puller remover tool tool SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT BLEED KIT In addition to the essential workshop tools. but they could save you time and money in the long run. for your brakes. You may not use them bleeding in order to keep them performing very often. Kits make it easier example. Crank pullers are useful to some come in combination with a lockring tool. but make sure you Internal jaws get the appropriate kit repairs later. ensure you can evenly and efficiently remove the crankarm. a chain wear indicator and quicker to do a thorough could prevent expensive cassette bleed. Chain whips enable cassette removal.CLEANING TOOLS AND SPARE PARTS ◾ Bike-specific brushes ◾ Alcohol-based cleaner ◾ Inner tubes (correct size/ ◾ Brake pads ◾ Bucket and sponges ◾ Bike polish valve type for your bike) ◾ Cable end caps ◾ Chain keeper ◾ Cable housing (brake/gear) ◾ Inner cables (brake/gear) CHAIN AND CASSETTE CRANKARMS AND BBs Different brands and types of cassette require different The bottom bracket (BB) requires specific maintenance tools.

pedal that are prone to binding up. (standard) thread (less common) thread the force you are applying. from reduces the effort sharp parts. and cleat bolts. which save you time and money. your bracing hand. Clean them with degreaser or an alcohol-based cleaner. cassette lockring. there are a few ◾ Grease Use for most parts. of aluminum or titanium. bolts. that will help to make maintenance ◾ Threadlock Use for parts that ◾ Carbon assembly paste more straightforward and precise. hands slip they Be aware that this move away. such as a clockwise (to the left). such required. to To check. should as: jockey pulley bolts. all bicycles employ the Threaded components should be “prepped”—prepared—prior to same basic technology of nuts and assembly. force to loosen. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Workshop techniques From vintage models to cutting-edge PREPPING PARTS superbikes. place The exceptions are tools at 90 degrees to pedals and some each other. careful you do not sprockets. brake are carbon (except for stem/ caliper or disc rotor bolts. inspect the increase the derailleuranical threads—they slope advantage—the amount by upward toward the which the tool amplifies Clockwise Counterclockwise direction of tightening. so be as chainrings. should be left dry). the part. Position tools away from danger area 38 / GET TING STARTED . position the tool position tools so that you can so that if your push downward. obvious workshop hints and tips— axles. Chain whip PUSH DOWN DANGER AREAS Tighening or When working loosening parts near potentially is easier if you dangerous areas. if followed correctly. are prone to rattling loose. stem steerer tube contact. ◾ Antiseize Use for parts basic principles—as well as some less especially: crank bolts. such Use when either or both parts and that. or bottom brackets (BB). as outlined below. disc brake rotors. DIRECTION OF TIGHTENING MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE Nearly all parts tighten When working on parts clockwise (to the right) that require significant and loosen counter. Nevertheless. and overtighten the part. then apply the appropriate agent to them. face plate bolts. cable clamp bolts (on especially those that are made derailleurs and brakes).

or a tight. Hold the Dig out dirt before wrench with inserting hex key one hand while striking it with the other TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES—WORKSHOP TECHNIQUES / 39 . and BB cups can get very a recessed head that tight. rather a close-fitting length of than just two faces (as an tubing over the hex open-ended wrench does). to clean out any dirt or debris before trying to loosen or tighten these bolts. Take care the handle of the tool to increase leverage. other dirt. sharp blow on the wrench with the can fill with mud or heel of your hand or a rubber hammer will loosen them. If the bolt is combination wrench. To avoid grease. HEXAGONAL HEADS RECESSED BOLTS When working on bikes secured If you are working on a with hexagonal-head nuts and recessed hex bolt. Ring wrench on a Insert key at right angle to hexagonal-headed bolt bolt head surface EXPOSED BOLTS LOOSENING BLOW Hex and torx bolts have Pedal threads. especially on If not. you can increase socket wrench. Store your tools in dry click—this is the feeling of the threads areas. and water can cause your it. crank bolts. axis of your hex key use the ring end of a to reach it. then loosen the wrenches with worn-down jaws can part and start again. Also beware of using an imperial tool (measured in inches) on a metric fitting (measured in mm). if it does. Try screwing the damage the bicycle parts you use part the other way until you feel a slight them on. CROSS-THREADING CARING FOR TOOLS Occurring when two threaded parts are Pedal and crank Look after your tools with the same screwed together without properly cross-threading level of care as you would your is common bike. Often a short. cross-threading can lead to stripped threads. you bolts (rather than the hex bolts might need to use the long found on most modern bikes). Tighten carefully by hand. so that the key can fit in easily. aligning the threads. Keep an you can feel when the two threads eye on the condition of your tools. them up on a pegboard or similar. If a hex key or wrench feels loose. These grip the the leverage by sliding head on all six faces. screw the part in by hand so that tools to rust or wear out. Keep everything clean—grit. Workshop tip: Always use the correctly sized tool for the job. place a length of tubing or a spare seatpost over pedal cleats. check that it is not a size too big or too small. ideally hanging engaging. are “seated” and can tell immediately and throw away any that show if the force required to turn the part signs of wear—rounded hex keys or increases. key’s shorter axis. or vice versa. out of sunlight.

Visually inspect: In addition to the periodic M-checks. turn handlebar 90 degrees. Start at the front wheel. then move on to the hub. 3 Twist stem. with no inner tube visible. that: sideways to check that: over the frame and E A 1 Tire tread/sidewalls are not 7 Wheel nut/quick-release is saddle. 4 Rim is true. check bolts with a torque wrench. 10 Brake functions correctly. headset. damage. with no cracks. hold steerer assembly. do not twist or push— instead. you 9 Fork for dents or cracks. and controls. check Push the top of the wheel handlebar and controls. 4 3 3 1 3 Check end plugs are inserted. so perform M-checks regularly. saddle. stem. 11 Suspension bushings are rim. 11 motorists. wear in the braking surface. on to the gears. with rim. check the “cockpit”—the bar. then work D spinning the wheel. 2 Inspect brake pads for wear and alignment not worn by pushing forward 6 Spoke tension is even. 4 Squeeze tires to check pressure. or Apply brake to check that: bulges at the spoke holes. and push forward. 3 nuts are secure in dropouts. 40 / GET TING STARTED . and seatpost in turn to check that all clamp bolts are tight. 2 5 1 4 Grip brake and gear levers to 4 2 2 check they are securely fastened. 1 Apply front brake. B HEADSET AND HANDLEBAR (For carbon parts. and brake. handlebar. PRERIDE CHECKS 3 Disc brake rotor is straight. and pressure is correct. with the brake applied. 3 M-checks are a thorough series of inspections of 6 10 8 a bicycle’s frame and components for wear and tear.) Next. 4 6 5 Check bar is at 90 degrees to 5 wheel with your legs either side 5 of front wheel. 9 5 7 Named after the M-shaped path of the checks. and poor B The first area to check is the front of the bike. 6 Grip bar to check all stem bolts are tight. Any 5 Grip wheels to check quick-releases/wheel play indicates loose headset bearings. up the fork to the While spinning the wheel. and other cyclists—not to 1 4 2 mention yourself—to ensure your bike is safe. and finally C worn. fork. Start by slowly adjustment. should make a series of preride safety checks every time you ride your bike. 2 Inspect bar for dents/straightness. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR The M-checks The M-checks are a series of tests you A WHEEL AND FRONT HUB can use to ensure your bike is functioning safely. 1 Pull brake levers to check adjustment of 5 Tire bead is seated in the pads and that wheels can be locked. secured tight in the dropout. 2 Rim brakes do not rub. 8 Hub bearings are tight. You have a duty to pedestrians.

cables. and cracked paintwork. 5 Check front derailleur is tight. tire. then backpedal to check the wheel’s top. 3 Check the rear brake functions. 1 Wobble crankarms side-to-side 1 1 Stand behind wheel to check by hand. AND SUSPENSION 3 Traveling back up the bike. Movement indicates rear derailleur and hanger are not a loose BB. Metal frames usually fail at the welds. check the frame. Check for play in the linkage 3 Check seatpost is tight in clamp. and are securely tightened on crankarms. Look for loose pivots and 2 Spin pedals to check axles turn. bushings/bearings. 5 bent. 4 Ensure shock absorber is moving 2 3 1 correctly 1 6 5 2 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR—THE M-CHECKS / 41 . 4 Shift gears so the chain is in the smallest chainring and middle of 4 Check for hub play by pushing cassette. Workshop tip: When checking the frame. SADDLE. and look down 5 it.) on it to check its alignment with top tube. softness. rear wheel. and gears. and not worn. risking sudden failure. be aware that damage may be hidden. 1 chainrings are straight. saddle. spoke tension. 1 Check each frame tube for dents/ 4 Check saddle is securely clamped cracks by running your fingers over on the seatpost. derailleurs are correctly adjusted. worn jockey pulleys. 2 Inspect sprockets for worn teeth. signs include hairline cracks and bubbles in paint. and chain is free of stiff links. 4 2 Inspect cable housings/hydraulic 5 Check rear suspension’s shock by hoses for wear. 6 Use a chain wear indicator to check for chain wear. brake alignment. then secure axles. C BOTTOM BRACKET E REAR WHEEL Move down to the BB area to begin 3 Finish M-checks by inspecting the the drivetrain checks. 2 Spin the rear wheel to check for 3 Twist pedals on their axles to check bearings are tight and threads 4 tire or rim wear. D FRAME. especially where holding the saddle and pushing on the they rub on frame. brakes. parallel to chainrings. bolts are 5 Run through gears to ensure tight. CABLES. and suspension. Signs of carbon damage include worn lacquer. (Clean the bike before doing this.

remove any accessories. off the jockey pulleys with 1 chain while the plastic bristles of a or chain bath against the cleaning brush as you backpedal. Follow every step listed here for 1 1 a complete wash. Scrape dirt Backpedal 4 Hold a sponge. microfiber cloth 42 / GET TING STARTED . If you do Before cleaning your bike. Scrub using a 5 Rinse off degreaser dry the chain by sponge on both sides of thoroughly—any left will running it through a the chain and chainrings. remove the wheel and loop the chain around a 3 chain keeper clamped to the rear dropout. brush. chain while backpedaling to dislodge dirty lubricant. then rear derailleurs with a 3 2 brush or spray degreaser small bottlebrush. 1 Tires 4 Under saddle 7 Brace. repel future lubricant. 4 2 Apply degreaser to When clean. and then rinse with water. chainrings. 3 7 cleaning the dirtiest areas first. DRIVETRAIN For the best results when cleaning the drivetrain. onto the chain. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Cleaning your bike The first line of defense in MUD AND ROAD GRIME maintaining your bike is regular cleaning to prevent a build-up 4 of dirt that can wear out parts. crown. 5 1 Begin turning the 3 Degrease the front and pedals backward. Begin by spraying or brushing the wall the dirt away. or clean each 2 5 2 6 area as it gets dirty. lean the conditions and the type of cycling you do—off-road riding is notorious for frame against spreading mud—it may require washing all over. inside Rest rear steerer (mountain bikes) 2 Wheels 5 Under the down tube dropout 8 Brake calipers against wall 3 Frame 6 Fork blades (road bikes) Fork dropouts and handlebar Spray your bike all over with a cycling-specific detergent that will on ground not damage the paintwork and brakes. paying special attention to these areas: vertically. CLEANING TIP Never turn your bike upside-down when cleaning it—dirty water can seep inside the frame and damage the saddle and handlebar. Depending on the riding not have a frame stand. 8 Focus on your entire bike.

needing to be wiped or rinsed off. Disperse moisture by and detergents. and any Although electronic gears and other dirty areas. soaking electronic parts penetrating oil in degreaser. Workshop tip: Do not clean your bike with hot water. Use a rag to “floss” back and forth between cogs to remove hard-to-reach grime. spokes. drive systems are designed to work in wet conditions. checking the braking surface for wear as you do so. 3 Wipe the rim with a rag soaked in bike detergent. and hub body with bike detergent. Carefully wipe any build-up charge ports or battery stations. be careful 1 Clean under the saddle. FRAME AND FORK ELECTRONIC GEARS For best results use bike detergent to sponge-wash the frame. CASSETTE. If using a hose. 1 2 Wash the tires. fork. bottom bracket. Repeat the process with the front wheel. down 3 Replace the wheels and allow when cleaning them with water tube. 1 ◾ Fit a rubber cover over crankarm-mounted power meters before cleaning them in order to protect them from water. remove it from the bike and 2 cables. such as the brakes. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT which can melt the grease that coats threads and ◾ Brushes and sponge ◾ Bike detergent bearings. WHEELS. To be safe. Clean dirty bar 1 tape or grips with ◾ Avoid using alcohol-based rag soaked in cleaner. and inside faces of the crankarms. ◾ If the junction box is dirty. 4 Clean the disc rotors with disc-cleaning 4 spray. and clean it with bike 2 1 Rear stays are prone to dirt 3 detergent.44–45). 2 Remove any grit from the brake necessary (see pp. pedals. scrubbing the rear of the 2 cassette (coming at it from the hub side). ROTORS The most effective way to clean the wheels is by removing them from your bicycle. or using sprays or brushes that can damage seals. 3 1 Scrub the cassette with a brush and 1 degreaser to remove any dirty lubricant and grime. which will clean and dry without calipers and pads. which removes dirt without leaving a residue that can contaminate pads. 1 1 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR—CLEANING YOUR BIKE / 43 . and inside to drip-dry. spraying with a Teflon-based bike bike detergent or a specialized polish. use a the stays. then apply lubricant as electronic shifter cleaning spray. keep the pressure low ◾ Degreaser ◾ Chain keeper (optional) and do not aim the water at the bearings. Detergents ◾ Rag and microfiber cloth ◾ Teflon-based bike polish should be specially formulated for cleaning bicycles.

3 Lubricate the Open quick-release retention spring lever tab before of clipless pedals. 2 If using wet lubricant. barrier between different 3 Run through the gears to materials—such as a steel coat the cogs and chainrings. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Lubricating your bike Lubricating your bike is as CHAIN AND REAR DERAILLEUR important as cleaning it and should be done immediately Outer plate Pin Roller after every single bike wash. keep your chain lubricated. springs. 5 Check the inner cables. 1 Lubricate the 1 Lubricate the pivots front derailleur of the brake calipers. wipe and they create a protective 5 any excess off the outer plates. parts from seizing up. and cables to ensure a it is especially important to smooth drivetrain. Lubricant and grease reduce friction on moving parts. the cable housing. frame with an aluminum 4 Lubricate the pivots. against water and corrosion. drip a small drop open the brake of lubricant where quick-release 1 each spoke enters lever and shift 2 the nipple to prevent the gears to any corrosion. Hold the 4 lubricant over the chain in front of the to protect bike components rear derailleur as you turn the pedals. time as the spokes. CRANKARMS AND WHEELS RIM BRAKES Lubricate the front Lubricate the brake 2 derailleur and pivots and cables to pedals at the same ensure powerful. rear derailleur. so 3 Lubricate the inside of the chain. then apply lubricant to them. 2 Dribble 1 lubricant into 2 On the wheels. hangers and the springs. Retention 3 lubricating cables spring 44 / GET TING STARTED . 1 effective braking. 1 Apply lubricant to the inside of Lubricants also form a seal the chain pins and rollers. and seatpost inside—that prevents 1 2 jockey pulleys of the rear derailleur. expose the inner cables.

then the lubricant to penetrate inside the fork sliders. such as most useful in dry conditions and sandy. to be washed off. The solvent evaporates together due to corrosion. muddy conditions. others are designed ◾ Wet lubricants use a heavy. apply grease to Pump the fork to distribute the lubricant. ◾ Antiseize grease contains particles of copper ◾ Dry lubricants use a light formulation with the or aluminum to prevent two surfaces seizing lubricant suspended in a solvent. SEATPOST SUSPENSION FORK Grease the suspension to ensure it moves freely and also lubricate Lubricate the front fork to keep it responsive. as they are less likely such as disc brake pistons. carbon-fiber parts. after application. then push downward on the saddle to distribute it. household ◾ Basic grease reduces friction on static parts oils are too thick. Workshop tip: When applying lubricant. ◾ Lubricants (see Types of ◾ Microfiber cloth or rag This is because lubricants will become contaminated Lubricant and Grease box) ◾ Cable tie with dirt over time. However. SUSPENSION PIVOTS. but must be reapplied more often. 1 Dribble suspension lubricant down 1 Apply grease or carbon-assembly paste to the base of the the fork stanchion. waxy ◾ Carbon-assembly paste contains microparticles film. and penetrating oil is suitable only for such as bearings and threads. Some types of cleaning away lubricant and grease you have applied. oil-based formula. leaving the lubricant as a dry. They specifically to protect high-temperature areas are ideal for wet. They are must be tightened to low torque values. the seatpost. use the TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT smallest amount possible. they can trap dust and grime. It is ideal for components that lubricants. 1 Lubricate bushings or 3 bearings 2 2 TYPES OF LUBRICANT AND GREASE You should always use bike-specific lubricants. the pivot bearings 1 or lubricant to Apply lubricant to the bushings. grease are waterproof. to prevent seizing. as it is the part most likely to seize inside the frame. These lubricants pick up less dirt than wet that improve friction. dusty terrain. allowing 2 Check the full-suspension pivots on mountain bikes. 2 Use a cable tie to pry back the seal. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR—LUBRICATING YOUR BIKE / 45 . fork stanchion 3 Dribble specialized suspension lubricant into 2 the rear shock. seatpost and inside the top of the seat tube. eventually forming a grinding paste that wears out components. and wipe away any excess.

to your bike to protect it from impact from rocks and debris. parts rubbing plastic around the cable housings will help to each other. You could buy a neoprene or plastic chainstay protector. you can extend your bike’s Installing rings or lifespan by protecting the frame from spirals of rubber or damage caused by debris. 2 DOWN TUBE PROTECTORS Rider’s knees Install a down may rub top tube protector. However. or even wear from your own stop them slapping legs and feet. which occurs when the chain bounces repeatedly against the frame. Donuts Spirals areas are shown here. chips. right). you can use “helicopter tape” or even an old inner tire (see box. Strips may be shaped to fit curved areas 7 CHAINSTAY GUARD Install a chainstay guard to protect the frame from chain slap. Cover base of down tube 1 Some down tube protectors cover 6 bottom bracket 5 7 1 TUBE PROTECTORS Apply tube protectors or tape such as “helicopter 5 tape” (see Workshop tip) to areas vulnerable to scratches. or strikes from debris. Protective items for specific against your frame. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Protecting your frame Bikes are designed to cope with intensive 3 CABLE DONUTS/SPIRALS use. 46 / GET TING STARTED . Alternatively. tube Chain may or a section of “slap” against old tire attached chainstay with cable ties.

chain may strike frame MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR—PROTECTING YOUR FR AME / 47 . In addition. 4 FRAME PATCHES PROTECTION IN TRANSIT Apply small Before transporting your Turn handlebars to lie parallel stickers or pieces bike. pad the frame and to frame of tape to the secure the handlebar. Bash guard 6 ROAD BIKE CHAIN CATCHER This simple bolt-on device will stop the chain from slipping off the inner (small) chainring and possibly damaging the frame. ◾ Pad the delicate front forks and rear derailleur area. install a bash guard to protect the chainrings 2 against debris strikes from beneath the bike. Peel the backing off one end. Cable housings 5 DOWNHILL BIKE CHAIN GUARD 3 may rub against A chain guard will help head tube to stop the chain falling 4 off the chainrings when you ride over rough terrain. attach it to the frame. To apply a piece. “helicopter tape” also offers good protection for bikes. frame wherever the ◾ Fix foam lagging cable housings rub. cut it and warm it with a hair dryer. Workshop tip: Designed for rotor blades. around the frame with tape. End of chain catcher lies beside inner chainring DIY CHAINSTAY PROTECTION Cut a section of old inner tube and wrap it around the chainstay to protect the frame against Fit over areas where chain slap. and smooth it on bit by bit to avoid trapping air bubbles.

a phone. water. take a few extras to help fix problems that could otherwise end your ride. and put together a repair kit (see depend on your bike set-up. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Emergency repairs It is inevitable that at some point you will need REPAIR KIT to make road. making sure you have covered all of the hole. patch you will be using. A preride safety check (see p. plus items the tire bead and lift it off the sliding it out. Do the same with the second tube to try and find the cause lever. In addition to the kit you normally carry in a saddlebag Carry basic supplies such as food. PUNCTURE REPAIR Take care not to pinch inner tube Punctures are the most common problem that cyclists encounter. Always carry tire levers and a puncture repair kit. and chalk. (see pp.40) will ◾ Chain master link ◾ Presta–Schrader valve reduce the chance of a mechanical problem. rim. Equipment will and money. if the inner tube under spoke gets pinched between the tire and the wheel rim. centered over the puncture. A puncture may result from a sharp object piercing a tire. 48 / GET TING STARTED . square of old tire) ◾ Valve extender (for opposite). you can remove the inner tube by to repair an inner tube. or may occur Clip levers in a sudden impact. Push the lever under 2 Once you have taken off one side of the tire. glue. that it is not runny in consistency.or trail-side repairs of some kind. but examples include: box. The roughened area should glue for about 30–60 seconds Press it from the center outward be slightly larger than the repair until it becomes tacky. glue. This damage produces two parallel. and ◾ Zip ties converter (for using gas station tire if you learn basic repair skills such as how to fix ◾ Tire boot (2 in [5 cm] inflators on road bikes) a puncture and how to use quick fixes (see box. you should have the knowledge you ◾ Duct tape screwing over the valve ◾ Derailleur hanger if a Presta tip breaks) need to get home safely. Check over the such as sandpaper. Leave the 8 Apply the patch in the middle of the tacky area. these kits contain patches 1 Remove the wheel and check the tire for the cause of the puncture. slitlike holes. right). Press for 30–60 seconds Ensure glue area is larger than patch 6 Roughen the hole site with sandpaper to prepare the surface of the rubber for the 7 Apply glue to the whole of the roughened area. and slide it around the rim. Leave the patch to dry.24–25). Ensure to push out any air bubbles. of the puncture. sometimes called a “snakebite” puncture.

4 If you still have not discovered the cause of the puncture. Broken rear ◾ Remove the derailleur. newly repaired inner tube. dirt. you could replace a cleat bolt with a bottle-cage bolt. Check for air escaping Mark Run your fingers center inside tire in of hole both directions 3 If you cannot find the cause. lift the tube inside of the tire to feel for any side of the tube again in case the to your lips (where your skin is sharp objects. or if get rid of the bend. Check the other To find a tiny hole. you lack spare parts Split rim ◾ Use zip ties to bind the split together. As a last resort. Open up the brake caliper. Once found. derailleur Reconnect it with a master link. Ensure that you take great or tools. with sensitive) to feel for escaping air. or if that is not possible wrap it around bike well-maintained its neighbor for stability. Reseat the tire in the rim. Replace the rim when you get home. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR—EMERGENCY REPAIRS / 49 . Remove whatever caused the puncture. with the hole at the center. check puncture is a “snakebite” type.40–41). Partially inflate the tube so that it is soft but holds its chalky dust will help to prevent and any other pieces of grit. run your fingers carefully around the 5 Mark the hole area with a ballpoint pen or crayon. place the bent part of the rim safety checks (see pp. rim. the corresponding area of the tube. For example. hit the rim on the ground to In such cases. straighten the rim. roadside fixes. and carry out regular Bent wheel ◾ If the wheel is seriously bent. This 10 Check the inside of the tire and the rim again. 11 Fit one side of the tire into the rim. QUICK FIXES Even if you keep your Broken spoke ◾ Remove the spoke. then pull the wheel from the side to failures can still occur. pump air into the tube and listen for the hiss as air escapes. a second hole on the other side. mechanical over the front of your knee. then use a chain tool to shorten the chain. Insert the tube under the the inner tube from sticking to the or debris that could puncture your tire and fit the valve through the inside of the tire. try these care riding home. then ride home single speed. shape. or use a wheel or seatpost quick-release lever as a tire lever. Dust chalk to cover glue beyond the patch edge Run fingers under inside tire to check for dirt 9 Grate chalk dust against the repair-kit box and spread the dust over the glued area. Repair tip: If you lose an essential part while on a ride. see if you can borrow a part from elsewhere on your bike as a quick fix.



2 On a modern threadless headset. It sits below the lower head tube race. which is Bearing cover connected to the handlebar with a quill stem. These need to be installed with a headset press tool. secure stem to steerer tube threaded types (see pp. 3 Bearings ensure that your handlebar and forks can turn smoothly. the spacers (as shown here) enable you to adjust the height of the stem and handlebar. simply pull it out and put a new one into place. Older.54–55) are fastened to a thread on the fork’s steerer tube.56–57). KEY COMPONENTS Headsets A headset enables the forks to rotate within Stem bolts the head tube as you turn the handlebar. There are two types of threadless headset—built in (shown right) and external cup. and pulls the stem and fork together inside the head tube. The external cup system has cups that are pressed into the frame. tube and seat tube Upper race contains the stem clamps directly onto the steerer tube upper bearings of the forks. You need to keep them well maintained (see pp. 52 / STEERING AND SADDLE . contained within races. which enable the handlebar and front wheel to turn. To replace a cartridge bearing. Built-in headsets have cartridge bearings that sit inside the head tube of the frame. Down tube is joined to 4 The crown race is the lowest bearing race on head tube the headset.54–57). 1 The star nut is located inside the steerer tube. PARTS FOCUS The headset contains two sets of bearings. Top tube joins head protects bearing On modern threadless headsets (see pp. on the crown at the top of the forks.

Top cap bolt threads into the star nut Stem connects inside steerer tube handlebar to steerer tube 1 2 Upper bearing contains 3 individual ball bearings Compression ring holds bearing in place Ball bearings reduce friction. allowing forks to move smoothly Bearing spacer holds loose bearings in place Steerer tube connects forks Stem clamp to stem and handlebar secures handlebar Head tube houses to stem steerer tube Handlebar can be turned freely due to bearings in headset Fork crown joins forks to steerer tube Lower race sits at base of head tube 3 Lower bearing sits inside lower race Forks turn as 4 handlebar is moved KEY COMPONENTS—HEADSETS / 53 .

and you loosen the adjustable race and the locknut. SERVICING A HEADSET Threaded headsets Threaded headsets secure the forks using Locknut adjustable and locking nuts that screw onto the threaded steerer tube. Replace them if they are worn. and Head tube check that the races are smooth and undamaged. Replace any worn bearings. unscrew ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts ◾ Remove the handlebar and stem (see pp. any spacers.58–59) the locknut with a wrench. Remove the lock ◾ Remove the front wheel (see pp.78–79) washer. washer Wrench BEFORE YOU START 2 ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand. 54 / STEERING AND SADDLE . as shown 3 Remove the bearings from the top race. Gently lift out bearing clip with screwdriver or tweezers Bearings may be loose or in clip. you will need to source a replacement headset. This will stop them from dropping out of the frame as 4 Remove the adjustable strap and lower the forks from the head tube so that you can access the bearings in the crown race. and the adjustable race. clean the bearings. check. so that you can access the bearings in the headset. Remove. They feature either ball Adjustable race or cartridge bearings. Forks Down tube Remove strap to release Bearings forks in a clip Crown race Forks 1 Secure the forks to the down tube of the frame with an adjustable strap. If the races are worn. if available With the forks secured to the down tube. Notchy or rough steering Lock is a sign that your headset needs maintenance.

and reinstall the bearings. Screw the adjustable top 8 Fit the lock washer and nut. and Slide steerer a pair of threaded nuts that tube up into secure the forks and head tube adjust the movement. PARTS FOCUS Grease Head tube crown race A typical threaded headset consists of cups. fully tighten the locknut against the lock washer. Position the tube race onto the steerer tube. Workshop tip: Make a note of the order and position TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT of any seals. is flush against the down tube. tube race Bearing Adjustable race clip Seal Slide stem Crown tube into race steerer tube Tighten Hold locknut adjustable against race still lock washer Bearings Loosely tighten Grease locknut Top tube race 7 Grease the inside of the top tube race and insert the bearings. and use a magnet to stop ◾◾ Set of wrenches ◾◾ Grease them from falling on the floor or rolling away. tightening 9 Using two wrenches. the locknut with your fingers. and spacers removed. SERVICING A HEADSET—THREADED HEADSETS / 55 . Secure the forks using the strap until the locknut Bottom new ones if required. bearings. count how many there ◾◾ Adjustable strap ◾◾ Tweezers are before removing them. or insert 6 Slide the steerer tube into the head tube. If the ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Flat-head screwdriver races contain loose bearings. Locknut Steerer tube Lock washer Adjustable race Bearing clip Top tube race 5 Apply a liberal amount of grease to the crown race. then insert the handlebar stem into the steerer tube. then tighten securely. handlebar. washers.

Top bearings held in upper race Head tube Undo top cap bolt with hex key Lower race Steerer tube Remove Unscrew supporting strap stem bolts to lower forks Note position Bottom bearing of any Stem spacers Crown race Check bearings for wear and replace if Forks necessary.54–55) top bearing cover and the compression ring. Put the stem down 3 Lower the forks out of the head tube. tap the top of it with a rubber hammer to free the compression ring. and races. If it sticks.78–79) Release the brake and gear cables. bearings. inside of the head tube. 56 / STEERING AND SADDLE . Remove the ◾ Support the forks with an adjustable strap (see pp. Remove the top bearing from the upper race. cover As with threaded headsets. Clean the carefully. along with any spacers. A top cap compresses everything together. Loosen the stem bolts and pull the stem off the steerer tube. Top bearing BEFORE YOU START ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand ◾ ◾ Remove the front wheel (see pp. and the bottom bearing from the crown race. 1 Unscrew and remove the top cap bolt. so as not to damage gear or brake cables. a rough feeling when Compression steering is usually an indication that the bearings ring need maintenance or replacement. if required 2 Push the steerer tube down through the head tube. MAINTAINING A HEADSET Threadless headsets Threadless headsets secure the forks by allowing Steerer tube the handlebar stem to clamp around the steerer Top bearing tube.

as this will make the steering stiff. bearing into the upper race. Handlebar stem Check for play before tightening Take care not to stem bolts overtighten bolt Top cap Spacers Bearing cover 7 Replace the bearing cover over the bearings. 4 Liberally grease the inside of the bearing races. and tighten to remove any slack in the headset. ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Grease Compression ring presses onto top bearing Apply fresh Top bearing grease inside upper race Maintain upwards pressure on forks once inserted. Avoid overtightening. Otherwise. ensuring that the handlebar and stem are straight. even if new. the bolts on the side of the stem. as well as the bearings. MAINTAINING A HEADSET—THREADLESS HEADSETS / 57 . install any spacers required. 9 Reattach the front wheel. ensuring it is the right way up. and push it into the upper race. the head tube—hold it in place. Workshop tip: Use an adjustable strap to prevent TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the fork from dropping out of the headset when the ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Rubber hammer compression ring is removed. then insert the steerer tube up through 6 Slide the compression ring down on to the steerer tube. before securing reattach the handlebar stem. and loosely 8 Reattach the top cap and bolt. support ◾◾ Adjustable strap ◾◾ Degreaser and cloth it with your hand. Place the top 5 Slide the bottom bearing down the steerer tube.

while longer stems enable you to adopt an aerodynamic position for racing. Electrical tape holds gear and brake cables to handlebar PARTS FOCUS The handlebar is a relatively simple component on a bike but has a crucial role. and straight for mountain bikes. as the replacement will have fit your stem clamp. Handlebars and stems also come in a range of sizes. There are two forms of handlebar: “drop” turn smoothly types for road bikes. 3 The handlebar holds the brake levers and shifters. Wider bars will suit you best if you have broad shoulders. 58 / STEERING AND SADDLE . of handlebar adjusting the direction of the front wheel. Stem bolts are loosened to adjust alignment As you turn the bar. 4 Handlebar tape and grips improve grip and comfort for the rider. cables are routed from handlebar to frame mounts 1 The stem joins the handlebar and steerer tube. The Headset bar also holds the brake levers and gear-shift allows handlebars and forks to levers. When replacing your handlebar. KEY COMPONENTS Top cap bolt secures stem to Handlebars and stems steerer tube A handlebar is essential for steering your bike. Bar end plugs 2 The stem clamp has a face plate that bolts over push into ends of drop handlebar the handlebar. so Brake and gear ensure that it is secure and fitted correctly. The diameter of the stem clamp must match that of the bar. Most handlebars are made of aluminum. Handlebar tapes are used to cover gear and brake cables. you should note the diameter of the exisiting one. holding it to the stem. the stem turns the fork. 5 Bar end plugs cover each end of a drop handlebar and 5 secure the bar tape. top-end versions may be carbon.

Brake levers Wider bars on both sides are more Stem clamp of handlebar stable at low links straight for front and speeds on handlebar rear brakes rough terrain to stem Gear-shift levers on both ends of handlebar for front and rear brakes . lever are They are designed to give you greater within reach of rider on control and stability off-road. 2 1 Finishing tape prevents bar tape from unravelling Drop handlebar 3 Stem clamp bolts allows rider to secure face plate adopt a lower to the stem riding position Cable recess prevents cables forming a bulge under handlebar tape 4 STRAIGHT BARS Combined gear-shift Straight handlebars connect to the steerer and brake tube in the same way as drop handlebars. and provide handlebar a comfortable riding position on-road.

