knitted fabrics are
lthough the mechanisms of forming woven and very different,
nevertheless, they both have one common factor, yarn. Both systems manipulate yarns to produce a fabric.
Yarns as manufactured and packaged are not in the optimum condition to be used to form fabrics. After yarn formation, both spun and continuous conditions are to be used to form fabrics. After yarn formation, both spun and continuous filament yarns are not immediately usable in fabric forming systems. Package size, build and other factors make it necessary for the yarn to be further processed to prepare it to be handled efficiently during fabric formation.
For weaving and wrap knitting, many yarns are presented simultaneously in the form of a wrap sheet. These yarns are taken from packages called beams. Shuttle looms need a special filling yarn package, or quill, which fits in the shuttle; while shuttle less looms and weft knitting machines use yarn from large packages called cheeses or cones.
From the above it can be seen that the yarn, packaged as it comes from spinning, is virtually useless. It must be repackaged to meet the particular needs and demands of the fabric forming system in which it is to be used. This, in fact, is
one of the functions of yarn preparation, to put the yarn on a suitable package for a particular fabric forming system.
Occasionally it is necessary to alter some of the yarn characteristics to produce a yarn which can more easily and more efficiently be made into fabric or to produce a desired characteristic in the finished fabric. In this case, this operation would be part of yarn preparation.
A flow chart outlining the steps in the preparation of yarn for weaving and knitting is given in Figure 1. It can be seen from this chart that, in terms of processes, a discussion of yarn preparation for weaving will, necessarily, include yarn preparation for knitting. Therefore, in order to avoid repetition, only yarn preparation for weaving will be discussed and it will be left to the reader, with the aid of the flow chart, to fill in the discussion for knitting.
The first step in yarn preparation for both knitting and weaving is winding. The reasons for winding yarn are:
(1) to produce a package which is suitable for further processing and (2) to inspect and clear (remove thick and thin sports) the yarn.
To perform the above tasks a winder, schematically illustrated in Figure 2, is divided into three principal zones:
(1) the unwinding zone, (2) the tension and clearing zone, and (3) the winding zone.
To rewind the yarn on a new package, it must first be removed from the old package. This is accomplished in the unwinding zone. This zone
it gives the illusion of a balloon above the package. In these cases the yarn must remain flat and even one turn of twist is unacceptable. the package need not be rotated as the yarn is pulled over the end of the package. This zone consists of a tension device. the twist in that length changes by one turn.
The second factor for consideration if that for each time one complete wrap of yarn is removed from the supply package. There are.
The next zone is the tension and clearing zone. At high winding speeds. For most yarns this change is insignificant and may be ignored. a device to detect thick spots. which holds the old package in an optimum position for unwinding. It is in his zone that the yarn receives the proper tension to provide an acceptable package density and build for further processing. This ballooning leads to uneven tensions being produced in the yarn which mayor may not alter some of the particular properties of the yarn. As the yarn is unwound from the package at high speed. As the yarn rotates. However. Its disadvantage is that the spool must rotate. furthermore. This method is the simplest and most common method of yarn withdrawal. centrifugal force causes it to follow a curved path. polymers of rubber.merely consists of a creel. Also.
The first of these factors is known as ballooning. Figure 3 illustrates the common yarn withdrawal methods. side withdrawal and over-end withdrawal. the spool must rotate in order for the yarn to be removed. the winder stops. however. If this is not done the rotational momentum of the spool will cause it to remain in motion allowing yarn to be unwound without being taken up.
In the over-end withdrawal method. for any reason. The advantage of this system is that the yarn does not rotate upon withdrawal and therefore the yarn twist remains constant. upon start-up. due to inertia. in the yarn and a stop motion which causes the winding to stop in the case of a
. or slubs. two factors which must be taken into account when this method of withdrawal is used. some fabrics are constructed using flat yarns of metal. These yarns cannot be unwound using the over-end method and the side method must be used. the rotation of the spool may lead to tension variations in the yarn. provision must be made to stop the spool if. higher tensions are developed because the winder must overcome spool inertia.
