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NUTRITION IN THE

LIFECYCLE

by
Indraguna Pinatih
Dept. Of Community and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine
Centre for Study on Anti Aging Medicine
Udayana University
LIFE CYCLE
• Infant (0 – 1 year)
• Underfive (1 – 5 year)
• Elementary school age children (7 – 12 year)
• Teenage/adolescent (12 – 18 year)
• Adult ( 25 – 55 year)
– Pregnancy
• Senior adult ( ≥ 55 year)
– Elderly > 70 year
Food Processes After Meal
Tissue development
(growth & exchange) Energy
Energy/amino
acid reserved reserved
Fat & glycogen
reserved
Protein
Work
Carbohydrate
Metabolic
Food Fat Energy used Maintenance
precesses
Vitamin Productie
Minerals
Urine
Water Stool
Unprocessed Waste
Air Sweat
Heat
PREGNANCY
 Is a physiological process but very risky
for women
 Mother will face a lot of changes,
outwardly it can be seen from body
shape and weight
 Trimester I : formation stage
 Trimester II : growth stage
 Trimester III : Maturation stage
HEALTHY PREGNANCY
0-8 wk 40 wk

10 wk

22 wk
Body weight increment
 Depends on pre
pregnancy weight
 Growth line is not
straight
 Total increase in
weight:
9 - 15 kg
Messages for pregnant mother
 Consume variety of food, balance and
more in quantity
 Small portion, more frequent
 Supplement
 Iron, Iodine, folic acid
 Calsium
 EPA/DHA (in marine/fish oil)
 Eliminate process food and simple sugar
INFANT 0-1 YEAR
 Early life outside the mother
 All body has been well function but still
imperfect (rudimentary)
 First highly growth spurt
 Body weight in year 1: 3-5 X birth weight
 Head circumference: 2-3 X circumference
at birth
 Coarse skill starts appearing
INFANT 0-1 YEAR
INFANT 0-1 YEAR
 Main food : liquid food: breast milk
 Additional food (food introduction)
starts from 6 months of age :
 6-7 month : delicate food
 7-9 month : soft but makanan
lembek/kental
 9-12 bulan: makanan lembek tapi kasar
INFANT FOOD

 Breast milk is the best


food for baby
 Exclusive breast
feeding for 6 month
 Give colostrum to the
baby
 Breast feeding shall
be given at least 1
year and the best is 2
years
REASON FOR BREAST
FEEDING
 SHORT TERM
 Nutritionally fit to the human body
 Cheap, easy and healthy
 Reduce morbidity and mortality risk of the baby and
the mother
 Promote feeling of affection
 Delay next pregnancy
 LONG TERM
 Prevent risk of malnutrition (under/over)
 Prevent risk to get hypercholesterolemia,
hypertension, cardiovasculer
BABY’S FOOD
Shall be made as simple as possible but still
balance
Limit or even avoid seasoning in food especially
material can ruin the baby’s appetite
Breast fed mother shall consume highly quality
food and also balance to produce highly quality
breast milk
Supplement EPA and DHA are important
The quantity of food is sufficient when the baby’s
weight increase following the growth chart
TODLER AGE 1-3 YEAR
The kids have been learning plenty of
(either coarse and even fine) motoric skill
– Walking-running-jumping
– Start talking
Still in highly growth spurt but less than the
first year
– Body weight in the early age 3 ~ 3-4 X birth
weight
TODDLER AGE 1-3 YEAR
TODDLER FOOD 1-3 YEAR
Still dominantly eat semi liquid or liquid food
Breast feeding shall be continue up to 2 years,
weaning shall be perform wisely
Adult food shall be introduced to the kids
Still avoiding food that ruin the baby’s appetite
Food composition still balance, simple and fresh
Provide happy meal environment
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
UNDER NUTRITION
PRE SCHOOL CHILDREN
Growth starts to flattening
Motorik skill improving a lot and kids have
plenty of acitivities
Kids can say “NO” to whatever they don’t
like include food
Muscle starts to develop
Digesitiblity skill improve get close to adult
PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Food is similar with adult
food
Activities is included
when calculating energy
requierement
Fresh food is far better
than not fresh
Bring into habit : family
table
Small portion, highly
dense food and more
frequent are far better
NUTRITION ISSUES FOR
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
Nutrient requirement vs growth spurt
Paracite Infection
– Nutritional Anemia
Food safety especially at school
Nutritional supplementation at school
(PMT AS)
Double burden in nutrition
FOOD PATTERN IN ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL CHILDREN
Children age 7-9 are skillfull to chose the
food they like because they have known
their environment
Mostly they like tasty food containing
carbo, salt and monosodium which all will
ruin chidren’ appetite
Need supervision for not choosing wrong
food due to peer influenced
FOOD PATTERN INI ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL CHILDREN
Energy and prtein requieremnet shall be
calculated concerning sex profile
– Male are moree active and hence needs more
energy then female
– Female has been starting their period anak and
hence they need more protein, iron than their
aged before.

Breakfast shall be applied to maintain their


consentration at school
SCOOL CANTEEN

CLOSED

OPEN
FOOD SOLD OUTSIDE
SCHOOL
ACTION NEEDED
School Feeding Program
Worm medication every 6 monthly
Nutrition monitoring at school
Bring breakfast into habit
MODEL SFP
EROPA

MODEL CHINA
MODEL JEPANG

MODEL AFRICA
IBU-IBU MEMASAK DAN
MEMBAGI MAKANAN
NUTRITION ISSUES AMONG
ADOLESCENTS
Nutrient requirement vs growth spurt
Double burden
– Nutrient deficiency due to Body image
– Over weight or obesity
– Highly activity
Too early pregnancy
ADOLESCENT
Food habit mostly unideal since there are
over-activities, peer pressure, free
environment, seeking identity
Often skipping food and just snacking, to
much fast food and/or commercial food,
beverages and often too high alcohol
consumption
Yaktiworo Indriani, 2009
BEING
OLD?!
BIOLOGICAL CHANGES DUE TO AGING
System endocreen
System imun
System metabolism
System Cardiovascular
System Gastrointestinal
System reproduction
System neuron
Brain function
System muscle
System
THE PURPOSE OF MEAL

Maintain status of health


Supporting body function
Prevent aging process
Minimize complaint when
aged
FOOD PRINCIPLE
Not poisonous (toxin)
Nutritionally enough to support body
function
Easily digest and excreted
DEFENSIVE NUTRITION PARADIGM
Reach and maintain your normal body
weight
Diet mostly plant base
– Row-lightly cooked whole-grain cereals
– Raw-lightly steamed vegetables & sprouts
– Raw fresh fruit, include skin
Limit animal base food , avoid red meat
and substitute with white meat or fish
Balance of Ω6 and Ω3
BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)
Keep in green
(NORMAL) area :
18.5 - 23
UNDERWEIGHT
– Mild : 17.0 – 18.5
– Severe: <17.0
OVERWEIGHT
– Mild : 23.0 – 27.0
– Obese : > 27.0