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8/8/2013

Non Destructive Testing (NDT)


for Deep Foundations
Purpose: assure structural integrity
(says nothing about capacity)

• High Strain Integrity Testing


• Low Strain Integrity Testing
• Automated Monitoring Equipment
• Cross-hole Sonic Logging
• Thermal Integrity Profiling

Discuss each as overview


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• For Driven Piles


• Measure strain and acceleration
• Uses pile driving hammer for input
• Look for early reflection
Damaged Splice
Clearly see an early
reflection from splice

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8/8/2013

Low Strain Integrity Testing


looks for major defects
(PIT) augercast piles
drilled shafts

350 mm CFA
Static test failed to
hold design load
( S.F. < 1 )
PIT finds structural defect

Failed static test


prompts testing 5

“We excavated and I could stick my


Defect sometimes further down pile hand all the way to the middle of the
pile and pull out handfuls of soil.”
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• Test during augercast pile installation


• Observe incremental volumes

Depth Volume

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8/8/2013

Normal

Grout line Pressure


versus Time

Unstable - missed 8 pump strokes


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Augered Pile Project


2000 piles (18” O.D.)
Installation guided by AME
produces very uniform piles

Grout Return

OK

Pull
Probes
From
Bottom Cross­hole Sonic Logging .
To Top
CSL .
Top view of shaft
with 4 access tubes

Fill Tubes
with water
Test all paths

Transmit Receive 10

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Cross-hole Analyzer

Signal

Arrival Arrival

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How to find defects ?

Good

Defect

1. Reduced signal strength ( lower “energy” )


2. Delayed FAT - First Arrival Time (low wavespeed)

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8/8/2013

Canary Wharf Testing


Pile 448 - large shell defect
Cannot find defect outside cage

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Thermal Integrity Profiling

Cement
Content
Strength (Quality)
Concrete
Shaft Temperature
Serviceability versus depth
during curing
Durability at cage

Cover

Cement Content Effect on Core Temperature


250

225
62 MPa 860PCY
300kgCM
210kgCM
600PCY
200 150kgCM
430PCY
Core Temperature (F)

175
31 MPa
150

125

18 MPa
100

1.8 m dia. shaft


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0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Hydration Time (hrs)

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Shaft Heat Signature


Temperature

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Shaft Heat Signature


Temperature

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Shaft Heat Signature


Temperature

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Test Procedure using probes


To
• Remove water from tube, if applicable
Depth • Insert IR probe into tube
Encoder • Collect data (top to bottom)
• Repeat IR scan in all tubes

CSL
Tubes

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THERMAL WIRE® Cables

TAP Data Logger


Thermal Wire

Truck volume and depth


after each truck can
establish the effective
diameter for each shaft
segment.

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Shape of avg. profile


mimics diameter from
concrete yield

Set overall
average temperature
equal to
average radius

For uniform shaft, temperature is constant,


except 1 diameter at top and bottom roll-off

Correcting for end effects Toe Correction


Temperature (F)
70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
80

avg
85
toe

tanh
90
Depth (ft)

95

100

105

110 27
27

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End correction example

Thermal Integrity Profiler


( examples )
Direct Observation
• Verify shaft length
o Identify top and bottom
• Confirm cage alignment
• Locate dia. Changes
• Find areas of concern

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I-71 over Little Miami River


TIP Data @18 hours
Shaft # 17 Thermal Wire Data

Degrees F
110 120 130 140 150 160
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13

18

23
Depth (ft)

28

33
A3
38

43

48

53 30

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Tampa Project site


1000+ shafts
Most are 3 ft dia

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Bridge 100722 Pier 3-1L Shaft 1


casing

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Bridge 100718 Pier 6-6 Shaft 3

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TIP and Core Results CSL and Core Results

Center
35%
delays

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Different Project
8.4 ft

8 ft
17 ft
17 ft

16.1 ft35

4 ft (1.4 m) dia shafts – Michigan

first shaft second shaft

1.4m

dia

1.2m
bad good
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4 ft (1.4 m) diameter
TIP 1 day, CSL 2 day

bad bad
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Cleveland Shaft I-90


1.68 m (66 inch dia. R = 33 in)
55 m (180 ft) length
Volume
Theoretical 158 cu yd
Actual 191 cu yd
(121%)

Temp casing - 28 ft length


84 inch dia. (R = 42 in )
drilling (Cage R = 27 in )

attach Thermal cables


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Splicing cage & aligning


CSL tubes took several hours 41

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8/8/2013

PDI splicing Thermal Wires


Under 15 minutes for all 8 wires
using quick connectors

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Let’s watch temperature change during 6 day curing …

20 trucks
5 hrs to fill
2.5 hrs

2 hr
break
0.8
hr

4 hours – after end casting


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66 inch diameter shaft - Cleveland


42” rad
28’ casing

Can assess shaft over a wide range of time

Extra pumping
2 hr delay

2 days 4 days 6 days

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42 inch radius
Avg temp Temp 28’ casing
Avg radius

Nominal R

Cage

Extra pumping
during 2 hr delay

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CSL looks only TIP can look outside cage also


inside the cage and estimate the shaft profile
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Slice at top (casing)

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TIP Advantages
� Temperature during curing at cage is related to
concrete quality, volume, and cover
� Local low temperature is a defect
� Test early after casting (speeds construction)
� 12 to 100 hours (depends on diameter)
� Evaluate concrete inside and outside rebar cage
� Assesses quality, or cover & alignment
� Avoids CSL issues: debonding, bleeding, etc.
� Only reports significant defects

TIP Limitations
� Best use: Drilled shafts (or augercast piles)
� Preplan access tubes or thermal wires
� Can test only during early curing 53

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NDT Assessment of Integrity


Application PDA PIT AME CSL TIP

Driven steel piles 1

Existing steel piles 2

Driven concrete piles 1 2

Existing concrete piles 2 3

Drilled shafts 3 3 2 1

Augercast piles 2 1 3 2

1 - Best Advantages and Disadvantages of


2 - Better each method are given at conclusion
3 - Possible of each method’s presentation

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Cost Considerations
• Low Strain tests – test 10 to 100 piles in one day
with minimal assistance
• AME – instrument the ACIP/CFA rig
• CSL – potentially test several piles per day
with minimal assistance
• TIP – probes – depends on OD & contractor speed
• - wires – depends on data collection method

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Conclusions
� Testing finds major defects; reduces risk of failure
� Low strain (PIT) used for augercast or drilled shafts
� AME useful to prevent defects for augercast piles
� CSL for drilled shaft – evaluates core integrity only
� Thermal – evaluates concrete quality, cover & align

� Multiple test methods on same pile helps confirm
(e.g. PIT plus CSL or Thermal)

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