In side withdrawal.
The purpose of the tension device is to allow the
maintenance of proper tension in the yarn in order to achieve a uniform package density.
Following the guide the yarn enters a tension device. hence the name multiplicative tensioner.yarn break or the depletion of a supply package. and (3) combined (or disc) tensioner. Guides are usually made from hard stainless steels or from ceramics.
(3) To vary the tension. fall into three categories: (1) capstan (or multiplicative) tensioner. It is important that guides be kept smooth to prevent damage to the yarn through abrasion. which do not. as illustrated in Figure 4. Open guides. (2) additive tensioner. the base of the natural logaritms. Tout = TineuØ Where e = 2.
The following observations may be made about the capstan tensioner:
(1) Since u. give less positive guiding. The yarn is directed into this zone by a guide. the outgoing tension is merely a constant multiple of the incoming tension. at least one of the following must be done:
.718. o and e are constants.
Guides fall into two categories: closed which require a yarn end to thread. although friction damage can develop in too smooth a guide. and open.
(2) If the incoming tension is zero so is the outgoing tension. however. The tension device also serves as a detector for excessively weak sports in the yarn which break under the added tension induced by the tension device.
hence the name additive.
It should be noted that some of these changes are. F. in general. This device is often called a snick blade. at the least. because of the multiplier effect. there is still an outgoing tension 2µF.
(c) Change the number of posts. The capstan is added primarily as a post-type yarn guide rather than a tensioning device and. impractical. may
. the outgoing tension is simply a constant added to the incoming tension.
The most common type of tensioning device found on winding machines is the combined tensioner.
(2) The incoming tension is zero. The relationship between incoming and outgoing tension in an additive type tensioner is given by:
Tout = Tin + 2µF The following observations may be made concerning additive tensioners:
(1) Since µ. F and 2 are all constants for a given system.(a) Change the coefficient of friction by changing the post material or surface characteristics. Also. tensions can build up to critical levels very rapidly. the yarn passes through a detector whose purpose is to detect thick spots.
(3) The outgoing tension may be changed simply by changing the weight F.
(b) Change the angle of wrap. The detector. tension is regulated by adding or taking off the weight discs.
Upon leaving the tension device.
(d) Change the incoming tension.
The additive tensioner depends upon the coefficient of friction between the weighting plates and the yarn u and the force applied to the yarn by these weights. This device consists of a capstan tensioner which accepts weight discs and thus also functions as an additive tensioner. This detector may be as simple as a frame which contains an adjustable blade which can be set to allow only predetermined yarn diameters to pass through. however.
where the spindle upon which the package is placed is driven directly. through friction.
Consider a disc of radius R. The yarn is wound on the package by only rotating the package. the tension in the yarn should be considered. depending upon the next operation the yarn must encounter. a cone. the tangential velocity) of any point on the disc. a dye tube or a spool. It is known that this tension varies with the incoming tension on the yarn and the yarn speed. This rotation may be accomplished in one of two ways:
(1) Spindle drive. a cheese. a suitable package in the winding zone. Breakage or running out causes the absence of this restraining yarn and allows the sensing device to activate. during winding. It is important that.
Before discussing these methods. then the linear velocity (i.e. This stop motion varies in configuration from machine to machine but in general consists of a counter-weighted or spring loaded sensing device which is held in an inactive position if the yarn is present. It is important that the yarn be wound under as uniform tension as possible. The purpose of the stop motion is to stop winding when the yarn breaks or runs out. Thus physically wrapping the yarn around the package during winding should be avoided.
The yarn is now ready to be put on. or
(2) Friction drive. no twist change take place. a tube. rotating with an angular velocity m. is given by
. in practice may be considered to be constant. controlled by the tensioning device in the clearing zone. The incoming tension. by contact with a driven drum. Thus the tension on the package is only a function of the yarn speed.
