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pa paa pi pee pu poo pru pe pai po pau pam paha

q qi- fq- i:ft � � � q it q) tjf tf q:


pha phaa phi phee phu phoo phru phe phai pho phau pham phaha
t:fi" t:fi"f fQi q5T � w l[i. q, � q;]- q;l\" tj) t:fj":
ha baa bi bee bu boo bru be bai bo bau barn bah a
Gj" 6IT f5t 6jT � � � � � El) � 6j" Gj":
bha bhaa bhi bhee bhu bhoo bhru bhe bhai bho bhau bham bhaha
'11 'l1T fi1 'llt 'lj � � � � � <tj'f 'if '11:
ma maa m mee mu moo mru me mai mo mau mam maha
:E 11 � 11:
iil f?!" 1ft � 12, 1! � it i:iT if
ya yaa yi yee yu yoo yru ye yai yo yau yam yaha
<l" m 1ll" <ft � � 1l � tl" m -m lf (l":
ra raa ri ree ru roo re rai ro rau ram raha
-
x XT � � � � � � xl" � � x:
la laa Ii lee lu loo lru le lai lo !au lam !aha
c;r 'RT � <'ft Cj � <1 � {;f C7IT c;f\" c;f c;r:
va vaa vi vee vu voo vru ve vai vo vau vam vaha
er erT � cft � '! <[ ct it err ctr cf er:
sha shaa shi shee shu shoo shru she shai sho shau sham shaha
� m fu � � � � � � m m � �:
1if � ffl" � � � � � � "!if'r � i;j" lif:
sa saa si see su soo sru se sai so sau sam saha
ff m ftr "fit � � � � � m m- � ff:
ha haa hi hee hu hoo hru he hai ho hau ham haha
6 'ITT � ift s � � t � 61" "ITT 6" 6":

1. � occurs only in borrowed Sanskrit words. It is pronounced like w but
HINTSON PRONUNCIATION
with more pressure. e.g. Shanmukha, Santosh.

H. Some letters which have a dot below indicate that the words in which
1. If a word ends in 3l sound, then that sound is not pronounced fully, but
they occur, have been borrowed from Arabic, Persian, Turkish or English.
clipped half.

Sli - q � - qalam � -qila


� ab aITTT aaj 3ffll aam q;(1" kal
'l3 - kh Wll - khatam � - khabar
m ghar � Qalam Ull Ram fu<: sir
TI - gh lf.IB - mughal Tili -gham �-ghazal

2. If a 3-letter word does not end in 3f sound, but has the 3f sound in the �- z � - Azad � -zamindar
middle letter, then that letter is not pronounced fully, but cut short.
�-f �-final � -fail

cp:f(1f - Kamla <;q<rr - rupya


Cli+ro - kamra In common speech, people ignore these niceties and pronounce them
� - kursi � - aadmi just likeq;, \¥, Tf, \if, lfi, �. �.

3. In a 4-letter word, if the second letter has 3f sound, then that letter is
9. The dot placed above a letter (like ai) indicates one of the nasal sounds
not pronounced fully.
- s:, �' llT, 'il, l'f -depending upon the next consonant. This dot is called

�rom - sharbat Anuswar.


� - Akbar � - kathal
micfR - tasveer
mT\itT - darwaza � - bachpan
i) If the next consonant is <ti,\¥, Tf, �.then the preceding dot denotes
.
s;_ sound tjm to be pronounced as �. m as �' � as
4. If the first letter has 3f on: sound and if the next letter is�.then that 3f / �·
� becomes � sound.
ii) If the next consonant is "f, £9, \if,�. then the preceding dot denotes
WITT" - Rehman -
� - pehla � - kehna '5(sound. � - � � , � .

� - Behari � - behn
iii) If the next consonant is c:, o, �. �. then the preceding dot denotes
ui.sound. im-�, �-�.
5. �is similar to American "r" as in very.� larayee. �is aspirated�(i.e.
-
rh [rh]). � Chan.digarh, �-Aligarh. iv) If the next consonant is -q, �, "G, t:1', then the preceding dot denotes
1. sound.� - Sant, ri"G-Nanda, aim - andha.
6. w is a hissing sound, like the English 'sh' shut. It is pronounced with
� If the next consonant isll, lfi, GT,�. then the preceding dot denotes
the tip of the tongue. e.g. Shankar, Sharmila.
+{_sound. � - Champa, � - Mumbai, .Y� - gambhir, �­
-
kambal, mm Sambandh.

(xii)
(xiii)
CONCLUSION
vi) If the next consonant is �, the preceding dot denotes '5{ sound.
m-�.�-�-
Nowadays, for the convenience of DTP and printing press, the
vii) If the next consonant is �. �, �T, �, the preceding dot denotes 'I. half-moon symbol is fast becoming obsolete. It has only pronunciation value
sound. �-sanlagna, ti�ft-munshi, �-Kansa, mm-sansar. now. t« =swan, �=laugh. Even here people are not very particular. Thus,
However, for convenience, 1f. sound also is heard-samlagna,
�. R, -&f, etc., are spoken and written as arm,�.�- In other words, the
Kamsa, Samsar.
Anuswar (dot) has dethroned Anunasic (half moon) in both speech and
viii) If the next consonant is er, the preceding dot is pronounced as 'll.· writing.
-
ticr"R samvad, � - samvat.
Hindi is a descendant of Sanskrit. In Sanskrit, every letter is spoken
ix) If the dot is on the last letter, pronounce with the nasal sound of clearly as it is. So, in Hindi too, words are spoken exactly as they are written­
n. 'l'"@ - nahi(n), � - kahi (n).
keeping in mind the niceties shown above. Even these delicate distinctions

get automatically absorbed in our speech in course of time. Hence, Hindi did
10. The half moon-like symbol (chandra bindhu) placed above a vowel
not require a Daniel Jones-type scholar to produce a separate pronouncing
indicates the nasal sound of the vowel. It is called Anunasik.
dictionary. In Hindi, just utter each letter as it is-you will be fully and correctly

�-kaha(n) mr - ha(n)s Olfu -ba(n)s understood.