If you are replacing like for like. If required. loosen the first lever clip and slide the lever from the bar. checking the stem for damage. and the steps are similar for straight and drop handlebars (shown here). Face plate 1 Remove the bar tape or grips (see pp. if you want to upgrade Fold back them. with cleaning fluid. or to improve the look or comfort of your brake lever hood bike. note the bar angle. Using an hex key or wrench. REMOVING AND REPLACING Drop and straight handlebars A handlebar does not need to be replaced routinely. Lift out and clean the bar any tape holding the brake and gear cables in place. carefully cut through them with craft knife to access brake or gear levers. Unscrew stem bolts Cables remain attached If existing grips on flat handlebars are stuck. Let the levers hang by the cables. It is a simple task. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Make sure that your stem and new handlebar is compatible with your stem ◾ Take note of the angle and position of the old handlebar Carefully ◾ Measure the existing position of the brake and gear levers ease levers ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand from bar Unwrap bar tape 2 Expose the clamp bolts on the gear and brake levers. Repeat for the second lever. fold back the brake-lever hoods to give you better access to the handlebar.62–65). and cut away 3 Undo the stem bolts on the face plate and remove the plate. 60 / STEERING AND SADDLE . but it is something you may need to do after an accident.

the bolts just enough to hold the new bar in place. Do not loosen circular clips all the way stem cap bolt on top of stem. alternating between the left and right bolt. working diagonally. then tighten the bolts all the way. face plate. REMOVING AND REPLACING—DROP AND STR AIGHT HANDLEBARS / 61 . Tighten 5 Center the handlebar to ensure that it sits straight in the stem clamp—most bars have markings to help you do this. Holding the front wheel between your knees. Readjust as necessary. apply grease or fiber grip to increase friction.62–65). leaving bolts just loose enough so small adjustments can be made later. the bolts incrementally. Check angle and position of handlebar is correct Face plate with test ride Push down on lever hoods to check face plate is secured Tighten stem bolts at back Tighten lever of stem. and stem bolts. Workshop tip: Adjust the position and TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT angle of your brake and gear levers until ◾◾ Tape measure ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Cloth they are comfortable for your riding ◾◾ Frame stand or wrenches ◾◾ Grease or fiber grip style. ◾◾ Craft knife ◾◾ Cleaning fluid Stem clamp Check handlebar Ensure is sitting at right bar length angle to stem is equal on both sides Secure handlebar. adjusting the angle. 6 Reattach the levers. Tighten the bolts and secure the cables. Replace the bar 7 Ensure the stem is aligned with the front wheel. then loosen the two stem bolts by a quarter of a turn. twist the handlebar to align the stem. 4 Apply a little grease to the new bar. If you are installing carbon fiber bars. Adjust the angle to your preference. Tighten tape or grips (see pp.

carefully unwind the old handlebar tape. poor weather. Lever out the bar end plugs from both ends of the handlebar with a flat-head screwdriver. Cut away old Secure cables with electrical tape electrical tape with craft knife 2 Beginning at the stem. Ensure tape overlaps itself evenly Overlap end of handlebar Ensure bar is free of grease 4 Attach the end of the handlebar tape to the bottom of the handlebar. Sweat. Wind the 5 Maintain an even tension on the tape as you apply it. ensuring that them in place. If present. bar end plugs wear thin. Replace the electrical tape. The tape should evenly overlap up to half the width of the previous turn. the cables follow their original routes along the bar. 62 / STEERING AND SADDLE . Worn tape is easy to change. MAINTAINING A HANDLEBAR Replacing handlebar tape Handlebar tape provides comfort and grip for your hands. overlapping the end of the bar by half of the width of the tape. with flat-head screwdriver Pull back brake lever hood BEFORE YOU START 1 ◾ Source a handlebar tape suitable for your handlebar Pull back each brake lever hood from the body ◾ Wash your hands so you do not soil the new handlebar tape of the brake levers to expose the handlebar tape ◾ Unravel the handlebar tape and lay it out ◾ Cut 8 in (20 cm) strips of electrical tape with scissors beneath. or cause it to loosen. and tear. and regular use Lever out can all make the tape dirty. If your bike has concealed brake or gear cables. as well as protection for your cables. ensure the glue strip sticks to the handlebar only. remove any electrical tape holding 3 Clean the handlebar using an alcohol-based cleaner to remove any dirt or leftover glue residue. as it is likely to be worn down or loose. tape around the bar in a clockwise direction.

8 When the tape reaches the handlebar stem. Roll lever hoods back into place Double-check that all handlebar tape is tucked in. covering the top bar in a clockwise direction. then Cut small length of of lever under top bar Tape covers tape to stick under base of brake lever body. then secure it in place using electrical tape. Fill gaps with Tap in bar tape pieces end plugs Stick electrical tape half on handlebar tape and half on bar. The tape will ◾◾ Electrical tape screwdriver cleaner tighten as your hands naturally twist outward ◾◾ Scissors ◾◾ Craft knife ◾◾ Rubber hammer when cycling. securing the ends. then pass it back over the top bar. Pass tape Wrap tape over top bar clockwise over top bar Push ends of tape Pass into lever tape hood Bring tape Wrap tape below around over base bar lever. pass the tape around the bar and below the base of the lever body. and secure them by bar. MAINTAINING A HANDLEBAR—REPLACING HANDLEBAR TAPE / 63 . Continue lever. tapping in the bar end plugs with a rubber hammer. Push the ends of the tape into the ends of the handlebar. cut the last 3–4 in (8–10 cm) at a shallow angle toward the bar. Bring it under and over the bar on the other side of the 7 Wrap the tape back over the bar and beneath the lever body in the opposite direction as before. lever body 6 At the brake levers. Be sure to maintain an even tension. Workshop tip: Always wrap replacement TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT handlebar tape in a clockwise direction—from ◾◾ Handlebar tape ◾◾ Flat-head ◾◾ Alcohol-based the inside of the bar outward. keeping it in position. Wrap the remaining tape around the 9 Roll the lever hoods back into place and check there are no gaps.

and slide them into the middle of the handlebar to give you better access loosen and break the seal. BEFORE YOU START 2 ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand Insert a small flat-head screwdriver under the ◾ If you are using lock-on grips. Twist it off. 64 / STEERING AND SADDLE . If the grip is sealed shut. Straw Spray degreaser under grip in several places to help loosen it Plastic bar end plug Remove lock-on grip from handlebar Repeatedly turn grip from side to side by unscrewing retaining bolt using hex to work degreaser between bar and grip key. use a small. push the screwdriver in from the opposite end. be loose enough to pull from the bar. Insert the degreaser straw into the cavity and spray degreaser on all sides. Replacing both types is a simple task. rip. Standard grips are held in place by friction.5 cm) to ◾ Loosen the brake and gear levers. then slide grip off bar. MAINTAINING A HANDLEBAR Replacing handlebar grips Grips have a big influence on bike handling and Gently break up any sticky will need replacement when they fade. 1 Pull the bar end plugs out of the bar with your fingertips. assemble them in advance grip. 3 Lift up the grip with the screwdriver to create a gap. or twist residue with screwdriver out of position. flat-head screwdriver to lever out the plug. while lock-on grips are secured to the bars with small bolts. The grip should now Avoid damaging the plugs if you are reusing them. pushing it inward about 1 in (2. You may also want to upgrade your grips to improve your bike’s performance. If they are tight and hard to remove. along its length to aid removal.

tap end is flush. making sure that the 7 Push in the bar end plug so that it is aligned with the end of the grip and does not stick out from the end of the bar. Wipe away any remaining fluid and rub dry. or residue left by the old grip. too. them in gently with a rubber hammer. turning it clockwise. Slide ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Small flat-head ◾◾ Craft knife each grip onto the handlebar. Carefully peel the 5 Clean the handlebar thoroughly with degreaser to remove any oil. MAINTAINING A HANDLEBAR—REPLACING HANDLEBAR GRIPS / 65 . pull out the ties. taking care not to cut or scratch the metal underneath. the bar is open. thread cable ties inside them. run a sharp craft knife along its length. Leave the grip to set for 10 minutes. and ◾◾ Set of hex keys screwdriver ◾◾ Alcohol-based cleaner when it is in place. Slide the grip onto the bar and twist it into position. tighten bolt-on end cap with hex key. Workshop tip: If the grips are hard to TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT fit. check that the inside of it is dry. dirt. Alcohol-based cleaning fluid evaporates. If grip away from the bar and discard it. 6 Spray the bar and the inside of the grip with an alcohol-based cleaning fluid. If the bar end plugs are tight. Bar end plugs have expansion mechanism to ensure secure fit If reattaching lock-on grips. or wrenches ◾◾ Degreaser and cloth ◾◾ Rubber hammer Cut carefully Spray directly onto so as not to bar using straw scratch bar Craft knife 4 If the grip remains stuck to the bar. securing grip Move straw in circular motion so that inside of grip is completely coated with alcohol-based cleaning fluid.

and the seatpost slides into the against damage cushioning for rider seat tube on the frame. . and they connect to the seatpost. Top tube forms top of bike frame 3 The seatpost connects the saddle to the seat tube.68–69). while those for touring bikes are wider to provide a greater contact area on longer rides. Seatposts are available in different lengths and diameters. and to adjust its position forward or backward. Brake cable port 2 The saddle rail clamp attaches the saddle to the seatpost by clamping over the rails.68–69). The rails allow you to adjust the saddle position and angle. KEY COMPONENTS Seatposts and saddles Choosing a saddle is a personal decision. You adjust the saddle height by raising or lowering the seatpost—ensure the minimum insertion mark is inside the frame (see pp. They are commonly made from aluminum or carbon fiber. with padding and cutouts for comfort. Road bike saddles may be synthetic fiber or leather are longer and narrower than mountain bike ones. and their height can be adjusted (see pp. The saddle has rails on the underside to fix it to the seatpost. Saddles are available in a range of widths and Saddle skin shapes. titanium. 4 The seatpost clamp secures the seatpost inside the seat tube at your preferred height. Most designs allow the angle of the saddle to be adjusted. 1 Steel. PARTS FOCUS The saddle is secured to the seatpost by a Nose may be reinforced Saddle flexes with Kevlar to protect on rails to provide pair of rails. or carbon rails under the saddle allow you to attach the saddle to the seatpost. as you need to be comfortable.

Foam or gel padding
spreads pressure of
rider’s body weight


Shell made of
nylon or carbon
fiber forms
base of saddle
Grooves or cutouts
reduce pressure
around rider’s sit
Saddle rail clamp attaches bones
around saddle rails to secure
position of saddle

Saddles vary in size Flat ◾ A flat top, often with a
and shape to suit raised tail, is the most
differences in body common saddle design
shape. Comfort is Cutout ◾ Cutout sections relieve
4 key—if possible, pressure on perineum
test-ride before you and boost blood flow
buy. Clean with mild Female fit ◾ Shaped to provide
soap, water, and a support and comfort
cloth to preserve for female anatomy
the glues and Snub nose ◾ Designed for triathlons
skin material. and time trials

Seat tube

Barrel adjuster


Seatpost maintenance
Ensuring that your saddle is at the right height BEFORE YOU START
is essential for riding efficiency and comfort, ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand
and helps you prevent knee and hip injuries. ◾ Clean the seatpost and clamp using a cloth
and cleaning fluid
Adjusting the height is a simple task, although ◾ Ensure that the saddle is firmly installed
your seatpost can become stuck over time.

bolt with
hex key or Seat-
post Remove dirt
wrench and old grease
with cloth Seatpost clamp

Hold saddle and pull
upward to lift seat- Seat
post out of frame. tube

1 Loosen the seatpost clamp bolt or quick-release
lever just enough for you to pull the post out
easily. Do not force it. If there is resistance, twist
2 Clean the seatpost, seatpost clamp, and top of
the seat tube with a cloth to wipe away dirt and
surface corrosion. If the clamp bolt is rusty or the
the saddle in both directions as you pull. clamp shows signs of damage, replace the clamp.

Apply grease Prevent seizure and
with soft brush corrosion with grease

Buy longer
Insert seatpost seatpost if saddle
to beyond too low at minimum
minimum insertion point
insertion point

Clamp Carefully insert
bolt seatpost back
into seat tube.

3 Grease the upper part of the seat tube, the area just
inside the frame, and the clamp bolt thread. Apply
antislip compound to carbon frames and seatposts
4 Set the saddle to your preferred ride height (see
pp.20–23), and check that it is straight. Tighten
the seatpost clamp bolt or quick-release lever.
instead of grease, so the seatpost will not slip. Ensure you do not overtighten the bolt or lever.


◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Soft brush ◾◾ Pot of hot water
◾◾ Cloth or wrenches ◾◾ Antislip compound ◾◾ Freeze spray
◾◾ Cleaning fluid ◾◾ Grease ◾◾ Penetrating oil

Distribute oil by LOOSE SEATPOSTS
moving saddle
Wipe any
penetrating oil If your seatpost is slipping
from paintwork or squeaks, check that the
clamp is properly tightened,
and that you have the correct
post for your frame.

◾ If your seatpost is still slipping,
the likely causes are dirt or rust
on the seatpost and clamp.

◾ Remove and clean the seatpost
Loosen and slide clamp up and clamp, wiping off any dirt
seatpost. Spray penetrating oil or rust. Regrease the seatpost
where seatpost enters seat tube.
and clamp, and reattach to bike.

1 Loosen the seatpost clamp bolt or quick-release lever. If the bolt is ◾ If the seatpost still slips or
difficult to move, spray it with penetrating oil and let soak in. Slide squeaks, it may be worn down
the clamp up the seatpost and spray penetrating oil onto the seatpost and in need of replacement.
where it enters the seat tube. Twist the saddle to distribute the oil.

Prevent seat-
post sticking by
applying grease

Seatpost loosens
as metal contracts
Apply spray
hot water
loosens Seat
as frame tube

On carbon-fiber frames,
spray seatpost with
freeze spray to shrink it.

2 If your frame is made of metal and the seatpost
remains stuck, pour hot water around the top of
the seat tube. This will cause the metal to expand,
3 After removing the seatpost, clean inside
the seat tube with a cloth to get rid of any dirt,
then apply plenty of grease. Clean and regrease the
loosening it against the seatpost. Repeat as required. seatpost and clamp to prevent them seizing again.



Dropper seatposts
Dropper seatposts enable you to lower the height BEFORE YOU START
of your saddle while you are riding the bike, either ◾ Remove the existing seatpost (see pp.68–69)
by pressing a remote lever on the handlebar ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand
◾ Clean the inside of the seat tube with cleaning fluid
or by pulling a lever under the saddle. They are ◾ Plan how the cable will be routed—internally or externally
a popular upgrade for mountain bikes, and can
be mechanical (as shown here) or hydraulic.

Route cable Slide cable head
Ensure lever is internally or into metal bushing
easy to reach externally Metal bushing
supplied with
Inner cable
Push ferrule
onto housing
Cable using fingers

1 Attach the remote lever to
your handlebar, following
the manufacturer’s instructions.
2 Depending on your frame,
feed the cable housing from
the top of the seat tube to the
3 Slot the metal bushing onto the
cable; slide the cable head into
it. Push a ferrule onto the housing,
Position it within easy reach. exit point near the head tube. and thread the cable along it.


trigger Cable head Tighten seat clamp
Cable stop and bushing once saddle at Pull cable toward front of bike as dropper
and ferrule in trigger correct height seatpost is lowered into seat tube to remove
excess slack in cable.
Seat tube

4 Fit the bushing and cable head
into the trigger mechanism.
Insert the ferrule on the housing
5 Insert the dropper seatpost into the seat tube, while pulling
the control cable and housing through from the front of the
frame toward the handlebar. Set the saddle to the correct ride
into the cable stop on the trigger. height, with the dropper post extended all the way.


8 Pull enough cable through the housing at the seatpost end. remote lever can be cut to length. Set the saddle to the right height. Workshop tip: If your dropper post and TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT frame have internal routing. Turn the handlebar as far as possible from the cable port. 2 in (5 cm) protrudes from the top of it. Pull both the cable and housing up through the seatpost until about use a tape measure to see how much cable you need. and to remove slack. Disconnect cable from trigger 2 in (5 cm) Turn handlebar of cable all the way Cable port 6 Ensure you have enough cable and housing for the handlebar to turn all the way. and 7 Remove the dropper post and disconnect the cable from the mechanism. you may ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Dropper seatpost ◾◾ Tape measure need to remove the bottom bracket (BB) ◾◾ Frame stand and cables ◾◾ Sharp cable cutters so that the cable can travel around the ◾◾ Cleaning fluid ◾◾ Ferrules base of the seat tube (see pp. so the empty housing at the 9 Reconnect the cable to the dropper mechanism and lower the dropper post into the seat tube. remove slack and movement. INSTALLING A SEATPOST—DROPPER SEATPOSTS / 71 . and adjust the cable accordingly. Adjust position Cut housing of lever if to length required Lower dropper into seat tube Push ferrule on Reconnect to housing cable to trigger Pull cable through Tension cable by pressing lever frame toward front 10–12 times to bed it in. 10 Fasten the cable to the remote lever according to the manufacturer’s instructions.176–181).



available. but can be as few as 24 on a mountain bikes with suspension. For everyday riding and adventure riding with luggage. attached with hooks through cycling. attached with hooks through price road bikes. parts. and training. are fitted to high-end road complement a light bike. weight and "pro bike" looks are of ◾ Up to 36 spokes. especially when used on conditions. training wheels ◾ Regular. each with different capabilities and Take care when upgrading your wheels. wheel—usually 28–36. Radial lightness. Low road or hybrid bike. or long-distance ◾ Stainless steel. bikes with suspension on forks lightness of the build. They are aero or bladed on and race bikes. as the wheels are sturdy through rim eyelets. or to be aluminum or even composite. ◾ More spokes than a lightweight be used for winter training. FAST ROAD ◾ Road racing. MOUNTAIN BIKE ◾ Off-road cross-country and ◾ Stainless steel or aluminum. or aluminum alloy. plain gauge. and strength serious performance advantage. through rim eyelets. Made of carbon ◾ Hill riding. Fitted as standard to many mid. to enable fast. faster wheels offers a ◾ Typically 20–32 spokes. noncompetitive. but some wheel types provide and/or the back end. flange holes and with nipples are suitable for all types of road rides. where having some models. lightweight type. compatible with 11-speed drivetrains. often made with aero and cyclo-cross bikes. wheels need to be strong ◾ Light off-road riding on a flange holes and with nipples and built of durable materials. off-road riding conditions. TRAINING ROAD ◾ General road riding ◾ Stainless steel. triahlon. ◾ Typically 28–32 spokes on a lightness and stiffness as well. on hybrid or touring bikes. riding apart from racing and can enough for heavy usage. ◾ Muddy and slippery off-road standard mountain bike wheel. CHOOSER GUIDE Wheels There are multiple types of bicycle wheel depending on the kind of riding you are doing. plain gauge. ◾ Usually stainless steel. they blend lighter. stiffness. These wheels are designed for downhill racing on mountain depending on quality and tough. smooth road riding. but can These wheels. lacing is popular on front wheels. 74 / WHEELS . longer. as they advantages.and rear-specific and some are only wheel. with more secondary importance. You may want just one type of are front. TYPE SUITABILITY SPOKES UTILITY/TOURING ◾ Commuting. or several to use at different times.

◾ The latest types include the ◾ All mountain bike rims are designed ◾ The axle has a closure to secure the slightly smaller 584 mm+ and for use with either clincher or wheels in the bike. tire or quick-release) need to be compatible with width. caliper brakes only). 25–40 mm. 25–40 mm. These wheels ◾ Wider variants will take heavy. some of tubeless tires. ◾ Disc-enabled designs have a ◾ Wider rims are suitable for tires ◾ Sections vary from box to V. tubular. often spindle and quick-release skewer rim widths from 13–25 mm (the with a box or shallow V section. on the rear wheel. ◾ Popular in standard 700 c size. most popular being 18/19 mm). with sealed or ◾ Also popular in smaller 26 in ◾ Mostly clincher design. competition wheels built in carbon. measurements here components of a bicycle wheel are measured are given in the most common denomination. track for use with caliper brakes. bearings. and wheel diameter all affecting a tire’s the bike frame. 26 in. with cup-and-cone bearings and a quick. especially are more suitable for rough duty and mountain bike tires. clincher tires. on the same bike. the axle attachments (skewer in several different ways. which require greasing with larger volumes ranging from ◾ Mostly designed for use with and correct adjustment. or tubeless. with eyelets for spokes. tracks and paths. threaded disc carrier or boss and a with larger volumes ranging from ◾ Rim bed must match the tire: through-axle closure of the wheel. straight pull slots for spokes. ◾ Lighter rim with no braking ◾ These may have cup-and-cone ◾ Wider rims can be used for tires track on disc-enabled wheels. with annular bearings and a rim widths of 13–25 mm (the ◾ Hardened brake surface (for spindle with quick-release. sizes are 29 in. with lightweight versions. on load–carrying bikes. Be aware that the various performance. clincher. ◾ Heavier and stronger than ◾ Usually made of alloy with a ◾ Industry standard is 700 c.5 in ◾ Can be carbon on high-performance ◾ The flange is small with holes or (also termed 650 b). with rim width. which can take larger- internal reinforcement on release or through-axle fixing. or a through-axle secure to bike. with no ◾ Usually made of alloy. ◾ The flange is small. with ◾ The three most common braking track on disc-braked bikes. RIMS HUBS VARIATIONS ◾ Aluminum. 622 mm+ options. but can also be used with tubeless tires. and 27. size. volume tires with heavier heavy-duty versions. versions. For simplicity. ◾ Sealed bearings protect against which are interchangeable dirt. most popular being 18/19 mm). CHOOSER GUIDE—WHEELS / 75 . with braking ◾ Usually made of alloy. ◾ There is often a heavy-duty axle tread patterns. ◾ Alloy or carbon fiber with ◾ These are normally small flange ◾ Industry standard is 700 c. ◾ Commonly aluminum.In addition.

as they power the drivetrain. or mixed. Turning the nipple alters the spoke wheel rim to secure tire tension and the alignment of the rim. you should replace the wheel (see pp. has markers to show effect but most bikes have wire ones. PARTS FOCUS Valve lock- ring holds valve in place A wheel comprises a hub. 76 / WHEELS . flat. the latest aero. crossed. and in wheel rim a tire. Spokes are attached to the Tire bead fits into rim by nipples. When you ride over rough terrain or tire with grip bumps. Most spokes are of wear made of stainless steel. Double eyelet spoke hole in 4 The spokes may be “laced” in various wheel rim reduces patterns. protective layer between rim and inner tube 2 Wheel rims are made of alloy or carbon. a rim. or bladed profiles can streamline and improve a bike’s performance. so it’s under significant load when moving. Spokes brace the contains air within tire rim in relation to the hub. Spokes pull and push against rim 3 The side edge of the rim provides a braking surface for bikes with rim brakes. If it is worn. It transmits motion through the spokes to the 2 Rim tape forms rim. Some performance Wheel rim racing wheels feature bonded composite spokes. allows air to be pumped into inner tube 1 The wheel hub supports the spokes. which flex to Inner tube cushion the shock at the rim.78–83). spokes. nipple tension for strength and to absorb braking and acceleration forces. KEY COMPONENTS Wire-spoke wheels Wheels are your bike’s contact point with the Tread provides 3 ground. There are several depths and designs for different riding styles. and have a recess to hold the tire. Rear wheels have more spokes than Valve 4 front wheels. such as radial. the tire and rim absorb impacts and transmit these to the spokes.

SPOKE EYELETS Steel eyelets are used on aluminum rims to reinforce the spoke hole and prevent the spoke pulling through. Spoke nipple connects spoke to rim Steel eyelet and allows spoke tension to Spoke be adjusted Spoke nipple held in eyelet Front forks connect wheel to frame Tire provides contact point between wheel and road or track Quick-release lever enables wheel to be removed without tools Flange is point 1 where spokes attach to hub .

if attached. This widens the gap between the pads and the wheel rim. (Campagnolo calipers are 3 Lift up the frame and push the wheel out and away from the front forks. spray around the area with oil Hold quick-release nut firmly on right-hand side of wheel. 78 / WHEELS . If bolts are attached. Brake caliper Front forks 1 Loosen the front brake using the quick-release tab on the brake caliper. which can be removed without tools. Wheels on older bikes sometimes have conventional bolts.) more without loosening all the way. If the wheel does not drop out. Most modern bikes have quick-release wheels. but do not remove the nut. Quick-release then turn lever. if so. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A WHEEL Quick-release front wheels It is often necessary to detach a front wheel to transport a bike or repair a puncture. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand ◾ Check whether there is any rust or corrosion on the quick-release lever. unscrew on both sides using a wrench. lever 2 Locate the quick-release lever on the wheel hub. undo the quick-release lever or bolts a little released via a button on the gear-shift lever. Open the lever and gradually unscrew it. undone using a wrench.

of the bike. using the weight of the bike to keep it straight. release and repeat steps 3–7 to reattach the wheel. If it is not. check that the springs are in place on both sides of the quick-release mechanism. Return brake pads Check brake to original pads run Ensure position parallel to wheel can wheel spin freely 6 Close the quick-release tab (or press the button on the lever if you have Campagnolo brakes). tighten both wheel bolts. and that the lever is on the left-hand side 5 Place the wheel on the floor. remove the front one first. This ◾◾ Frame stand will help you avoid dragging the chain or bashing ◾◾ Oil the rear derailleur on the ground. undo the quick- on the rim. Press firmly release to close spring lever tightly 4 To reattach your front wheel. and tighten the quick-release mechanism. Ensure that the brake pads are correctly positioned 7 Stand in front of your bike with the front wheel between your knees and check that it is centered between the brake pads. Lower the forks onto the wheel. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A WHEEL—QUICK-RELEASE FRONT WHEELS / 79 . For older bikes. Hold the nut. if attached. Workshop tip: If you need to remove both wheels TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT from your bike. ◾◾ Set of wrenches (for older bikes) Quick- release spring Quick.

turn the quick-release 180 degrees. rotate the quick-release lever 3 Hold the rear derailleur in your hand. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A WHEEL Wheels with a cassette Removing and reattaching a rear wheel involves releasing and reattaching the chain from the rear hub. Calipers swing outward BEFORE YOU START Pull quick- ◾ Spray the lever with oil if there is rust or corrosion release lever ◾ Shift the chain into the largest chainring at the front upward ◾ Shift the chain onto the smallest rear sprocket ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand 2 Locate the quick-release lever on the rear brake caliper or on the lever hood. This task requires more care on bikes with a cassette and rear derailleur (mech). 80 / WHEELS . release lever downward 1 Loosen the rear wheel. Once released. With your other hand. and pull it backward and upward. If not. and pull it upward to open it. the calipers will widen. The wheel should come free from the dropouts. holding the quick-release nut on the nondrive (left) side with one hand. Push quick- letting the wheel pass easily between the brake pads. It is a simple process. lever one more turn and repeat until it does. opening the mechanism. as these are vital components of the drivetrain. only taking a few minutes. especially if the wheel has a quick-release mechanism.

Make sure the wheel 7 Close the quick-release lever to secure the rear wheel. Workshop tip: Some quick-release systems have a TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT locking mechanism for security reasons. allowing the rear wheel to move forward slightly. slotting it into the dropouts. before—firm but not too tight. If 5 To reattach the rear wheel. and lower the frame. Free chain from cassette 4 Lift the frame up by the saddle or the top tube. The tension should be the same as 8 Close up the brake pads using the lever on the caliper or the button on the lever hood. ensure the rear derailleur is shifted into the highest gear. Spin the is centered in the frame. Close Rotate quick. . ◾◾ Frame stand Always keep the appropriate keys packed with your puncture repair kit in case of a puncture. Carefully guide the cassette away from the chain. top of the smallest sprocket. quick- release lever release upward lever Wheel should spin freely 6 Pull the wheel upward and backward. allowing the chain to sit on the chain sticks to the cassette. lift it away by hand. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A WHEEL—WHEELS WITH A CASSET TE / 81 . wheel to check the pads align. Guide the wheel into position. Both sides ◾◾ Oil tighten together and connect through a hollow axle.

82 / WHEELS . and also on some mountain bikes. Lockrings 4 Open the rear brake calipers according to the type equipped on your bike (see pp. use your free hand to remove the cable clamp bolt from the gear satellite on the cable 3 Pull the cable around to the front of the hub. set the hub into first gear. the frame away from it. Lockring In order to remove the rear wheel with the hub gear from the frame. Rest the chain on the frame. so that the gear cables become slack. ease it out using pliers. If it is tight. Locate the utility hole on the cable carrier on the hub and insert a hex key. then free the end of the cable housing from the housing stop on the hub gear.112–117). and lift the chain from the rear hub. Move the cable carrier. Brake lever tab Brake caliper Rear dropout Turn lockrings on Rear wheel counter- hub clockwise to loosen. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A WHEEL Wheels with a hub gear Hub gears mainly feature on hybrid and utility bikes. you will first need to disconnect the hub from the brake cable. lift Loosen the lockrings on the wheel using a wrench. Holding the wheel with one hand. 5 Ease the wheel out of the rear dropouts. BEFORE YOU START Utility hole ◾ Clean any dirt from around the hub gear ◾ ◾ Make a note of any washers Ensure that the gear cables are in good condition 1 Using the gear-shift lever. but do not remove them from the wheel entirely. away from the rear wheel. Use the hex key to rotate ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand the carrier. Hub Housing gear stop Cable housing Cable clamp bolt Cable carrier Gear satellite 2 Holding the cable carrier in position with the hex key.

not. making them as tight as possible. Engage brake calipers once wheel is in place Rotate cable carrier with hex key 8 Reinstall the gear cables by securing the housing into the housing stop. using a wrench. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A WHEEL—WHEELS WITH A HUB GEAR / 83 . Rotate the cable carrier toward the housing stop. you will need to adjust them (see pp. Workshop tip: When retightening the wheel lockrings. ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Pliers Rear Tighten dropout lockrings before reinstalling gear cables Tighten lockrings with wrench Adjustable wrench Colored washer 6 Reattach the wheel by guiding the axle back into the rear dropouts. ensuring that the colored washers sit outside the frame. Test the gears to check they shift cleanly. Lift the chain back 7 Align the wheel so that it rotates centrally within the frame. If they do bolt into the gear satellite (reversing steps 1–3). then half-tighten the wheel lockrings. and position it so that the chain is engaged all the way on the hub. Secure the lockrings onto the hub. then insert the cable clamp 9 Ensure the wheel spins evenly and re-engage the brake calipers according to the type you have. ◾◾ Cloth ◾◾ Set of hex keys or You will then be able to adjust the wheel if necessary ◾◾ Cleaning fluid an adjustable wrench when cycling.152–53). TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT use a tool that you can take with you out on the road.

If it feels tight. 2 Ease the tire across the well. Rotate the tire. replace it if not if threads appear on the sidewall. Do not overinflate the 4 Insert the inner tube valve through the valve hole in the rim. 1 Fit the first side of the tire onto the wheel. Working away from the valve on both sides. placing the bead over the first half of the rim and working it around the wheel with your hands. so that it sits straight. inner tube Bicycle inside tire pump 3 Remove the valve cap and retaining nut from the inner tube. 84 / WHEELS .48–49) ◾ Unfold the new tire and push it into shape has pierced the tube. ease a small tube. as you will struggle to feed it into the tire. void for inner tube. pushing use a tire lever to hook the bead onto the rim. ◾ Ensure that the tire is the right width and size for the wheel Sidewall Rim tape of tire Bead in tire Ensure tire against well Bead is fitted rim all way around Tire well Rim Rim Bead is stiff and Installing one side can be difficult to of tire creates a install by hand. pushing the bead to the far edge of the rim in order to create space for the inner tube. then fit the valve nut. Inflate inner tube to around 10 psi to give tube shape Screw on valve nut by hand Screw valve nut onto valve and loosely Carefully feed tighten it against rim. You should also replace ◾ Check that the inner tube is in good condition and the your tires if the top section is worn down or valve is not bent ◾ Ensure that rim tape is in good condition. either because of “pinch flat”—the ◾ Remove the wheel from your bike (see pp. the tire across all the way around the wheel.78–83) tube being pinched—or because a sharp object ◾ Remove the old tire (see pp. and partially inflate it just enough so that it takes its shape. REPLACING A TIRE Clincher tires Flat tires are caused by air leaking from the BEFORE YOU START inner tube. section of tube into the tire.

Deflate the inner tube. Workshop tip: Try to finish installing the tire TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT opposite the valve. use tire levers. wheel to the bike (see pp.78–83). carefully the inner tube is not twisted or kinked at any point. Ensure 6 Roll the second bead of the tire over the rim. and check that the inner tube is not pinched between the rim and the bead—which could cause a “pinch flat.” If the tube is 8 Inflate the tire to the correct pressure—which is usually printed on the tire—and refit the pinched anywhere. REPLACING A TIRE—CLINCHER TIRES / 85 . be hardest to fit 5 Keep working from the valve in both directions. ◾◾ Bicycle pump Work away Tire from valve Work all the way around wheel Inner Carefully push tube inner tube into tire Inner tube fills void between rim Last section will and tire. making sure it does not pinch or twist the inner tube. If the tire is too tight to fit by hand. carefully wiggle the tire to release the pinched tube. as this provides more ◾◾ Rim tape tire material to help lever the bead over ◾◾ Tire lever the wheel rim edge. tucking the inner tube inside the tire. so that it sits in the well between the tire and the rim. squeeze the tire beads together to expose the rim tape. Gently pinch Ensure tube not beads together pinched by tire with your fingers 7 Once the tire is fitted.

If not. Refit and tighten the valve collar on the inside grease on the rim using an alcohol-based cleaner. If the tire is by 4–6 in (10–15 cm) cut. of the wheel until it is secure against the rim. push the valve through the hole. Rubber valve end Valve collar 1 If the wheel is tubeless-compatible. REPLACING A TIRE Tubeless tires Tubeless tires. BEFORE YOU START 2 ◾ Ensure that the wheel and tires are tubeless-compatible Apply tubeless rim tape to the well of the wheel. move directly on to step 5. 86 / WHEELS . Make sure that you do not make the hole too large. and clean away any sticky residue and 4 Remove the valve collar. remove any existing rim tape. often installed on mountain bikes. and secure the rubber end to the rim tape. sealant in the tire instantly dries around the hole. ◾ Unfold the new tire and push it into shape covering the spoke holes and the valve hole. ensuring that it comes up to the edges and is free of wrinkles. so that the valve can be pushed through. Clean thoroughly with alcohol- based cleaner Locate position of valve hole Valve hole 3 Locate the valve hole and carefully pierce the tape with a craft knife or similar sharp object. ◾ Remove the wheel from the bike (see pp. which prevents the tire from deflating.78–83) ◾ Remove the tire from the wheel (see pp. reducing the risk of punctures.48–49) Apply even tension to the tape. fit firmly against the wheel rim without an inner Overlap end tube.