After leaving the slub catcher. denoted V. This creates both a consistent package and minimises any variational effects in the yarn which may be a function of tension. the yarn passes through a stop motion device. where the spindle upon which the package is placed is free to rotate and the package is driven. This package may be one of many types.contain sophisticated electronics which continuously monitor the yarn to detect thick (or thin) portions.
a variable speed winder is used. As more yarn is wound onto the package. is constant.V = wR
This linear velocity is exactly the yarn velocity. R. driving speed and radius. if no slippage occurs. the tension is unequal throughout the package. R is always constant (recall that w R is precisely the yarn speed V). as illustrated in Figure 6. a change in V causes a change in package tension and. In this type winder the package is driven by a constant speed friction drum.
Spindle drive winders. although both w and R are nonconstant. It is important to note that V depends directly on Rand w. At the point of contact of the package. w. as a class. there is a simpler way to accomplish the same task and that is the use of a friction drive winder. increases. For this winder the spindle speed is not constant but varies with the package radius. the package radius. therefore.
To have constant yarn speed on a spindle drive winder it is necessary to have a mechanism which causes the speed to vary. they vary in such a way that Q. To overcome this drawback in spindle drive winders. Thus.
For the constant speed spindle winder the angular velocity or the package. all three must have the same velocity. causes an increase in V. drum and yarn. can be represented by Figure 5. recalling the relationship between yarn speed. Since the tension on the package is a function of the yarn velocity. If the yarn velocity is denoted by Vy' the drum velocity by Vd' the drum radius by Rd and the drum angular velocity by wd then:
. This in turn. These winders consist of two types. constant speed winders and variable speed winders. The yarn passes between the friction drum and the package and is taken up by the package. However.
The main advantage of this method of traverse is the ability to precisely lay the yarn onto the package. and (2) the radius of the friction drum remains constant. in which an externally driven guide carries the yarn back and forth across the package. The traversing necessary
. a cone or tube could be used in the winding process. for the friction drum type winder. illustrated in Figure 7. Thus. This is the function of the traversing mechanism. So. Because of the angle between successive yarn layers the shoulders of such a package are stable and do not need to be supported. In this method of traverse. since Rd and wd are constant wd and hence Vy are always constant.
A method of traverse found only on friction drive winders is the use of a traversing groove cut into the friction drum.
All spindle drive winder and some friction drum winders use a reciprocating traverse.
The type of package which may be built depends upon a combination of winding speed and traversing speed. the yarn rides in the groove in the friction drum and is carried back and forth along the length of the package.
Therefore. If the traversing speed is relatively fast. This produce what is known as a cross-wound package. constant yarn speed may be achieved without resorting to variable speed devices of any sort. shown in Figure 8.Vy = Vd = wdRd But note that: (1) the friction drum is rotating at a constant speed thus wd is constant.
Not only must the yarn be wound on the package but also it must be distributed evenly along the length of the package. successive layers of yarn will be laid at distinct angles to each other as shown in Figure 9.
In applications where the package wind angle is important.
If the fabric design calls for yarn dyeing then the yarn is wound on a special tube which facilitates dye penetration into the package. illustrated in Figure 10. and the conical cone package. takes into account stoppages due to yarn breakage. for this type of wind. Thus. defined to be the fraction of the total time required to complete the assigned task that the winder actually spends winding yarn. it is important to ascertain and maintain a critical wind angle to prevent.to build a cone or a cheese package. the angle and spacing of the traverse are constant in-the case of the cheese but vary in the case of the cone. a condition wherein many coils of yarn unwind at a time from the package. or at least reduce. This condition is known as sloughing-off. a spool is an appropriate package. After dyeing the yarn is normally rewound and sent to the next operation.
Production considerations in winding generally fall into the category of determining the length of time required to wind a certain weight package of a known yarn at a known winding speed. such as yarn for weft knitting and filling for shuttleless weaving. supply package run-out and other factors. are not stable and the shoulders of these packages need to be supported by flanges.
If the traversing speed is relatively slow successive/layer will be very close to parallel to each other and a parallel to each other and a parallel-wound packages. Efficiency. It is also important that the wind angle be such that the force required to remove the yarn remains constant. An example of a typical winding problem is given below:
Example: How long will it take for a winder to wind 3 lb of 20 Ne yarn if the winder operates at 700 yd/min with efficiency 87%?