Note : The dot above stands for (represents)

s:, '5f, 11T, ;; , lf. (e.g. cfi= �+3f+l\).

The half moon above indicates that the vowel is nasalized.


(e.g. �=�+3f).

In other words, the Anuswara (dot) follows a vowel. The Anunasik


(half moon) is a modification of the pronunciation of the vowel itself.

11. The sign ':' is call Visarga. It has the sound of ha (�)---am: -ataha,
'liOl"a': -falataha.

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(xiv)
�- one � - defect
WORD PRACTICE
Before going to Lesson 1, practise the following words by speaking 3ITT - and cnR - yesterday, tomorrow
and writing. While writing, try to draw the headline after writing the "WO - letter l:R - house
whole word as far as possible. In course of time, the hand will
"'i:fFr - walk UO - roof
automatically find a convenient way of drawing the headline.
\iWr - water, burn �- at once
.Jn- come �- eat
orr - cheat 'S"{ - afraid
l"fT- sing l.ft - ghee, clarified butter
� - method �"weigh
m- spread � - touch
�- little Glf- breath
�- go '1f1' - sir, mind
�- not � - read
�- louse 'itl - one who
�- throw � - strength
� - barley it- carry
"fl - roast 1R - die
�- thou m - was (masculine)
�- fame "{� - chariot
� - was (feminine) �-give
Gl' - give, two tit- wash
� - quarrel � - he, she, it, that
�- put up with m=r- laugh
-;:r, ';fl - no, not ':it- nine
3FR - if 3rrfisR - at last
"QT- get tft'- drink
�m - here �u:r - fuel
��smell "aft- SOW
�m - there � - mortar
'4\" - also <:IT- or
�- announcement � - spectacles
� - these it- cry
� - rank, post �- medicine
m- bring � - take
�- sew
� - pen �- bad
c} - those
1Rlf - hot �- incident
� - by, than m- sleep, so
� - unsteady mftl" - umbrella
m - hundred "tfl - only
� - reply, answer �- quarrel
t - is m- are
�- basket � - stay
3R - now 3fT'il" - today
3Tilf
slfcti41 - postman � - search
3WT - fire - mango
�- pillow �- pat
� - sugar-cane � - sugar-cane
�- dowry � - threat
�- wool �- loan
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(xvi)
�- polite 'Q'tR - downfall '€jq€fi<;H - bright '11•1q•iiiji! - glitter
� - bear fruit �- calf $1lt"'H&H - frilled feqQ;qHI - flicker
'qTq.rr - feeling � - jollity tt6?fil&ild - enquiry m�-tremble
�- entreaty � -money, rupee 5M4)•1 - misuse !I HICl I�&i - serial
�- boy � - otherwise f.:l:qq1C1Rl - prospectus QijHCI1'1 - wrestler
�- shame �- cold ii6<<!11;:ft - kindness �- youth
�- turmeric � - often <H'li'!OllR&i - chemical H&i'$6HI - woodcutter
� - modem � - thirty-one � - under consideration q\<'11!J<efl - sunflower
'3'QT.fR - cure �- suddenly ,j:j'1tl'!Ol<SIEH - museum $Fd6i�&iH - historian
� - exercise �- bug ::SQ�HQfd - Vice-Chancellor •l{qi•l{q - very hot
� - confusion �- horse-race �ql=ttt<;H- bailor "!q&iij{iq - ungrateful
� - cot fuq&lt"fl - lizard
� - animal "$1"GQ"G - at once
i!&if!c#i't - stare �- packed
S1TlflT - faltering � - luck, fate
� - police inspector � - fire engine
� - mischievous �- autumn
�HcUfl - flower garden '<Sl«f'1' - vessel
� - discrimination �- labourer
'!Ollttl'!Olld - transport � - employment
� - on the contrary imfq'Ql"ll - canopy
�- to praise � - promising, destiny
3'11<;<oft:q - respectable, revered $difl'tl"I - satisfaction
$qH<;H - honest ::Si;i�"ld I - indifference
l{&ict'€1'1 - singular �fdt!l�&i - historical
::dl4'€11R&i - formal &id9;t1Hl - puppet
�Gtq\<tt - beautiful U�H&l"ll - bathroom