Rotate the tire to spread the sealant. inflate the tire to 100 psi. to inflate tire ◾ Follow steps 1–5 to fit the tire. the sealant inside. in the eight o’clock position to set. then deflate it all the way. Squeeze ◾ Following the instructions tire closed provided. fill the syringe with Tire will snap the recommended amount into rim as it of sealant. Pour tire sealant into the gap. pry a small section of the tire from the rim on one warm. 7 Close the tire up again using your fingers. then check based cleaner ◾◾ Bicycle pump or ◾◾ Tire sealant the tire for any places where the soapy water ◾◾ Tubeless rim tape air compressor bubbles. following manufacturer’s instructions 5 Mount the tubeless tire to the rim by hand—using tire levers may damage the tape. Once fitted. cover the wheel and valve stem area ◾◾ Cloth and alcohol. first deflate it all the way by releasing the air valve. soapy water to help identify any leaks. side. Rotate tire VARIATIONS once closed Certain brands of sealant can be injected directly into the Use pump or air tire via the valve using a compressor syringe. REPLACING A TIRE—TUBELESS TIRES / 87 . Squeeze tire on to rim with fingers Tire sealant Add recommended Tire bead amount of sealant. then rotate the wheel several times to spread 8 Inflate the tire to 90 psi using a pump or compressor. using your fingers. Then. inflates ◾ Attach the end of the syringe to the opened tire valve and inject the sealant into the tire. then hang up the wheel with the valve ◾ Detach the syringe and inflate the tire (see step 8). ◾◾ Craft knife ◾◾ Soapy water in soapy water. and soak the rim with 6 To seal the tire. Workshop tip: After adding sealant and inflating TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the tire. Wait 10–20 seconds. Bubbling means that the tire is leaking.

so you will need to adjust both sides. check if it wobbles from side to side.” or straightening wheels. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand. causing the wheels to lose shape. Adjust. is achieved Brake by adjusting the tension of the spokes on either caliper side of the rim. Ensure wheel sits centrally between forks Loose spokes Make sure flex easily wheel can turn freely Watch wheel spin for signs of wobbling 1 Stand in front of the wheel and check that it is centered between the forks. Note the areas where the rim touches the tool and mark the rim using a piece of chalk. Spokes on opposing sides of the rim counter the pull the front. 88 / WHEELS . so that you can spin the wheel freely ◾ Ensure that you have the correct-size spoke wrench 2 Rest a screwdriver or pencil against the brake caliper and spin the wheel.78–79). SERVICING A WHEEL Tightening loose spokes Over time. Spin the wheel and. You can screwdriver or pencil close adjust spoke tension by tightening or loosening to wheel rim the spoke nipples adjacent to the wheel rim. if necessary (see pp. “Trueing. of each other. Repeat on the other side of the rim. Even spoke tension is key to Hold the strength and integrity of a wheel. watching from 3 Press the spokes nearest to the chalk marks to identify any that feel more slack than the others. the spokes on your bike’s wheels can become slack.

around the wheel. however slight. Any pencil in place. will need reattaching later. loosening and tightening. Readjust as required. will ensure that the wheel is running too. Spray them ◾◾ Screwdriver ◾◾ Chalk ◾◾ Scissors with penetrating oil. Workshop tip: If you find some of the nipples TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT on the spokes are hard to turn. SERVICING A WHEEL—TIGHTENING LOOSE SPOKES / 89 . spin the wheel to check for any further wobble. as the spoke could snap. or pencil ◾◾ Rubber band ◾◾ Penetrating oil then try again. Spin wheel Nipple Spoke wrench Turn spoke wrench by a quarter-turn 4 If the wheel wobbles to one side when spun. You will Turn nipple have to reattach it each time with spoke you retest the wheel. loosen the spoke nipple on that side by turning it clockwise. check to so it just avoids the rim. wait for a few minutes. straight. Work side of the rim by turning the nipple counterclockwise. try the following: ◾ Securely attach the screwdriver or pencil to the brake caliper using a rubber band. adjustment. Cut the end in very small increments. If you cannot hold it steady. do not force ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Spoke wrench ◾◾ Wire tie them. CHECK THE WHEEL It is important that you hold the screwdriver or pencil still Hold screwdriver when checking the accuracy of or pencil Spin a wheel. Adjust 2–3 spokes at a time to avoid uneven tension. This. and tighten the loose spoke on the opposite 5 Using the screwdriver or pencil. If it moves while the steady wheel wheel is turning. you will not be able to assess where it deviates from true. affect the rest of the wheel. wrench ◾ Attach a wire tie to the caliper. 6 7 Turn the spoke wrench With your screwdriver or pulling it tight. Repeat if necessary.

in fork Quick-release nut 1 The axle passes through the wheel hub. Hubs Front fork holds front wheel traditionally have 28. 3 The quick-release mechanism. machined alloy. shell. or 36 spoke holes. You should perform maintenance on hub bearings regularly (see pp. 2 The bearings inside the hub shell allow the wheel to rotate freely.92–95). and flange. screws onto axle It has threaded ends onto which the cone nut and lockrings are screwed to hold it in place. or carbon fiber. and Front dropouts hold wheel axle connects to the rim via the spokes. allows you to remove the wheel quickly without tools. KEY COMPONENTS Wheel hubs The hub. The axle is secured to the frame at the dropouts. The hub shell contains bearings. at the center of your bike’s wheel. The higher the number of spokes. It is fixed to the frame at the axle. which allow it to rotate around the axle. They may sit inside a sealed cartridge or be loose within the bearing 3 races. Hubs may be made from steel. PARTS FOCUS The wheel hub enables the wheel to turn. The flange at each end of the axle has holes drilled to hold the spokes. 32. although it will also be heavier. High-quality hubs use cartridge bearings and additional seals to keep them running more smoothly for longer. The number of spoke holes on the hub corresponds with the number of them on the wheel rim. 90 / WHEELS . the stronger the wheel is. passing through the center of the axle. consists of an axle.

Spoke head prevents spoke pulling through spoke hole on flange Metal seal protects bearings Hub shell Quick-release contains axle springs enable and bearings easy removal of lever 2 Bearings may be loose or held in a cartridge 1 2 Axle passes through wheel hub Lockring holds Flange provides hub together anchor point for spokes Spokes support weight of rider Cone nut holds bearings in bearing race KEY COMPONENTS—WHEEL HUBS / 91 .

Quick-release mechanism BEFORE YOU START 1 ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay Remove the wheel from your bike (see pp. carefully pry it away with a flat-head screwdriver. 3 Lift off the bearing cover to reveal the protective dust seal over the cartridge bearing. pop off the press-fit bearing cover.) the cover before replacing it later. Bearing covers can become stuck Some hubs feature a hex key fitting 2 When the wheel is clear of the forks. (Some bearing covers have a hex key fitting—for these. however. SERVICING A WHEEL BEARING Press-fit cartridge types The wheel bearings are often contained within cartridges that need specialty tools to replace.78–83) out the parts ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand by opening the quick-release lever or loosening the retaining bolts. The telltale sign that your bearings need attention is when your bike’s wheels feel rough when cycling. Clean use a hex key to twist the covers off. 92 / WHEELS . A press-fit hub is simply held closed by the forks. and you should do this regularly to prevent wear and prolong their life. or make a rumbling or grinding noise. and should pop open when removed. The bearings can be maintained. Relax the brake calipers and ease the wheel from the frame. Maintaining a hub cartridge involves cleaning and regreasing the bearings. rather than unscrew them. If it is stuck.

cover Dust seal 4 Use a thin-bladed tool. rotating them as you do so. Replace 7 Replace the bearing cover. such as a screwdriver. SERVICING A WHEEL BEARING—PRESS-FIT CARTRIDGE T YPES / 93 . Grease gun Straw of degreaser can 5 Flush the bearings with degreaser. Clean away any old 6 Once the cartridge is dry. Wheel hub Cartridge bearing Cartridge Bearings will be easily Bearing bearing visible once duct seal is removed. ◾◾ Flat-head screwdriver ◾◾ Degreaser and cloth as any noise from the wheel hub will be amplified ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Grease gun through the bike frame. Workshop tip: If you are unsure whether the TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT bearings in your wheel hubs need maintaining. Take care not to damage the edge of the seal. and repeat steps 2–6 on the other side of the hub. the protective dust seal. Reattach the grease and dirt with a cloth. spin ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Thin-bladed tool each wheel while resting your ear on the saddle. lightly coat the bearings with fresh grease. wheel. PARTS FOCUS A typical press-fit hub with cartridge bearings has a cassette at each end. checking that it spins freely. to pry off the seal to expose the bearings. as Bearing cover Dust seal this could make it less effective when reattached. Dust seal held in place by compression.

Lay the wheel on a flat surface. Seal protects Remove bearings bearing seal Remove axle to access bearings 3 With the lockring removed. draw the axle through the hub and 5 Check if the bearing seal can be pried out to access the bearings. noting the order in which they were removed. out with a flat-head screwdriver. Lockring Cone nut Unscrew Open quick- quick-release release lever nut 1 Remove the front wheel from the bike by either opening the quick-release mechanism (see pp. are signs that the bearings are worn ◾ Refer to your owner’s manual to check which type down. Remove the lockring. unscrew the lockring with a second. and play BEFORE YOU START in the axle. fully unscrew the cone nut to expose the bearing seal that 4 Leaving the cone on the other end of the axle in place. carefully ease it protects the bearings inside. 94 / WHEELS . with a wrench. If so. all of which ◾ Release the front brake calipers (see pp.78–79) or by loosening the retaining nuts 2 Holding the cone nut in place with one cone wrench. SERVICING A WHEEL BEARING Cup and cone types A rumbling or slow spinning wheel. remove it completely.112–117) are installed in similar ways. and any washers and spacers. Replacing your hub bearings once a year of hub your bike has ◾ Select the correct size of cone wrench for the hub will ensure a longer life for your hub and wheel. ◾ Source the right size of replacement bearings There are many brands of bearings.

wheel from turning freely and can crush the bearings. Check for wear and damage. tightening the lockring against the cone nut. Replace the 9 Using two wrenches. then replace the bearings using tweezers—using the same number as you removed. regardless of brand. Lockring Cone Thread the wrench bearing into the hub Greased axle Cone nut Bearings Bearing seal 8 Rethread the axle through the hub and reinstall any spacers or washers in the correct order—take care not to dislodge any of the bearings. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ◾◾ Cone wrenches ◾◾ Magnet ◾◾ Grease ◾◾ Flat-head ◾◾ Degreaser ◾◾ Tweezers screwdriver ◾◾ Cleaning cloth PARTS FOCUS Wheel hub Bearings Seal Quick-release nut Wheel bearings consist of similar components. Turn the wheel over and for the bearings on the other side of the hub axle. repeat the process on the other end of the axle. tightening it with your fingers. Count how many there are and place them in a container. SERVICING A WHEEL BEARING—CUP AND CONE T YPES / 95 . Do not tighten the cone nut itself again—this will prevent the cone nut. Hub axle Volute spring Lockring Cone nut Volute spring Quick- release Lockring Seal lever Cone nut Bearings Bearings Grease Clean inside hub with a cloth and degreaser. lift out the bearings using a magnet. 6 If the bearing seal cannot be removed. reverse the process in step 2. Repeat this 7 Grease one of the bearing surfaces.



bikes. the slow the bike. from racing ◾ The cable pulls up on the arm The most popular cable-operated to triathlon and training. dry conditions. in a hose connected to the brake lever. CHOOSER GUIDE Brakes All brake systems work in generally the same the rim of the wheel (dual-pivot. V. traditional single-pivot designs. above the tire. CANTILEVER/CENTER-PULL ◾ Cyclo-cross racing bikes. where ◾ Cantilever and center-pull Cantilever systems are derived they remain popular despite brakes operate on the same from a brake design that has been the increasing availability and principle of a transverse in use for nearly 100 years. handlebar. The pressure is applied either at various brake systems have different strengths TYPE SUITABILITY OPERATION DUAL-PIVOT ◾ Road cycling. Specialized versions considerable leverage and ◾ When the brake is applied. including ◾ The two long. ◾ At the wheel hub. ◾ Off-road riding. Dual-pivot ◾ Use in warm. due to their simplicity and low the use of large tires. pads into contact with the rim in use for over 45 years. the are also used on road and time trial stopping power. caliper arms are mounted on bikes. exert more pressure than disc brakes. as they allow for on a pair of caliper arms. systems are reliable and lightweight. V-BRAKE ◾ A wide range of uses. and good feel. High-quality carrying loads. of the wheel. hydraulic pressure from fluid brakes use simpler cable operation. They effectiveness of disc brakes. as the long arms while the inner cable. DISC ◾ Both off-road and road bikes. pistons on Universally adopted for mountain especially in wet or muddy one or both sides of the wheel biking. cantilever.or linear-pull brakes give the long caliper arms produce and act on the rim. cable housing pushes one arm bikes. disc brakes are increasingly conditions or for use in push the brake pads onto a disc. ◾ Limited tire clearance rules ◾ Modern dual-pivot brakes in particular. as the metal bosses on the fork. brake pads push against center-pull. part of the wheel surface to create friction and Although their basic function is the same. (mechanical systems) or by operated brakes. V-brake) or at the hub (disc brake). and tandems. "straddle" wire pulling upward are popular with cyclo-cross riders ◾ Touring bikes. and because they allow running to brake levers on the large tire clearances. utility on shopper and utility bikes. tandems. pulls the other. while budget disc ◾ Use in winter or poor weather. way: when activated. lots of power. dual-pivot brakes have been ◾ Lightweight road bikes. popular on road bikes. of the caliper to bring the brake brake. running allow installation of fat tires. spring-loaded Often installed on hybrids. ◾ Both types operate via cables weight. 98 / BR AKES . they are lighter than out use on off-road bikes. and older mountain mountain bikes. ◾ Activation is either by cable systems often have hydraulically ◾ Cyclo-cross or gravel riding.

Also consider bike down more than a dual-pivot. ◾ Center-pull brakes are attached cantilevers via a grub screw on using a center bolt on the fork the arm itself. but will weight your when riding at a very high speed.and weaknesses. on a dished washer. handlebar. ◾ Discs or rotors that attach ◾ Discs are located in the center ◾ Hydraulic disc brakes do not normally to the wheel hubs. rotor as they wear down. and high on the seat on the spring. is attached to the boss. they lie behind the arm completely. ◾ “Aero” types lie flush with the ◾ The quick-release lever on top ◾ A quick-release lever for the fork blades at the front. Similarly. which are activated stays at the rear. ◾ Fine-tuning is offered on some central mount above the wheel. crown and seat stay bridge. to the fork crown and the rear to a with the barrel adjuster. ◾ Cables connect to brake the brake is secured with a ◾ The angle of the pads can be adjusted levers attached to the flush-fit hex bolt. of one side of the wheel. brakes. front. but there is a may require maintenance more regularly. that some systems. where the lever arm ◾ Cables. brake pads. and a “yoke” or link wire. V-brakes can be very powerful. bottom bracket. ◾ Dual-pivot brakes can be centered release lever. attached threaded bosses on the top pull brakes) at the stirrup linking the ◾ Center-pull brakes that have of the front fork blades and high up brake cable to the straddle wire. the pistons in the ◾ Calipers. brake bridge in the rear stays. which operate ◾ The calipers are fixed to the caliper will automatically keep the the discs. ◾ Cantilever brakes that have ◾ Cantilever brakes can only be ◾ The brakes are adjusted either at the arms fixed to bosses on the fitted to bikes with permanently bolts holding the arms or (on center- fork. crossed arms connecting to a on the rear stays. need adjusting. chainstays on the rear wheel. CHOOSER GUIDE—BR AKES / 99 . and a quick. by flat bar levers. like hydraulic disc brakes. On rear of the cable disengages one lever “noodle” over the arms. lower end of one fork blade on pads close to the disc. KEY COMPONENTS POSITION ADJUSTMENTS ◾ Dual-pivots consist of ◾ The front brake is normally attached ◾ Brake pads can be moved in or out calipers. ◾ Caliper arms that are fixed to ◾ V-brakes are normally located ◾ The lever arms can be moved in and the upper forks at the front at the top of the forks in out using a small adjustment screw and to the rear stays at the back. and to the ◾ Mechanical disc brake pads may that run back to the rear triangle of the seat and need to be moved closer to the brake levers. A disc brake provides almost risk you might flip the bike if used too suddenly immediate stopping power. ◾ A threaded stud in the back of using a recessed screw in the caliper. barrel adjusters. ◾ Cables or hydraulic hoses the front wheel.

There are different types of mechanisms to suit road and off-road bikes. while a powerful spring returns the brake arms to the open position Braking when you release the brake lever. 100 / BR AKES . PARTS FOCUS Rim brakes may be twin-armed calipers that rotate around a dual or single pivot. pulling the brake arms into position. specific types are used for carbon or ceramic rims. Cantilever and V-brakes have one bolt for each caliper arm. KEY COMPONENTS Rim brakes Rim brakes engage rubber pads against the sides of the wheel rim to create friction and slow your Barrel adjuster can be turned to bike. or may have brake arms mounted on the fork blades. They are made of rubber-based compounds. When you pull the brake lever. and touring bikes. as they offer greater stopping power and tire clearance. Modern systems feature two pivots. the brake give minor cable adjustments cable comes under tension. 2 Brake calipers are mounted on pivot points that allow the arms to move and provide leverage. Cantilever and V-brake calipers have pairs of independent arms. 3 The brake arms press the brake pads onto the braking surface.and dual-pivot brakes have a single caliper mounting bolt on the frame. You will see them on mountain. 4 Single. Most modern surface on wheel rim road bikes use dual-pivot calipers. which exert higher pressure than single-pivot calipers. 1 The brake pads press onto the rim to slow the wheel. cyclo-cross.

Ferrule secures end of cable Tension spring opens caliper when brake lever is Caliper mounting released bolt can be used Adjustment screw to center calipers can be used to center caliper over wheel Pivot point for caliper Second pivot point for dual-pivot 4 calipers 2 2 Brake cable Brake shoe holds pad in brake arm 3 Brake pad presses against wheel rim Brake clamp bolt Quick. 1 release lever 3 1 Brake pad retaining bolt .

Remove electrical tape Cable clamp Unwind bolt handlebar tape Cable end cap 1 Using cable cutters. cleanly snip the end cap off the existing cable. so the cut end pulls 2 Undo the quick-release lever and unscrew the cable clamp on the brake caliper with 3 Unwrap the bar tape to expose the cable housing. from. Brake cable mount Brake cable Free housing from frame Brake lever mounts Location of cable mount will vary according to brand. working toward the levers. Remove each length of housing. and to brake firmly with no looseness ◾ Make a note of the existing cable routing ◾ Source the correct cables for your bike or shake as you pull the lever. ◾ Refer to your owner’s manual to check the correct torque When correctly installed. the cable tape with a craft knife. and where each end was located. INSTALLING BRAKE CABLES Drop handlebars Brake cables wear down and stretch over BEFORE YOU START time. 4 Squeeze the brake lever to expose the cable mount. Release the cables from the bar by cutting through the cable clamp easily. making a note of where each piece came brake levers forward to access the cable. reducing the power of your brakes. the cables should allow settings of your bike’s cable clamp bolts ◾ Check the existing cable routing for incorrectly you to turn your handlebar all the way in each sized sections direction. Pull the cable free. and pull the end of the cable out using pliers. You may need to fold the rear hood of the 5 Pull the cable completely free from the bike. a hex key. 102 / BR AKES .

according to the type you have. adjust them (see pp. Dab ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Electrical tape some dry lube between your finger and thumb. inside and along the new housing. Workshop tip: Lubricating cable inners during TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT installation protects them from water and rust.62–63). tape over it (see pp. following the original route. and ◾◾ Pliers and craft knife ◾◾ Handlebar tape gently pull the cable through your fingers to coat it. do not cut at an angle. toward the brake. then place handlebar 8 Thread a new cable through the brake cable mount in the lever mechanism. then sufficient slack in the cable to allow the handlebar to turn freely. New cable Cable mount housing Old cable housing Affix cable to bar with electrical tape Use Squeeze old cable lever to housing as reveal cable template mount Ensure that cut ends are straight. INSTALLING BR AKE CABLES—DROP HANDLEBARS / 103 . then feed it a clean cut. using the existing sections as a template. To ensure 7 Attach the new housing to the bar with tape. Cable housing Cable end caps fit into mounting points Barrel adjuster Cable clamp bolt 9 Continue to feed the cable along the bike.112–117). If the cable gets jammed. threading it through the housing. 6 Cut new lengths of cable housing. do not force it. Ensure there is 10 Secure the end of the cable to the brakes. Fit ferrules where required. ◾◾ Cable cutters ◾◾ Cable housing and keeps them running smoothly for longer.

so you ◾ Check that the brake pads are in good condition will need to replace them more often. lever body to release the cable. Align the cable slots in the adjuster and the 3 Squeeze the lever to expose the cable mount. Working from the brake levers. 104 / BR AKES . and keep any clips that you want to reuse. Ease the cable out of the cable slots and Cut the end cap off the cable. 2 Loosen the barrel adjuster on the brake lever. ends of each new piece of housing. End cap Brake cable Brake caliper Nipple Cable slot Cable mount Turn barrel adjuster Ferrule 1 Detach the brake cable from the caliper. 4 Make a note of the original routing before removing the cable. using the old pieces as a template. as the cables ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand ◾ Prepare a space where you can lay out the new cables. according to the type you have (see pp. Push ferrules onto the Remove any cable ties. INSTALLING BRAKE CABLES Straight handlebars It is simpler to fit new brake cables to bikes with BEFORE YOU START a straight handlebar than it is to fit them to bikes ◾ Source new cables that are suitable for your bike with a drop bar (see pp. so are easier to access. pull the cable through the housing. Remove cable ties and clips from frame Remove cable and housing Cable cutters New Open out cut ends cable of new housing with housing pointed tool.112–17). and unclip each section of housing from the frame mounts in turn. free the nipple from the mount. Wear and damage to cables they are tension-free and unwound when you need them are more frequent on mountain bikes. 5 Cut the new cable housing.102–03).

check TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT which type is recommended for your bike. and hook the nipple of the new cable into the cable mount. with no Trim excess cable sharp bends Noodle with cable cutters Tighten cable clamp with hex key Slide housing into cable frame mounts Crimp end cap over cut end of brake cable using pair of pincers. thread the cable through the noodle and rubber cover. Cable mount Turn barrel Housing adjuster to Cable Feed cable through Ferrule Cable nipple slot on lever body secure brake cable. Feed the cable into the cable clamp. reversing step 1. Reattach any clips and cable ties. thread the new cable along the frame. 8 Working toward the brakes. Ensure housing curves smoothly. and threading it through lengths of housing 9 At the brake caliper. Push the ferrule on the cable housing into the barrel adjuster. then the free end of the new cable into the cable housing. see pp. following the original route.112–17. Reversing step 3. feed 7 Feed the cable into the cable slot in the brake lever body and barrel adjuster. INSTALLING BR AKE CABLES—STR AIGHT HANDLEBARS / 105 . and tighten the bolt. Make sure ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Ferrules ◾◾ Pincers the cable has the correct nipple at the end that fits ◾◾ Cable cutters ◾◾ Cable ties ◾◾ Set of into the brake lever—in general. rotate the barrel adjuster to lock the cable in place. and barrel adjuster 6 Squeeze the brake lever. where required. barrel nipples are used ◾◾ Pointed tool ◾◾ End caps hex keys on mountain bikes and pear nipples on road bikes. Workshop tip: Before buying a new brake cable. release the lever to secure the nipple. To adjust the brake.

it may be necessary to change or ◾ Clean the brake calipers and levers thoroughly ◾ Source the correct hoses. and hold it in a bench vise. and brake bleed shorten one of the hoses. (The block is pad retaining part of brake bleed kit. 2 Remove the brake pads (see pp. Brake Rear lever brake caliper Front brake caliper Insert brake bleed block Remove into caliper. in that order. and ferrule compression nuts with a wrench. Insert a brake bleed block between the pistons to stop Use a hose cutter to cut the new hose to length. and put on goggles and gloves start to leak. Brake hoses also kit for your system need to be replaced if they are damaged or ◾ Lay out the fittings supplied with the hose kit (see steps 4–6) ◾ Lay down a plastic sheet. SERVICING HYDRAULIC BRAKES Replacing hoses Hydraulic brake systems usually come correctly BEFORE YOU START installed and ready for use. In some cases.120–21) to prevent them being contaminated with brake fluid. measure the amount of new hose you need by running it along the frame from the brake lever to the caliper. them closing when the system is refilled with fluid. ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand however. Tap a hollow 5 Prepare the lever end of the hose by threading the rubber cover. compression nut. pin into the ends with a hammer. which will cause the brakes to fail. onto the hose. Ensure head of hollow pin is Gently tap flush with hose hollow pin with hammer Compression nut Hollow pin Leave 1 ⁄2 inch Rubber (hose kit) Ferrule (15 mm) of hose cover Rubber Brake protruding cover lever Hose clamp from hose clamp (hose kit) Compression nut 3 Remove the existing hose by sliding back the rubber cover at both ends and unscrewing the 4 Insert each end of the new hose into the hose clamp. 106 / BR AKES . brake fluid.) pin or bolt 1 Following the route of the existing hose.

Brake fluid Compression nut Reattach hose clips where required Bleed syringe (bleed kit) Bleed port Wrench Rubber cover Slide rubber cover back Tighten bleed screw over compression nut once brake fluid has once nut is tight. and wipe up spills. SERVICING HYDR AULIC BR AKES—REPLACING HOSES / 107 . Using a need it to prevent losing any of the fittings. a wrench. protect your frame with ◾◾ Brake hose kit ◾◾ Plastic sheet ◾◾ Set of wrenches plastic sheets. Compression nut Keep hose clean to avoid contaminating Compression Ferrule brake system nut threads Gear satellite Hollow pin Tighten compression nut firmly. 8 Secure the new hose along the frame. wrench. always wear safety gloves ◾◾ Cleaning kit ◾◾ Brake bleed kit ◾◾ Hose cutter ◾◾ Hammer and goggles. When ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Brake fluid ◾◾ Goggles and gloves ◾◾ Bench vise applying it. been injected. as shown in step 7. screw the compression nut into the caliper.108–09). CAUTION! Some brake systems use TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT “DOT” fluid. and then without the hose kinking. Tighten the compression nut using 10 Inject brake fluid into the bleed port of the caliper until the system is full. bleed the brakes (see pp. which is corrosive. Place the hose down carefully on a clean surface until you 7 Insert the new hose into the gear satellite on the caliper and push it in firmly. Ensure the handlebar can turn each way completely 9 Firmly insert the end of the hose into the brake lever. Slide the ferrule and compression nut down the hose. of compression nut 6 Prepare the caliper end of the new hose in the same way as for the lever end (see step 5). squashing Ferrule sits ahead ferrule to form seal.

and keep a cloth handy and they will function less effectively. attach a bleed block (see pp. normally as a ◾ Source the recommended brake fluid and brake bleed kit result of maintaining. Open the screw with a wrench.36–37) ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand and cover the floor a brake hose. add a little fluid to the funnel.120–21) ◾ Put on safety goggles and gloves. Screw the bleed funnel into the port. Add brake fluid. ◾ Remove the wheels (see pp. clockwise to close Hold syringe upright and press plunger to expel any bubbles. Brake caliper 3 Push the bleed hose onto the syringe. then draw brake fluid into the syringe by pulling on the plunger. Push fluid Draw brake fluid up through into syringe brake hose Bleed syringe Bleed hose (bleed kit) (bleed kit) Push bleed hose onto bleed screw Bottle of brake Hose clamp Hose fluid Turn bleed screw counterclockwise to open. 108 / BR AKES . installing. so the reservoir is horizontal. Brake caliper 1 Loosen and rotate the brake lever. Retighten the bleed screw. Turn bleed screw counter- clockwise with hex key Reservoir Funnel (bleed kit) Unscrew mounting bolts with hex key Brake bleed block (bleed kit) Brake lever Screw funnel into port so it is finger tight. to hang freely. then pull out plug inside funnel.78–81) Air in your brakes will make them feel spongy ◾ Remove the brake pads. push the bleed hose onto the bleed screw. Allow the caliper goggles if using “DOT” brake fluid. hold the syringe upright to allow 4 On the brake caliper. Remove the bleed screw from the bleed port on the reservoir. or because of moisture seeping in. Once filled. SERVICING HYDRAULIC BRAKES Bleeding the system Hydraulic brake systems require bleeding to BEFORE YOU START eliminate any air in the system. then inject brake fluid into the caliper. or reinstalling for your bike (see pp. Wearing safety gloves and 2 Remove the brake caliper from the fork by unscrewing the mounting bolts. funnel on the lever. and up to the bleed any bubbles to float toward the end of the hose.

and return the lever to its original position. 6 Press the brake lever to drive fluid through the system to the bag. SERVICING HYDR AULIC BR AKES—BLEEDING THE SYSTEM / 109 . bled all of the air from the system. close the bleed screw. If the action feels firm. then repeat steps 1–8. which is corrosive. Once the fluid in the hose is 7 Carefully squeeze the brake lever a few times. always wear safety gloves ◾◾ Brake bleed kit ◾◾ Goggles and gloves ◾◾ Set of wrenches and goggles. When ◾◾ Brake fluid ◾◾ Plastic sheets ◾◾ Set of hex keys using it. squeeze the lever and secure it to the grip. CAUTION! Some brake systems need TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT “DOT” fluid. Stand the bike upright and leave overnight to encourage any air to rise to caliper. the top of the system. Tap hose and caliper Surplus brake to dislodge fluid collects Secure hose to air bubbles in funnel collecting bag Open bleed screw once Check hose for bag is attached bubbles in fluid Squeeze lever carefully to Fluid collecting avoid spilling bag (bleed kit) brake fluid 5 Leave the hose attached to the bleed screw and replace the syringe with a fluid collecting bag. and wipe up any spills. you have successfully Half-fill the funnel with brake fluid. bubble-free. protect your frame with ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Cloth ◾◾ Adjustable strap or tape plastic sheets. Fill the reservoir to the top with fluid. then reinstall the bleed screw. Dispose of surplus brake fluid carefully Fill up reservoir with brake fluid Bleed port Secure brake lever with strap Brake lever 8 Insert the plug inside the bleed funnel and unscrew it from the port. Reattach the brake 9 If the brakes seem spongy.

tighten the brake pad with a wrench or a hex key. they form a paste that gradually wears down the rubber. and tighten.78–83).”) Replace the bolts. MAINTAINING MECHANICAL BRAKES Replacing brake pads Cold and wet weather can be hard on brake pads. and remove the old pads. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand Align pads ◾ Remove the wheel (see pp. Brake pads worn down to the shoe can cause brake failure and damage to the rim. A scratching sound when you brake indicates that your pads are worn down. if attached.112–117). Holding them in place. then adjust the caliper (see pp. Put the new pads in place. 110 / BR AKES . undo the cable retention bolt 3 Reattach the wheel (see pp.78–83) before ◾ Replace the wheel if the “wear dots” have worn off the rim tightening ◾ Loosen the brake pad bolt with penetrating oil Brake shoe Brake shoe bolt DUAL-PIVOT BRAKES 2 Undo the brake shoe bolts on the caliper arms with a hex key. If the brake caliper does not have a quick-release lever. (They will be marked “left” and “right. bolts. Cable retention bolt Close quick- release lever Quick- release lever Tighten brake pad bolt with hex key 1 Open the quick-release lever on the brake caliper. Raise or lower the pads until they strike the rim at its outermost edge. When grit and water mix.

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT and each brake shoe is marked with an “L” or “R” to ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Set of wrenches help identify it. Reattach brake Replace noodle to caliper arm spacers in same order Adjust new pads Ensure wheel is Unscrew centered end nut with hex key 3 If you are replacing threaded pads. and replace it with the new one. Look for the word “TOP” on the pad or ◾◾ Penetrating oil ◾◾ Set of hex keys shoe so you do not attach it upside down. Remove the brake pad and spacers. V-BRAKES AND CANTILEVER BRAKES Threadless brake pad Caliper arm Cradle Brake noodle Loosen stud bolt with hex key Cantilever arms 1 Squeeze the arms of the V-brake caliper and release the brake noodle from the cradle. Retighten the end nut. loosen the stud bolt on the caliper. ensuring that stud through the caliper arm. brake pad and loosely tighten the stud bolt. Wipe down the pads after riding in wet weather to reduce wear. they do not touch the tire. Cantilever brakes have a straddle wire that unhitches 2 If you are replacing a threadless brake pad. slide out the pad. Tighten the end nut. Align the from the left cantilever arm (see pp. Install the new pad by inserting the 4 Replace the wheel and reattach the brake noodle to the caliper arm.and right-specific. MAINTAINING MECHANICAL BR AKES—REPLACING BR AKE PADS / 111 . loosen the end nut on the stud bolt. Workshop tip: Brake pads are left. Adjust the position of the brake pads so that they are aligned.114–15).

This will release the tension in the brake linkage. to separate the brake linkage. 112 / BR AKES . Like all brake systems. the pads gradually become poorly aligned as Wheel must be they wear down. and are designed to accommodate fatter off-road tires. so that the pads touch the wheel rim. the pads can be realigned correctly in a matter of minutes. and become less powerful. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Check the wear indicator on your brake pads ◾ Source suitable replacement pads if required ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand. Brake cable Housing noodle stop Brake linkage Protective rubber boot Squeeze Cradle brake arms to release Allow brake noodle arms to move apart 2 Squeeze the spring-loaded brake arms together with one hand. ADJUSTING MECHANICAL BRAKES V-brakes V-brakes are common on both mountain and hybrid bikes. so that you can spin the wheel 1 Check your wheel to ensure that it is centered (turning freely and at an equal distance from each fork arm). allowing them to open away allowing it to be disconnected. V-brakes are considered to be one of the easiest of all brake systems to install and to adjust. 3 Unclip the housing stop on the brake cable noodle from the cradle. meaning that your brakes fully centered before feel spongy. from the wheel. Using some simple tools. Due adjusting brakes to their quick-release mechanism and simple design. giving you access to the pads. Release the brake arms. Make sure the quick release is not overtightened on one side.

tensioner screws on both arms. housing stop Squeeze Check brake brake arms pads—do not together rub wheel Spring adjustment screw Screwdriver 6 Reattach the brake linkage and hold the pads close to the rim. wind out the barrel adjuster 2–3 full turns to provide slack in the cable. Adjust them fully as shown. as it can increase cable stretch. retention bolt. any changes you make to the tension on one ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Phillips screwdriver side will also affect the other. ADJUSTING MECHANICAL BR AKES —V-BR AKES / 113 . and hold the cable in place with your fingers. Tighten bolt Barrel adjuster Use barrel adjuster to fine-tune brakes by turning Reattach it inward or outward. Avoid tightening the ◾◾ Set of hex keys springs as a means to balance the pads too often.5 mm from the wheel rim. brake pads are not rubbing. Rotate the wheel several times to ensure 8 Check that brake pads sit evenly. Pull the brake cable taut. to allow the cable to slide freely 5 On the brake lever. At the brake arm. Workshop tip: When adjusting the spring tensioner TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT screws. Adjust the spring and tighten the retaining bolt. take up this slack by pulling up to 5 mm of cable through the within the bolt. 7 Squeeze the brake lever 10–12 times to bed in the cable. Leave cable in arm Hex key Barrel adjuster and lockring Tighten then slack off lockring and adjustment barrel 4 Loosen the cable retention bolt with a hex key. around 1.