It may be seen in this figure that a quill winder differs very little from a package winder.
. There existence directly on which quills
rather than ring tubes. To be mills use special
flexible.400 yd. When one section is built up the traverse indexes to the next section.87
82. the traverse only covers part of the quill at a time.
specifically for the quills.
Recall that. This is called building a quill by chase lengths or chasing a quill and the traverse is called a progressive reciprocating traverse. in package winding.8 minutes
If the yarn is to be looms it must be The quill is
used as filling in shuttle repackaged on a quill. this ring frame is limited economics more winders purpose of must be most
The productivity of and hence
considered. however.400 yd 700 yd/min
= 72 minutes
72 min 0. designed to rest within are spinning frames in package filling yarn
the shuttle.Sloution: Length of 3 lb of 20 N yarn = 3 lb x 20 x 840 yd/lb = 50. the traversing mechanism makers a full cycle in carrying the yarn completely back and forth along the package.
50. In quill winding.
A schematic representation of a quill winder is given in Figure 11.
This method of quill winding is used for the following reasons:
(1) To help reduce the tendency to balloon as the yarn is unwound from the quill. the differences being no need for clearing and a different traverse mechanism.
The type of package produced at winding varies with the needs of the next process. To accomplish this purpose creels are equipped with package holders on which the supply packages are placed. to build a frame of some sort to hold the packages.
It is logical. be one supply package for each of these yarns. first consider the problem of positioning the packages from which the yarn is taken in such a manner so as to facilitate the removal of yarn. It is necessary therefore to remove the yarns from the winding package and arrange the desired number on a package called a beam. The yarns must be parallel and under uniform tension. then. This. Some common winding packages are illustrated in Figure 12. This frame is known as a creel and its function is to hold the supply packages in a manner so as to facilitate warping.
If the quills are not to be used immediately after winding. is the purpose of warping. at least. they are usually taken to a room to be
conditioned with hot. humid air. reducing the twist liveliness of the yarn and preventing the formation of kinks. and
(3) To reduce the possibility of sloughing-off.
If the fabric forming system is weaving or warp knitting. tension devices to help maintain
. some of all the yarns forming the fabric are presented in sheet form. This conditioning is done to allow the filling yarn to relax.(2) To
tension in the fillinf yarns. Also keep in mind that the number of yarns per beam is in the hundreds or thousands and that there must. therefore.
Before thinking about winding a specified number of yarns on a beam.
To achieve higher beaming efficiency. A creel must be housed in the building and therefore it necessarily uses some of the facilities of that building. single package creels are often used in various combinations.uniform tension throughout the creel. As will be seen later. creel capacity is an important factor in warping. These creels are called truck creels.
In theory. it is obvious that some of the supply packages must be very much further away from the point where the beam is being formed than others. Truck creels require that floor space be reserved for the empty
. it is important that it consume as little of these as possible. and not considering purchase price. Since the creel produces nothing tangible to offset the cost of housing and maintenance. yarn weight. the size of the creel (and therefore the number of Package it may hold) is unlimited. Using this classification. the yarn must be supported to keep it from dragging on the floor and tangling. the creel size is limited by two factors. it is important to keep the packages in a distance range where the effect of yarn weight and the effect of supports as tensioners may be neglected. Thus. the capacity of the creel is limited.
The second factor is the yarn itself. If the winding head. therefore.
Creels may be classified by the number of creel positions per end supplied. creels are either single or multiple package creels. guides to direct charges created by the rubbing of the yarn against the various surfaces and stop motions to detect broken ends and/or empty packages. In practice. In general. In considering a very large creel. often non-stationary single end creels are moved in and out of position as required. is neglected. especially for short lengths of yarn. maximum creel capacity ranges from about 300 packages for very heavy yarns to 1400 packages for fine yarns. The first of these is floor space. In theoretical discussions. Hence the size and. is fixed. Each support acts as a capstan tension device. Also.
e. for warp stripes in.