(xviii) (xix)
CONJUNCT LETIERS Read and recognize

The Hindi consonant letters do not indicate the consonant 3t� - teacher � - invasion
sounds only. They stand for the particular consonant +3t. Thus Cfi � - Indra �- god
is k + a. When the consonant is to be expressed without the �- owl � - collected
inherent 3t, a right-slanting stroke called 'ha!' �) is put below
�- wealth � - flower-bed
the letter. Thus we have�.�.� , etc. So one may write kya (what)
�- m9ment � - expenditure
as�.
However, the use of 'ha!' is not in much vogue. It is used with m- planet � - ungrateful
s� , e
, o, �
, or in some Sanskrit words like �- � - child � -good
While combining two letters: � -much � - goblet
1. Remove the vertical stroke (perpendicular line) of the first letter, �-rock � - butter-milk
i.e. the first letter will become half. 11. + �=�� , �+�="6\J, Q_ +
� - resting place � - good deed
� =-m
� - sacrifice "q'� - diet
2. If the first letter is formed in the stroke itself; then only half of
�� - student � - meditation
that letter is joined to the second letter. �+<:f=�, �+<:r=i:p:r,
� - birth 3r.rnm - pineapple
�+ir='rif, ll_+�=�
3. In the case of letters in which, the vertical stroke does not 'Qfffi - thirst Vi1 - love
appear (s,�,e,o,s,�,'G.�), separately and fully, they retain � - office � - box, can, compartment
the 'ha!' mark. � +o=�, '+ U='U &, +Cf=� � - civilized cq'q"{ - bee
However, till recently they were written one below the other, � - honour � - nation
like �.�.@,etc. ,
� - quickly &I icfl'(Oi - grammar
4. If"{ is the first letter, it is written above the second letter, \ +11"=
�UT - veneration � - verse
1f, 1- +�=�. � +'G=�
� - problem � - place
5. When it comes after a letter having a vertical stroke, it is
written as a left slanting stroke below and to the left of the � - tongue � - short
vertical stroke. � - ink q;if - action
� +"{= �.\i(+"{='if, ' +"{ =� � - fame Tc.tWIT - cowherd
6. When combined as second letter to �.e,o,s,�,'G .� it is written � - fever OUST - cool
thus below: � +"{ = �. �+ "{= l '1jQ1U - lovable � - business
7. Though �. ::r,�,.13l are included in the alphabet itself, they are � - peaceful imiT - solid
nothing but conjuncts written in a special way. ctl_ +1"= �. Q_ + mmr - week '![R - secret
"{='Sl',\i(+'3f=�. �+"{=.13f
(xx} (xxi)
27. PAST PERFECT TENSE ................. ........................................ 83
CONTENTS
28. DOUBTFUL PRESENT TENSE ... .. .......................... . . . .
. . . ......... 87

1. BASIC SENTENCES .................. , ............................................. 1 29. DOUBTFUL PAST TENSE ........................ ............................. 89

2. THE IMPERATIVE ............................................... .... . ....... ...... 3 30. PAST CONDITIONAL TENSE ................................................ 93

3. PRESENT TENSE 'BE' VERB ................ ... ................................ 7 31. HABITUAL TENSE ................. . ......... ................................... 96

4. PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE .. .......... ............................


. . ...... 9 32. SHOULD -MUST - OUGHT TO ......................................... 100

5. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE .................................. ......... 13 33. AUXILIARY VERB - PRESENT TENSE - HAVE TO ..... .........
. 104

6. GENDER ................................ ............. .... ...... . ..................... 16 34. AUXILIARY VERB -PAST TENSE - HAD TO ........... ........... 106

7. NUMBER ...... ................................... .. . ................................ 21 35. AUXILIARY VERB - FUTURE TENSE -WILL HAVE TO ......... 108

8. CASES ................................................................................ 25 36. AUXILIARY VERB 'CAN' ................................................... 111

9. POSSESSIVE CASE ............................................ . .................. 29 37. AUXILIARY VERB 'FINISH' ............................................... 113

10. PRONOUNS ......................................................................... 32 38. AUXILIARY VERB 'BEGIN' ................................................ 116

11. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN ........... ........................................ ...... 35 39. AUXILIARY VERB - 1\LLOW ............................................... 118

12. ADJECTIVES .............. ...................................


. ..................... 37 40. THE ABSOLUTIVE ·'············································ · · ············· 120

13. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ............. . . ................... . ........ 40 41. PRESENT PARTICIPLE . ...................................................... 123

14. ADVERBS ............. ............................................................... 43 42. PAST PARTICIPLE ................................................. . ........... 126

15. VERBAL NOUNS/GERUNDS ................................................ 46 43. COMPOUND VERBS ........................................................... 129

16. POST-POSITIONS ............ ..........


. ................... . . . ................ 50 44. CAUSATIVE VERBS .............. .......................... . . ................. 134

17. CONJUNCTIONS ....................................... .........................


. 54 45. VOICE ............................................................................. . . 138

18. INTERJECTIONS ..... ............. ... ......... ............. .. ................


. . . . 56 46. CONNECTING THE SENTENCES .......... . .............................. 142

19. FUTURE TENSE ................................................................... 57 47. THE USE OF fc!li AND CfTm . .............. ................................. 145

20. FUTURE SUBJUNCTIVE ....................................................... 61 48. AGREEMENT OF SUBJECT WITH VERB ........................ ..... 149

21. PAST TENSE 'BE' VERB ....................................................... 64 49. SPECIAL FEATURES OF SOME CASES .... ............................ 152

22. PAST IMPERFECT TENSE ...... .......................................... .... 66 50. PARTING ADVICE ............................................................. 157

23. PAST CONTINU,OUS TENSE ........ ............... .......................... 69 APPENDIX

24. PAST INDEFINITE TENSE .......•...... . . ...................... . . . . . ......... 71

25. PAST INDEFINITE TENSE-TRANSITIVE VERBS ..................... 74

26. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ......... ............... .......................... . 79