Check the spring- tension pins on the back of the arms.and inward. and use your other to reinsert the straddle wire into the quick-release slot on the left-hand brake the pivot bolts. ◾ Source replacement brake pads if the existing ones and move down. ensuring that you return the spring-tension pins on each one to their original hole on the bosses. The arms will hang loose. and release the cable. hex key release Lever arm Centering screw Clean frame bosses to remove dirt and old Pivot grease. Unscrew the clamp bolt on the right 2 Using a hex key. Tighten 4 Squeeze the brake arms together with one hand. undo the pivot bolts and ease the arms off the frame bosses. Frame boss Pivot bolt bolt 1 Squeeze the lever arms inward and disconnect the straddle wire from the quick-release on the left brake arm. Unscrew Straddle cable wire clamp bolt with Cable quick. ensuring the arms move freely. Push it in all the way so it is secure. Slot end of straddle wire into quick-release Squeeze brake arms together 3 Slide the brake arms back onto the frame bosses. cantilever brakes BEFORE YOU START feature outward-facing lever arms to provide ◾ Remove the tire if you need to get a better view adequate space for wide or knobby tires. 114 / BR AKES . then regrease. Note which arm. ADJUSTING MECHANICAL BRAKES Cantilever brakes Developed for mountain bikes. arm. The ◾ Check that the wheel is centered in the forks ◾ Wipe away any dirt or rubber build-up around the pad pads swing in an arc when the lever is pulled. Pad alignment are worn to the rim is critical to braking performance. hole on the bosses the springs are inserted into.

turn the centering screw on each place. Brake cable Cable clamp bolt Ensure brake arms are parallel Insert cable through retaining bolt to its original position. with ◾◾ Cloth ◾◾ Grease all of the nuts or quick-release levers tightened. Once in 6 To ensure both brake arms are at an equal distance from the wheel rim. and the arms centered. 8 Turn the barrel adjuster on the brake lever counterclockwise by up to three turns. brake arm. as a lip will form on the lowest edge. use your free hand to feed the brake cable into the cable clamp bolt on the right-hand brake arm. secure the cable by tightening the bolt. Ensure pads are evenly spaced Barrel adjuster 7 Loosen and adjust the brake pads so they are parallel to the rim. ensure TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the wheels are correctly seated in the dropouts. providing even stopping power. The arms should be parallel to the rim. until the 9 Make final fine adjustments to the position of the brake pads and arms. making alignment impossible. ADJUSTING MECHANICAL BR AKES—CANTILEVER BR AKES / 115 . Ensure the pads are Retighten the bolts all the way. and strike it squarely. Workshop tip: Before adjusting your brakes. aligned. Centering screw 5 Still squeezing the brake arms together. pads sit 2–3 mm from the rim. Check ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Phillips screwdriver the pads are not set too low on the rim.

the caliper has two arms that push the pads into the wheel rim at slightly different angles.78–83). Adjust the wheel. the brake pads wear Quick-release lever tab down and move with use. if included. if required (see pp. Align the base of the right pad bolt. Tighten both pad bolts. or by unscrewing the cable clamp bolt. The center of the tire should also be directly aligned with the caliper mounting 3 Loosen the retaining bolt on each brake pad. with the base of the rim. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Secure your bicycle in a frame stand ◾ Brush off any corrosion from the caliper bolt heads Brake ◾ Wipe any dirt or residue build-up from the brake pads cable ◾ Source new brake pads if yours are worn down 2 Release the brake cable by opening the quick- release lever. Over time. ADJUSTING MECHANICAL BRAKES Dual-pivot brakes On a dual-pivot brake. 116 / BR AKES . and will need to be adjusted so that they remain effective. Caliper mounting bolt at rear of brake caliper Loosen bolt by half a turn Retaining bolt Check wheel is centered between both forks 1 Spin the wheel to check that it is fully centered between the forks. The brake caliper arms will move outward. well clear of the wheel rim. Move the left pad so that the top of it aligns with the top of the rim. You may also need to recenter the caliper and adjust the tension on the brake cable to relieve any slack.

Squeeze This will allow the brake cable to move freely. Retighten the cable clamp bolt on the quick-release lever. ADJUSTING MECHANICAL BR AKES—DUAL-PIVOT BR AKES / 117 . brake pads release against rim lever Pull brake cable taut 4 Open the barrel adjuster with 3–4 clockwise turns with your hand. Turn barrel adjuster Tighten cable clamp bolt on Open caliper quick-release arms all the way lever Cable clamp bolt on Hold both quick. 5 Squeeze the pads against the rim with one hand. To stop this. turn the adjustment screw in the direction required until the calipers are adjust the caliper. ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Set of hex keys “toe-in” each brake pad toward the rim. Turn adjustment screw with hex key Use hex key to turn rear of bolt same way as wrench. to prevent bolt loosening itself. centered and the pads are evenly spaced from the rim. loosen the mounting bolt (see step 1) with a cone wrench. then 7 Some calipers have an adjustment screw used for centering. Loosen the cable clamp bolt on the back of the quick-release lever with a hex key. Workshop tip: Squealing brakes are caused by TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT vibrations between the pads and rim. In these cases. Retighten the mounting bolt. Position brake caliper over Check for center of wheel even spacing 6 Check that the brake caliper is centered. Pull the cable taut with the other. and rotate the washer behind the pad until the pad surface is parallel to the rim. the brake lever several times to bed in the cable. Loosen the ◾◾ Brush and cloth ◾◾ Cone wrench brake-pad-retaining bolt. Insert a hex key behind the bolt. To adjust it.

PARTS FOCUS Disc brakes are mounted on the wheel hubs. the master cylinder pushes the fluid to pistons at the caliper. In a hydraulic system. On a cable-operated system. KEY COMPONENTS Hydraulic disc brakes In a disc brake system. 4 The caliper body contains the pistons and brake pads. 118 / BR AKES . which press the brake pads against the disc rotor. When you pull brake caliper the lever. between the caliper arms. 1 Each piston in the brake caliper is forced by hydraulic fluid or mechanical tension onto the brake pads as the brake lever is pressed. The brake lever houses a Front fork supports “master cylinder” at the handlebar. 2 The brake pads in the caliper are held clear of the disc rotor by a spring when not in use. until the brake lever is pressed. Disc brakes are activated by removed without using tools cable or hydraulically. mineral oil or DOT fluid contained in sealed hoses provides the pressure. 3 The disc rotor is fixed to the wheel hub. the brake lever pulls the brake cable. a pair of brake pads mounted on a caliper act on a metal disc rotor Quick-release lever allows wheel to be at the wheel hub. It turns with the wheel. In a hydraulic system it is sealed to maintain the fluid pressure. Both hydraulic and mechanical systems use pads fixed to calipers fixed to the frame. which acts on the pistons at the caliper to close the pads. The disc rotor mounts to a hub within the wheel. They are pressed against the rotor by pistons.

Bleed valve Hydraulic hose used to carries brake bleed fluid to caliper system Compression nut joins hose to caliper Brake fluid channel 4 1 2 Return spring holds brake pads clear of rotor when brake lever released Retaining pin secures brake pads in caliper Piston chamber contains piston Caliper mounting bolt holds caliper to fork 3 Brake boss mounts caliper on fork tube upward KEY COMPONENTS—HYDR AULIC DISC BR AKES / 119 .

Directional arrow Disc hub Push pads apart gently to prevent damaging Front fork piston and caliper. then align the disc rotor with the hub. hex key A harsh grinding noise when braking indicates that they need urgent replacement to avoid 1 2 damaging the disc rotor. Work in a star formation (from 1–6) to avoid distorting the disc. when they pick up bolts with 5 more grit from wet roads and muddy trails. fastening each in place loosely. sufficient space for the new. 1 Locate the directional arrow etched on the surface of the new disc rotor. 120 / BR AKES . 4 BEFORE YOU START 6 ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand ◾ Remove the wheel (see pp. Then remove the old pads to allow to the manufacturer’s instructions. ease the pads apart and reset the pistons. or pad spreader. installing it according 3 Using a large flat-head screwdriver.78–83) ◾ Remove old disc rotor 3 ◾ Put on clean gloves before handling the new brake surface ◾ Wipe away any dust or dirt from the new disc rotor Disc rotor 2 Screw in the rotor mounting bolts. SERVICING MECHANICAL BRAKES Disc brakes Disc brake pads wear down over time. thicker pads. tire lever.5 mm of material remaining. before tightening them all the way to the recommended torque settings. especially Screw in during the winter months. Pads should be replaced when there is 1.

Rotor free to rotate Brake pad Caliper Loosen bolts Tighten bolts bolt 7 Reattach the wheel and check that the rotor is centered between the pads. Squeeze the brake lever several times to bed spins freely without rubbing. in the new pads. Attach the replacement and spring from the caliper. or pad spreader brake cleaner ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Needle-nose pliers and cloth Spray empty Brake pads gap and clean cavity with rag Pads retained Return by a split spring pin or bolt Assemble new pads on either side of return spring. SERVICING MECHANICAL BR AKES—DISC BR AKES / 121 . or brake dust with a cloth. Disc rotor Rotor misaligned Rotor sitting and rubbing parallel to against calipers. pad retaining pin or bolt. Remove any dirt. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Flat-head screwdriver. loosen the caliper bolts and adjust the position of the caliper so 9 Retighten the bolts once the caliper is aligned. that the rotor can spin freely. and that it 8 If the wheel does rub. calipers. 6 Assemble the pads and spring (inset). then insert them into the caliper. Return spring Brake Carefully extract pads brake pads to avoid damaging caliper. grease. 4 Remove the pad retainer— either a bolt or split pin (as above)—and ease the brake pads 5 Clean inside the brake caliper by spraying it with degreaser or brake cleaner. ◾◾ Degreaser or ◾◾ Cloth and gloves tire lever.

roller brakes deliver the same braking power in dry.124–25). Fork must be strong enough to withstand 2 The brake liner is the surface within the braking forces roller that the brake pads come into contact with. where their extra BRAKE ACTION weight is offset by extreme longevity. so retro-fitting is possible only on some bikes. 1 The brake pads are made from a durable metal composite and wear down very slowly. KEY COMPONENTS Roller brakes Commonly used on utility bikes. Pulling the pushing the internal pads against the brake liner until the lever is released. roller brakes The brake cable pulls the brake hub arm. or muddy conditions. 4 The barrel adjuster allows you to make minor adjustments to the brake cable. which pushes the internal brake pads against the brake liner on the inside of the hub. Shell houses the 3 The hub brake arm is pulled by the cable and roller unit activates the brake pads. and the parts wear down slowly. Once worn. such as the Sturmey Archer XL-FD (shown here). Since the braking assembly is sealed inside the hub. 122 / BR AKES . they can’t be replaced—a new roller unit is required. However. Flange oversized for PARTS FOCUS extra rigidity Roller brakes require a specialized hub and a Spokes lace rim onto flange fork or frame that can accept the torque arm. slowing the wheel.124–25). which will stretch over time (see pp. are simple in construction but cannot be easily maintained at home. wet. Most roller brakes. It wears down slowly and can’t be replaced. icy. cable tension can be adjusted (see pp. brake lever activates a brake arm on the outside Brake pads Brake hub lever of the hub. are housed inside a specialized hub. Press the arm inward when adjusting the cable.

Torque arm mount Torque arm braces brake against fork Brake liner provides Cable housing braking surface protects inner for pads cable Lockring for setting cable tension position Barrel adjuster for altering bite point 2 of brake Brake shoe holds brake pad 4 Return spring brings pads away from liner when cable released 1 Serrated lock washer to secure wheel in dropout Bearing assembly allows wheel to rotate smoothly Axle nut tightened to hold wheel in dropout Brake lever cam pushes against pads Brake lever nut holds lever and cam assembly together Brake cable pulls hub brake arm 3 Cable nipple slots into the end of hub brake arm .

Turn the adjuster to secure the cable. adjustments later. adjuster. Push the barrel nipple of the cable into the mount. and are largely maintenance. and rotate the cable 2 Align the slots in the brake lever and the barrel adjuster. Seat the ferrule of the cable housing into the barrel counterclockwise so that the nipple locks into it.) 124 / BR AKES . following the original routing. Slot barrel nipple into mount Rotate adjuster to hold Cable mount cable secure once it Rotate has slotted into place. rotate the barrel adjuster so that there is around 5 mm of thread showing below the lockring. (This will allow for fine sufficient slack so the handlebar turns all the way. this is a fairly straightforward task. Check you can turn handlebar all the way Barrel adjuster 5 mm 3 Route the cable along the frame from the brake lever to the hub. Secure the cable to the frame. pull the brake lever to expose the cable mount. If the internal brake pads are worn down. however. If the brake shown below. INSTALLING AND ADJUSTING BRAKE CABLES Roller brake cables Roller brakes are installed mainly on commuter BEFORE YOU START and utility bikes. in reverse cables need to be adjusted or replaced. and thread the cable through the slots. ensuring that you leave 4 At the roller end of the cable. you must replace the entire unit. ◾ Make a note of the existing cable routing ◾ Remove the old cable by following steps 1–5. cable Ferrule 1 To install a new cable. ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand free.

then tighten the barrel adjuster to take up the slack in the cable. Workshop tip: Some roller brakes need a brake cable TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT with a factory-installed nipple on each end: a barrel ◾◾ Frame stand nipple for the brake lever and a pear nipple for the ◾◾ Cable cutters (see hub brake arm. To remove this type of cable. when the wheel is turned. stopping the wheel. Once you are happy with the bite point of the brake. Roller Front fork brake Cable mount on front fork Screw barrel adjuster Adjuster tighter mechanism Hub brake Push hub arm brake arm toward fork 5 Secure the adjuster mechanism onto the hooked cable mount on the fork (for a front brake) or the chainstay (for a rear brake). Pull the brake lever to 8 Pull the brake lever 10–12 times to remove any slack. tighten the lockring against the stop ensure the brake engages. you will Workshop tip) have to cut off one of the nipples. Lockring Barrel adjuster Stop on adjuster mechanism 7 Release the hub brake arm. Attach the cable nipple into the end. and slacken the barrel adjuster off until the brake disengages when you turn the wheel by hand. on the adjuster mechanism to set the cable tension. Tighten it until the brake engages toward the fork. INSTALLING AND ADJUSTING BR AKE CABLES—ROLLER BR AKE CABLES / 125 . Push the hub brake arm 6 Push the hub brake arm toward the fork again.



folding bikes. wheel. they are less vulnerable to the general wear and tear of riding. the gears are changed with e-gears are becoming available to levers. FIXED GEARS ◾ Track cycling. connected by a wire to a battery trekking. Changing gears on a possible. the cable In a derailleur system. individual cells on wireless types. ◾ On a rear derailleur. rear derailleur) or chainrings ◾ Front derailleurs have a cage to (on a front derailleur). basic city bikes. the gears hybrid bikes. gear on one side and a freewheel on the other. There are multiple most popular and still the device of choice on drivetrain systems that make changing gear road bikes and utility bikes. Two jockey pulleys the chain between cogs (on a maintain tension in the chain. The fragile-looking but surprisingly derailleur has undergone significant evolution TYPE SUITABILITY OPERATION HUB GEARS ◾ Low-maintenance utility bikes. ◾ The cog is fixed to the rear Fixed wheel is the original and training rides to hone hub. single gear-shift lever on the are enclosed within the rear and city bikes (such as those handlebar that moves cables wheel hub. the pedals will keep “flip-flop” hub. CHOOSER GUIDE Drivetrain systems Gears make slow cycling uphill and fast downhill effective and generally reliable derailleur is easier if you push harder. as use is limited by the ◾ Battery power is supplied either pack and a small electric motor need to charge the batteries. E-GEARS ◾ Racing and competitive road ◾ Buttons and paddle-operated In an e-gear (electronic gear) events such as triathlons (though switches secured to the brake system. 128 / DRIVETR AIN . mechanism to move the chain cable to the derailleur. around the central “sun gear. There is no pedaling skills. guide the chain as it is moved. a lever on from racing to touring and from the brake lever pulls the the handlebar is connected by a utility bikes. operate small motors in levers. ◾ Hub gears are operated with a In a hub gear system. with a fixed turning even if you stop pedaling. As the gears are used in bike-sharing schemes).” shielded from the road. DERAILLEURS ◾ All types of road riding. Some types have a freewheel. or secured remotely on the switches rather than mechanical a wide range of cyclists). A switch on the handlebar is ◾ Not advisable for touring or the front and rear derailleurs. bar. which moves to a cog. by a single cell for wired units or that drives the derailleur. and turns with the single-gear system.

the range of movement. CHOOSER GUIDE—DRIVETR AIN SYSTEMS / 129 . double or triple cranksets. mechanic. more frequent charging. cells in ◾ A charger is required wireless systems require for the batteries. only a limited number. run with a single front cable tension. through the frame to e-gears are now also supplied ◾ Batteries need charging the mechanism. but after each change. Fixed-gear or single-speed being overtaken by buttons operating electronic bikes are simple to ride and need little gear mechanisms. all within a larger chainwheel. requiring minimal. ◾ E-gears still use ◾ E-gears work with both 10– ◾ After installing by a trained conventional front and and 11–speed drivetrains. both derailleurs rear mechanisms. freewheel.” ◾ Rear derailleurs are made up ◾ The latest rear derailleurs for ◾ Turn the rear derailleur of a body. tension. “ring gear. track and road differ in their forth in the dropout ends to ◾ Some hubs also have a gearing. ◾ Turn the front derailleur ◾ Front derailleurs have a ◾ Front derailleurs are used with screws to fix the position and body. screws to limit the road bikes work with a wide screws to fix the range of range of movement. with track bikes maintain tension in the chain.with combined brake and gear-shift levers now any. KEY COMPONENTS VARIATIONS ADJUSTMENTS ◾ The set of small gears ◾ Hub gears can have 3–14 ◾ Turn the barrel adjuster that turns around a “sun gears and are normally at the hub to alter the gear” fixed to the axle. ◾ The top-end brands are made automatically self-adjust ◾ Wires are routed for professional riding. ◾ The cog that sits on the ◾ Fixed-wheel systems for ◾ Slide the rear wheel back and rear hub. for mid-priced road bikes. every quarter. older types movement and the position adjuster to fine-tune cable with indexing may work with under the largest cog. and a gear hanger. maintenance. Hub gears provide a reliable maintenance but offer no assistance on steep alternative to derailleurs. geared more highly. if climbs or extra speed on downhill straights. with no extra parts. a barrel range of cogs.

There are two brake calipers main types: trigger and grip shifters. KEY COMPONENTS Manual shifters Gear-shift levers allow you to change gear when Cable anchor pin secures pedaling. causing the derailleur to move and pull the chain into a new position. known as an STI lever. Trigger shifters. Road bike shifters are integrated within a unit inside the hood of the brake Brake cable is lever. allowing it to wheel. Pivot enables gear lever to move PARTS FOCUS Gear-shift levers are “indexed” by a ratchet mechanism. can be set to different Brake lever pivot pin positions. pulling pull on the tensioned gear cable. holding it in place and protecting it from wear and damage. unlike grip ones. 2 The cable anchors secure the end of the gear cable within the shifter mechanism. 3 Pivot pins inside the lever body provide Shifter lever rotates ratchet leverage for the shifter lever. and the left-hand shifter moves the front derailleur. Brake lever is pulled to activate brakes 130 / DRIVETR AIN . The right-hand shifter controls the rear brake cable derailleur. Mountain bike and hybrid shifters clamp pulled by brake lever. The cable must be seated all the way in the anchor to provide tension. 1 The ratchet wheel pulls the gear cable in set increments. Shimano 3 also makes an integrated brake and gear-shift lever. allowing riders to tailor the handlebar allows brake lever to pull on brake cable set-up to fit their individual preferences. which is activated by pressing the trigger or twisting the grip. closing separately around the handlebar. gear cable 4 The lever body and hood contain the internal mechanism of the shifter.

the gear Ratchet wheel rotates cable is pulled or relaxed. Clamp secures lever Adjuster barrel Rear derailleur body to handlebar used to alter moves chain cable tension across cassette Cable spool holds gear cable within shifter ratchet mechanism Holding pawl prevents ratchet wheel turning between gear changes Transport panel allows ratchet wheel to turn when shifting gears Handlebar tape conceals gear and brake cables .Double articulation Lever hood can Electrical tape on this shifter enables be folded back to secures cables brake lever and shifter access gear and to handlebar lever to work brake cables independently 4 1 2 Wheel return spring pulls shifter lever back into position after shifting Gear cable nipple fully seated in anchor point SHIFTING GEARS of cable spool When the shifter is pressed. causing the in both directions to front or rear derailleurs to shift the shift up and down gears chain to the next cog or chainring.

as it is less exposed to the elements. This will ensure that the gear cable engages 2 Using a hex key. Smallest sprocket Inner Snip off gear cable cable end cap cleanly Cable exit point Locate cable exit Cable point underneath clamp lever hood. ◾ Unfold the new cables and cable housing ◾ Locate the gear-shift lever housing the cable you want causing friction that impedes gear-shifting. then pull the inner cable from 4 Working from the rear to the front of the bike.) 132 / DRIVETR AIN . (Housing concealed by handlebar tape can usually the shifter mechanism at the lever. Frame-mounted gear cables ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand can develop rust within the cable housing. bolt 1 To reduce tension in the chain. set it to the highest gear on the cassette using the gear-shift lever. loosen the cable clamp bolt on the rear derailleur (mech). be reused. INSTALLING GEAR CABLES External gear cables Over time cables will stretch through use and BEFORE YOU START affect the tension. to change The solution is to fit new cables and housing. remove all of the cable housing from the frame. and allow it to travel back through the housing. Cable can be pulled out with shifter in highest gear Housing concealed by Cable bar tape nipple 3 Peel back the lever hood and squeeze the brake lever. Doing this will release the inner cable with the shifter mechanism correctly when installed. Give the cable housing a push where it exits the handlebar. and cut off the inner cable end cap.

Oil the new inner cable. ◾◾ Cable housing cutters Cable Ensure cable mounting cutters point are sharp Ferrule Fit ferrule to end of cable Ferrule Cable Drip some oil inside Cable slides housing before in with threading cable. fitting ferrules to the end of each length and into the frame mounts. lever to pull the cable into place. trim the replacements to length and fit ferrules on the 6 Thread the cable all the way into the shifter and housing. Fit the remaining 9 Feed the cable through the cable clamp. Fully test all of the gears. the first external frame mount. then out toward ends. so check first. securing it into the rear frame mounts. The cables are not compatible across ◾◾ Inner cable ◾◾ Sharp cable ◾◾ Oil systems. Squeeze the gear-shift cable housing. pull it taut. Workshop tip: Shimano gear cables have TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT a slightly bigger nipple than Campagnolo ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Ferrules ones. Ferrule Cable frame mount 8 Thread the cable through each piece of housing. then tighten the bolt. INSTALLING GEAR CABLES—EXTERNAL GEAR CABLES / 133 . locking the cable nipple into the 7 Ease the cable along the cable housing mounted on the handlebar. Pass the cable along the bike and through the bottom bracket guide. shifter. shifter in top gear 5 Using the existing housing as a guide.

but it also applies for the front one. INSTALLING GEAR CABLES Internal gear cables If your bike becomes sluggish shifting gears. The method shown here is wish to change for installing new cabling for the rear derailleur (mech). or BEFORE YOU START the gear levers slow to return to position. Once it is free. Plastic tube Tape Secure ends of tube where they enter and exit frame. Carefully slide it along the length of the cable. Detach the housing from the frame mounts. your ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand gear cables are corroded. and cut the existing gear cable cleanly ahead of the cable clamp. Pull the old cable through the frame from the front. the cable from the gear-shift lever (see pp. thin tube over the free end of the existing cable. loosen the cable clamp bolt and free the cable. slide the rearmost piece of cable housing off the free end. 4 Secure the ends of the tube at both ends of the frame with tape. aside the ferrules if you plan to reuse them. thread a long. cable in place bolt on frame 1 Set the gears to the smallest sprockets on the chainring and the cassette. 134 / TR ANSMISSION . Smallest sprocket on cassette Slide housing off end of cable Barrel adjuster Cut gear cable using Cable sharp cable cutters Leave inner clamp to give clean finish. and set key. and you will need ◾ Unfold the new cables to remove any tension ◾ Pull back the gear-shift lever hood for the cable you to install new ones. 3 To guide the new cable through the frame.132–33). Using a hex 2 Leaving the existing cable in place. disconnect through the entry and exit ports of the frame.

into shifter 5 Using the existing housing as a guide. Thread the cable into to ensure the cut ends are clear. see pp. Use sharp cable cutters 6 Holding the cable in one hand and the shifter in the other. in the frame mount and derailleur. Trim the cable end. To index the gears. until the whole cable is through. pull the guide tube free by sliding it off 9 Attach ferrules to both ends of a piece of housing. If you still lose the ◾◾ Sharp cable cutters ◾◾ Tape ◾◾ Oil end of a cable within the frame. Secure the housing 10 Feed the cable through the cable clamp.148–49. New housing Barrel adjuster Cable Trim and clamp attach end cap New cable 8 Once the new cable is routed through the frame. Workshop tip: The thin tube should be long TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT enough to reach from the entry point to the ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Thin plastic tubing ◾◾ Pointed tool exit point of the frame. New housing Clean cut will help inner cable slide through Old housing Ferrule Housing Oil cable Attach ferrules to ends of Ease cable into guide before housing (to secure housing into tube at frame entry inserting it frame mounts and components. INSTALLING GEAR CABLES—INTERNAL GEAR CABLES / 135 . and tighten the bolt. pull it taut. cut new pieces to length. you can use ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Ferrules ◾◾ Magnet a magnet to guide the cable to the exit point. the end of the cable at the rear. the tube on the frame (see step 4). and pass the cable through. push it through. feed the cable into the shifter 7 Feed the cable through the concealed housing on the handlebar.) point.

Outer arm of derailleur 1 A motor inside the derailleur precisely shifts the derailleur arm. electronic shifting is quick 1 and precise—reducing chain wear—and the lack of cable stretch means that the derailleurs should never need adjusting. and utility bikes. derailleur to hanger Electronic derailleurs work just like mechanical B-tension plate maintains ones. Once set up (see pp. It also retains tension in the chain. Unlike manual systems. Dust cap protects wheel bearing 4 Pivots on the derailleur allow the arm to move vertically—keeping the chain under tension—and laterally—across the cassette to change gear. KEY COMPONENTS Electronic shifting Battery cable A recent innovation once reserved for professional powers internal motor cyclists. according to the gear through derailleur cage selected. 2 PARTS FOCUS Motor housing protects internal An electronic rear derailleur is the same as motor a mechanical derailleur. SRAM’s system is wireless.138–39). 136 / DRIVETR AIN . SRAM units also include a detachable battery. but are moved by an electric motor on the angle of derailleur derailleur rather than a metal cable. every Drive arm shift moves the derailleur exactly the same distance. 3 The jockey pulleys perform two essential tasks: the top wheel guides the chain when shifting gear and the lower wheel keeps the chain tensioned. inward or outward. powered by Return spring motor pulls derailleur arm inward 2 The derailleur arm moves the chain across the Chain passes cassette. electronic gear-shifting is increasingly Hex bolt secures found on many road. and is activated when the shifter is pressed. other than the motor. While Shimano and Campagnolo use electric cables to connect the shifters and derailleurs. mountain. The motor is powered by a rechargeable battery.

and displays battery level. Cable routed internally through frame Upper jockey pulley Spring housing contains cage tensioning spring ELECTRONIC ADVANTAGES Gear-shift levers on electronic systems feature the same ergonomic shaping as mechanical units. Control box allows derailleur Shifter cable controls 4 adjustment derailleur Outer plate of derailleur arm cage Cage pin guides Cable chain over lower routing 3 jockey pulley to battery Bearing allows jockey pulley to rotate freely Pulley pivot allows arm to move vertically Shift buttons used to change gears Lower jockey pulley KEY COMPONENTS—ELECTRONIC SHIFTING / 137 . For all systems available. with electronic buttons in place of cable- activating levers. a control box allows gear adjustment and battery charging.

which can be found ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand on the stem or beneath the saddle. depending ◾ Check for wear on the cassette and chain on your bike. Selected gear on cassette Chain on middle cog of cassette Jockey pulley Check position of jockey pulleys Move rear derailleur in. Button Control BEFORE YOU START box 2 ◾ Ensure that the battery is fully charged Locate the control box. you may need to fine-tune the system. offers precise reliability—a motor shifts the chain at the same speed and distance every Stem time. 1 Use the buttons on the gear-shift lever to move the chain to one of the middle cogs on the rear cassette. The chain can 3 Use the shift buttons to adjust the position of the rear derailleur (mech) relative to the cassette.and outward with shift buttons. Electronic wiring means there is no cable stretch to worry about either. align with the teeth of the cog of the selected gear. ADJUSTING ELECTRONIC SHIFTERS Shimano Di2 systems An electronic drivetrain. 138 / DRIVETR AIN . The teeth of the jockey pulleys should vertically be set on any position on the chainring. such as the Shimano Di2 system. If the shifting has become sluggish or you have installed a new cassette. Press and hold the button until the “adjustment mode” light comes on. such as fourth or fifth gear.

Check chain shifts gear quietly “L” limit screw Hold button until light “L” limit prevents goes off derailleur overshooting largest cog 4 Switch the control box back to “normal mode. to test for quick. Readjust the derailleur. the system ◾◾ Frame stand will need to be reset. Press and hold the button on ◾◾ Set of hex keys the control box until the red light flashes. in line. and pedal through the gears—the derailleur will shift and reset. Make further adjustments. If the chain rattles. Workshop tip: The Di2 derailleur has a built-in TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT protection feature. Shift through the gears from highest to lowest. You can use the shifter 5 Turn the pedals and shift up and down the gears. then back. “H” limit prevents derailleur overshooting smallest cog Turn “H” limit screw with hex key 7 Shift to the highest gear on the cassette. smooth shifting. of the smallest cog. ADJUSTING ELECTRONIC SHIFTERS—SHIMANO DI2 SYSTEMS / 139 . pulleys align with those of the cog. if required. the derailleur is not 6 Shift to the lowest gear on the cassette. If the bike falls over.” The light will turn off. The derailleur will move inward. Turn the “H” (high) limit screw on the derailleur to align the teeth of the jockey pulleys vertically with those 8 Pedal the bike to ensure that everything is working correctly. Turn the “L” (low) limit screw so the teeth of the jockey buttons to change gear again.

When a new When the gear-shift lever is pressed. the gear cable comes under gear cable is pulled or relaxed. Both types are common. this causes the chain between controlled by chainrings gear cable to run at an angle and fall onto the teeth of a smaller chainring or engage with the pick-up ramps of a larger chainring. a cage to shift the chain. The inner plate pushes the chain outward. Derailleur parts may be made of aluminum alloy. the outer plate pushes it inward. . and a mount to secure the mechanism to the frame. Wheel rim PARTS FOCUS A front derailleur has a sprung arm moving Chain guided by front derailleur on pivots.142–43). They may require adjusting (see pp. The front derailleur is attached to the frame either via a clamp around the seat tube or directly (“braze on”). 3 The derailleur mount may consist of a clamp. tension and pulls on the arm of the derailleur guiding the chain across the chainrings. plastic. KEY COMPONENTS Front derailleurs The front derailleur moves the top of the chain SHIFTING GEARS sideways between the chainrings. The cage Chain moves Derailleur pushes the chain sideways. 4 Limit screws stop the derailleur from moving Chainstay too far and pushing the chain off the chainrings. as shown. 1 The cage consists of two plates between which the chain passes. or carbon fiber. the gear is selected. steel. or a “braze-on” fitting that is bolted to lugs welded to the frame. 2 Shifting pins on the inside of the larger chainrings catch the chain and lift it so that the Spoke links engage on the larger chainring. causing the front derailleur to move sideways. to move the cage on the mechanism.

Arm supports and moves
cage mechanism

Gear cable may enter derailleur
from above or below

4 Pivots at top and bottom
free end of arm enable it to move
of gear
cable Seat tube is usual location
for “braze-on” derailleur




plate of
plate of


Front derailleurs
The front derailleur (mech) moves the chain from
one chainring to another. If the chain rattles or Outer
plate of
slips off when shifted onto the largest gears, then front
the spring mechanism may have seized, and you
will need to adjust or replace the derailleur.
1–3 mm gap


◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand
Set the height of the front derailleur above the
◾ Remove the chain (see pp.158–59) and the gear cable
◾ Detach the cable from the derailleur by reversing step 8
chainrings. Check the manufacturer’s instructions
◾ Remove the existing derailleur by reversing step 1 for the correct height: the derailleur’s outer plate
usually sits 1–3 mm above the largest chainring.


Chain line Derailleur cage

Outer plate

Inner plate
3 Look from above at the chain line. Move the
derailleur toward or away from the frame of
your bike by hand. Ensure that the inner and outer
Largest plates are sitting parallel to the chainrings.

through Tighten mounting
derailleur bolt with hex key


1 Position the derailleur so that the outer plate
is just above and parallel to the largest chainring.
Use a hex key to tighten the mounting bolt, so that
4 When the derailleur is positioned correctly, tighten
the mounting bolt all the way to secure it in place.
Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the correct
it is held in place but can still be moved by hand. torque setting. Reattach the chain (see pp.158–59).


Workshop tip: Gear cables that are rusty, dirty, or
frayed will make it harder for you to change gear
◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Phillips screwdriver correctly. It is therefore a good idea for you to
◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Sharp cable cutters
replace old cables (see pp.132–35) at the same
◾◾ Manufacturer’s instructions ◾◾ Cable end cap
time as installing a new front derailleur.

Follow existing
cable route

Leave cable
end free

5 Using the shifter, set the chain on the smallest
chainring, and the rear derailleur to the lowest
gear (the largest cog) on the cassette. This is the
6 If you are installing a new gear cable, set the
front shifter to the lowest gear, and run the
cable from the shifter following the original routing
farthest that the chain will need to travel. (see pp.132–35). Do not fasten the cable in place.


Low limit screw cage
1–2 mm

7 Using a Phillips screwdriver, turn the “low limit”
screw (marked “L” on some models) on the front
derailleur, so that the inner plate of the derailleur
8 Close any barrel adjusters with your fingers.
Feed the end of the gear cable through the cable
clamp on the deraileur and fasten it in place with a
cage sits about 1–2 mm from the inside of the chain. hex key. Trim the cable and fit an end cap.


High limit screw
1–2 mm

9 Using the shifters, set the chain to the largest
chainring and onto the smallest cog of the rear
cassette. Turn the “high limit” screw until the outer
10 Use the shifter to move the chain from one
chainring to another. If the chain does not
pass smoothly between chainrings, turn the barrel
plate of the derailleur is 1–2 mm from the chain. adjusters in small increments to adjust the cable.



Rear derailleurs
The rear derailleur on your bike shifts the chain
between the cogs on the rear cassette. It has an hanger

arm with a parallelogram mechanism that moves
using pivots, and is controlled by the tension in Hex bolt secures
derailleur to hanger
the gear cable. When you press the gear-shift
lever, the derailleur releases slack in the cable. B-tension screw
controls angle
The return spring in the derailleur then forces the of derailleur

parallelogram to move, taking up the slack, and
pulls the bottom of the chain sideways. When
you are not changing gear, the cable tension
keeps the derailleur in position. Rear derailleurs Outer arm
vary in length—longer models are required for of derailleur

cassettes with a larger range of gears.

The rear derailleur comprises an arm with 4
pivots, to move the chain, and jockey pulleys,
to maintain tension on the chain.