Another multiple package creel. the fabric.creel. of maintaining a pattern in the warp. the replacement of empty packages with full ones.g. With a traveling package creel.
The yarn is now ready to be put on a beam. or creeling. the number of ends required in the final beam and the necessity if any. A more space efficient set-up results if the headstock is capable of being moved. known as a magazine creel. Figures 17 and 18 illustrate the major methods of warping. The packages are tied head-to-tail so warping can continue when one package is exhausted. Instead of moving creels or headstock when fresh packages are required. illustrated schematically in Figure 15. Creels used in this manner are known as duplicated creels.
In one type of multiple package creel. A diagram of a truck creel set-up is given in Figure 13 and a duplicated creel is the lack of need for an empty creel space in which to move an expended creel. known as the traveling package creel. Tae manner in which this is done depends upon the capacity of the creel. is illustrated by Figure 16. the packages themselves are moved into position. ends required is sufficiently low or. if creel capacity is not sufficient to supply all the required ends and no distinct yarn pattern is required. then beam warping is
. is done in the centre while the packages in use are on the outside.
If the creel capacity is sufficiently high and the total number of. more than one package is provided for each end.
the yarn for the entire fabric is not put on a single beam. Beam warping is simply the winding of yarns directly from the supply packages onto a beam. however. then drum warping is used. as illustrated in Figure 18. it is usually ready at this point to go to the knitting machine. but rather put up on a series of smaller section beams which contain only a portion of the ends requited for Iii full-width fabric.
If. When the total number of warp ends required in the fabric has been wound on the pattern drum. This beam is called a section beam since. This beam contains the exact number of ends required in the warp. for warp knitting. slashing. and intermittent. it contains only a section of the warp required. the yarn is to be used in weaving. because when the ends are taken from the creel and wound on the pattern drum. If the yarn is to be used for warp knitting. the warp is not wound directly from the creel onto the beam but rather sections of the warp are wound onto a pattern drum.
Slashing or warp sizing
In the weaving process.
. and hence any pattern in the warp. it is necessary to build a warp beam containing the totality of ends required or if the warp yarns have to be arranged in a definite order. by the left-off and take-up. however.
In this manner the entire warp is built up in a series of sections on the pattern drum. tension both constant. the warp yarns are subjected to rubbing and chafing against metal by being threaded through drop wires. These beams may be produced either by beam or drum warping methods. If.
In general. by the shedding and beat-up. with insufficient creel capacity.generally used. they are all removed simultaneously and wound upon a beam. heddles and reed. In drum warping. must undergo one further operation. Also. it generally. except for the case in which all the required ends can be put on a single beam. The final beam maintains this placement. exact placement in relation to each other may be made.
This encourages the "hairs" on one yarn to tangle with the "hairs" on its neighbours. one which will withstand the rigors of weaving.e. This purpose is accomplished by:
(1) Enhancing the strength of the yarn by causing the fibers to adhere together.All of these lead to conditions which are favourable to end breakage. an occurrence which should be minimised. At this point. lubrication. this strength is inadequate to assure an acceptable level of end breakage and therefore attempts should be made to boost the strength of the yarn by causing the fibers to adhesive to each other. the solution is very simple. singles. if they are slashed at all. the tensile strength of the yarns needs to be improved. usually need adhesive to protect the
. Continuous filament and ply yarns are inherently strong enough and usually do not require boosting of their strength. This is accomplished by adding an adhesive to the yarn. most spun yarns are quite "hairy". Continuous filament yarns.
(2) Making tile outer surface of the yarn smooth. the major strength that the yarns possess is that derived from the twisting of their fibers. benefit from a lubrication procedure prior to weaving. in Met.
Thus. In general all types of yarns. causing a fabric defect. singles spun yarns must be slashed for all the above reasons.
The purpose of slashing (or warp sizing) therefore is to produce a warp which will withstand the rigors of weaving. Thus it is beneficial to make the outer surface of the yarns smooth. This tangling can either lead to the tangling of the yarns themselves resulting in warp breakage. or can cause the yarns to weave as one.