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1 . BASIC SENTENCES

��
Appendix - I
Classified Vocabulary
l. � Cfll'T t ? � � t I
Fruits 159 What is this? This is (a) book.
Flowers 159
Trees and their Parts 160 2. �-Cfll'T t? Cffl� t I
Vegetables 160 What is that? That is (a) pen.
Grains and Pulses 161
Eatables 161 3. ���t l efflcnttfi t 1
Birds 162
Animals 162 This is a temple. That is a notebook.
Insects 163
163
4. � 1TCfi t I CfflCfiR' t I
Parts of the Body
Diseases 164 This is nose. That is ear.
Clothes 165
Gems and Jewels 165 5. �Cfitft? ��"tR t l
Minerals 166
.Relatives 166
Where is the book? The book is on the table.
Occupations 167
6. �"tR'Cfll'T t ? � "tR � t I
Building and its Parts 168
Household goods 169 What is on the floor? The chair is on the floor
Tools 170
Directions 170 7. � W-i-ij ·�T�fi'('l-ij l:J � t I
Colours 170 The pen is in the hand. There .is ink in the pen.
Days of the Week 171
Names of Months 171 8. Cfll'T � CfiTffiif t? -;rtt' � C("l IMrfi t I
Names of Months (Indian) 171
Seasons 171 Is this a paper? No, it is plastic.
Time 171
Numerals 172 9. Cfll'Teffl � � t? m\ifl, Cffl � � t1
Special Numbers 173 Is it a temple? Yes sir, that is a temple.
Fractions 173
Devanagari Figures 173 10. � 3ffi CfiTffiif � 'tR � I
Appendix - II
The pen and paper are on the table.
1 1. � .qf$ffi "tR t l
Proverbs 174
Designations 177 The clock also is on the wall.
Administrative Terms 179
Prefixes 182 12. � G1M t 1
Suffixes 183
Direct Verbs 184
Union is strength.
List of Adjectives 186
jvocABULARYI
-
�-a, one �* - unity 3ffi and
-
�* - pen CfitT where CfiTffiif - paper

{xxiv) 1
!!��� • Learn Hindi Through English SU� • Learn Hindi Through English

q:;"R - ear Cfi'ftft* - notebook �* - book 2 . THE IMPERATIVE

�* - chair �* - clock, watch �* -floor, ground �


-
�- no, not -::rrcn* -nose � on,above The Imperative denotes: command, order, request, warning,
prohibition, entreaty, etc. Therefore the subject will always be in
�* - book � - strength .q:i. - also
•.econd person, i.e. thou, you, you-respect (tt "['f, 3ITCr). Seme­
�-temple 1l - in,at �* - table l Imes the subject may not be mentioned.

� - this, it Cf& - that, it �* - ink �is used in addressing god, servants or children and in affec-
m- yes m'2f - hand % - is 1 Ion for mother, sister, younger brother, etc. , or for expressing strong
feelings like contempt or anger.
Note:
1 . Words with asterisk mark (*) denote that they are feminine "Tl is used in addressing family members, equals, servants and
nouns. Then the adjective and the verb qualifying that noun juniors.
also will be in feminine. 3ITCr is the polite and respectful form of address for all, both in
2. � means 'what'. But if � comes as the first or the earliest singular and in plural. It is used in addressing strangers and superi­
word, then it is not translated. The sentence should be treated ors. As there is only one 'you' in English for singular-plural-respect,
as interrogative (i.e. yes or no - type - question) 3ntr is translated as 'you please' .

��� %? What is your name? When"?_ is the subject, the verb remains in its root form. e.g.
�� � w%? Is this your house? Thou get out - �� \ifT I
When "['f is the subject, 3iT (letter or sound) is appended to
the root of the verb, e.g. You come - "['f 3n3'T I You read - � �
(�+ 3rt)
When· 3ITCr is the subject, � (letter or sound) is appended to
the root of the verb. e.g. You (please) come - 3ITCr� I You (please)
speak 3ITCr � (�+ �) I
You go - sleep - bring - eat - sit - write - play - see
"['f \il'T3rt - m3rt - m3rt - ID3rt - � - fFrW - � - �I
3ITC£�-�-�-�-�-�-�-
�I
�. �. etc., are also written as�. �. etc. , but the
former forms are preferable.
More politeness or entreaty is expressed by adding '1'ff to the
verb already used.
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SU�S • Learn Hindi Through English

3fT'Cf Cfi(WI' � I Please kindly come tomorrow. ii . ltCFi � �CliT 3tTGT G) I


3fT'Cf ltCfi "Q'S!' � I You please send a letter.
Give one kilo wheat flour.
The negative or prohibitive form of the Imperative is obtained
!>. � -ij ��t 1 '1ffm 3ffi mtr �mm 1
by placing -qo or or immediately before the verb.
Of the two, or is polite but weak. -qo is emphatic but less polite. There is no ink in the pen. Go and get some ink.
� (naheen) is never used in Imperative. 6. �, "3°it, Tf'{if "'a'Tlf Nm I
?Pf��-qo�1 Don't sit on the chair. Mohan, get up, drink hot tea.
?Pfor'1tlm I Don't go. 7. �, ltefi�lfralJTm I
\illrfl' -qo '1tl, -qo '11T , -tifq 'q{ il"tT IYou ascetic (Krishna), don't Vimala, sing a Hindi song.
go, don't go, I fall upon your feet. (Mirabai)
8. ���I Cfi�llO-qo�I
Imperative
Always speak the truth. Never tell a lie.
� + verb root �"Q1f 9. 3fl'Cf�-ij�-qo� I
?Pf + m (letter I sound) ?Pf mm I ?Pf� I You please don't buy handkerchief in a shop.
3fT'Cf + � (letter I sound) 3fT'Cf �I 3fT'Cf � I 10. � lfri'mln-ij Gira � I
Exceptions Please always speak in mother-tongue.
The following verbs behave irregularly when m or � is added: 1 1. 3fl'Cfisf(m) �-qo�I
Verb root Subject You please don't drink cold water.
1+w