1 The jockey pulleys are held within a cage fixed
Return spring
to the derailleur arm. They keep the chain taut as Gear cable
pulls derailleur
arm inward
it shifts between cogs on the cassette.
Cable clamp bolt secures
cable to derailleur
2 The hanger supports the derailleur on the
frame. It is a separate component on some bikes,
while on others it can be part of the frame.

3 The limit screws on the derailleur adjust the
range of movement at either end of its range, and
so prevent the chain from overshifting. The limit
screws should be set correctly (see pp.148–49).
Chain passes
4 The pivots allow the derailleur to move inward derailleur cage

and outward beneath the cassette.
jockey pulley


2 Upper jockey Cable pulley Chainstay housing 3 Ferrule “L” (low) limit 4 1 screw used to restrict derailleur travel inward “H” (high) limit screw used to restrict derailleur travel outward Cable end cap Outer plate 1 of derailleur arm cage Bearing allows jockey pulley to rotate freely Dust cap protects wheel bearing KEY COMPONENTS—REAR DER AILLEURS / 145 .

and secure the last section of housing. check that it is sitting straight and fits securely. Tighten it with a hex key. Pass the other end over the back of the smallest cassette cog. Feed the cable through the barrel adjuster. and reversing step 2 and you will need to replace the derailleur. push it to see if it springs back into position. If your bike has a bolt-on hanger. pulley. and the back of the lower jockey pulley. and insert its clamp bolt into the mounting hole. the gear cable. 146 / DRIVETR AIN .158–59) ◾ Remove the existing derailleur by disconnecting may seize. 2 Angle the rear derailleur at 90 degrees to its normal position.132–35) and route it along the frame. causing the bike to slip between gears. INSTALLING A DERAILLEUR Rear derailleurs The rear derailleur (mech) shifts the chain BEFORE YOU START between cogs on the cassette as you change gear. Hanger tab B-tension screw Gear hanger Ensure B-screw Threaded on derailleur does not mounting touch hanger tab. hole Firmly tighten Hanger tab clamp bolt 1 Grease inside the threaded mounting hole on the gear hanger to ensure that the derailleur will move freely. it ◾ Remove the chain (see pp. the front of the upper jockey 4 Attach the gear cable (see pp. adding cable housing where required. ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand If the spring mechanism becomes worn down. To check that it is secure. Slot housing into barrel adjuster Smallest cassette cog Upper jockey pulley Pass chain through Pass guide or over pin chain through chain Lower jockey pulley cage Thread cable along bike 3 Rest one end of the chain on the smallest front chainring.

derailleur acts effectively. Gravity will help to clamp bolt using a hex key. Pull the cable taut and tighten the 6 Feed the other end of the chain through the front derailleur. Workshop tip: Once you have installed TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the rear derailleur onto the gear hanger. ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Chain tool or ◾◾ Phillips screwdriver lightly spray oil onto the pivot points ◾◾ Grease quick-release link ◾◾ Oil and the jockey pulleys. INSTALLING A DER AILLEUR—REAR DER AILLEURS / 147 . Most use pins 9 Shift the chain onto the largest cog on the rear cassette. front of the smallest chainring. according to the type of chain you have. keep it in position on the bike. without interfering with the cogs. ◾◾ Set of hex keys Cable clamp Front derailleur Smallest chainring Chainstay End of Barrel chain Bring ends adjuster of chain together 5 Thread the cable into the cable clamp on the derailleur. cog on cassette 8 Join the ends of the chain together. Adjust the B-tension screw on the rear derailleur so that the top jockey pulley is about 10 mm away from the largest cog. and pass it over the 7 Bring the two ends of the chain together below the chainstay. Turn B-tension screw with Snap off screwdriver end of pin Chain tool to fit flush drives in pin to join links B-screw Set top jockey pulley Use B-tension screw to 10mm from largest adjust jockey pulley height. This will ensure that the (as above) or quick-release links.

BEFORE YOU START Cable clamp ◾ Replace gear cables if worn down or damaged (see pp. and offer you some slack. Smallest cog Cable clamp bolt Chain moves inward on Gear cassette cables Jockey pulley Push derailleur inward 1 Use the gear-shift levers to set the chain on the smallest cog on the cassette (the highest gear).132–35) bolt ◾ Clean the rear derailleur and apply oil to the spring Barrel ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand. and the rear derailleur (mech) needs to be indexed. ADJUSTING A DERAILLEUR Rear derailleurs Mechanical bicycle gears are controlled by the tension of the gear cables. rear wheel off the floor adjuster ◾ Shift the chain on to the smallest chainring 2 Loosen the cable clamp bolt with a hex key to release the cable and pull it free. If the chain rattles or slips into another gear while you are pedaling. and the smallest ring on the chainring. This will reduce 3 Turn the pedals slowly with one hand. Wind the barrel adjuster clockwise until it no longer turns. or if the gear does not change at all. 148 / DRIVETR AIN . so that the chain moves to the tension in the gear cables. the gears will shift smoothly and easily. this indicates that the tension in the gear cables has changed. second smallest cog on the cassette. When the cables are correctly adjusted. then rotate it counterclockwise by a one full turn. Use your other hand to push the body of the rear derailleur inward.

turn the barrel adjuster counterclockwise. Wind the screw in to move the wheel closer. the cassette. pull it taut. but not ◾◾ Oil ◾◾ Phillips screwdriver touching. and turn the “H” screw until 7 Set the “L” (low) limit to prevent the chain from overshooting the cassette in the lowest gear. ADJUSTING A DER AILLEUR—REAR DER AILLEURS / 149 . Check the top jockey pulley is aligned with the second smallest 5 Turn the pedals and shift through the gears from lowest to highest. the top jockey pulley sits directly under the largest cog. and turn the “L” screw until the top jockey pulley sits directly under the smallest cog. slow to move to higher cogs. Shift to the highest gear. To adjust it. Workshop tip: The B-screw controls the angle of the TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT derailleur and its distance between the top jockey ◾◾ Cloth ◾◾ Set of hex keys pulley and the cogs. Turn “L” screw with Phillips Turn “H” screwdriver screw with Phillips screwdriver 6 Set the “H” (high) limit on the derailleur to stop the chain jumping off the end of the smallest cog. If the chain is cog. Barrel adjuster Cable clamp bolt Barrel adjuster 4 Insert the gear cables into the cable clamp. turn it counterclockwise. and tighten the cable clamp bolt. Shift to the lowest gear. If not. turn the barrel adjuster clockwise. shift it to the largest ◾◾ Frame stand cog. If the chain skips two gears. It should be close to.

all held within a ring gear.152–55). as the components stay clean and dry inside the hub shell. PARTS FOCUS Hub shell contains gear mechanism Hub gears such as a Shimano Alfine 8 (right) have few serviceable parts. The number of gears ranges from two or three in a traditional Sturmey-Archer hub. Gear sets comprise “planet” gears that rotate around a fixed “sun” gear. 150 / DRIVETR AIN . Hub gears are simple to install. KEY COMPONENTS Hub gears A hub gear comprises a set of gears housed within Spoke a sealed unit attached to the rear wheel. 4 The cable holder on the cassette joint supports the gear cable housing. but need professional maintenance owing to their complexity. or six to eight in a Shimano hub. 2 The cable pulley changes the gear inside the hub gear as the gear cable is pulled or relaxed by the gear-shift lever on the handlebar. although they are rather heavy for racing bikes. to 14 in a Rohloff hub. Only the cable needs occasional adjustment (see pp. 3 The utility hole on the cable pulley allows you to relax the gear cable and remove the cable clamp bolt in order to take off the wheel (see pp. allowing the cable to be set at the correct tension. Hub gears work on most types of bicycle. 1 The yellow bars visible in the observation window slip out of alignment when the gear cable tension needs to be adjusted. They are known for reliability and longevity.82–83).

Seat stay Chainstay Cable end cap Alignment window shows alignment bars Cable housing slots into ferrule Cog driven by chain 4 1 2 Lockring on hub gear Nonturn washer slots into dropout 3 Wheel axle Cable clamp bolt secures cable to cable pulley Dropout locates Axle nut secures wheel and hub wheel to frame in frame .

support it upright if it is a newer model problems when you shift between gears. 3 Check the two yellow bars in the window. locate the cable barrel adjuster. no adjustment is needed. Two yellow bars should be visible. 4 To fix the hub alignment. 2 Put the hub into its “adjustment mode” by changing into first gear and then back to fourth using the shifter. which is usually found on the gear-shift lever. Barrel Aligned bars signify adjuster that hub gear needs no further adjustment. the hub is out of alignment and you will need to adjust the cable. the collar outward. Shift through gears from first to fourth 1 Locate the observation window on the hub gear—it should be on the underside or the top of the hub itself. If they are misaligned (as shown). This ◾ Prepare a clear space with plenty of room to work issue is simple to fix. number 4 on the gear-shift lever on some models. Unlock the barrel mechanism by pulling If they are aligned (inset). if required. 152 / DRIVETR AIN . ADJUSTING HUB GEARS Shimano Alfine 8 Hub gears are renowned for their reliability. Fourth gear is shown as the Clean the window. BEFORE YOU START and require little maintenance once set up. The barrel will now turn. Gear ◾ Clean your hub gear with an alcohol-based cleaner cables can stretch over time. however. and requires no tools. causing ◾ Turn your bike upside down if it is an older model.

Alfine 8 hub are yellow. Then shift into the highest gear. 8. On If they are still misaligned. Caution! If your hub gear continues to have problems TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT even though the yellow bars align. Turn the barrel clockwise or counterclockwise until the bars in the 6 Once you are happy with the adjustment. ◾ Shimano Alfine hubs with 4. Misaligned bars signify however. and are not ◾◾ Cleaning cloth designed to be taken apart. hub observation window align. or 11 gears. bike for a ride. Once aligned. Turn barrel clockwise or counterclockwise to align bars Change to first gear to take shifter out of adjustment mode 5 Turning the barrel lock causes the bar on the right of the window to move. they are red shifting the gears until the bars line up correctly. repeat steps 2–6. There are a number of small differences to be aware of. Hub gears are complex. 7. take the shifter out of adjustment mode by changing into first gear. turning the barrel and other models. correctly aligned. ADJUSTING HUB GEARS—SHIMANO ALFINE 8 / 153 . take the or green. ◾ The alignment bars on the 7 Check the alignment of the bars in the observation window again. or 8 gears are adjusted with the shifter set in fourth gear. You may damage the hub permanently if you attempt any repairs yourself. VARIATIONS Bars aligned Shimano Alfine hub gears are available with 4. before finally shifting back into fourth. then check the yellow bars once more. The 11-speed model is adjusted in sixth gear. 7. take it to a bike ◾◾ Alcohol-based cleaner repair shop. You should also refer to that hub gear is still not the owner’s manual for your hub. and all models are adjusted in the same basic way.

unclip the cover from the bike to access the linkage. 5 in (12. Hold indicator rod straight and at a right angle to hub. Adjustment gear indicated by circle Protective on gear-shift lever cover 1 Set the hub gear into “adjustment mode” by selecting the second gear on the gear-shift lever. Hold the indicator rod so that it points straight out of the hub. loosen the screw on its 4 Unscrew the cable adjuster from the indicator rod to disconnect it. 154 / DRIVETR AIN . gear on modern shifters. and retighten the screw.5 cm) from the hub. The gear cables can stretch. To adjust it. check that this is secure and positioned at least 5 in (12. turn it clockwise to rear. ADJUSTING HUB GEARS Sturmey-Archer three-speed Sturmey-Archer hub gears have been used BEFORE YOU START for decades on a wide range of bicycles. hindering ◾ Check the gear cable for any damage gear selection. but this is an easy problem to fix. tighten it all the way. (This gear is commonly used as the adjustment 2 The hub linkage and fulcrum on modern bikes may be concealed by a protective cover.) taking care not to snap the retaining clips.5 cm) Indicator Lockring Cable Fulcrum clip rod adjuster 3 If the bike has a separate fulcrum clip. but it cannot be maintained the hub gear at home. from ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand utility road bikes to modern folding ones. and loosen it by half a turn. reposition the clip. The ◾ Make sure that the rear wheel is centered in the forks ◾ Wipe away any dirt and grease from the area around hub is very reliable. If so.

FIVE-SPEED HUBS A Sturmey-Archer five-speed hub gear is adjusted in a similar way to the three-speed model. ◾ Tighten the lockring against the cable adjuster. Caution! You may damage the hub if you use it TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT with misaligned gears. Reattach the cover over the hub linkage. Shift between the gears to check that they work with no slipping. If the problems persist. then screw the rod back into the cable adjuster by hand. test ride in a safe area. Take the bike for a ◾ Check the position of the indicator rod. or the hub slips. ◾ Select the second gear on the shifter and turn the cable Reattach protective cover over hub adjuster so no more than 1 in linkage and snap into place once (2. Lockring ◾ Select fifth gear. then reselect second gear. axle when seen through the observation window. Lockring Turn cable adjuster Indicator to set correct position rod Axle Check indicator shaft is of indicator rod. protrudes over the axle end. Loosen the lockring 6 With second gear still selected on the shifter. take cleaning fluid ◾◾ Grease the bike to a bike shop for specialized attention. and make any further adjustments if required. If you have problems selecting ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Cloth a gear.5 mm) of the indicator shaft adjustments are complete. turn the cable adjuster until the end of the indicator shaft is exactly level with the end of the on the indicator rod by a few turns. and readjust if required. check that the tension in the ◾◾ Degreaser or ◾◾ Small screwdriver gear cable is correct. 7 Tighten the lockring on the cable adjuster to secure the new setting. turn pedals. ADJUSTING HUB GEARS—STURMEY-ARCHER THREE-SPEED / 155 . flush with end of axle 5 Check the indicator rod for any damage. Clean and grease its threads.

Spokes 3 Cassettes feature spacers that ensure the correct distance between cogs. The number of spacers depends on the type of cassette. 1 The lockring holds the cassette onto the free hub. converting your pedaling energy into forward motion. The smallest cog gives the highest gear.160–61). KEY COMPONENTS Chains and cassettes The chain and cassette—the cluster of cogs on the rear hub—transfer drive from the crankset to the rear wheel. which is stamped with Quick- release lever “ramps”—grooves that allow the chain to shift for wheel more smoothly from one cog to the next. You will need a special tool to remove it if Hub shell you change your cassette (see pp. each of which is made up of two plates that are joined by pins and rollers. Cogs mounted on cassette spider 4 The rear derailleur is not part of the cassette. A chain consists of more than a hundred links. which each provide a different ratio. Dropout locates wheel in frame PARTS FOCUS The cassette consists of up to 12 cogs with a varying number of teeth—from 10 to 50— offering a multitude of gear ratios. Chains vary in width depending on the number of cogs—ranging from 8 to 12—on the cassette. 156 / DRIVETR AIN . Each link fits snugly on either side of a tooth on the cog. contains wheel bearings 2 A series of cogs in different sizes make up the cassette. but performs the vital function of shifting the chain across the cassette. allowing you to change gear. which allow the links to rotate and flex.

Shifting pins lift chain onto cogs Free body Chainstay hub Cassette spider supports cogs Splines ensure cogs align correctly 3 1 Ferrule Cable housing Gear cable Quick-release Lockring skewer connects wheel to frame 2 4 Chain engages onto cogs Loose cogs separate from spider .

It is now ready to be threaded 4 Thread the new chain through the rear derailleur. Feed the chain downward carefully—clockwise over the top jockey pulley. the chain has stretched a sign that your chain needs to be replaced. and counterclockwise over through the rear derailleur. Twist handle to push out pin Derailleur cage Push tool into flat-ended pin on chain Rotate chainring Secure chain using pedal in chain tool 1 Lift the chain off the chainring and onto the bottom bracket. the bottom jockey pulley. Slipping gears may be pins should slot into the links. which in itself the smallest chainring at the front to provide enough slack ◾ Place a chain wear indicator onto the chain. BEFORE YOU START as it is constantly twisted and put under strain. if not. Wind 2 Thread one end of the new chain through the front derailleur (mech) cage until it catches on the teeth of the chainring. The indicator attracts grit and grime. Turn the pedals and the handle to push the pin out. Select a link on the lower length of chain. 158 / DRIVETR AIN . and remove the chain. ◾ Ensure that the chain is on the smallest cog at the back and It requires oil to work smoothly. REMOVING AND REPLACING A BICYCLE CHAIN Bicycle chains Your bike chain takes a lot of wear and tear. draw the chain downward. and locate the chain in the chain tool. Draw chain over smallest cog Rear derailleur Ensure Smallest Push derailleur chain is cog to rear for access inside lip of cage arm 3 Pull the other end of the chain toward the rear derailleur so that it rests on the smallest cog of the cassette.

and securely join hold the chain together. Some chain tools can also be 8 The chain will feel stiff at the join. used to shorten the chain pin. ◾ The SRAM “PowerLink” has two halves with a built-in pin. Draw two chain halves together to connect the links Chain link Replacement pin Chain tool Hold chain still while you insert pin. The link can be released manually. 5 Bring the two ends of the chain together underneath the chainstay. the lengths of chain together. hands until the link moves freely. 7 Snap off the end of the pin using needle-nose pliers. Push the thin end of the replacement pin between the two links to 6 Slot the chain into the guide on the chain tool. and add two links. Apply oil to the link and manipulate the chain with your ◾ Campagnolo’s Ultralink comes with a chain segment so several links can be replaced at once. Carefully twist chain. Workshop tip: A new chain may need to be shortened. REMOVING AND REPLACING A BICYCLE CHAIN—BICYCLE CHAINS / 159 . Twist the handle of the tool to push the replacement pin into the links. wrap the ◾◾ Chain tool (ensure it ◾◾ Needle-nose pliers chain around the biggest cog at the back and the is the correct size) ◾◾ Chain links and pins biggest front chainring at the front. Snap the link into place and apply tension to secure it. it may jump off the chainring. as stiffness in link will cause chain to ◾ Shimano chains feature a jump over cogs hardened connecting pin with a flared end for extra strength. Chains ◾◾ Chain wear indicator ◾◾ Grease and oil vary in length. To find the optimum length. Grease pin to help it slot into place. CHAIN LINKS Push chain into an inverted V-shape Many manufacturers now make special chain connectors that mean you can remove and Pin replace your chain easily— Needle-nose pliers sometimes without tools. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT as if it is too long.

and unscrew the lockring. and unscrew the lockring. make a note of their order and any spacers used. Then slide the skewer out of the hub. REMOVING AND SERVICING A CASSETTE Rear cassettes Cassettes are susceptible to wear. release nut Lockring tool 1 Remove the skewer by unscrewing the quick- release nut all the way in order to access the lockring. they are best removed to do a more thorough job. ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts causing your chain to slip and jump. Spacer Turn lockring tool counterclockwise End of with wrench. Cassette Loosely tighten quick-release nut Quick. with an adjustable wrench. 160 / DRIVETR AIN . Some cogs may be loose when removed. being 2 Using the correct lockring tool. grip the lockring tool 4 Undo the quick-release nut. Lockring chain whip Cog 3 Install a chain whip around the second-largest gear of the cassette. Holding the chain whip firmly to stop the cassette turning. and road salt to build up. insert the serrated edge of the tool all the way into the lockring on the cassette. Although ◾ Remove the rear wheel from your bike (see pp. onto lockring tool.80–81) ◾ Select the correct lockring tool for your cassette cassettes can be cleaned in situ. Slide the cassette from the freehub. Replace the quick-release careful not to lose the conical springs on each side. nut to hold the tool in place as it is turned. especially if BEFORE YOU START you allow dirt. remove the tool. grease.

now replace the wheel and chain. 6 Line up the cassette body. so check this when buying new components. ◾◾ Lockring tool ◾◾ Hard-bristled brush If any corrosion is already present. They will 7 Push the cassette and cogs onto the freehub body. Spacer Skewer nut Freehub Spring Lockring Brush cogs firmly Cogs Spring 5 Clean the cassette and cog teeth with a hard-bristled brush and degreaser. use a stiff brush ◾◾ Chain whip ◾◾ Degreaser or scouring pad to clean it off gently. known as the spider. should not touch spokes Replace spacers Grooves on freehub in correct order body ensure cassette aligns correctly. Workshop tip: A thin layer of grease applied to TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the grooves of the freehub body will prevent rust. You can only fit in one arrangement. Ensure that you return the spacers in the 8 Reattach the cassette to the hub using the lockring tool and a wrench to tighten it. Cogs. ◾◾ Adjustable wrench ◾◾ Soapy water Clean in PARTS FOCUS gaps Many cassettes are only compatible with specific hubs. correct order. REMOVING AND SERVICING A CASSET TE—REAR CASSET TES / 161 . with the grooves on the freehub. Wash off Skewer Skewer Cassette the dirty fluid with soapy water. when installed.

They are very 0. ◾ The two chainrings must work provide a wide range of gears.18 mm) chain. if the bike ◾ The crankarm and spider are Mountain bike cranksets vary has a triple-ring crankset usually made as a single piece. which will make pedaling easier. secured with a pinch bolt on the left side. and select a crankarm length to suit your and bottom bracket (BB). usually made as a single piece. from triple-ring 11-speed chains. often favored for simplicity. with 10. CHOOSER GUIDE Cranksets The crankset comprises the crankarms. These cranksets ◾ The two chainrings must work are often equipped with bigger with 10. chainrings. TYPE SUITABILITY KEY COMPONENTS FAST ROAD ◾ Racing and other competitive ◾ The crankarm and spider are Fast road cranksets should be light road events. ◾ The crankarm and spider are These mid-level cranksets provide or endurance. made as a single piece. on the right side and secured with a pinch bolt on the left side. MOUNTAIN BIKE ◾ Hill 11-speed chains. and single-ring splines on the right side and sets. the style of riding you are intending to do. ◾ The axle is press-fitted on saving in weight. stiff in order to cope with ◾ The axle is typically installed high pedal forces. which affects the gearing. offering a higher ◾ The axle is press-fitted on splines range of gears for race riders. When choosing a leg length. ◾ Track cycling and racing. but very stiff. more than premium models. consider the size of the chainrings and You should also choose a crankset to suit the number of teeth. which offer a ring crankset. into the frame with the 11-speed chains. TRACK/FIXED/SINGLE. chainrings. crankset.125 in (3. so are ◾ Gravel riding. which that includes low gears. similar performance to more ◾ Cyclo-cross racing. to ◾ Downhill riding on a single. training. 162 / DRIVETR AIN . TRAINING/CYCLO-CROSS/ENDURANCE ◾ General road riding. ◾ The two chainrings must work expensive versions. usually made as a single piece. although they are on the right side and secured stiffer and tend to weigh with a pinch bolt on the left side. with 10. These cranksets have ◾ The wider chainring is usually wider teeth and only one only compatible with wider chainring. ◾ The crankarm and spider are SPEED ◾ Single-speed city riding. suitable for more general ◾ The axle is press-fitted on splines riding. double-ring sets.

◾ Popular chainrings have 48–49 teeth. to suit different leg lengths. ◾ Entry-level bikes may be 46–34 teeth. may be solid on budget cranksets. but the highest-end road bike any heavy off-road riding. be checked for cracks. to suit different leg lengths. may be solid on budget cranksets. wear on the chainrings. ◾ Popular chainrings have 40–28 ◾ Play at the BB and a slack chain ◾ Axles are square taper and use a teeth or mid-compact 38–26 teeth. or banking on a track. installed with a square taper BB. and should be changed. but after aluminum. the crankarms should ◾ High-end cranksets have carbon.5 mm. ◾ Triple cranksets have 40–32–22 teeth. but after usually aluminum. be checked for cracks. should be checked and changed. indicate excessive wear ◾ Axles are hollow and generally compact 52–36 teeth. They are typically 172. fiber crankarms and hardened ◾ Popular chainrings have ◾ Hooked chainrings alloy chainrings. but after usually aluminum. indicate excessive wear lightweight steel. Crankarms are hollow. a knock.5 mm. a knock. ◾ Chainrings may be made of pedaling through corners ◾ Check crankarms for damage aluminum or steel. ◾ Crankarms and spiders are ◾ Crankarms are 165–175 mm ◾ Off-road riding accelerates usually aluminum. long. or cracks.Many components are made of lightweight crankset if you are intending to do aluminum. checked for cracks. square taper BB. MATERIALS VARIATIONS MAINTENANCE ◾ Crankarms and spiders are usually ◾ Crankarms are 165–175 mm ◾ Breakages are rare. to suit different leg lengths. You may need a much tougher or even breaking the chain mid-ride. ◾ Crankarms and spiders are ◾ Crankarms are 165–175 mm ◾ Breakages are rare. a knock.5 mm. ◾ Crankarms and spiders are ◾ Crankarms are 165–175 mm ◾ Breakages are rare. the ground when you are chain regularly. the crankarms should ◾ Crankarms are often hollow but They are typically 172. lightweight steel. CHOOSER GUIDE—CR ANKSETS / 163 . to reduce cranksets have components of carbon to the risk of debris from the trail damaging save weight. ◾ Popular compact chainrings ◾ Hooked chainrings ◾ Axles are hollow and generally have 50–34 teeth. 53–39 teeth or mid. ◾ Cyclo-cross rings may use and should be changed. the crankarms should be ◾ Crankarms are often hollow but They are typically 172. so ◾ Axles are hollow and generally ◾ Longer cranksets may hit check chainrings and lightweight steel.

gravel. so that they are strong enough to transmit your pedaling forces without flexing. Chain drives 2 The spider is part of the drive (right) side rear wheel crankarm. which in turn rotate the cassette and rear wheel. and Front derailleur shifts chain mountain bikes use a “1x” (single) chainring. KEY COMPONENTS Cranksets The crankset rotates around the bottom bracket (BB) when you turn the pedals. Touring bikes and some supports axle mountain bikes have three chainrings for a wider range of gears. while modern cranksets (see pp. or integrated with.166–71) are bonded to a Chainstay one. 164 / DRIVETR AIN .or two-piece axle. PARTS FOCUS The crankset consists of the crankarms and 1–3 chainrings. Square taper units (see pp. the BB. between chainrings Cranksets are made of carbon or a solid piece of aluminum. Road bikes have two chainrings to reduce weight. A larger-diameter axle will improve the stiffness of the crankset.168–69) are bolted to the BB axle. it consists of the crankarms and chainrings. which have between 22 and Crankset drives 53 teeth for the chain links to slot onto. allowing the crankset to rotate smoothly and without loss of torque. 4 The BB cups screw or press into the frame and support the axle. chain as bike is pedaled 1 The two crankarms transmit the pedaling action of the rider to the chainring and chain. 3 The axle joins the crankarms and is bolted to. and consists of a number of arms onto which the chainrings are bolted. while some cyclo-cross.

Nondrive (left) side crankarm Inner plate of chain Outer plate 1 of chain 4 Chain Chain pin roller 2 4 Bearings allow axle and crankarms to turn freely BB shell houses 3 axle and BB Drive (right) side crankarm 1 Threaded mount Chainring bolts hold for pedal axle chainrings to spider KEY COMPONENTS—CR ANKSETS / 165 . lower gear ratio All types share the same basic components. Seat tube supports front derailleur Outer chainring provides CHAIN LINKS higher gear ratio Bicycle chains have to be strong and Inner chainring provides flexible to power the drivetrain.

disengage the hand side of the bike frame. The bolts should be positioned on the left- 2 Remove the preload cap using the specific preload cap tool by unwinding it counterclockwise. loosen but do not remove the two pinch bolts on the nondrive (left) side crank. twisted when you remove the crankset from the frame. Then. Pinch Preload cap bolt Crank Preload cap tool 1 Using a 5 mm hex key. you may need to wiggle 4 Shift the front derailleur (mech) to the smaller chainring. slide the nondrive (left) side crank from the splined axle. Shift gear to smaller chainring Slide crank off splines of hollow axle Hollow axle Front derailleur 3 With the safety tab disengaged. Push safety tab upward Hex with a flat-head key screwdriver. safety tab by pushing it upward. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CRANKSET Shimano HollowTech II Shimano HollowTech cranksets feature a hollow BEFORE YOU START axle that is connected permanently to the ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand right-hand crank. You will need to remove ◾ Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the the crankset if you want to replace or perform correct pinch bolt torque setting maintenance on your bottom bracket (BB). If it does not move freely. using a small flat-head screwdriver. Lift the chain away from the chainring and allow it to hang freely so that it does not get it from side to side in order to dislodge it. and to which the left-hand ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts ◾ Place a drop cloth down to catch any grease crank is also attached. 166 / TR ANSMISSION .

This will ensure there ◾◾ 5 mm hex key screwdriver ◾◾ Torque wrench is no tension in the clamp. firmly but carefully give the hollow axle a few taps until it passes 6 Gently pull the crankset from the drive (right) side of the BB. Use hammer to If yours is lost or damaged. Tighten pinch bolt Push safety tab down Clean BB with Pinch Tighten preload cloth bolt cap with tool Plastic Grease internal bearing face of bearing cover cover 7 Clean the inner surfaces of the plastic bearing covers on the BB where the axle sits. and apply 8 Push the crankset through the BB. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CR ANKSET—SHIMANO HOLLOWTECH II / 167 . find them online at Shimano’s Tech Resource. through the BB. you tap axle must buy a replacement. it touching the ground. Push the safety tab into place fresh grease using your fingers. rubber hammer. If they 5 Using a rubber hammer. completely remove the pinch bolts ◾◾ Drop cloth ◾◾ Flat-head ◾◾ Cloth and grease and the safety tab. Rest the chain on the BB to avoid are missing. ◾ If you install the crankset using Pull crankset free from BB a torque wrench. Workshop tip: To make things easier when TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT you are removing the nondrive (left) side ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Preload cap tool ◾◾ Rubber hammer crank. doing as much as possible by hand and finishing with the 9 Reinstall the nondrive (left) side crank and replace the preload cap. Hollow axle end ◾ The preload cap tool is supplied with the crankset. and tighten the pinch bolts. if necessary. SHIMANO TOOLS Removing and reinstalling a Shimano HollowTech II crankset requires specific tools and information you may not have. the torque settings required are printed next to the pinch bolts. and is vital for installing and removing it.

tightly—turning clockwise—with your fingers. BEFORE YOU START ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts ◾ Clean around the BB Clean crank ◾ Spray oil on to the crank bolts to help to loosen them bolt threads 2 Clean and lubricate the threads inside the crank. or replacing. carefully screw the threaded end into the crank by hand. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CRANKSET Square taper types Square taper cranksets are common on older bikes. Check that the bolt and any washers are in good condition. 168 / TR ANSMISSION . Take out the bolt and any washers on the drive (right) side using a hex key. Use a cloth to clean the thread on the removed bolt. Detach the crankset whenever you are maintaining. the BB. remove these on both sides. you will need a crank puller tool to remove them.178–79). Screw it in arm of the crank still as you work. and those equipped with square taper bottom brackets (see pp. Hold the 3 Making sure that the end of the crank puller tool is unscrewed all the way. The crankset and crankarm attach onto the square bottom bracket (BB) spindle. Turn crank bolt Chainring counterclockwise Crank puller 1 If the crank has plastic bolt covers. and apply fresh grease to the bolt.

You will feel resistance as crank puller tool pushes against spindle. and rest it on the BB. remove the crank bolt. before to remove the crankarm. Set crankarms at 180 degrees to each other Crank puller Insert hex tool pushes key all the crankarm way before off spindle turning 6 Unscrew the crank puller tool from the crankset using a wrench or hex key. as shown here. the chain off the chainring. The crank puller tool will push the crank 5 Once the crank puller tool has pushed the chainring off the BB spindle. lift the chainring away from the bike. threads of the crank puller tool. Lift off the frame and away from the BB spindle. Rest chain on BB Insert hex key Remove into crank puller chain 4 With the crank puller tool attached to the crank. Also make sure that the ◾◾ Cleaning cloth ◾◾ Grease and ◾◾ Set of wrenches crank puller is postioned straight onto the ◾◾ Oil paintbrush threads to prevent cross-threading. ensure they are clean before inserting ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Crank puller tool the crank puller tool. Clean the 7 On the nondrive (left) side. taking care not to drop it. Caution! To avoid damaging the threads of the TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT crank. starting with the nondrive (left) side crankarm. use a wrench or a hex key to turn the end clockwise. reversing steps 1–7. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CR ANKSET—SQUARE TAPER T YPES / 169 . screw in the crank puller. and tighten as 8 Reinstall the crankset.

before reusing later. turn it counterclockwise to loosen the crank bolt from the center. spray it with penetrating oil ◾ Put the chain on the inner chainring Hex key 2 Insert a long-arm 10 mm hex key into the center of the spindle on the drive (right) side. If there is any creaking or play in your crankset. and are installed in the same way. Secure the 3 Remove the chain from the chainring by lifting the rear derailleur (mech) to release tension from the chain. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CRANKSET Campagnolo Ultra-Torque Campagnolo’s drivetrain systems are widely used. Ensuring it is engaged all the way. you should remove it to diagnose the issue. and keep it safe. then clean and grease it. Remove the safety clip using needle-nose pliers. Rest the detached chain on the BB. Their Ultra-Torque and Power Torque cranksets utilize similar technology. BEFORE YOU START ◾ If the crank bolt is corroded. it. Remove bolt all the way. Remove chain from chainring Safety clip Turn chainring as chain is removed 1 Temporarily lay your bike on its side for easier access to the safety clip. You will also need to take off the crankset when replacing a bottom bracket (BB). Rotate the chainring and lift the chain from bike in a frame stand for the remainder of the task. 170 / DRIVETR AIN .

apply grease to TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the thread of the crank bolt. Crank Bearing 5 Remove the other crankarm and the wave washer (the “brown” washer on Campagnolo 6 To reinstall the crankset. and replace it if necessary. then regrease them. Check that the wave (or brown) washer has not flattened over time. Reinstall the crankset by reversing steps 1–5. PARTS FOCUS Because several crankset Crank bolt systems exist. This will prevent the bolt ◾◾ Penetrating oil ◾◾ Long-arm 10 mm hex key from rusting or degrading over time. and make future ◾◾ Needle-nose pliers ◾◾ Cloth and soapy water removal easier. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CR ANKSET—CAMPAGNOLO ULTR A-TORQUE / 171 . Power Torque cranksets). Workshop tip: Before reinstalling. Axle Washer Bearing Bearing Chain will hang loose Washer 4 Ease the drive-side crank out of the BB. first clean the axle and the bottom bracket. Hold the drive (right) side crankarm ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Grease steady when loosening or retightening the crank bolt. Take care not to damage the crank or drop any Safety clip Chainring Wave washer Crank of the components. Ensure chain is installed properly BB cup Reinstall and clip Wave washer in safety clip fully before riding. parts from different manufacturers are often incompatible with one another.