Assuming the yarns are singles spun yarns. In general. During shedding. one thinks of yarn as smooth cylindrical objects when. the solution is common for any problem in which rubbing is involved. and
(3) Lubricating or waxing the yarn to reduce friction. ply or continuous filament.
For the problem of rubbing and chafing with metal parts. i.
Ideally. these yarns move back and forth past each other. This is the purpose of slashing or warp sizing. It is desirable to lubricate the surface of the yarn so as not to make it susceptible to damage through rubbing and chafing. it is desirable to produce as high a quality warp as possible.
as a result. the condition of the equipment.filaments from breaking. there are many possible ingredients available for a size recipe.
(7) Least amount of dusting-off during weaving. and the amount of size picked up by the yarn. vegetable and animal or animal fats. waxes such as mineral.
(4) Easily removed. Since slashing is a productive. Some factors which must be considered are:
(1) Cost of the ingredients.
(4) Solvent . Ply yarns are usually slashed for lubrication and/or smoothness.
(3) Compatibility with equipment.
(3) Additives .
(5) Provides good fabric characteristics if not removed. an excessive number of end breaks will occur.
(8) Fewest number of end breaks at weaving.
(2) Non-degrading to the yarn. These factors include the size recipe and temperature.The solvent generally used is water. If the yarn contains too much size by weight it will tend to be brittle and.
Many factors influence the impact of the size upon the yarn.
As can be seen.Additives may be included to provide features such as static elimination and mildew resistance. If the yarn
. polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and others.Lubricants may be oils such as mineral and vegetable.
(2) Lubricants . if necessary. protective measure it is important to carefully select the size ingredients.
(4) Yarn separation section. Remembering also that drum warping yielding a warp beam containing the totality of ends required for weaving.
(5) Headstock. depending upon fiber type and size recipe. At the slasher. The creel can hold as few as one beam and. in the case of beam warping. as many as fourteen. warp sizing machines or slashers can be divided into five different sections:
(1) Beam creel. the minimum value of warp breaks falls in the 5 to 15% size by weight range. each containing a portion of the total number of warp ends required. usually. many warp beams are combined to form a single weave's beam.
(3) Drying section. no combination is needed at the slasher. recall that.
(2) Size box. a graph similar to Figure 19 would result.
If one were to plot end breaks during weaving (B) vs% size for a given yarn and a given recipe (S). it is seen that.contains little or no size then none of the benefits of sizing the yarn will be realised and again there will be excessive and breakage. The creel of the slasher holds all these beams and the ends on them are combined during the sizing operation. for this beam.
In general. For most spun yarns. Figure 20 schematically illustrates a warp
The beam creel is merely a device or frame on which beams are placed in a manner convenient for unwinding. Reflecting back to the packages produced in warping. there were usually a number of section beams prepared.
The shape of the curve bears out the argument in the preceding paragraph.
The warp sheet then passes through two rolls known as squeeze rolls. in the case of multiple section beams and prior to the yarn's entering the size box. It then passes under a dip or immersion roll. the yarns must be dried. governed by the speed of the machine and the immersion roll depth. i. of the size is kept as constant as possible to assure both correct and uniform size pick up by the warp yarns. The yarn is fed into the size box by means of a guide roll. This drying may be done by exposing the yarns to hot air. and hence the viscosity. the temperature and concentration. the yarn structure and the pressure applied by the squeeze rolls.
The yarn next enters the size box. The purpose of the squeeze rolls is twofold:
(1) To squeeze out excess size. Often.e. shown in Figure 21. and
(2) To physically drive the size into the yarn for proper penetration. size ingredients and steam to heat the size liquor. the size solvent must be driven off. The lease rods help the yarns coming from many different warp beams to flow together smoothly. The size box contains the size solution. cylinders (or cans). In this way.sizing machine.
The size box also contains pipes which supply solvent. This roll is capable of being moved up or down allowing the yarn to be held in the size liquor for a desired period of time.