"¥ 3fT'Cf 12. 3mf�-qo�I


take � m � Please don't stay here today.
give � G) � 13. 3fT'Cf � 1TfUra f�HSII$� I
drink "tfi flfm � You please teach us mathematics.
do Cfil Cfiit �
14. ?Pf ltefi � � 3ffi m Cfi1:flm 1
MODEL SENTENCES Open a shop and earn money.
1. ?Pf '11Tm 3ffi ltCFi �mm I 15. ?Pf��crol� I
You go and bring a table.
Always wear khadi clothes.
2. � -ij�m1
16. �lm-�m-qo"Giit 1
Take (hold) the pen in the hand
Don't run here and there often
3. �� � ��I
11. 3fl'Cf� ��m f.ICfl1l'Fl�1
Write on the paper with pen.
You please withdraw a thousand rupees from bank.
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l voCABULARY I 3. PRESENT TENSE 'BE' VERB

3rcFm: - often, frequently 3fT - come qn•uii<PIM 'morr' �


3TI\il' - today 3TIGT - flour Singular Plural

�m here '30- get up I am it� We are ��


You are WJm You are 3fftr �
'3U"{ there Cfi1:IT - earn
H The'
--
�- do CfiM
- yesterday, tomorrow She iS �/�%
)
Those are �t� i
�- buy �- open It They
1Rlf - hot l'fT - sing Note:
1
Tfra - song � - wheat 1. All plural have the same ending � I
isr- cold �- stay, wait 2. To indicate negative, use ;iti'. It comes before verb.
�* shop - �-run 3. Though it stands for I, while talking, a person may use�­
�- take out 't(;r-letter Particularly writers and people in power tend to use � in­
�- wear �- water stead of it I
4. 3'Tlt,�.� denote singular also if they are used to point out to a
tft' - drink vra* - matter,talk
respectable person.
lfr'i<q"NT* mother-tongue
- � - here 5. �.� are also pronounced as�. cit I
'ITTf - truth ftmrr - teach
MODEL SENTENCES
� - thousand �- always
1. it•flq1H�itt{lit3't�"{I
Note:-- I am Gopaldas. I am a teacher.
In Imperative, even if the subject is not indicated or missing, 2. wr � m? �wrrn:r m?
one can guess it by looking at the verb. If it ends in 3iT (letter or Who are you? Are you Ram?
sound), then the subject is you (singular). If the verb ends in � (letter 3. � �-::rtt i .� � % 1
or sound), then the subject is you (respect or plural). He is not Kishore but Rakesh.
4. �� � %? -::rt,t � � % 1
It she Kamala? No, she is Vimala.
5. l:f&��t·���� i1
This is (it is) a dog. The dog is a domestic animal.
6. �-mrm«r'$�1���1
We all belong to India. We are Indians_
6 7
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SlU� • Learn Hindi Through English

4. PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE


7. cp:n
amm� �? ";f'lff.1l�"(1
Are you (respect) a lecturer? No, I am a doctor. � crrfinor Cl>IM

8. � 3llR, � 3fu 3ti"rn� I The present indefinite tense, known as simple present tense,
They are Amar, Akbar and Antony. 111dicates an action in the present, an action taking place now. e.g. I
qo, You come, It runs, She sings, They shout, etc.
9. �� Cfilmiltl
In Hindi, the indefinite is formed by adding the suffix m ;a or m
That is a white paper. ,1ccording to the gender and number of the subject.
10. <qffif�� 3fu��tI Then the sentence is rounded off with {,m,t,� as shown in
India is a big and ancient country. I .esson - 3 to indicate present tense.
11. 1fl'q-ij°l:ftlR"f, ��-�I Subject Verb root Masculine Feminine Present
There are 100 houses in the village - all very small. suffix suffix tense
"'