SRAM Red cranksets feature a hollow axle. as you need to avoid the chain twisting when the crankset axle. which is connected permanently to the drive (right) side crankarm. Remove the crankarm and set aside. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CRANKSET SRAM Red Made from lightweight carbon fiber. If this happens. If replacing. make sure the new Rubber hammer BB is the correct size for the SRAM crankset. The bearing covers may come away from the BB cups as the axle is removed. This is important. and which the left-hand crankarm attaches onto. BEFORE YOU START BB cup ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay Bearing out the parts cover 2 Gently tap the axle with a rubber hammer to push the crankset from the BB. is pulled through the BB. push them back in using your fingers. Pedal 8 mm hex key Crankarm Unhook chain Chainrings to stop it getting tangled 1 Insert an 8 mm hex key into the crankarm bolt on the nondrive (left) side and turn it counterclockwise to release the crankarm from the 3 Unhook the chain from the chainrings and allow it to fall freely away. You will need to remove the Axle crankset if the bottom bracket (BB) needs cleaning or replacement. 172 / DRIVETR AIN . Rest the chain on the BB.

176–77. 180–81). covers where the axle sits. If there is any sign of play or looseness in the crankarms. passing it through the chain first. hex key. or noise from the bearings. ensuring that the splines line up. so be patient. including the bearing need to replace the BB (see pp. it may be due to the fresh ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Degreaser and cloth grease in the BB seals. Hook the chain back onto the chainrings. Workshop tip: If the crankarms spin less freely TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT after reinstalling. ◾◾ Rubber hammer Bearings protected by Axle bearing cover BB cup Grease Bearing cover 4 Pull on the chainring to slide the axle from the BB. REMOVING AND REINSTALLING A CR ANKSET—SR AM RED / 173 . you may 5 Clean the BB thoroughly with degreaser and a cloth. Apply liberal amounts of fresh grease to the inner surfaces of the BB. Tighten crankarm bolt all the way by turning Crankarm hex key clockwise. Grease Axle Grease Push chainring evenly to ensure axle passes through BB squarely. This will resolve ◾◾ 8 mm hex key ◾◾ Grease itself as the BB beds in. Push the crankset back through the BB from the drive (right) 7 Grease the spindle of the nondrive (left) side crankarm and slide it onto the axle. 6 Grease the axle to help the crankset slide back into place easily and prevent corrosion. Tighten the crankarm bolt with a side.

Large-diameter axle Drive (right) side crankarm systems—such as Campagnolo Power and Ultra. PARTS FOCUS BBs are screwed or pressed into the BB shell of a frame. and screw Chain transmits propulsion from or press into either side of the BB shell. and allow the crankarms to Outer chainring has more teeth. rotate freely.180–81). securing the nondrive (left) and drive (right) side crankarms together. it may be split into two halves that are bonded to each crankarm (see pp. 2 The axle sits inside the BB shell and cups. gear ratio Alternatively. 3 The BB cups contain the bearings. be built into a cartridge BB (see pp. to which the crankarms are attached. 174 / DRIVETR AIN . Shimano HollowTech (see fitting pp. It may Inner chainring has fewer teeth. which are located on either side of the frame’s BB shell. These systems use sealed bearings for durability and ease of maintenance. the bottom bracket (BB) secures the crankarms to the frame via an axle. which is supported by bearings that allow it to rotate freely. includes spider for chainring Torque (see pp. and SRAM GXP—have an axle built onto the crankarms that slides inside the bearing cups. KEY COMPONENTS Bottom brackets An essential component on every kind of bike. Square taper (see pp. chainrings to rear wheel 4 The bearings sit inside the BB cups and are contained inside sealed units for added protection. and rotates when the crankarms are turned.178–79) or the giving lower drive (right) side crankarm (see pp.176–77). giving higher gear ratio 1 The crankarm bolt sits inside the axle.178–79) and Shimano Octalink BBs use an axle built into a “cartridge” unit.176–77).180–81).

4 3 1 2 Wave washer Safety clip is unique to unique to Campagnolo BBs Campagnolo BBs BB shell houses axle and BB Large- diameter axle for improved power transfer Nondrive (left) side crank- arm connects pedal to BB axle .

the caliper arms will pull the bearing free. thoroughly clean the drive (right) side crankarm. Take care not to lose it. As the tool presses 4 Once the bearing is loose. 176 / DRIVETR AIN .170–71) Vibrations or noise are signs that the bearings ◾ Source replacement bearings if your bike’s are worn down are worn down and will need to be replaced. Turn the handle clockwise. Bearing Axle puller Bearing Handle Bearing Caliper Crankset arm 3 Secure the bearing puller over the axle so that the tips of the caliper arms pinch underneath the bearing. If there is any damage to the axle surface. C-clip Cloth Axle 1 Using a cloth and degreaser. Wipe the inside 2 The drive (right) side crankarm has a “C-clip” to stop the axle from moving laterally in the BB. on the axle. ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts ◾ Remove the crankset from the BB (see pp. Wipe away any grit and dirt from the axle. then of the BB shell to remove any grease and dirt. you may need to replace the crankset. pull it off the axle by hand. remove the bearing puller and pull the bearing off the axle with your fingers. Pry it from the bearing with a flat-head screwdriver. and clean inside it. ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand with replaceable bearings secured onto the axle. REPLACING A BOTTOM BRACKET Campagnolo Ultra-Torque Campagnolo Ultra-Torque cranksets have bearing BEFORE YOU START cups that sit on the frame’s bottom bracket shell.

170–71). and nondrive (left) side crankarm (see pp. 7 Slide the new bearing onto the drive (right) side axle. Put on the C-clip. Check the parts for signs of wear. as in step 7. apply grease to the bearing cup and the area around it. lightly tap the bearing into place. thoroughly clean both sides of the axle and the bearing cups with degreaser. Nondrive (left) side Bearing Tap bearing crankarm puller into place with rubber hammer Place chainring on flat surface Bearing installer Axle Ensure caliper arms fully engage with Bearing bearing cup 5 Attach the bearing puller onto the nondrive (left) side axle. Hang the chain on the BB. Workshop tip: Put a cloth underneath the TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT crankarm before using the bearing puller and ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Bearing puller ◾◾ Rubber hammer bearing installer tools. This will protect the ◾◾ Cloth and degreaser ◾◾ Grease arm from scratches during the removal and ◾◾ Flat-head screwdriver ◾◾ Bearing installer reinstallation process. up against the bearing. REPL ACING A BOT TOM BR ACKET—CAMPAGNOLO ULTR A-TORQUE / 177 . with the arms engaged with the bearing. 6 Using a cloth. Sit the bearing installer over the axle and Free the bearing as in steps 3–4. and reinstall the crankset axle. Slide it onto the 9 Attach the second bearing to the nondrive (left) side crankarm using the bearing installer. so that it fits snugly. Bearing Wave C-clip washer Nondrive Grease on Thread (left) side bearing chain onto crankarm cup chainring 8 When the bearing is completely seated on the axle.

replace the BB unit with one of the same dimensions. measure the widths with a measuring caliper. Insert splines on BB remover tool into Remove slots on BB cup BB cup Ensure remover tool is fully engaged before turning with wrench.168–69) ◾ Secure the chain to the chainstay the BB to creak when you pedal. turn the wrench the opposite way. If these figures are not on the shell. (You must loosen them. These bearings can ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand become dry and worn down through use. or 73 mm) (normally 107–127. BB cups are marked with an arrow to indicate the direction in which to tighten them.) 178 / DRIVETR AIN . Remove the old cup from the nondrive (left) counterclockwise to loosen the BB cup. until you can unscrew it the rest of the way by hand. Fasten the adjustable wrench over the tool and turn it 2 Continue to loosen the BB cup using the wrench. causing ◾ Remove the crankset (see pp. Splined BB Spindle of remover tool BB cartridge 1 Insert the splined BB remover tool into the cup on the nondrive (left) side of the BB. 70 mm. Measurements printed on shell Remove cartridge unit from drive (right) side of frame.5 mm) 3 Insert the BB remover tool into the drive (right) side. side of the frame. A worn cartridge ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts unit cannot be serviced and should be replaced. Unscrew BB Shell width (typically Spindle width using wrench 68 mm. To 4 Check the shell and spindle width on the old BB unit. REPLACING A BOTTOM BRACKET Cartridge types A cartridge bottom bracket (BB) unit has a sealed BEFORE YOU START chamber for the bearings.

use the BB remover tool together with the adjustable wrench to tighten each side as firmly as you can. Screw the cup in by hand until it is finger tight. Check BB threads for Screw signs of wear new BB unit or damage in by hand at first Turn tool backward until you Apply thin layer hear a click of grease to threads Line up BB unit as threads with cloth or brush. first turn it the “wrong” and a cloth or small paintbrush. remove the left-hand cup (marked “L”). Insert the unit into the drive 7 Use the remover tool to screw in the unit. squarely engage 5 Check the BB threads for damage and remove any dirt or debris using some degreaser 6 On the new BB unit.166–73). 9 Once both cups are finger tight. Check that the cartridge unit is centered inside the bike frame— there should be equal space all around the unit. way until the threads engage. (right) side of the bike frame. To avoid cross- threading. Tighten drive (right) side counterclockwise Threadlock or grease Axle of cartridge unit Tighten nondrive Free cup (left) side clockwise 8 Grease the thread of the free cup. which means ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Measuring caliper ◾◾ Degreaser they are tightened in opposite ◾◾ Splined BB remover tool ◾◾ Cloth or small ◾◾ Grease directions. Caution! BBs may be Italian or TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT English threaded. REPLACING A BOT TOM BR ACKET—CARTRIDGE T YPES / 179 . Finish by reinstalling the crankset (see pp. Arrows on the BB cups ◾◾ Adjustable wrench paintbrush show direction to tighten them.

Axle sleeve used in carbon fiber frames Left cup Spacer Inner cover included for use on bikes with O-ring carbon frames O-ring Spacer 3 Unscrew both external cups until the whole BB unit comes out—once they are loose enough. this time turning the BB ring wrench clockwise. The drive (right) side cup Spacer Right cup may be attached to an axle sleeve. BB cup Splines BB ring wrench Reverse-threaded drive (right) side BB unscrews clockwise 1 Starting on the nondrive (left) side of the bike. roughness. 180 / DRIVETR AIN . and ◾ Lightly grease the thread of the BB cups side movement indicate your BB is worn down. The drive side is reverse thread. from unscrewing as it is being ridden. Noise.166–67) ◾ Clean the area around the BB crankset (see pp. which prevents the cup direction to the “tighten” arrow printed on it. PARTS FOCUS A Shimano HollowTech II BB consists of these components. unscrew them by hand. if included. REPLACING A BOTTOM BRACKET Shimano HollowTech II The Shimano HollowTech II bottom bracket (BB) BEFORE YOU START is widely installed on many modern bikes and ◾ Secure your bike in a frame stand works in conjunction with the HollowTech II ◾ Remove the crankset (see pp.166–67). attach the BB ring wrench over the splines of the BB cup. Loosen the cup by turning it in the opposite 2 Repeat on the drive (right) side of the bike.

damage the threads if they are not correctly aligned. then generously grease 5 Screw the drive (right) side of the new BB into the shell. turning it counterclockwise. as too much torque may the BB shell threads. to prevent cross- Degreaser threading 4 Thoroughly clean out the threads of the BB shell with degreaser and a cloth. and wipe dry. Check for corrosion and remove it. tighten the BB cups all the way on both sides. under pressure. REPLACING A BOT TOM BR ACKET—SHIMANO HOLLOWTECH II / 181 . Make sure that the wrench is squarely on the splines. Do this by hand as far as possible. you ◾◾ Cloth ring wrench may need to have the frame rethreaded by ◾◾ Grease ◾◾ Degreaser a professional mechanic. Tighten the cup until it is finger-tight. as if it slips off the shell. BB shell Grease BB shell threads Axle sleeve sits Apply fresh grease inside BB shell liberally to threads Line up BB cup inside BB shell. Turn wrench from one o’clock BB cup Splines starting position 6 Screw in the nondrive (left) side cup in the direction of the “tighten” arrow printed on it. Caution! If you find there is any TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT damage to the threads of the BB shell. or ◾◾ Frame stand ◾◾ Bottom bracket you accidentally cross-thread the BB. Ensure that the cup is aligned with the thread on 7 Using the BB ring wrench. it may damage the splines.

you to generate force through the complete and some may have toe clips and straps. metal cleat type of pedal easy to click into. making them more ◾ The clipless style has varying pedal has a grip sole that can be suitable for walking in. counterbalance their cargo. with no option to strap in. CLIPLESS ROAD ◾ All types of road racing. one side of the pedal. these can only be used and training. they uses smaller clears that are with two bolts and pushes back are also popular for general road recessed into the tread of some a retaining lip on the pedal. quick-release tension options. especially rides ◾ Despite the simplicity of its very easy to use and are especially involving technical downhilling. be used with noncycling shoes clips and straps make it possible ◾ A shoe plate can be slotted and do not lock the shoe to the to ride long distances on the over the back of the pedal for pedal. vastly improving However. as the shoe used for this shoes. of the bike through the pedals. of holding the foot in place. ◾ Cargo bikes. Once your shoe has clicked lock into the bottom of a cycling shoe. ◾ The system makes it possible to customize the amount of float. commuting. They are ◾ Mountain biking. 182 / DRIVETR AIN . as the pedal is works with a small. or ◾ The raised clipless mechanism Entry on both sides makes this off-road riding. ◾ The clipless system is installed on The most popular type of clipless competitive endurance riding. many modern pedals are designed to pedal efficiency. tightened to hold the shoe on clips and straps because they can ◾ For distance riders. as the toe the pedal. allowing into place. it is possible to push popular on downhill mountain bikes. the brand of pedal used. with a retaining lip at the front with a rigid-soled road shoe and and a spring-loaded locking a mounted shoe plate specific to mechanism at the back. degrees of float and some walked in. TOE CLIPS AND STRAPS ◾ New cyclists who want ◾ Toe clips stop the foot sliding New riders often prefer to start added power but are unsure forward. for a very loose fit. CHOOSER GUIDE Pedals Many new bikes come with basic flat pedals. The straps can be adjusted road in stiff-soled shoes. riding. revolution of the pedal stroke. it can also be adjusted for varying TYPE SUITABILITY OPERATION FLAT PEDALS ◾ Everyday utility cycling or for ◾ Made from a simple pedal plate These basic pedals have no means commuting short distances. designed to shed mud and that attaches to your cycling shoe Favored for off-road riding. allowing them to as any other pedal. design. usually pedal. and the straps can be with pedals equipped with toe about clipless pedals. serious road use. DOUBLE-SIDED CLIPLESS ◾ General road. as they give riders down just as hard on a flat pedal as they allow riders greater control greater control.

threaded inserts. with small spikes that are screwed in to aid grip. ◾ The minimalist design prevents in cyclo-cross races. but leather or very options on a flat pedal. ◾ Sliding two-bolt shoe-plate mount is recessed in the shoe’s sole. There are road and off-road more traditional options. plastic. adjustable via a grub screw ◾ The clip mechanism is spring. smooth. bolt. with an integral quick. a tensioned plate. for universal shoe plate. designed for walking or running ways. KEY COMPONENTS SHOE TYPE ADJUSTMENTS ◾ The body is made from steel ◾ Any flat-soled shoes are suitable ◾ There are no adjustment alloy or plastic with plates bolted for flat pedals. but it is usually or composite. typically have a bigger platform unbalancing the rider. and drilled model of pedal. depending on the release in steel. rigid soles made of various ways. hard soles may not grip well and ◾ Pedals on mountain bikes could cause the foot to slip off. three. pedals with toe clips and using quick-release on the strap. mud clogging the pedal. carbon or composite. on the spring mechanism or or tension-operated.degrees of “float”—the distance by which your versions of clipless pedals to suit every foot can move on a pedal before it detaches level of rider. but no shoe plates. and simple strap and cage and which you can adjust to suit your riding pedals are available for those who prefer requirements. ◾ Shoes are vented to keep feet cool. allowing a rider to clip-in if they wish to. depending on the type of pedal. to the front and rear. ◾ The body is made from steel ◾ Any kind of shoe can be ◾ The strap wraps around the shoe alloy or plastic with shoe plates used on flat pedals. ◾ Traditional. and on and can be tightened and released bolted to the front and rear. shoe in place. ◾ The body is made from carbon ◾ Lightweight road shoes with ◾ The level of float is changed in fiber. too. ◾ The body is made from alloy ◾ Road or off-road style shoes ◾ Can be customized to increase or with steel or titanium with a with rigid lug or grip soles decrease the level of float in various spring-operated mechanism. CHOOSER GUIDE—PEDALS / 183 . leather-soled cycling shoes must be used if pedals have shoe plates. ◾ The toe clip and straps hold the straps.

according to the pedals you have. if it is. Unscrew lockring with socket wrench Lockring Some dust caps Washer are set back into Hold pedal. unscrewing the retaining bolts counterclockwise. Worn-down pedals ◾ Check that the pedal axle is not bent. The drive (right) side pedal unscrews 2 Remove the pedal cages using a hex key. spray them with penetrating oil. Clean the bolts and threads. SERVICING PEDALS Greasing axle bearings Pedals rotate thousands of times per ride. Remove the lockring and the Put the dust cap safely to one side. metal washer beneath it to reveal the cone nut. and you should ◾ Prepare a clear space where you can lay out the parts check your pedals for wear every 12–18 months. ◾ If the pedal is stiff. 4 Insert a socket wrench onto the internal lockring. 184 / DRIVETR AIN . spray it with penetrating oil Maintaining pedals is a quick task. If the bolts are stiff. replace it ◾ Put the chain onto the largest chainring do not spin freely and make cycling less efficient. they are exposed to ◾ Inspect each pedal to that ensure the body is not cracked water and dirt. counterclockwise. the nondrive (left) side clockwise. and set them aside. and BEFORE YOU START when close to the ground. causing wear. keeping them safe for reinstallation. others Take care not pedal Cone may require to damage firmly nut unscrewing dust cap Remove internal lockring and washer. 3 Hold the pedal vertically with the dust cap up and the axle down. Pry off the dust cap with a flat-head screwdriver to get access to the bearings. Crankarm Hex key Pedal axle Retaining bolt Pedal cage Dust cap 1 Remove the pedals from the crankarms using a hex key or wrench. Hold the pedal firmly and turn the lockring counterclockwise.

before attaching it to the crankarm. Clean the bearings. Hold the axle steady. Workshop tip: If you do not have TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT a grease gun. if vertically necessary Locate socket wrench fully Bearing race Avoid dislodging and losing pedal bearings Turn socket wrench counterclockwise to undo cone nut 5 Use a socket wrench to unscrew the cone nut counterclockwise from the end of 6 Turn the pedal over and pull the axle out of the pedal body. Take care not to dislodge the 7 Remove the bearings using a magnetic tool or tweezers. Take care not to Once tight. Insert the bearings back into the races on both sides of the 9 Slide the pedal axle back into the pedal body. Grease the thread on the pedal axle pedal. Grease Lockring helps hold bearings in place Washer Cone nut Grease Tighten and gun check for Ensure cone nut. Install the cone nut. Reinstall 10 Tighten the lockring all the way and reinstall the pedal cage. or wrenches ◾◾ Socket wrench ◾◾ Grease and grease gun Use magnetic tool if bearings are loose. bearings inside the pedal. the washer and the lockring. and the the axle. dislodge bearings pedal should when inserting axle spin smoothly 8 Grease the inside of the pedal. and apply more grease. bearing races inside the pedal. SERVICING PEDALS—GREASING AXLE BEARINGS / 185 . you can use an old ◾◾ Penetrating oil ◾◾ Cloth and degreaser ◾◾ Magnetic tool spoke to help push grease into ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Flat-head screwdriver or tweezers tight gaps. movement and lockring are re- installed in correct order. axle. such as pedal axles. washer. tightening it loosely. or tweezers if held in clip Check for Pull pedal worn bearings axle out and replace.

of the cleat should sit between these lines. FITTING CLEATS Cycling shoes and cleats If you use clipless pedals. The center feet directly over the pedal axle. use a nonpermanent marker to mark out the position of the balls of your little toe and big toe on each shoe. Place your feet on the pedals with the balls of your 3 Turn each shoe over in turn. you will need to fit BEFORE YOU START cleats to your cycling shoes. Ensure that your foot is straight and that your ankle Put your foot on sits above pedal at bottom Draw parallel lines pedal of pedal stroke across the sole 1 Wearing your cycling shoes. sit on your bike. 186 / DRIVETR AIN . with your shoes on. by lining up bony knuckle at base big toe ball little toe ball of big toe with pedal axle. you will need to set the position and angle of the cleats to work with your feet. draw a line across the sole from the big toe mark and a parallel line from the little toe mark. Make sure with a small brush ◾ Sit down. Take your shoes off. To ride effectively and avoid knee bony knuckle at the base of your big toe ◾ Put on your cycling shoes and find that same bony knuckle injury. Cleats are usually ◾ Remove any old cleats and clean the cleat bolt holes supplied together with clipless pedals. 2 To determine the position of the cleats. Position foot correctly in relation to Position of Position of pedal. and using a ruler. wearing your normal cycling socks new cleats are compatible with your shoes and ◾ Feel along the inside edge of each foot to locate the your pedals. you may need to lean against a wall or a support.

◾ Cleats are color-coded to show the amount of “float” (movement possible when the cleat is engaged with the pedal). There are two main forms: twin-bolt cleats ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Nonpermanent marker are typically used on mountain bikes. in step 1. Angle the front to 7 Tighten the cleat screws equally.or 9-degree range allow feet to twist while pedaling. Caution! Ensure that your cleats are compatible with TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT your shoes. sit with your feet hanging freely off the ground. or straight ahead 6. those with 4 To determine the angle at which to set the cleats. Zero-float or fixed cleats keep the shoe locked in. 5 Grease the cleat bolt threads and loosely screw the cleats in. move your cleats inward so your feet move outward. Adjust them if required. Try out the cleats while sitting on the bike as cleat with the marks on the sole. move the cleat outward. (neutral). inward (pigeon-footed). aligning the center of each 6 Twist each cleat so that the base sits within the marks you drew in step 3. Check whether FINE-TUNING both feet are equal or if one is more angled You can make fine adjustments to match your riding style. Look at angle ◾ Moving the cleat sideways will of your feet in relation to affect how close your foot sits your ankle to your bike’s centerline. Some shoes for twin-bolt forms ◾◾ Small brush ◾◾ Grease offer two pairs of bolt holes for precise fitting. Note the approximate angle of each foot. match the angle of your feet. and three-bolt ◾◾ Cycling shoes and socks ◾◾ Ruler forms on road bikes. FIT TING CLEATS—CYCLING SHOES AND CLEATS / 187 . If you ride with narrow knees. Check whether your feet naturally point outward (duck-footed). one by one. If you ride with your knees wide at the top of the pedal stroke.



before purchasing any of these parts. and flexible frames. vary in the amount of travel. TYPE SUITABILITY OPERATION SUSPENSION FORKS ◾ Off-road riding on rough ◾ Suspension is provided by Almost all mountain bikes. compressed air or metal springs. Forks to 9 in/230 mm of travel). hybrid bikes. for road riding or climbing. Therefore. called “hardtail” mountain bikes. joined to at least one pivot point this is called “full suspension. inexpensive way to ◾ Long rides. Many mountain bikes have both front or rocky terrain. if a ◾ Suspension seatposts have riding. ◾ The fork can usually be set are measured by their travel (the ◾ Cross-country bikes that use short. FLOATING DRIVETRAIN ◾ A wide range of terrain types. SUSPENSION SADDLE/SEATPOST ◾ Rough road riding on uneven ◾ The most basic form of shock Suspension seatposts and saddles hard surfaces or cobblestones. especially holds the rear wheel and is suspension forks and a rear “shock”. absorption is given by metal can be an easy. 190 / SUSPENSION . Bikes ◾ Downhill and freeride bikes that it is often adjustable and includes with only front fork suspension are use longer-travel suspension (up a lockout function. and sensitive traction and allows main triangle of the frame. As terrain. improve ride quality for general ◾ Hardtail mountain bikes. (the most common types being ◾ Many shocks can be locked-out single-pivot and four-bar). Parts may include consider the type of riding you will be doing. it is mainly used on mountain always. and the pivot system movement in the swingarm.” They on the main triangle of the frame. for utility bikes. or swingarm. or swingarm. Even springs under the full rear suspension system is a spring set on a piston to saddle offer basic shock absorption not desired. This rear suspension system has a floating drivetrain provides is joined to pivot points on the multiple pivots and linkages. provide shock absorption. REAR SHOCKS ◾ Off-road riding on very rough ◾ The rear triangle. have telescopic forks. and many or rocky terrain. the ◾ A shock absorber (shock) controls springs used. bikes and some hybrid ones. rear shocks. ◾ The rear triangle. on technical downhills. for the rider’s weight using amount they move). rear triangles so that it can move ◾ The BB and crankset sit on a with the suspension. a bottom bracket that is secured highly efficient pedaling. a preload adjuster. suspension improve traction over bumps and dips on rough seatposts or stems. CHOOSER GUIDE Suspension Suspension is designed to absorb shocks and telescopic front forks. separate link between the front and rear triangles. springs under the saddle. ◾ A shock absorber (shock) controls to a link between the front and movement in the swingarm. travel forks (3–4 in/80–100 mm).

a firmer or softer ride is required. ◾ The springs utilize inner second crown at the top of the ◾ After a front-end impact. adding suspension sessions. linkages. used on most ◾ The fork stanchions should a steerer tube. all of which and an axle. sliders. may take damage and need repair after a collision. a fixed bracket on the frame. repairing after a collision. ◾ Dual-crown forks have a can indicate damaged seals. For more serious trail suspension set-up. Monolink systems. CHOOSER GUIDE—SUSPENSION / 191 . or even downhill and cross-country riding on rougher roads. or the rear triangle to frame bearings. internal spring. and squeaking. ◾ The body of the seatpost ◾ Suspension seatposts have an ◾ For suspension seatposts. ◾ Elastomer dampers may be ◾ Elastomer inserts must be arms and pivots attached to suspension seatposts changed if they are worn down or allow the saddle to or used alone.Even if you are intending only occasional riding. ◾ The rear shock unit ◾ Various types exist. and stop oil leaking past the seals. or if move down and back. at one pivot point. crown. damped tube. springs or metal coils. or enables the rear ◾ A four-bar system has twin frame bearings. stiffness for downhill bikes. They give extra the fork should be checked air or metal coils. triangle to articulate pivots with a linkage. Posts the spring should be regularly spacer. ◾ There should be no wear in ◾ A pivot system enables the pivot points. at the base of the steerer tube. or a metal spring. articulate with the ◾ The swingarm or linkages rest of the frame. ◾ On some seatposts. fork stanchions. and outer casing. nicks. start to harden with age. ◾ The rear shock unit has ◾ Single pivots have a swingarm ◾ The shock must be checked to pressurized air springs that connects to the front triangle stop oil leaking past the seals. you should consider upgrading to your seatpost can make cycling easier and to suspension forks or even to a full- more comfortable. mountain bikes. ◾ Simple sprung saddles. lubricated to prevent stiffness piston. usually just ◾ There should be no wear in ◾ The pivot system above the bottom bracket (BB). or leaks. may include an internal integral. with stainless steel for pivots. Freedrive. including ◾ The shock must be checked to utilizes pressurized air the i-Drive. KEY COMPONENTS VARIATIONS MAINTENANCE ◾ The fork body comprises ◾ Single-crown forks. A shock is ◾ The swingarm tubes or spars independently of the located between the linkage and may take damage and need rest of the frame. have one crown be inspected for scratches. linkages. for bends or damage. may be made of aluminum. the pivot points. chambers of pressurized steerer tube.

preference. fixed fork stanchions. Both the damping and the spring to frame action can be adjusted according to rider weight.198–99). Suspension compresses a small amount under a rider’s 1 The fork stanchions are fixed to the crown and weight. and Head tube move vertically up and down the fork stanchions as the suspension compresses and decompresses.194–95). Many also have a lockout. This pressure can be increased or reduced to adjust the suspension (see pp. damper piston and air chamber or coil spring.194–95) and can be adjusted if desired. They tube and seatpost help to keep the front wheel in contact with the ground over rough terrain and ease rider fatigue. Brace 4 The lockout mechanism locks the suspension so O-ring that the forks do not compress. including the O-ring (see pp. It is used to save Slider pedaling energy when riding on smooth surfaces. KEY COMPONENTS Suspension forks Suspension forks act by compressing and Down tube joins head rebounding to absorb vibration and bumps. This is shown on the contain the suspension mechanism. and terrain. The forks contain a steel coil spring or an air spring. PARTS FOCUS Suspension forks comprise an air spring (shown here) or metal coil. 192 / SUSPENSION . Fork crown 3 The air chamber provides pressure within the Fork stanchion fork stanchion. Some types also need specialized maintenance once a year. FRONT SAG and mobile sliders. The speed of the spring’s action is controlled by damping from a piston within an Cable mount secures cable oil reservoir. 2 The sliders are connected to the front wheel. You should keep suspension forks clean and maintain them Gear cable after every 20 hours of riding (see pp.

Headset Air valve allows air to be added or released from air chamber Top cap sits at top of air chamber 4 Air chamber used to pressurize suspension Lockout dial Fork crown joins locks forks fork stanchions to steerer tube 1 3 O-ring used to set Tire suspension sag Compression Spring seal damper keeps out controls fork dirt rebound speed Fork seal protects suspension from dirt 2 Piston head sits at top of slider Oil chamber contains suspension oil Damper piston compresses oil in chamber Head seal on air chamber Flow valve regulates damping Damper shaft pushes damper piston Damper head Disc rotor seal at base of piston Disc brake caliper Dropout holds wheel axle Rebound control allows fork rebound to be adjusted .

or panniers can be adjusted by changing the preload setting. allowing the suspension to return to its original extended position. 194 / SUSPENSION . shoes. the manufacturer recommends for your weight ◾ Recreate your normal riding weight: put on your usual The steps shown here are for air-filled forks. and attach any which are the most common. then measure the distance from the base 4 Push the O-ring back down to the base of the fork stanchion. Coil-sprung forks water bottles. 3 Release your weight from the fork. short distance. % 0 10 % 75 % 50 O-ring % indicates 25 amount of movement O-ring at base Using tape measure. Do not use the brake or pump the fork. Never use a 2 Hold the front brake firmly. riding clothes. hydration packs. Apply bodyweight to handlebar O-ring or rubber Fork completely band compressed Base of fork stanchion 1 Slide the O-ring down to the base of the fork stanchion. Push down on the handlebar with your full weight to compress cable tie. the suspension fork as far as it will go. tie a rubber band to the base. because it could scratch the fork stanchion. helmet. ensuring that the bike cannot move forward. note of fork stanchion how far O-ring has been moved by fork stanchion. ADJUSTING FRONT SUSPENSION Setting the front sag Sag is the amount by which the suspension BEFORE YOU START compresses under a rider’s weight. which you ◾ Add air to the shock absorbers to the pressure that can alter to suit different riding styles or terrain. travel a of the fork stanchion to the position of the O-ring. and backpack. Mount your bike and. standing on the pedals with your weight over the handlebar. If the fork stanchion does not have an O-ring.

New % position 25 of O-ring Increase air pressure by 10 psi at a time 25% of full extent of fork travel Attach shock pump to valve 5 Dismount carefully and note the new position of the O-ring. 10 psi. as in steps 6–7. ADJUSTING FRONT SUSPENSION—SET TING THE FRONT SAG / 195 . set it “open” to allow the ◾◾ Riding gear fork to compress and decompress all the way. and at 30% for downhill riding. If necessary. then retest the amount of sag by running through steps 3–5 again. attach a shock pump to the valve at the top of the stanchion and pump in air at increments of step 2. ensure that you position it at the “full-travel” ◾◾ Shock pump ◾◾ Rubber band setting before performing these steps. If the fork ◾◾ Owner’s manual ◾◾ Tape measure has a “lock out” switch. release some air from the fork—10 psi at a time— by pressing the bleed button on the shock pump. Desired amount of sag Press bleed button Valve at top of to reduce pressure fork stanchion Position of O-ring 7 If the sag is lower than your desired setting. Repeat steps 3–5 to check the new setting. it should be at 20–25% of the total sag measured in 6 If the sag is greater than your required setting. 8 Take the bike for a ride. more. Caution! If the fork has a travel-adjustment TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT dial. adjust the amount of air pressure once Repeat steps 3–5 to check the new setting. For cross-country or trail riding.

If it skips off the ground. controlled steering for your weight and the terrain on which you are cycling. keeping the palms of your hands flat. Divide this number by three. One form of adjustment is “damping” to control the rate of the fork’s compression (downward Push down on handlebar travel) and rebound (return to normal). 196 / SUSPENSION . Correct with flat palms damping ensures that the forks will respond quickly and smoothly on uneven ground. Then test the rate at which the forks rebound by pushing down on the handlebar. to increase the damping and stop the bouncing. Watch forks to see how fast they move BEFORE YOU START ◾ Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the recommended suspension settings ◾ Prepare a clear space where valve caps can be laid out ◾ Keep a notebook and pen to hand so you can jot down different settings as you try them out 2 Unwind the rebound dial and reset it at one-third of its full extent. Rebound dial Tire will bounce if there is excessive rebound 1 Open the rebound dial at the base of the fork blade by turning it counterclockwise as far as it will go. the rebound is too high. Fork blade Turn rebound dial clockwise to increase damping and slow rebound speed. counting the clicks it makes 3 Check your front tire to see if it stays in contact with the ground. MAINTAINING FRONT SUSPENSION Tuning suspension forks Suspension forks can be adjusted to provide comfortable. Turn the rebound dial clockwise until it is closed again. Then screw it clockwise.