The percentage of size by weight is controlled by the yarn's exposure to the size solution. known as size liquor. by passing them over heated.
After the yarns have been exposed to the size liquor and have picked up the required amount of size.
. by exposing-them to infrared or by a combination of these methods. the yarn passes over a series of rods called lease rods.
For these reasons. This is done in an effort to reduce any effect to the yarns from the initial shock of bursting a completely dried warp sheet.The hot air method and the infrared method are. This process may be repeated as many times as thought necessary to achieve total separation. the warp yarns at weaving have to be individual in nature. The yarn is wound onto the loom beam at the headstock in a manner similar to that in the beaming operation. Precautions must be made to prevent excess size from building up on the cans. Often the hot air or infrared is used in a pre-dry unit in front of the cylinder drying unit. the first three or four cans are usually coated with Teflon(R). Clearly. a combination of the hot air or infrared and cylinder drying is used. This adhesive not only "glues" the fibres within a yarn together. thus effectively increasing residence time. This prevents the sized yarn from sticking and also prevents the excess size from building up on the cans.
. however. This is done to minimise any possible negative effects of the yarn's coming in contact with a high temperature drying unit and to ease the separation of yarn after the drying section. recall that one size ingredient is an adhesive. Therefore. The yarn is dried by coming in contact with these hot cans.
The most common drying methods are the use of heated cylinders or cans. Residence time on the cans is important in order to dry the warp sheet efficiently. This task is performed by the burst rods. These are positioned on the slasher and the machine is threaded in such a way that alternate ends are sent in alternate directions. Often. If the cylinder drying method is used precautions must be taken so the size will not cause the yarn to stick to the cans as it is drying. the least normally efficient methods and thus require the yarn to have a long residence time during drying.
The yarn is now ready to be put on the loom beam.
After the sized yarn has been dried it is still not ready to be put on a beam. It is threaded through an expansion or "zig-zag" comb which is adjusted to allow the warp sheet to come to the width required to fill the loom beam. After the yarn has passed the first few cans. in the case of continuous filament yarns. but also causes individual yarns to adhere together. in general. it is dry enough so as to no longer stick to noncoated cans and Teflon(R) is no longer required. high speed may be achieved by increasing the number of drying cans. especially those processing filament yarns.
On some slashers. there is a splitting section prior to the drying section. care must be taken to separate individual ends.
Rampur Road. In warp knitting. There are relatively inexpensive portable machines which can tie-in the new warp at a rate of up to 600 ends/minute.in
.. Drawing-in is the process of providing each and with a drop wire. a heddle in the proper harness and a dent in the reed as shown in Figure 22. Himadri Panda & Dr. Bidholia.243502 Bareilly (UP) e-mail: devashish_1984@yahoo. but rather in another area in the mill. When the mill is producing long runs of the same fabric. the operation of tying-in is performed. It has exactly the required number of ends and it has been protected so as to withstand the rigors of weaving.O. West End City. P. 61. Clutterbuckganj . is not normally practiced. even if the new beams are replacements. (Mrs.The loom beam is now ready to be taken to the loom.
Drawing-in and tying-in
The next operation is dependent upon the current beam (or lack of beam) on the loom. If the new warp corresponds one for one in number of ends and weave pattern with the warp presently in place.
Dr. unless the mill is very large and produces many short run fabrics of different design. Thus. tying-in is most prevalent. Tying-in is merely the cutting-off of the old warp and the end-to-end tying of the yarns from the new beam to the corresponding warp yarns already in place on the loom.co.) Rakhshinda Panda Devashish Consultants (P) Ltd. Drawing-in machines are extremely available but they are extremely expensive. If the new warp does not correspond exactly to the old warp or the loom does not have a warp to begin with. the yarns are taken from the warp beam and manually threaded through the machine. Tying-in. This operation generally occurs at the loom. Drawing-in does not/generally occur at the loom. manual drawing-in is more prevalent. so manual tying-in rarely encountered in most mills. then drawing-in must be performed.