12. ��lR1SITT'fi;rtft? 'ij . \jfl m m l


Is this house not vacant? Wt \jfl -ff m m
13. IBQCfiMl��i1 �.� \jfl m m t
The lizard is on the wall. �.3tf4" \jfl -ff m �
14. 4<il:t4<�m-ij�. �-ij�m-Ol'Cfit1 �.�
God's in His heaven - Note:
All's right with the world. (Robert Browning)
1. All masculine plural have the same suffix -ff added to the verb
15. -ij ·�rP:rnft ;rtf1-ij � � ;rtf1 root.
I am no poet. I am not a lover either. 2. All feminine subjects take the same suffix madded to the verb
lvocABUIARYl root.
3. All plurals, both masculine and feminine, have the same present
3t� - teacher �-lover WTIT-dog tense indicator 'f.
-
CfIT;:r who -
1SITT'fi vacant 4. The negative;rtf will come before verb. When ;rtf is used,
�-of
-
tense. need not be shown. e.g. does not go ;rtf \ifraTI
Tiicl'-village -
lR house IBQCfiMl * - lizard
5. But if the subject is feminine plural and if ;rtf is used, then the
-
�-small \iff.1'GR-animal m - O.K. all right verb takes a dot above. e.g. Girls do not jump H&Rfi�i �
-
it of course, so � *-world �-country �I
6. Nowadays women increasingly use� instead of il for singu­
-
-
�-domestic, tame � old "J:ITWIQCfi lecturer lar. When they use � they end the sentence with masculine
�-big �-but �- poet plural verb instead of feminine verb. Thus, instead of saying -ij
� "{, a modem woman will say � � "t. For plural also
�-white �-all m- hundred
they say���.
9
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MODEL SENTENCES : Masculine 15. � 'ffiifm � I � Ull:-Uft:�� I


l. .q TW-J ·cfrari...... 1 The horses run fast. The bullocks walk slowly.
I drink tea. 16. ·�;in:ra=t � �mnf� m 1l <.p:fT q:;ffl m?
2. wr � �� m? What do you do from morning to evening at home?
Whom do you write the letter to ?
Feminine
3. ��m-ort?
When does the baby sleep?
I do not drink juice in the evening
4. � � � � Wfra�%?
2. � � �-�·qnnfi m?
Does this boy learn music nowadays?
Why do you cry on every little thing ?
5. � � ���U � � I
3. -mm -ffR minm 1l � TJTift % I
We go to the shop daily and buy milk.
Sarala sings well in three languages
6. 3M�� �m:ra � 1
You laugh more than necessary. 4. irnffi � irr.ft 1l wft % 3ffi mil� t I
7. ������I The fish always lives in water and swims in it.
They never speak falsehood. 5. � � GffiiITT ll -qwr-� �% I
8. �����I That old woman sells fruits and flowers in the market street.
We do not sit o n the floor. 6. ������ I
9. � � 1% f.flH1Si I� 1l <fillt'��a �I Poor women do not wear silk sarees.
Those labourers work in a factory. 7. �,01Sllillftcfil�, � ��.Tr( tl'�� I
10. olm� �� 3l'lRCiG � % 1 We, the students of the hostel, do not eat rice, we eat wheat
Sitting on the tree the parrot eats guava only.
11. �����% 1 8. -ire:m ' 3ITT' cp:fT 13{I&tfl �?

The sun gives light to the world. Madam, what do you buy ?
12. � ll ( � �)cm�� I 9. mtirnITTft� q61fa<(41W:f 1l Cfi'Tlf Cfi«fi � I
The stars twinkle in the sky. My mother works in a college.
13. � � � � 3fu�m�� I 10. lITT1 � 1l:muif��% 1
The secretary thanks and the people return home. The cow grazes in the pasture comfortably.
14. � � � � �%? 11. �t<!flRICifll � �� I
Is good quality butter available here? The lady teacher reads newspaper.
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SllJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English

I VOCABULARY I 5. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


�- newspaper �- guava C1 IC'4>I�
<P crrf1:Jror <PTM
�- good mcnm- sky When a work has started and is continuing at present (e.g. I
�- nowadays 3ITTT1=f- comfort am going), the process is indicated by inserting m/wJm between
3m::n:fR - sky m*- woman verb root (e.g. m) and the appropriate present tense indicator{,m ,�;�
WT is used if the subject is masculine singular
'Ch��- never Cfi1lf - work
W is used if the subject is masculine plural or a respected male.
CfliUSll"11 - factory �- because
m is used if the subject is feminine
mtat - poor �*- shine, twinkle To denote negative, � is put before verb .
� - graze �*- pasture
Subject Root Masculine Feminine
� - rice -mm*- girl student Present
-ing -ing tense
01::tiClu:I - hostel �*- need
it m ..
� - lie, falsehood
m m �
�- much
� m w m m
(fl'{T - star in - swim
mm - parrot �U- milk m m
:; m �
�- thanks � - tree
Jl'Cflm - light, shine 'tfiM - fruit m w m �
� - flower � - child
� *- old woman � - market place
1.
f)All masculine plurals have the same ending --W �
� - sell �- butter
2. All feminine subjects take -ri:r
�*- fish � - labourer
3. All feminine plurals have the same ending i
it�tfct<;;_ittM� - college �- of silk
MODEL SENTENCES : Masculine
'if- cry, weep �- daily
�- return
1. it�mr��m{1
�- boy
I am going to Madras this night
� - secretary �*-saree
2. �"3i"Qt��wm?
�- sun �- laugh
What are you seeing above ?
3. crtt � CFit M•mm � m %?
Why is that beggar continuously screaming?
12
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4. ���cnl'� ��%1 1). tM TITtf 3'� 3tH°tT i I