◾ Inflate air-sprung forks to Compression damping dials allow the correct pressure for you to control how quickly the your weight. forks react to different terrain. MAINTAINING FRONT SUSPENSION—TUNING SUSPENSION FORKS / 197 . Workshop tip: Some suspension forks can have TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT the distance they travel vertically increased or ◾◾ Manufacturer’s instructions ◾◾ Riding clothes and gear decreased by inserting or removing plastic spacers ◾◾ Notebook and pen ◾◾ Shock pump inside the fork blades. ◾ There are two types of shock 6 If your bike’s suspension forks feature compression damping. Use the correct pump or “bottoming out” while riding. AIR-SPRUNG FORKS Some air-sprung forks have an Compression adjustable negative spring to damping dial control the fork’s sensitivity to small bumps. Feel how smoothly or roughly the fork reacts when braking Turn rebound dial counter- clockwise to reduce damping and increase rebound speed. Test and correct as necessary. moving increase the speed at which the fork reacts. Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions if this applies to your forks. Initially. The reaction should be smooth and not stiff. you pump: high pressure and low may need to tune it to prevent them from compressing all the way pressure. Forks should absorb small Note how fast impacts forks travel— smoothly they should not “dive” or “bob” over bumps Tire should Tire stays in have good contact contact with with ground the ground 4 If the fork rebounds too slowly. Compression damping is adjusted by for your suspension. turning the dial on the top of each fork. the spring should be at the same air pressure as the main spring. the dial by small amounts until you are happy. turn the rebound dial counterclockwise to reduce the damping and 5 Put on your normal riding gear and go for a ride over bumpy terrain to check how the suspension feels. Make further adjustments as needed.

and use a screwdriver to ease out the foam ring inside.114–15) You should inspect the lower legs after every ◾ Ensure that the forks are clean. remove grease and dirt. remove it before Rubber they can be compressed. Clean the 4 Remove the spring ring from the top of each wiper seal on the slider. tap them free with a rubber hammer. Clean the rings and the fork stanchions and inspect the surface for scratches. if included (see pp. and you should ideally ◾ Refer to the fork manufacturer’s instructions (see step 8) ◾ Lay out a drop cloth to catch any excess oil replace the seals and oil after 200 hours. Release the air using the bleed button on the pump. If stiff.78–79) ◾ Remove the rim brake calipers. SERVICING FRONT SUSPENSION The lower legs Suspension forks bear the brunt of rough terrain. unscrewing foot bolts.54–57) they perform properly. inside of the seals with an alcohol-based cleaner. and to prolong their lives. ◾ Remove the front wheel (see pp. BEFORE YOU START so they need regular maintenance to ensure that ◾ Remove the stem and forks (see pp. With the hex key still in the bolt. and free of dirt and grit 25 hours of riding time. then pull the lower legs to ease the sliders from the fork stanchions. Release air using Leg a hex key Undo foot bolts counter- clockwise Hex Rebound Slider key adjuster fits Fork into bolts stanchion Release air from forks using If fork has rebound hex key or shock pump so adjuster. 198 / SUSPENSION . to loosen the damper shaft within the lower legs. Fork stanchions Spring ring Foam rings Damper Catch any sit inside shafts oil in pan seals or bucket Foot bolt Wiper seal Once loose. or by pressing the valve 2 Insert a hex key into the foot bolts at the base of each leg and unscrew by three turns. Sliders 3 Unscrew the foot bolts. hammer 1 Fasten a shock pump to the air valve on the fork. tap it using a rubber hammer on the fork with a hex key. completely Work a cloth around unscrew and remove foot inside wiper seal to bolts from legs using hex key. and note the pressure.

if 10 Repressurize the fork to its original pressure using a shock pump. Tighten Attach foot bolts shock pump to correct to air valve torque Use correct grade and amount of oil Add air to fork to correct pressure Insert syringe into hole at Compress forks base of sliders completely Fork crown 8 Inject suspension oil into the sliders using a syringe. Clean any spilled oil. around the inside of the seals. Reattach the forks instructions on which oil to use.54–57). included. Refer to the fork manufacturer’s 9 Compress the forks and hold them in place. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ◾◾ Cloth and cleaning fluid ◾◾ Set of hex keys ◾◾ Long screwdriver ◾◾ Suspension grease ◾◾ Drop cloth ◾◾ Rubber hammer ◾◾ Alcohol-based cleaner ◾◾ Suspension oil and syringe ◾◾ Shock pump ◾◾ Pan or bucket ◾◾ Lint-free towel ◾◾ Torque wrench (optional) Grease wiper seals with Reattach Ensure lint-free suspension sliders facing towel does not grease same way get stuck in slider they came off Firmly push fork stanchions through wiper seals 5 Wrap a lint-free towel over a long screwdriver. to the bike (see pp. Push the sliders halfway of them thoroughly. Insert it into the sliders and wipe the inside 6 Reattach the foam rings and spring rings to the wiper seals. Replace both foot bolts and the rebound adjuster. SERVICING FRONT SUSPENSION—THE LOWER LEGS / 199 . then apply suspension grease 7 Rotate the forks so that the fork stanchions are positioned diagonally. onto the fork stanchions.

Rear personal preference. 1 On some systems (such as the one shown here).or nitrogen-filled chambers. PARTS FOCUS Hex bolts Linkage allows secure linkage to pivots suspension Rear suspension systems have a shock unit to move that acts on pivots and linkages on the frame to allow the rear wheel to move up and down. Air can be added or released to adjust air pressure when setting the sag (see pp. and the location of the rear shock shock units. You need to keep the shock unit clean and maintain it after every 20 hours of riding. and the terrain you are riding shock on. 2 3 The shaft forms the lower half of the shock unit. It contains the nitrogen and oil chambers. however. which allows The shock still performs in the same way. 4 The air chamber occupies the top half of the shock. 200 / SUSPENSION . The speed of the spring’s action Linkage is controlled by damping pistons inside oil. the central part of the system. a steel coil spring or an air spring. Some types also need specialized maintenance annually. Rear of rear linkage. 2 Pivots between the linkages and/or on the frame allow the rear triangle to rotate around them so the rear wheel can move up and down.202–03). The spring action and the damping can be adjusted according to your weight. contain will vary accordingly. and the pistons that provide damping. one or more linkages join the rear shock to the rear triangle of the bike frame. the suspension to compress or rebound to absorb bumps and dips. KEY COMPONENTS Rear suspension Rear suspension systems keep the rear wheel REAR LINKAGE in contact with the ground over rough terrain to There are several designs Seatpost maximize traction and give a smoother ride.

Air valve allows air to be added or released from air chamber Body protects shock mechanism 4 Seal prevents two halves of shock Rebound control dial from leaking allows rebound to be adjusted Damper rod O-ring can be controls used to set damping rear sag Damping piston Lockout dial compresses locks rear oil and nitrogen suspension chambers 3 Oil chamber absorbs shocks Floating piston separates oil and nitrogen chambers Nitrogen chamber provides damping 1 Seatpost straddles each side of rear shock KEY COMPONENTS—REAR SUSPENSION / 201 .

202 / SUSPENSION . and divide its length by 4. and push it against the shock seal instead. Avoid bouncing the shock as you get on. If the bicycle has no O-ring.196–197) need to be able to compress and expand to cope with bumps and any dips you encounter. tie cut rubber band around shaft. 1 Slide the O-ring up the shaft until it sits against the rubber shock seal of the shock body. Shock is compressed by rider’s weight. Measure length of shaft from rubber shock seal to base % 25 0% Shock body % moves along 75 % 50 shaft to allow compression % 0 and rebound 10 Main body of rear shock 2 Measure the shaft. ADJUSTING REAR SUSPENSION Setting the rear sag Rear suspension is designed not only to give a BEFORE YOU START comfortable ride but also to keep the back wheel ◾ Position your bike against a wall on the ground for maximum grip and pedaling ◾ Add air to the shock absorber to the manufacturer’s recommended setting for your weight with a shock pump efficiency. shock absorbers (shocks) ◾ Put on your normal riding gear (see pp. the shaft. tie a cut rubber band around 3 Wearing your riding gear. but as a precaution check your shock manufacturer’s instructions to determine the recommended amount of sag. Most shocks require 25% sag. To do so. mount the bike carefully so that the rear suspension is compressed by your full weight as it would be on a normal ride. forcing O-ring down shaft Shock seal O-ring If O-ring is missing. ensuring it is tight.

increase the air pressure at increments of 10 psi at a time. Retest the Retest the sag and add more air as required. use the bleed button on the shock pump to release air from the shock and reduce the air pressure. so that the shock decompresses. Measure If O-ring has moved distance O-ring beyond 25% along the has moved shaft. if it 20% and 30% along the exposed length of the shaft. ADJUSTING REAR SUSPENSION—SET TING THE REAR SAG / 203 . then the sag is too much. then the sag is too low. If the sag is too low. and repeat as necessary. It should have traveled between 5 The optimum extent of shock travel is around 25% along the shaft. Workshop tip: Before you start to adjust the rear TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT sag. has moved less than 25%. ensure that any lockout or propedal switch on ◾◾ Shock pump ◾◾ Cut rubber band the shock is turned off so that the shock can move ◾◾ Riding gear ◾◾ Ruler through its full distance of travel. O-ring Bleed valve on shock pump Shock pump 6 Attach a shock pump to adjust the air pressure inside the shock. and check the position of the O-ring on the shaft. sag (see steps 1–4). If the O-ring or band has moved beyond 25%. 7 If the sag is too high. sag is too high % 25 4 Dismount carefully.



◾ Inspect hydraulic hoses for wear or leaks (pp. Regularly checking suspension systems can prevent small problems from developing into larger ones.40–41).40–41).142–43). As one of the most complex ◾ Tighten crankarms and chainring bolts (pp.44–45). EVERY WEEK ◾ Check chain for wear (pp. ◾ Check headset is correctly adjusted and allows for easy STEERING AND WHEELS steering (pp.40–41). you will reduce the likelihood to keep on top of any work you need to do on of wearing out parts prematurely or your bike. 166–73).44–45).44–45). ◾ Check quick-release levers are functioning (pp.40–41. ◾ Inspect inner cables for fraying and outer cables for wear. ELECTRONICS ◾ Clean bike so there is less resistance when Motor performance will be more efficient if your bike runs smoothly.40–41). accidents.100–01. the drivetrain ◾ Oil chain and jockey pulleys if bike was ridden in the rain (pp. 118–19). ◾ Inspect fork stanchions under shock boots for cracks (pp. (pp.40–41).40–41). SUSPENSION ◾ Lubricate fork stanchions with wet lube (pp. REGULAR MAINTENANCE Planner A maintenance timetable can be a useful way basic fixes. ◾ Tighten top caps.40–41. needs constant maintenance. checks and repairs are crucial. crown bolts. cycling and battery drains more slowly (pp. 88–89).192–93). BRAKES ◾ Ensure pads are aligned and not worn down (pp. and shaft bolts (pp.196–99). ◾ Check over fork and shock exterior surfaces for cracks (pp. Brakes can prevent all manner of ◾ Tighten disc and caliper bolts (pp.40–41.40–41).40–41). ◾ Ensure gears are shifting properly (pp. 206 / OWNER’S GUIDE . By scheduling regular sessions for having an accident on the road.40–41). so regular maintenance ◾ Check for cracks in brake parts (pp. ◾ Ensure battery is fully charged. then oil with lube (pp. DRIVETRAIN ◾ Inspect cables for fraying or wear (pp. ◾ Inspect handlebar and stem for cracks and ensure stem bolts are tightened (pp. 130–38). parts of a bike. Wheels and steering may require ◾ Ensure wheels are in true and have no broken spokes frequent attention if you are riding more on trails than on roads.

◾ Inspect headset covers. ◾ Ensure there are no splits on rubber hub ◾ Check for wear in bearings and bearing surfaces seals (pp. cables. ◾ Replace brake pads of frequently ridden mountain bikes (pp. if installed (pp.196–99). while a bike for how often you should check over your bike if infrequent. ◾ Inspect bearings in open–bearing hubs for wear or play on axles (pp. ◾ Ensure rear derailleur hangers are fixed (pp.54–55).136–37).192–93). ◾ Check electronics cables outer for wear ◾ Check working of electronic gear-shift levers or splits. if needed (pp. (pp. ◾ Replace fork oil (pp.144–49). ◾ Check cog teeth on chain/cassette ring are ◾ Oil hub gear and check pedals do not feel rough or not worn down or missing (pp.94–95).120–21).132–35). tight spots.160–61) and inner and outer release mechanism with lubricant (pp.90–91). and clipless pedal.54–55). notchy and are not worn down (pp.132–35). ◾ Ensure jockey pulleys are not worn down (pp. (pp. (pp.156–57).158–59).62–63).52–53). The sample schedule below gives an idea of much more attention.78–83).194–97).90–91).44–45).90–91). ◾ Remove headset to check fork steerer assembly for ◾ Check fork stanchions to see if oil line is visible cracks (pp. ◾ Turn bike upside-down and store overnight so oil can spread through fork.44–45). ◾ Spray derailleur hangers. in headsets (pp. ◾ Replace handlebar tapes and grips (pp.40–41). ◾ Check hubs for any roughness.44–45).174–81). ◾ Ensure discs are aligned and not worn (pp.198–99). and rear derailleur frame bolt (pp.44–45). ◾ Grease inner cables and oil inside outer cables ◾ Replace inner or outer cables (pp.144–45). cables (pp. ◾ Grease brake bosses (pp. ◾ Eliminate any play in forks and shocks (pp. ◾ Ensure there is no fork or shock sag (pp. (pp.94–95) and headsets ◾ Oil hub seals (pp. ◾ Replace cogs (pp. freehub body ◾ Oil chain and jockey pulleys (pp. A heavily used model will need require far less maintenance. short road journeys will you ride often. ◾ Tighten pedals.54–57).44–45). REGULAR MAINTENANCE—MAINTENANCE TIMETABLE / 207 . (pp. You should also check your frame over for cracks and damage and lubricate it every time you clean it.44–45) (pp. EVERY MONTH EVERY SIX MONTHS ◾ Check bottom bracket runs smoothly (pp. (pp.144–45). ◾ Inspect fork and shock seals for cracks or slackness ◾ Have suspension maintenance done by trained technician.184–85). Safety tip: Bear in mind that regular maintenance work does not replace the safety checks that you should undertake before every ride. ◾ Grease open bearing hubs (pp. ◾ Check for play in freewheel (pp. ◾ Replace chain if used less regularly (pp.44–45).

◾ Hub bearings could be dirty. PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES Steering does not respond as expected when you ◾ Handlebar may be bent or not aligned correctly. ◾ Worn down or incorrectly adjusted headset. whether coasting or pedaling. ◾ Grinding or squeaking from either wheel. too loose. ◾ Wheel is buckled. turn smoothly and without play. or worn down. ◾ Cracked or bubbling paintwork. Wheel rim or tire rubs against the brake. Seatpost wobbles loose or slips down gradually during ◾ Seatpost diameter may be too small for frame. or soft or springy carbon. You might also notice: ◾ The wheel might be out of true. Bicycle handles uncertainly when riding around corners. ◾ Wheel may have been incorrectly inserted ◾ Loose or broken spokes rattle in the wheel. cracks in the frame around tube junctions. stem. ◾ Brakes may be misaligned. move the handlebar. ◾ Steering feels delayed or imprecise. or fork ◾ Wheel might be out of true after an impact due whenever you are riding. or have slipped ◾ Saddle is not straight. ◾ Tires could be underinflated. Resistance when riding. while the wheels and headset must moving parts. saddle. ◾ The forks or frame may be bent. riding. in the dropouts. ◾ Brake is misaligned. ◾ Pedaling is harder when sitting down due to the lower-than-normal saddle height. The handlebar. most often following a crash. Other symptoms might include: ◾ Headset is too tight. ◾ Wheel rattles on the hub or wobbles in the frame. ◾ Tire bead could be incorrectly seated inside the rim. ◾ Seatpost clamp may be loose. TROUBLESHOOTING Steering. or the tire bead incorrectly seated inside the rim. up the seatpost. wheels The stationary components on your bicycle and seatpost bear your weight and provide deserve the same careful maintenance as its comfort. 208 / OWNER’S GUIDE . ◾ Wheel may be out of true. or too tight. ◾ Tire rubs against the frame or brakes. frame. saddle. Other symptoms include: ◾ Bearings of the cup-and-cone hubs may be loose. ◾ Brakes rub against the wheel. You might also notice: ◾ Saddle clamp might be loose. worn down. Symptoms might include: to spokes loosening.

68–69).Problems with these parts can cause significant not running smoothly. as diameter. Check the centering tighten. The stem moves freely and and forks for rippled should be in line with without play. or bent the wheel. the tire bead is correctly ensuring that the pads and cones for wear. it is essential to identify discomfort or difficulty when riding.84–87). Adjust paint. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Check alignment of the See if the headset Inspect the frame handlebar. are parallel to the wheel unworn. grease and reinsert seat tube (pp. Check that the tire Adjust the cup-and. correctly pinch your fingers around buckled wheel. ball bearings. or run your hands around replace the wheel tighten the quick-release the tire. and tighten (pp. races (pp. (pp. True the wheel so is not flat—patch or cone hub’s bearings so that the rim runs replace the inner tube. or evenly on each side. cracks. WHEELS / 209 . appropriately (pp. all the way (pp. Reinflate the tube entirely (pp. by a frame builder. that they are tight. (pp.112–117).84–89). regrease and deflate the inner tube rim.48–49). SADDLE.68–69). wheel. Replace bent the bearings and which can be fixed handlebar (pp. races. Replace worn and reseat the tire bead and adjust if necessary down or pitted parts. True the wheel so that it Adjust the brake cone hubs and check runs straight. with a spoke wrench (pp. and/ tubes. measure the are in the correct seat tube. Overhaul the cup-and.88–89). Replace centered in dropouts.68–69). tension of the spokes manufacturer’s advised in the out-of-true area pressure (pp. the severity of the reinsert. To find the the jaws of the clamp well as the top of the right size. If seated in the rim—if not. TROUBLESHOOTING—STEERING. If you are the cause of the problem and possible remedies unable to steer properly or feel your wheels are as quickly as possible. straight. Then inflate to the with no lateral play. so the bar is it if necessary.78–81). then true the wheel. (pp. Spin the wheel to gauge Remove the wheel and Deflate the inner tube. Check that alignment with the rim.60–61). adjusting the if so.54–57). Reassemble internal diameter of the position around clamp. ensuring that clamp and clean it.88–89). the tire to squeeze the the broken spokes and Tighten the axle nuts bead inside the rim. the saddle rails the seatpost. Swap the seatpost for Tighten the saddle Remove the seatpost one with the correct clamp. Replace them at 90 degrees to the or grease or replace unless made of steel.

◾ Pads or rims may be worn down. or brake cable reduction in speed despite pulling hard on the levers. Brakes gradually or rapidly lose power. ◾ Spring tension insufficient to push arms away from rim. ◾ The brake lever hitting the handlebar when you pull it. or contaminated with dirt and grit. cable stretch. well-maintained brakes should deliver brakes are essential for safe cycling—failure can ample braking power to slow your speed have dramatic and dangerous consequences. or dirt and pad residue on the rim. dirty. brake lever. Steel rims have poor friction when wet. preventing brake arms brake lever. corroded. 210 / OWNER’S GUIDE . Brakes are stiff or difficult to apply when you pull the ◾ Brake pivots or bosses are worn down. You might wear. with no ◾ Cable-clamp bolt may be loose. ◾ Link wire on cantilever brakes may be badly adjusted. quickly and effectively or bring you to a halt. ◾ Cable housing end-caps might be missing. and the pad sticks against or close to the rim. or contaminated. but ◾ Brake pads may be too far from the rim due to pad you cannot lock the wheel to stop the bike. from moving freely. old and hard. ◾ A grating sound coming from the brake lever. down unevenly with a lip of pad trapped under rim. ◾ A sharp crack from a snapping brake cable. TROUBLESHOOTING Rim brakes Although mechanically simple. PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES Brakes make a noise when you pull the brake levers ◾ Squealing may be due to the brake pads being angled to slow your bike. and have worn ◾ A spongy feeling when the brake levers are pulled. fully functioning Good. ◾ Resistance or sticking from the brake cables when the brake lever is pulled. Brakes do not spring back all the way when you release the ◾ Pivot bolts are too tight. ◾ Brake lever may be clogged with dirt or damaged. or the brake quick-release being open. ◾ Brake pads are out of alignment with rim. corroded. ◾ More resistance than you are used to when pedaling. Other symptoms might include: ◾ Brake pads might not be not secured tightly on brake arms. You might also experience: ◾ Dry. or dirty. and may be the issue. or worn down brake cable and/or housing. may have snapped. also notice: ◾ Poorly aligned brake pads may be slipping under the rim. Symptoms include: flat or tail-in to the rim. ◾ Brake pads rubbing against the rim. ◾ Shaking when the brake pads hit the wheel rim. Other symptoms include: ◾ Cable is corroded or routed incorrectly. Bicycle slows down when you pull the brake lever. ◾ Poor braking in wet weather. ◾ Scraping or grinding may be caused by the pads being ◾ Squealing or scraping when the brakes are applied.

and pads on the brake the brake cable in the check the housing itself arm. Loosen the pivot bolts Lubricate or replace the brake For V. (pp. clean the to the correct angle for barrel adjuster.112–115). cable and/or housing. Try wire wool or fine the cables are correctly routed and grease the cable sandpaper to remove and seated into the cable housing where it meets the or smooth over rust stops. 102–105). Replace the cable Tighten the brake clamp bolt. 116–117). If the brakes. pp. Clean and lubricate the Clean or replace the brake Clean the brake lever.110–111). Replace it if broken corrosion (pp.104–105).104–105. then sand it gently (pp. Apply are centered and (pp.102–105.110–111). TROUBLESHOOTING—RIM BR AKES / 211 . Lubricate pads are worn down. lubricant and replace the aligned with the housing if necessary rim (pp. replacing housing end-caps. brake pivots or bosses. water (pp.44– boss’s uppermost hole (pp. or adjusting the evidence of scoring or wear and adjust the link wire cable at the clamp or to the rim.42–43). touching the brush to dislodge any past the depth-marker rim first during braking. replace arms and place the spring the pivot points or apply or cut off the lip with a scalpel. fitted (pp. hardened pad residue. by moving them toward wear and replace if there is loosen the cable clamp the rim. and run optimum brake power the brake quick-release sandpaper over the pads (pp. tension pin in the brake grease to the brake bosses then reset to the rim (pp. (pp. ensuring they case of a breakage for rust or wear. 45.or cantilever until the brake arms can cable and/or housing.42–43. remove the brake move unhindered. Tighten the cable. pp. grooves. use a Check that the brakes are then rinse off with scalpel to level the centered (pp. ensuring lubricate its pivot point. If not.110–117). (pp. but you drastically reduce the potential risk of a if you spot the symptoms early and take quick life-threatening crash or accident. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Toe-in the brake pads so Clean the rim using Replace the brake that front of pad is angled degreaser and a pads if worn down toward the rim.114–115).Any problems with brakes pose considerable action to identify and then resolve the problem.42–43). (pp. Reset the brake pads Check the pads and rims for For cantilever brakes. 112–117). 102–105). (pp. 110–111). pad. Close surface of both. and the end-caps are lever. If not.42–43.104–105).42–43.44–45. danger both to yourself and other road users.110–117).

◾ Brake calipers may be misaligned with the disc rotor. Brake pads do not spring back from the disc rotor after ◾ Brake cable and/or housing may be dirty. which inhibits brake-pad movement. ◾ Reduced braking power when you apply the brakes. disc brakes are also popular because of the and effective even in poor conditions. disc-brake caliper. worn out. You might also notice: ◾ Pads may be glazed over. ◾ Caliper bolts may be loose and vibrate when braking. You might also notice: corroded. ◾ Excessive wear on pads and rotor. lever’s travel at which the brakes come on—each time ◾ Brake fluid may have boiled due to prolonged braking you pull the lever. ◾ The rotor may be warped due to an impact when riding. or you have finished braking. ◾ Grinding or scraping sounds when the wheel rotates. sticking within ◾ A scraping noise once the brakes are released. Loss of braking power when you pull the brake ◾ Contamination from lubricant. brake fluid. ◾ A different “bite point”—the position in the brake ◾ Fluid may be leaking from hydraulic hoses. Other symptoms might include: repeatedly applying and releasing lever—improves braking power and results in a firmer feel. or not “bedded in. ◾ Brake pads may be too close to the disc rotor. or natural entry of water over time. the brake caliper rather than moving freely. PROBLEM CAUSES Brakes squeal when you pull the brake lever to reduce ◾ Contamination from lubricant. Brake pads rub against the rotor when you are riding. ◾ Rotor surface may be worn down or roughened. TROUBLESHOOTING Disc brakes The most powerful and reliable form of bicycle that they offer the rider. ◾ Air may have entered brake system. You might also notice: grease may have leaked onto the disc rotor or brake pads. handlebar—may be badly adjusted. ◾ Brake lever hits handlebar without stopping the bike.” ◾ Brake lever “reach”—distance between lever and ◾ Increase in stopping distance when braking. degreaser. brake fluid. take care of “modulation”—fine control over braking power— them to greatly improve their performance. While discs are robust brake. meaning you find it impossible to lock the grease may have leaked onto the disc rotor or brake pads. ◾ A grinding from the cable as mechanical disc ◾ Dirt has jammed the lever arm of the mechanical brakes are applied. or lever. ◾ Vibrations or shaking during braking. frayed. wheel completely. 212 / OWNER’S GUIDE . or your speed or halt the bike. Other symptoms might include: such as the bike falling on its side or getting damaged during storage or transit. ◾ Hydraulic pistons may be dirty. A spongy feeling at the brake lever when you apply the ◾ Air may be in the system if pumping the brake— hydraulic disc brake. degreaser.

especially at the same type of fluid— the hydraulic system joints.42–45).108–109). system (pp. secure from caliper. travel by turning the braking down a safe dragging the brake for reach adjuster or slope. and the inner pad with (pp. (pp. way (pp. However. any pad glaze. Repeat up to discs.120–121). Clean then disc. Gently sand the and tighten to ones. Ensure that pads and rotor with recommended metallic pads are fine-grade sandpaper torque ratings “bedded in” all the (pp. set at fully open (pp. True the rotor by Reset the caliper Adjust mechanical disc bending it back so the disc rotor is pads independently to into line with an centered between prevent rubbing. the pads. the adjustment screw. removing the cable with the caliper arm reset with a piston-press wheel and pads first. Or hold pad over a 5 seconds.As disc brakes are complex. or out the pads and pump lever arm and caliper replace them. and retighten.108–109). then locking grub screw. tool or screwdriver wrapped in a rag. Then air from the brakes bleed air from the (pp. warped. Sand off barrel adjuster on the contaminated rotor. rather than metallic down. or fixing bolts and organic brake pads replace it if badly worn rotor-fixing bolts. using this chart. Clean and lubricate the Clean pistons. For cable blowtorch or gas stove the wheel. Consider using isopropyl alcohol. replace it center by eye. First.108–109). it can be hard to possible to narrow down the possible causes identify which part of the system contains the behind any difficulties with your disc brakes fault. Loosen the the outer pad by If the rotor is badly caliper-fixing bolts. Tighten any do not mix up mineral (pp. tighten the on low setting. Bleed the brake to Inspect hydraulic Replace brake fluid with expel air bubbles from hoses. Burn contamination off Bed in new pads Adjust brake-lever the pad with prolonged by riding at speed.120–121). tweaking cable tension.42–43). TROUBLESHOOTING—DISC BR AKES / 213 . For best lever until pistons protrude body of a mechanical braking power. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Clean the rotor with Check the caliper. it should be and identify the potential solution.120–121). Clean a a dozen times. Adjust adjustable wrench. leaking joints and bleed and DOT fluids. take Strip and clean the cable and housing. brake lever.

Other symptoms include: ◾ A worn down or broken shifter might cause poor shifting. You may notice: if skipping happens only in particular gears—cogs or chainrings may be worn down. ◾ The derailleur hanger or rear derailleur may be bent. a loose cassette lockring. cable may Symptoms might include: have stretched or be incorrectly inserted in cable clamp. indexing poorly adjusted. ◾ The pedals may be too tight. Resistance when pedaling. or an incorrect chain. and chains. chainrings. ◾ The chainring(s) may be bent or loose. with several pedal turns before changing gear. cogs. From gear-shift levers to there is a lot to go wrong. and smallest cog. faults to develop. ◾ You may be using brake housing instead of gear housing. ◾ The chain falls off into the BB or crankarm. You might notice: it difficult to pedal. pedals. or split. greater force for derailleur to change gear. ◾ Chain crunches when pedaling out of the saddle. TROUBLESHOOTING Drivetrain The drivetrain is the most complex system on cables. chainrings. with the greatest potential for bottom brackets. ◾ Battery may be flat due to insufficient charging. preventing accurate gear-shifting. derailleurs to your bicycle. Front derailleur does not change gear correctly. or worn down. causing damage ◾ Creaking or crunching noise from the BB. giving way under pressure when ◾ Chain links may be stiff. dirty. ◾ The chain will not shift into smallest or biggest ◾ A worn down or broken shifter may cause inaccurate shifts. ◾ The gears change intermittently or not at all. or chain links twisted due to jamming between frame and chainrings or cogs. ◾ The front derailleur may be badly adjusted. PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES The chain slips or skips. crankarms to pedals. or— you pedal. or stretched. draining battery of power. or to paintwork and compromising strength of frame. dirty. ◾ Cable or housing is dirty. ◾ The rear derailleur pivots or jockey pulleys may be worn down. 214 / OWNER'S GUIDE . The electronic shift system is not functioning correctly ◾ The electric cable connector may have come out or been when you change gear. ◾ Chain jumps multiple cogs when shifting gears. making potential injury. which may cause fatigue and ◾ The BB may too tight. ◾ The chain may be dirty. ◾ A dropped chain may be due to badly adjusted indexing or ◾ The chain falls into the spokes or between the frame limit screws. ◾ The chain may be dirty or worn down. frayed. or worn down. ◾ Incorrect limit-screw adjustment will require ◾ A loss of power at the derailleurs’ electric motors. ◾ Chainrings might rub against the frame. corroded. Rear derailleur shifting is sluggish or inaccurate. chainring. ◾ The bicycle coasts freely when you are not pedaling. ◾ The cable or housing may be dirty. worn down. Symptoms include: compressed at handlebar by bar tape or other clamps.

the problem. If the pivots are lockring is tight. Check the gear-shift lever move the derailleur by chainrings. clean Clean the cable and fasten Tighten the chainring and lubricate if not in clamp (pp. you may be able to resolve releveant pages in the book. bolts (pp. clean and correctly—replace if it is Ensure the cassette lubricate. Remove that the movement of If detached. use an adjustable broken. replace chainrings and frame movement but no them. Replace jockey correct width and brand. ask for help at a bike shop. pedal (pp.158–159). Check that all cables and Check the indicator Adjust the limit connectors are correctly light to verify the screws to ensure inserted and unimpeded. 176–181). replace bent worn.138–139). worn. chainrings.42–45. 132–135). derailleur (pp.148–149). Tighten If the bearings or surfaces the clearance of the to ensure free are worn down. Adjust or replace the the BB. (pp. impeded (pp. play (pp. after consulting the warning signs.148–149). cogs. cable or housing. (pp. Straighten the largest chainring/ replace all three—worn parts or replace derailleur cog. bearings.158–159.148–149). and is clean and functioning hand to ensure it reaches derailleurs.176–181). If the the rear derailleur barrel links. 158–159).138–139). you still can't fix problems before they become too large. tool (pp. (pp. Replace ferrules are present. replace the with a chain of the and gear housings are derailleur. Adjust is bent. cleaning and cleaning the axle. bottom bracket and/or greasing the bearings and bearing surfaces. Replace chain if cause new parts to wear hanger. ensuring the chain chain. Or replace the entire (pp. the crankset to increase if possible. battery level. stops skipping. If a chainring correctly—replace if it is all the chainrings. condition. reinsert and fully recharge the the derailleurs is not them with the correct battery if necessary. if you use this chart to spot the As with all of these charts.42–43). if in good is clean and functioning limit screws and indexing. wrench to straighten it. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Loosen stiff links by flexing Adjust indexing by turning Remove twisted chain the chain laterally. or adjuster until the chain is long enough to reach cassette are badly worn.184–185). used (pp.158–161). Replace broken cables Check the gear-shift lever Adjust the rear derailleur or housing. Overhaul or replace Overhaul the pedals. Replace a broken the limit screws if not. pulleys if they are worn. if. clean if dirty down faster (pp. Ensure all broken.148–149. Loosen the cable and Clean the chain. TROUBLESHOOTING—DRIVETR AIN / 215 .However.

Glossary Cable mount A housing that keeps the cable housing
stationary but leaves the inner cable free to move.

Cage A lightweight frame, usually of plastic, in which
Terms in italic within an entry are defined under their drinking bottles can be stored and easily accessed. Also
own headings within the glossary. a component of front and rear derailleurs, and pedals.

Allen key An alternative name for a hex key. Caliper The arms on a caliper brake that clamp onto the
wheel rim, thereby stopping the wheel’s motion.
Axle The central shaft around which a bike wheel spins.
Caliper brakes Single brake mechanisms which bolt
Barrel adjuster A small cup attached to the end of onto the frame and whose arms reach around the tire
a cable that is used to lengthen cable housing and from above.
thus adjust cable tension.
Cantilever brakes Brakes that attach separately to
Bead The edge of a tire that sits on a wheel. the fork on either side of the tire.

Bearing A mechanism that usually consists of a Cassette A series of sprockets attached to the freehub
number of ball bearings and circular channels, or that range in size to give different gear ratios.
races. It allows two metal surfaces to move freely
while in contact. Chainring A toothed ring attached to the crankarms,
which drives the chain and, in turn, the sprockets and
Binder bolt A bolt integrated into the frame at the rear wheel of a bike.
the top of older style seat tubes which clamps the
seatpost into the frame. Chainstay The frame tube joining the bottom bracket
shell and rear dropout.
Bleeding The method of removing air from brakes.
Cleat A plastic or metal plate that attaches to the sole
Block Alternative name for cassette. of a cycling shoe and engages into a clipless pedal to
hold the foot on the pedal.
Boss Threaded metal fixture on a bike frame to
which an item, such as a bottle cage or a brake caliper Clinchers Tires that clinch to a wheel rim, fitting
arm rack, is attached. over the top of an inner tube.

Bottom bracket (BB) Rotating unit that connects the Clipless pedal A pedal with a mechanism to engage the
crankarms on either side of the BB shell to each other. cleat on the sole of a cycling shoe and hold it securely
in place. Called “clipless” because they replaced pedals
Bottom out A term that describes the point when a that had toe clips and straps.
suspension fork or shock absorber reaches the limit
of its travel.

Brake lever The metal or plastic lever attached to the
end of the brake cable and pulled to engage the brake.

Brake lever hood The body in which the brake lever
sits, connecting it to the handlebar.

Brake travel The distance a brake lever moves before
the brake pads engage the braking surface on the rim
or hub of a wheel.

Cable end cap A small, metal cap, closed at one end, that
fits over the cut ends of a cable to prevent fraying. Derailleurs can be fitted to road and off-road bikes, and move
the chain across the cassette and chainring when shifting gear.


Cog An alternative name for a sprocket

Compression The action of a suspension system when
it absorbs an impact from the terrain. The term refers
to the compression of the spring.

Cone Part of a cup-and-cone wheel hub that holds
the bearings against the cup.

Crankarm The lever that joins the pedals to the
chainrings and transfers energy from the rider’s legs
to the drivetrain of the bike.

Crankset The assembly of chainrings and crankarms. Dual-pivot brakes offer greater stopping power than traditional
single-pull calipers. They are common on modern road bikes.
Damping The process that absorbs the energy of an
impact transmitted through a suspension system. It
controls the speed at which any form of suspension Ferrule A cap placed on the end of cable housing
responds to uneven terrain. to secure it to cable mounts or components.