Seeing a thief this dog is barking The train is coming just now.
5. �� -ij-q:f imsr �i l 0. �� %GWIUG-ijf;rc:mp.fin°tt % I
We are writing letters in Hindi. Sania Mirza is residing in Hyderabad.
6. mq��mt�i? I VOCABULARY I
Why are you always laughing?
�-just now "3"m - get down, descend -
� up, above
7. � -mft 1frrt-ij � �i I �· - news lSr'RT - food · TlfUra - mathematics
These pilgrims are bathing in the Ganga.
� - shout � - thief �: - six
8. � �"ffiTT fih:;q(Wlj � �"J"m�i1 "*
Those devotees are getting down from Tirumala hill.
�- bathe -:::rraCfi - drama O(Cfiwll
� - servant maid
m - serve �-ask Gf'ifT - strike (clock)
9. 3'tmqcfi TifUra-ij 'WlTR � �� I
The. teacher is asking questions in maths. � - vessel � - devotee 'q"llT - part, share
Feminine � - beggar � - bark -mft - traveller
1. -ij�-ijEGRWJWlfl uo* - night -
H•i idH continuously 'WlTR - question
I am listening to the news in the radio �- clean W' - hear, listen
2. ��-ij��wrm-1
You are worshipping in the temple
3. � l'.Sr'RT "QfmWftI
Shailaja is serving food.
4. :i°'lcti<1oftGmR��W(tI
The servant-maid is cleaning vessels.
5. � 1f{it ��-P:ft Wf� I
We are drinking hot milk
6. 3mmlm'ff�WJWf� I
You are not listening to my talk
7. � � H '$fch4i-:::rra'Cfi -ij 'q"llT � Wf� I
These two girls are taking part in the drama
8. ��: Gf'il'TWftl
The clock is striking six
14 15
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6. GENDER 4. Present tendency in Hindi is to use some nouns in the common


�� gender e.g. "tf:fi, fml. mmft�Tliut�crtf-qmnf�T�
m1
There are two genders in Hindi: i) Masculine (�),
5. Among the collective nouns (names of groups), some of them
ii) Feminine (�). The Hindi gender system is partly natural (based
are always used in masculine and some others are always used
on sex) and partly grammatical (based on usage).
in feminine. � . iisFr, �. W• �. � masculine
In the case of living things, we can easily identify the gender of
the word. e.g. , boy, father, king, bullock brother, man, husband, �. �. �.�,>rnl,mcfi'R,�,�.il'Ffl' feminine
etc. , are naturally masculine. 6. Though living things consist of m�les and females, some are
Similarly, girl, mother, queen, cow, sister, woman, wife are always used in masculine and some others always in feminine.
feminine. � �, cil"m, Tftm, � , i:r&tl", lf'6m,�
But the problem of determining the gender arises when the �. �. �3TI - always masculine
noun is a lifeless thing like house, wall, pen, mountain, potato, etc.
lfCRSfi, Ciil<.TR, °'€ftM, �,"4';fl, ffiM�ll, �. -qm;fi,
In the case of inanimate things, there are some general rules
to determine the gender.
�<:TT - always feminine.
Rules for formation of feminine from masculine
1. By form: to decide by the last letter of the word:
3fT ending denotes masculine : Cfilm, �.M1GT 1. By changing the final 3f / 3fT into l
�-�.�-�.�-�
lending denotes feminine : �.�,"iTcfi
�-�. �-·Qt�',GTGT-�
(According to a research, among the inanmimate things, the
2. By changing the final 3f / 3fT into �
following words which end in l alone are masculine:
�-�.�-�.w-�.w-�
�'<ft'�' -qr.ft' iffift )
3. By adding�
2. By imagination on the basis of meaning :
afftl-�, "W'R-wrrft.J,�-'1Mlf'6"1, �-q1�R.fi"1
TTi!"'l'";I"
""'1Q1� ' � '\.�;:..�:"-,,,.IQl:-01,
\.I�, 'D11?. � �. �.
etc., are masculine as they 4. By adding -;ft/ 3rr.fi
are big, hard, terrible or powerful. Mffi , lffi'll , �,etc. , are
m-m-, -R--k.fi, lin-mro
feminine as they are soft or small. <q11fT is feminine as we
�-�. �-4lct1<14l, �-�
learn it from our mother. � .is feminine as it is worshipped
5. By adding ;i- ( last l becomes � )
as a goddess.
3. Some nouns do not come under any rule. It is difficult to say �-�. �-Aff.:R, lffi'ft-�
why any of them is masculine or feminine. We can remember 6. By adding 3frfl
their gender only by practice. tjfur-cifgctl$"1,�-d�{i$"1
CfiR , irrtf, � � masculine 7. By changing vowel sound
3tful,-;ntfi,�,� feminine � -�. �-fir<:rr,GfTM'Cfi-fSll�Chl,3ft�-3{�
16 17
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8. Some nouns have different forms in feminine 'I fu:14itf€)'1��e6f � �t I


-qfif--qc:;ft-,�-"1f1<f, � -�,mrr-wfi;fttrr-lffifl,Gfltl-lif, �- Vinayamohan shows (exhibits) Tippu Sultan's sword.
m, �-�. �-�. Cf{.:.q� �-�. �-Cfltjf43fl JO ����mt I
The bear is climbing up the tree.
9. Sometimes masculine nouns .are formed frorri feminine nouns
by adding' various suffixes : l I �� 3m1Gm <ffiift��t I
This new newspaper gives fresh (latest) news.
<ifu' - she-buffalo � - he-buffalo
I�. �e6T 3mITTf � iftilt I
-US- widow �.m- widower
Sushila's voice is very sweet.
;:r.re: - husband's sister � - husband's sister's husband
� - sister � - sister's husband . 1:3. ����ti
This is a very old building.
ifu:ft - mother's sister 1ftm - aunt's husband
14. CfiM��Cl"ff �mmt1
MODEL SENTENCES The new year b�gins from tomorrow
i. "Cfllm;r��t mmwrmort��wr�t 1 15. 3TI\if � tfft-tfft�mt I
The cuckoo is black, the parrot is green and the sparrow is Today the wind is blowing slowly.
brown. � stands for a general statement. It means ' happens 1 6. ���fTR(�)mt I
to be') Water is flowing from the pipe.
2. ��mott�mtlftor I l 7. �� 31cfm°ffiif �t I
The lemon is sour and the apple is sweet. This clock often goes fast.
3. 3lTcfim -ij 1% 64 I$\ii€lE'il � mt I
18. � � "Cfl"€ll \iffifT %?
An aeroplane is flying in the sky. Where does this road go (lead to )?