Derailleur A component that shifts the chain between Forks The part of the bike that holds the front wheel,
sprockets on the cassette (rear derailleur) and between typically consisting of two blades joined at the crown.
chainrings attached to crankarmss (front derailleur); it
allows multiple gearing on bikes. See also Mech. Freehub A mechanism, part of the hub, that allows the
rear wheel to rotate while the pedals remain stationary.
Derailleur hanger A metal extension that is attached
to the rear dropout allowing the rear derailleur to be Freewheel A mechanism that does the same job as
mounted on the bike. a freehub but can be screwed on or off the hub.

Dishing The act of centring a wheel on its axle. Gear An expression of the chainring and sprocket
combination, linked by the chain, that propels the bike.
Double-butted tubes Bike tubes that are thick at the
ends but thin elsewhere. Gear satellite A disc on a hub gear that rotates when
the gear cable is shifted, moving the sprockets within
Down tube The frame tube that joins the bottom the hub to change gear.
bracket shell to the head tube.
Gear-shift lever The control mechanism, usually
Drivetrain The assembly of pedals, crankset, chain, and on the handlebar, used to initiate gear-shifts.
sprockets that drives the bike forward by transmitting
leg power into wheel rotation. See also Transmission. GPS Global Positioning System, a satellite-based
navigational network used in cycling for navigation
Drop out A slotted plate at the end of the fork blades and to record speed and other ride data, via a
and stays, into which the axle of a wheel is attached. handlebar-mounted device.

Drops The lower straight part of a road handlebar “Granny ring” The smallest chainring, used to engage
that extends back toward the rider. low-ratio small sprockets for climbing steep hills.

Dual-pivot brakes A version of a caliper brake in Groupset A matched set of components from a single
which each brake arm moves on a separate pivot. manufacturer which are engineered to work together.
The groupset features both derailleurs, crankset, gear-
Expander bolt A bolt that draws up a truncated shift levers, brake calipers, a chain, and a cassette.
cone or triangle of metal inside a metal tube in order
to wedge the tube in place. Commonly found inside Grub screw A headless, threaded bolt with a single
the stem of a threaded headset. diameter throughout its length.



Headset The bearing unit that attaches the forks to a
frame and allows them to turn. There are two varieties:
threaded and threadless.

Headset spacers Circular rings made of alloy or carbon
that sit above the headset and can be used to raise or
lower the stem to change a rider’s position.

Head tube The frame tube through which the steerer
tube runs.

Hex bolt A threaded bolt with a hexagonal depression
in the center of its head.

Hex key Hexagonal-shaped tool that fits hex bolts.
A seatpost supports the saddle and is inserted into the seat
tube. Set the height of your seatpost to suit your riding style.
Hexagonal bolt or nut A threaded bolt with a
hexagonal-shaped head, or a hexagonal-shaped nut
that fits onto a threaded bolt. Play A term used to describe any looseness in
mechanical parts.
Hub The central part of the wheel, through which the
axle runs and which allows the wheel to spin freely. Presta valve A high-pressure valve found on road
bike inner tubes.
Hydraulic A mechanical system that uses compressed
fluid to move an object. Presta valve nut A locknut found just above the
valve core thread. The nut must be opened to pump
Interference kit A fastening that relies on friction up the inner tube.
to keep parts together.
Quick-release mechanism A lever connected
Jockey pulleys The part of the rear derailleur that to a skewer that locks or releases a component from
shifts the chain between gears. the frame.

Link wire A small cable that connects the two arms Quill A type of stem that fits inside the top of
of a cantilever brake. a steerer tube and is held in place internally.

Lockring/locknut A ring or nut used to tighten onto Rear triangle The rear of a bicycle which includes the
a threaded object and secure it in place. seat stays, the chainstays, and the seat tube.

Mech Short for mechanism. Device that pushes Rebound A term to describe the action of a suspension
the chain onto a larger or smaller chainring or system after it absorbs an impact from the terrain.
sprocket. See also Derailleur gears. It refers to the extension of the system’s spring.

Negative spring A device that acts against Rotor A flat metal disc that rotates alongside
the main spring in a suspension system. In the bike wheel and provides the braking surface
compression, for example, a negative spring for disc brakes.
works to extend the fork , helping to overcome
the effects of stiction. Seatpost A hollow tube that holds the saddle and
is inserted into the seat tube.
Nipple The piece of metal attached to the end of
a cable that secures the cable in the control lever. Seatpost clamp A piece of plastic attached to the frame
that holds the seatpost in position.
Pawl The curved bar or lever that engages with the
teeth of a ratchet to ensure it can turn only one way. Seat stay The frame tube joining the bottom bracket
shell and rear dropout.


Seat tube The frame tube that holds the seatpost. Travel A term that refers to the total distance
a component moves in carrying out its purpose.
Shifter lever The lever pressed to shift gears. For example, travel in a suspension fork is the total
distance the fork has available to move in order
Sidewall Part of the tire between the tread and rim. to absorb a shock.

Spider A multi-armed part that connects the chainring Tread The central part of a tire that makes contact
to the axle of the bottom bracket or the cogs in a with the ground.
Trigger shifters Gear-shift levers that respond to the
Spindle A part that attaches the bottom bracket flick of a triggerlike shifter lever.
to the crankarms.
Twist shifters Gear-shift levers that respond to the
Spring-tension pin The end of a cantilever or V-brake twist of a special grip on the handlebar.
return spring that fits into a locating hole on the bike’s
brake mounting bosses. V-brake A type of cantilever brake with long arms
on which the cable attaches to one side, and the cable
Sprocket A circular metal object with teeth, sometimes housing to the other.
used as an alternative term for cog. It usually describes
the parts within a hub gear that can be combined to Valve The part of a tire tube that connects to the pump.
give different gear ratios.
Valve core The inner parts of a tube valve.
Stanchions The upper legs of a suspension fork.
Viscosity A rating system for oils, which also refers
Steerer tube The tube that connects the fork to the to the weight. A light oil has low viscosity and moves
stem and handlebar. quicker than a heavy oil through a given damping
mechanism. This results in a faster-acting suspension
Stem The component that connects the handlebar system or reduced damping.
to the steerer tube.
Wheel jig A stand that holds a wheel so that its rim
Stiction A term that combines the words static and runs between two jaws. Used in trueing a wheel after
friction. It describes the tension between moving replacing a broken spoke.
and static parts at rest, such as the seals and
stanchions in a suspension fork. Wheel-retention tabs Small protrusions on front
dropouts that prevent wheels from falling off frame
Suspension An air/oil or a coil/oil system that absorbs when quick-release mechanism is open.
the bumps from a trail or road. The system is either
integrated into the fork or connected to the rear
wheel via a linkage.

Threads The spiral grooves cut into metal that allow
separate parts to be screwed or bolted together.

Top tube The frame tube that joins the seat tube to
the head tube.

Torx key A type of screw head with a six-pointed,
star-shaped head sometimes used on stem bolts and
clamps instead of a hex key.

Transmission A bike’s transmission is made up of those
parts that transfer the rider’s energy into forward
motion—the pedals, chain, crankset and cogs. Quick-release levers can be opened without tools, allowing you
See also Drivetrain. to remove wheels and release brake cables quickly and easily.


cantilever brakes 100 lubricating crankarms 44
adjusting 114–15 cranksets
chooser guide 98–99 Campagnolo Ultra-Torque
replacing brake pads 111 cranksets 170–71
Page numbers in bold refer to main entries. carbon assembly paste 38,45 chooser guide 162–63
carbon bikes, signs of damage 41 how they work 164–65
adjusting disc brakes 120–21 care and maintenance maintenance 163

A adjusting dual-pivot brakes
adjusting V-brakes 112–13
cleaning your bike 42–43
clothing 33
emergency repairs 48–49
parts focus 171
removing and reinstalling
cranksets 166–73
bleeding hydraulic brakes handlebars 60–65 removing and reinstalling
108–09 lubricating your bike 44–45 Shimano Hollowtech II
bike technology 26–27
brake arms 100 M-checks 40–41 crankset 166–67
emergency kit 48
brake cables 118 protecting your frame 46–47 removing and reinstalling
essential gear 24–25
brake fluid 107, 109, 212 timetable of maintenance square taper-type
utility equipment 28–29
brake liners 122 206–07 cranksets 164, 168–69
air chamber, suspension 192,
brake pads 100 tools 36–37, 39 removing and reinstalling
cantilever brakes 98–100, 111 cargo bikes SRAM red cranksets
air-sprung forks
center-pull brakes 98–99 component guide 15 172–73
setting front sag 194–95
chooser guide 98–99 pedals 182–83 tools 169
tuning air-sprung forks 197
disc brakes 12, 98–99, 118 cartridge-type bottom brackets, cross-country bikes
antiseize grease 38, 45
dual-pivot brakes 98–100, 110 replacing 178–79 anatomy 12
axles 90, 164
installing new hydraulic brake cassettes suspension chooser guide
greasing axle bearings
hoses 106–07 cassette tools 37 190
gear/brake lever angle and cleaning cassettes 43 wheel guide 74–75

position on off-road bikes 23 how they work 156–57 cross-threading 39
hydraulic disc brakes 118–19 and rear derailleurs 144 crown race 52
installing and adjusting roller removing and reattaching a cup-and-cone type wheel
brake cables 124–25 wheel with a cassette 80–81 bearings 94–95
B-screw 149 removing and maintenance rear cyclo-cross bikes
installing brake cables on
bags cassettes 160–61 brakes guide 98–100
road bikes 102–03
backpacks and messenger troubleshooting 215 component guide 17
installing brake cables on
bags 28 center-pull brakes, chooser cranksets 162–64
straight handlebars 104–05
frame bags 28 guide 98–99 wheel guide 74–75
lubricating rim brakes 44
handlebar bags 29 chainrings 162, 164
maintaining hydraulic brakes

panniers 28 troubleshooting 214–15
saddle bags 24 chains
maintaining mechanical
bar end plugs 58 broken chains 49
brakes 110–11
barrel adjuster 122 chain tools 37
maintenance timetable 206–07 damping 196–97
base layers 30–31 chainstay guards 46–47
positioning brake levers 23, 61 derailleurs 156
baskets 29 DIY chainstay protection 47
preride checks 40 adjusting and indexing rear
bearings how they work 156–57
replacing brake pads 110–11 derailleurs 148–49
bottom bracket bearings 174 lubricating 44
rim brakes 76, 100–01 choosing front derailleurs
headset bearings 52 MTB chain guards 47
roller brakes 122–23 128–29
wheel hub bearings 90 removing and replacing
squealing brakes 117, 210–11 choosing rear derailleurs
wheel hub bearings 158–59
tools 37 128–29
maintenance 92–95 shortening 158
troubleshooting brake fluid electronic rear derailleurs
bedding in brakes 213 troubleshooting 214–15
212 136
bib shorts 30 child seats and trailers 29
troubleshooting disc brakes how front derailleurs work
bib tights 31, 33 city bikes 128–29
212–13 140–41
bleed kit 37 cleaning bikes 42–43
troubleshooting rim brakes how rear derailleurs work
bleeding hydraulic brakes 108–09 cleaning equipment 37
210–11 144–45
body armor, off-road riding 32 maintenance timetable 206
V-brakes 98–100, 111 installing and adjusting front
bottle cages 25 cleats

bottles, water 25 correct cleat position 20 derailleurs 142–43
bottom bracket (BB) cups 164, 174 positioning and fitting installing and adjusting rear
bottom brackets (BB) 164 186–87 derailleurs 146–47
bottom bracket tools 37 types of cleats 187 lubricating rear derailleurs
Campagnolo Ultra-Torque cable anchors 130 clincher tires 75 44
176–77 cable donuts/spirals 46 installing 84–85 troubleshooting front
direction of tightening 38 cables, M-checks 41 clipless pedals 182–83, 186 derailleurs 214–15
how they work 174–75 caliper body 118 clothing troubleshooting rear
M-checks 41 cameras 27 care of clothing 33 derailleurs 214–15
parts focus 177 Campagnolo off-road riding 32–33 detergents 43
replacing bottom brackets Campagnolo Power bottom road riding 30–31 dirt bikes, component guide 19
176–81 bracket 174 cogs 156 disc brakes
replacing Campagnolo Campagnolo Power Torque cold weather clothing 31, 33 adjusting 120–21
Ultra-Torque 176–77 crankset 170 comfort bikes, component guide 17 chooser guide 98–99
replacing cartridge-type Campagnolo Ultra-Torque commuter bikes hydraulic disc brakes 118–19
bottom brackets 178–79 bottom brackets 176–77 brake guide 98–99 off-road bikes 12
replacing Shimano Hollowtech II gear cables 133 pedals 182–83 tools for 37
bottom brackets 180–81 gear-shift levers 136–37 utility equipment 28–29 troubleshooting 212–13
troubleshooting 214–15 removing and reinstalling wheel guide 74–75 disc rotors 118
brakes Campagnolo Ultra-Torque computers, bike 26 DOT fluid 107, 109, 118, 213
adjusting brake systems 99, cranksets 170–71 crankarms downhill bikes
112–21 replacing Campagnolo crankarms 164, 174 anatomy of 12
adjusting cantilever brakes Ultra-Torque bottom crankarm bolts 174 cranksets 162
114–15 bracket 174, 176–77 crankarm tools 37, 169 pedals 182

220 / INDEX

saddle height and angle 22 maintaining 60–63 frame bags 28 greasing axle bearings
suspension 190–91 removing and replacing 60–61 frame stands 36 184–85
drivetrain systems 128–29 replacing handlebar tape frames lubricating your bike 44–45
wheels 74 62–63 cleaning 43 types of grease 45
downtube protectors 46 road bikes 10 cross-country racers 12 grip shifters 130
drivetrain dropper seatposts 70–71 downhill bikes 12 grips 58
adjusting Shimano Alfine 8 dual-crown forks 191 M-checks 41 replacing handlebar grips
hub gears 152–53 dual-pivot brakes 100 protecting your frame 64–65
adjusting Shimano Di2 adjusting 116–17 46–47 guards, chainstay 46–47
system 138–39 chooser guide 98–99 road bikes 10

adjusting Sturmey Archer replacing brake pads 110 freeride bikes, suspension 190
3-speed hub gears 154–55 dynamos 27 front derailleurs
adjusting drivetrain systems choosing front derailleurs
adjusting electronic shifters
E 128–29
how they work 140–41
installing and adjusting
drop-down handlebars 10,
adjusting hub gears 152–55 E-bikes 142–43
adjusting and indexing rear handlebar bags 29
component guide 15 troubleshooting 214–15
derailleur 148–49 handlebar grips 58
drivetrains 10 full suspension DH bikes 19
chooser guide 128–29 handlebar height on road
E-mountain bikes 19 full suspension XC bikes 19
choosing cranksets 162–63 bikes 21
E-gears, chooser guide 128–29

choosing pedals 182–83 handlebar tape 58
elastomer dampers 191 how they work 58–59
electronic shifters 136–37 elbow pads 33
greasing axle bearings 184–85 installing brake cables on
electronic shifters 136–37 straight handlebars
how bottom brackets work adjusting Shimano Di2
174–75 gears 104–05
system 138–39 adjusting electronic shifters installing road bike brake
how chains and cassettes cleaning 43
work 156–57 138–39 cables 102–03
troubleshooting 214–15 adjusting hub gears 152–55 M-checks 40
how cranksets work 164–65 electronics
how front derailleurs work adjusting and indexing rear maintaining 60–65
maintenance timetable 206 derailleur 148–49 off-road bikes 13
140–41 emergency repairs 48–49
how hub gears work 150–51 adjusting Shimano Di2 preride checks 40
endurance bikes system 138–39 removing and replacing
how rear derailleurs work brake guide 98–99
144–45 choosing front derailleurs drop-down handlebars
crankset guide 162–63 128–29 60–61
installing and adjusting front component guide 17
derailleur 142–43 choosing rear derailleurs replacing handlebar grips
drivetrain guide 128–29 128–29 64–65
installing and adjusting rear wheel guide 74–75
derailleur 146–47 cleaning electronic gears 43 replacing handlebar tape
enduro bikes 12
manual shifters 130–31 E-gears 128–29 62–63
positioning and fitting cleats electronic shifters 136–37 troubleshooting 209
bike technology 26–27
186–87 fixed gears 128–29 handling, troubleshooting
emergency kit 48
preparing and installing gear/brake lever angle and 208–09
essential gear 24–25
external gear cables position on off-road bikes 23 hardtail mountain bikes 190
utility equipment 28–29
132–33 gear cables 143 component guide 19
workshop tools 36–37
preparing and installing how front derailleurs work headsets
see also clothing
internal gear cables 140–41 how they work 52–53
eyewear 27
134–35 how hub gears work 150–51 M-checks 40
off-road riding 32, 33
removing and reinstalling how rear derailleurs work maintenance 54–57
road cycling 30, 31
cranksets 166–73 144–45 threaded headsets 52,
removing and reinstalling hub gears chooser guide 128–29 54–55
SRAM red cranksets
removing and replacing
F installing and adjusting front
derailleur 142–43
installing and adjusting rear
threadless headsets 52,
troubleshooting 209
chains 158–59 fat bikes 19 derailleur 146–47 heart rate monitors 26
removing and cleaning rear fenders 25 installing external gear helicopter tape 47
cassettes 160–61 fixed gears, chooser guide cables 132–33 helmets 27
replacing bottom brackets 128–29 installing internal gear helmet cameras 27
176–81 fixed-speed bikes cables 134–35 off-road riding 32–33
replacing Campagnolo crankset chooser guide 162–63 lubricating rear derailleurs road cycling 30–31
Ultra-Torque bottom component guide 15 44 hex bolts 39
brackets 176–77 flanges 90 manual shifters 130–31 hex keys 36, 39
replacing Campagnolo flat tires 84 positioning gear levers 61 hexagonal-headed nuts 39
Ultra-Torque cranksets floating drivetrain 190–91 removing and reattaching a hi-vis gear 31
170–71 folding bikes wheel with a hub gear 82–83 hill-riding, wheel guide 74–75
replacing cartridge-type component guide 15 slipping gears 158 hub brake arm 122
bottom brackets 178–79 drivetrain chooser guide troubleshooting front and hubs
replacing Shimano 128–29 rear derailleurs 214–15 adjusting hub gears 152–55
Hollowtech II bottom fork stanchions 192 gilets 30 hub gear chooser guide
brackets 180–81 forks glasses 27 128–29
replacing Shimano cleaning 43 off-road riding 32–33 how hub gears work 150–51
Hollowtech II crankset how suspension forks work road cycling 30–31 how wheel hubs work 90–91
166–67 192–93 gloves 30–32 M-checks 40
replacing square taper-type lower leg maintenance 198–99 GPS 26 removing and reattaching a
cranksets 168–69 lubricating 45 gravel bikes wheel with a hub gear
troubleshooting 214–15 setting front sag 194–95 brakes 98 82–83
drop-down handlebars 58 suspension 190–91 cranksets 164 wheel guide 75
installing brake cables tuning suspension forks component guide 17 wheel hubs 76, 118
102–03 196–97 grease 38, 161 hybrid bikes

INDEX / 221


component guide 15 mountain bikes maintaining 184–85 saddle height and angle 20
drivetrains 10 anatomy guide 12–13 positioning and fitting saddles 66
gear-shift levers 130 brake guide 98–100 186–87 sizing 21
suspension guide 190–91 chain guards 47 toe clips and straps 182–83 tires 10
wheel guide 74–75 cleats 187 troubleshooting 214–15 wheel guide 10, 74–75
hydration packs 25 clothing 32–33 types of cleats 187 see also individual
hydraulic brakes component guide 18–19 pistons 118 components
bleeding 108–09 crankset guide 162–64 pivot pins 130 Rohloff hub gears 150
installing new hoses 106–07 disc brakes 12 planet gears 150 roller brakes
how hydraulic disc brakes work electronic shifters 136 pliers 36 how they work 122–33
118–19 gear-shift levers 130, 136 power generators 27 installing and adjusting roller
maintaining 106–09 handlebars 13, 58 power meters 26 brake cable 124–25
tools 37 pedals 182–83 preride checks 40–1, 207 rotors, cleaning 43
troubleshooting hydraulic riding position 13, 22–23 press-fit cartridge-type
disc brakes 213 saddle height and angle 22
saddles 66
bearings 92–93
pumps 24, 36 S
I,J,K sizing guide 23
suspension guide 12,
shock pumps 197, 203
punctures, repairing 48–49 saddle bags 24

tires 12
inner tubes 24 adjusting seatpost height
wheel guide 74–75
jackets 31–33 68–69
see also individual
jockey pulleys 136, 144 how they work 66–67
keys, hex 36, 39 quick-release hubs 90 preride checks 40
mud, cleaning off bikes 42
knee pads 33 quick-release skewers 78 preparing and installing
multi-tools 24
dropper seatpost 70–71

saddle angle on off-road
bikes 22
saddle angle on road bikes 20
saddle fore/aft on off-road
lights 25 racks, bike 28–29
navigation tools 27 bikes 22
dynamos 27 radar sensors 27
neck warmers 33 saddle fore/aft on road bikes 21
limit screws 140, 144 rails, saddle 66
noises, troubleshooting 209–11, saddle height on off-road
linkage, rear 200 ratchet wheel 130
215 bikes 22
lockout mechanism 192 rear derailleurs 156 saddle height on road bikes 20

lockrings 156 adjusting and indexing suspension saddle/seatpost
locks 25, 27 148–49 190–91
loosening parts 38–39 choosing rear derailleurs troubleshooting 208–09
lower leg maintenance 198–99 128–29 safety
lubrication off-road bikes electronic derailleurs 136 accessories 27
bike care 44–45 anatomy guide 12–13 how they work 144–45 hi-vis gear 31
brake cables 103 brake guide 98–100 installing and adjusting M-checks 40–41, 207
cassettes 161 chain guards 47 146–47 sag
chains 158 cleats 187 lubricating 44 setting front sag 194–95
greasing axle bearings clothing 32–33 troubleshooting 214–15 setting rear sag 202–03
184–85 component guide 18–19 rear shocks 190–91 screwdrivers 36
types of lubricant 45 crankset guide 162–64 recessed heads 39 sealant, tire 87
luggage trailers 29 disc brakes 12 ride height 192 seat clamp 66
electronic shifters 136 riding positions

gear-shift levers 130, 136 off-road bikes 13, 22–23 adjusting seatpost height
handlebars 13, 58 road bikes 10, 20–21 68–69
pedals 182–83 rim brakes 76 dropper seatposts 70–71
riding position 13, 22–23 key components 100–01
M-checks 40–41 freeing stuck metal seatposts
saddle height and angle 22 lubricating 44
maintenance and care 69
saddles 66 troubleshooting 210–11
cleaning your bike 42–43 how they work 66–67
sizing guide 23 rims, wheel
clothing 33 loose seatposts 69
suspension guide 12, split rims 49
emergency repairs 48–49 lubricating 45
190–91 wheel guide 75–76
handlebars 60–65 maintaining 68–69
tires 12 riser bar angle on off-road bikes
lubricating your bike 44–45 preride checks 40
wheel guide 74–75 23
M-checks 40–41 saddle height for off-road
see also individual road bikes
protecting your frame 46–47 bikes 22
components anatomy guide 10–11
timetable of maintenance saddle height for road bikes

206–07 brake guide 98–99 20
tools 36–37, 39 brakes 100–01 suspension saddle/seatpost
manual shifters, how they work chain catcher 47 190–91
130–31 cleats 187 troubleshooting 208–209
mechanical brakes panniers 28 clipless road pedals 182–83 seating positions
adjusting cantilever brakes patches, frame 47 component guide 16–17 off-road bikes 13, 22–23
114–15 pedals 164 crankset guide 162–64 road bikes 10, 20–21
adjusting disc brakes 120–21 adjusting 183 drivetrain chooser guide security 27
adjusting dual-pivot brakes chooser guide 182–83 128–29 shell layers 30
116–17 clipless road pedals 182–83 drivetrains 10 shells 90
adjusting V-brakes 112–13 correct cleat position 20 drop-down handlebars 10, 58 shifters
maintaining 110–11 direction of tightening 38 electronic shifters 136 adjusting Shimano Di2 system
replacing brake pads 110–11 double-sided clipless pedals frames 10 138–39
messenger bags 28 182–83 gear-shift levers 130–31 cleaning electronic shifters 43
mid layers 30 flat pedals 182–83 installing brake cables electronic shifters 136–37
mineral oil 118, 213 greasing axle bearings 102–03 manual shifters 130–31
monitors, heart rate 26 184–85 riding position 10, 20–21 troubleshooting electronic

222 / INDEX

210–11. bike 36 adjusting V-brakes 112–13 off-road bikes 12. 182–83 downhill bikes 12 trekking bikes 128–29 82–83 and types of pedals floating drivetrain 190–91 trials bikes 19 road bikes 10 182–83 how rear suspension works triathlon bikes 17 tightening loose spokes shopper bikes. gear-shift system 214–15 maintaining threaded headsets using to tighten or loosen 38 cup and cone type 94–95 shifting pins 140 54–55 workshop tools 36–37 press-fit cartridge type Shimano maintaining threadless headsets tops 30. wheel hubs crankset guide 162–63 M-checks 41 steering 208–09 workshop tools 36–37 drivetrains 10 maintenance 191 wheels 208–09 wrenches 36. 203 3-speed hub gears 154–55 trailer bikes 29 removing and reattaching a rear shocks 190–91 hub gears 150 trailers 29 front wheel 78–79 see also suspension Sturmey Archer XL-FD roller training bikes removing and reattaching a shoe plates 182–83 brakes 122–23 brake guide 98–99 rear wheel 80–81 shoes suspension crankset guide 162–63 removing and reattaching a cyclo-cross 182–83 adjusting rear suspension drivetrain guide 128–29 wheel with a cassette off-road 32. 39 sizing bikes maintenance of front trousers 32. 62–63 see also individual 212–13 technology. bike 26–27 components SRAM threadlock 38 utility equipment 28–29 chains 158–59 tightening parts 38 V gear-shift levers 136 tires SRAM GXP bottom bracket installing clincher tires 84–85 174 installing tubeless tires 86–87 SRAM Red crankset 172–73 flat tires 84 standover clearance 21. protection removing and reattaching a 186–87 cross-country racers 12 during 47 wheel with a hub gear road bikes 30. 23 V-brakes 100 inner tubes 24 stands. installing 86–87 socks 30–33 rear shocks 190–91 tuning suspension forks 196–97 spares 37 setting front sag 194–95 speakers 27 spokes 90 broken spokes 49 tightening loose spokes setting rear sag 202–03 suspension forks 190–91 suspension saddle/seatpost 190–91 U utility bikes 88–89 tuning suspension forks 196–97 brake guide 98–99 wheel guide 75 T component guide 14–15 wire-spoke wheels 76–77 drivetrain chooser guide 128–29 spring tensioner screws 113 electronic shifters 136 square taper-type cranksets pedals 182–83 164. 41 brackets 174 Sturmey Archer drivetrain guide 128–29 maintaining 88–89 shock absorbers 202–03 adjusting Sturmey Archer trail bikes 12 maintenance timetable 206 pumps 197. 118 gear-shift levers 136–37 stems 58 brake guide 98–100 how they work 90–91 hub gears 150 how they work 58–59 component guide 17 wheel guide 75 STI lever 130 preride checks 40 cranksets 164 wheels Shimano Alfine 8 hub gears stem clamp 58 drivetrain guide 128–29 bent wheels 49 150–53 stem length on road bikes 21 saddles 66 chooser guide 74–75 Shimano Di2 system 138–39 stem position on off-road utility equipment 28–29 cleaning 43 Shimano Hollowtech bottom bikes 23 wheel guide 74–75 cross-country racers 12 bracket 174 straight handlebars 58 see also individual installing replacement clincher Shimano Hollowtech II installing brake cables components tires 84–85 bottom brackets 180–81 104–05 track bikes installing replacement tubeless Shimano Hollowtech II replacing handlebar grips component guide 17 tires 86–87 crankset 166–67 64–65 crankset chooser guide lubricating 44 Shimano Octalink bottom stripped threads 39 162–63 M-checks 40. component guide 200–01 trigger shifters 130 88–89 15 how suspension forks work troubleshooting troubleshooting 208–09 shorts 30. 23 steering chooser guide 98–99 preride checks 40 how handlebars work 58–59 replacing brake pads 111 road bikes 10 how headsets work 52–53 troubleshooting 208–209 maintenance timetable 206 W toe clips and straps 182–83 removing and replacing tools handlebars 60–61 caring for your tools 39 replacing handlebar grips crankset tools 167 64–65 water bottles 25 emergency kit 48 replacing handlebar tape wet-weather clothing 30–33 essential tool kit 36 62–63 wheel bearings on-road tool kits 24 INDEX / 223 . 33 off-road bikes 23 suspension 194–99 TT bikes 17 road bikes 21 maintenance timetable 206–07 tube protectors 46 sliders 192 off-road bikes 12 tubeless tires. handlebar 58 suspension guide 190 168–69 replacing handlebar tape wheel guide 74–75 squealing brakes 117. wheel component guide 15 pivots 45 saddles 208–09 bearings. 174 tandems. 32 92–93 chains 158 56–57 torx keys 39 maintenance 92–95 gear cables 133 troubleshooting 208–09 touring bikes wheel hubs 76. 32–33 192–93 disc brakes 212–13 trueing wheels 88–89 single-crown forks 191 lower leg maintenance 198–99 drivetrain 214–15 wire-spoke wheels 76–77 single-speed bikes lubricating suspension rim brakes 210–11 see also tires. brake guide 98–99 roller brakes 122–23 removing and reinstalling tape. 182–83 202–03 training wheels 74–75 80–81 positioning and fitting cleats chooser guide 190–91 transporting bikes.

3/tl. 2/ (tr). 5/cl. 1/br. 3/c. 4/c. 8/b. 15 Kalkhoff Bikes: (bl). 4/b). is now the Ltd: (1/cr. 4/tl. Lazer Sport: (cr). 3/b). 4/c. 2/c. t-top) Co-ordinator Rohit Rojal. Tredz Bikes: (tl. 2/b. Audio Video Production Manager Nain Singh Rawat. b-below/ 5/bl. 3/b. c). 2/bl). 17 Genesis Bikes Manjari Hooda. Condor Cycles Ltd: (2/ VolodymyrN (4/bl). 2/tl. Wheelbase: (1/tr). t. Tredz Bikes: (1/cl. past 20 years producing illustrations for clients in 5/b). mooltfilm (1/cl). Spain. 3/c. Getty Images: Marketing Manager and a lead creative at London- angelsimon (1/t. and Privateer. with many leading magazines. including The Cycles Ltd: (2/tr. 24 Condor Cycles Ltd: (2/cl. 1/b. 3/ A consultant on DK’s The Bicycle Book. 2/bl. Hammerhead: (1/r). and amateur bike mechanic based in Las Extra (UK) Ltd: (5/c). 27 Busch & Muller KG: (2/ Ben Spurrier. Ronnie Olsthoorn. c-center. of bikes. 1/cr. Additional design assistance. Simon Murrell Look Cycle: (cl). and cl. 3/cr. 1/tr. a passionate cyclist. designer for Condor Cycles. 3/b. 6/bl. 5/tr. 1/cl. 4/ cl. tr. 26 Condor has written about cycling for magazines. Tredz Bikes: (1/tl. 1/b. 1/b. designer. Mountain Bike. 31 Condor Cycles Ltd: (1/tl. 1/bl. 1. Dorling Kindersley would like to extend kind permission to reproduce their photographs: thanks to the following contributors for their help with making the book: DK India for additional line artwork: (Key: a-above. 2/cr.V. 3/b. and Moises Guerra Armas 224 / ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . 1/b. 2/b. 2/tr. Giant Europe B. 2/ tr. 3/tr. 7/bl. Scosche Industries Inc: (2/r). 1/c. 4/cr. Hope Technology: (bl). 1/c. Bikes: (1/tl. Tandem Group Cycles: (tl). Tredz graduate from NCAD. 3/cl). about bikes and design. 3/t. 3/t. 4/b. Tredz Bikes: (3/tl. 1/b. 4/b. 1/tr). 2/b). 1/ Model Credits: br. Blaze. 3/r). Getty Images: Ride Journal. 2/ co-author of Le Tour: Race Log and Cycling Climbs. b). 2/br). Gino For further information see: www. 1/cl. LINKA: (4/b). UK genesisbikes. f-far. Wheelbase: (5/t. l-left. 37 Getty Images: (1/bl. 4/tr. ROSE Bikes GmbH: (5/b). Brendan McCaffrey is an illustrator. 2/b. 36 Extra (UK) Ltd: (6/b). Tredz Bikes: (3/tr. b). 2/t. 33 Condor Cycles Ltd: (3/b). Tredz Bikes: (1/tr. Bike Etc. 30 Condor Cycles Ltd: (1/bc. 2/b). a former racing cyclist. 4/c. 2/c. Triton Cycles: (2/ London. 2/tl. 3/bl. 5/tl). Condor Cycles. 2/b. Assistant animator Alok Kumar Singh. 3/bl.: (br). Ben has been a member of the judging panel Tredz Bikes: (2/tl. enthusiast. He has also worked tr). Head of Digital Operations 14 Koga: (c). toy. 3/b. Dublin he has worked for the Bikes: (1/t. 32 Tredz Palmas in Gran Canaria.dkimages. 7/b. 3/tr. 29 Extra (UK) Ltd: (3/tl. bespoke bicycle manufacturer. Claire is also br). 1/b. 3/b). 2/cr. 2/t). Lumos Helmet Wallpaper magazine in 2011 for a special edition range lumoshelmet. Ridley Bikes: (bl). cycling 5/tl. 25 based. 2/bc). 2/tl. Tredz Blood (4/r). Condor Cycles Ltd: (1/tl. 8/bl. 3/cl). 2/b). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments The publisher would like to thank the following for their In addition. 28 Condor Cycles for the annual D&AD (Design and Art Direction) New Ltd: (1/tr. and has spoken at The Design Museum. London. 2/c. An industrial design Bikes: (1/b. Awarded by ICEdot: (2/bl). 3/c. 5/b. 1/c. 3/tl. and product industries. 3/cr. 1/bl). 3/cl. Extra (UK) Claire Beaumont. and Cycling Active. Cycling Weekly.bmcaff. 4/t. 2/b. 2/tl. 4/tr. 4/b. Production r-right. 3/tr. Tredz Bikes: (1/t. 1. 2/br) 3D Roadbike model by Brendan McCaffrey 3D Mountain Bike model supplied by Gino Marcomini All other images © Dorling Kindersley Additional models supplied by Brendan MCaffrey. 1/tr. 3/tl. including Australian Tailfin: (4/tl. 2/tr). 2/ the videogame. Radical Design: (3/b). is the head bike cl). 4/b).

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