4. �-ij��t1
19. 3TI"Q'Cfl) � � 3ffifT % ?
Why do you get angry?
Gold is available in the mine. ·
20. . q€)1<S1R-t9}�����t?
5. ��"fil.l��i I How far is Mahabalipuram from Madras?
Three elephants move along on the road.
21. ���"tf�lffirT %/��% I
6. � -ij � cnmo cn-rai 1 Sitting on the tree, the bird sings.
The soldiers do physical exercise in the field. 22. �lfffi� % �1ltft � I
7. �"1fl<f���� I .This lane is long and dirty too.
This cow does not give enough milk. 23. �e6f 3ffii �Ut-ij ilqCflt1i i I
The cat's eyes shine in the dark.
8. ���-ij"G« Cflfu(11�i I
There are ten poems in the Hindi text-book. 24. ����i1
There are many springs on the hill.
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25. ���� I 7. NUMBER


The weavers weave clothes. Cfi1il'
26. ffem' 3fHtft % , 'q'(lff I A noun denoting one person or one thing is said to be in the
The police is coming, run away (escape). •,lngular number. A noun denoting more than one person or thing is
•,,ild to be in the plural number.
27. of'iH"1i�pl� � tt�i I
The plural number is also used as a polite and respectful form
The people of Tamilnadu eat only rice.
with reference to a single person, a superior.
28. � � l:5lRT ·qcfiHtft % I The singular number is inherent in the base (fundamental) form
That old woman is cooking food.
of a noun. e.g. -� .� lll(:f ,3f1'(f<'r
·
VOCABULARY I But there are also a large number of nouns which look similar
3i� - darkness 3f1Cffi*
ir - voice, sound In both singular and plural. e.g. l.:R , � .�;mg , �.� .�· In
�*- building �- fly these cases, we can find out their number with the help of the context.
�*- poem �* - exercise e.g.1%l-R/Gl'l-R , l.:Rlf /llUlf , litGT� /�� . ��%/��
�- enough "©'r.r* - mine i1
-ire:r - dirty 1TC'ft* - lane, alley Plurals are formed according to the following rules.
lll(:f*- COW fu- fall 1. All masculine nouns ending in 3fT change the 3fT to �·
nmr-anger � - climb � -� . tm-6'ft, �-�. m:fil-�. "1U-oR
�*- bird � - weaver Exception : Some nouns signifying a relationship with repetitive
� -waterfall �· - sword
letter do not change in the plural. e.g. CfiTCfif, �. G:TGT, -;n;rr, -i:rri:r.r
� - fresh
Words used directly from Sanskrit do not change. e.g. rNIT, ftral,
�- fast
W - distant, far
�m. A few more unclassiffied nouns do not change in plural.
"tfCfiT - to cook
e.g.�3fl , �. �. c:rail, �.
lf&fi -bird � �*- text book
2. All other masculine nouns remain unchanged in the plural.
� - flow �*- cat
l.:R ,�.3TIG1ft;mg ,�
"¥ - weave �- bear
c
lftoT sweet
3. Feminine nouns ending in inherent 3f take 'i! sound in the
� - tall
plural.
'Cflf - year �- begin
m-3mi, 3iror-�. �-�. �-�. mr-�. 'ITFf-�
meii*- road 'futntft - soldier
�- gold �· - air
4. Feminine nouns ending in l, 1 will end in � in plural
� � - aircraft mm - elephant �-�.ftff?.t-ftri'?l<if,-;ftftt -�.� - �'(Fflt1i,�­
�. °"1<ft-�. m-�. �-�. -rr-ft-�
20 21
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5. Other feminine nouns take � in plural. e.g. �-m, �­ 8. {lii't>WI��Efunmi I


Ramakrishna is buying some books.
�. lffifT-mori!, iRT-ir.m't, lffi'IT-�, �-�'. It is usual
to write� for it'. But� form had better be avoided. The plural 9. � "T.fl'P�T"!fri! � °{ I
sign is it' and not �. I know four languages.
6. Feminine words ending in m take a chandrabindu in plural. 10. � �;;_fd�itq:n;1n�1i I
e.g. The postman is bringing letters.
.. ,�·�..... , �l\f?'"'11
11. . Gffiffif ll lffi:R � � � I
�·.;;. ..... , �·� ..... . ,:.1.�"'1t :1'� ..... . ,
�-��-��-��-� .
Mosquitoes sting much in rainy season.
Note: 12. G) i'ICflfuli MT3tl I
The words�. TTUT,Cftf ,� (people, group, class) are Bring two baskets.
appended to some masculine nouns to denote plurality but as a class 13. �'IRCfif�i�� I
· •
: -m:rT � .:mcf �. QidCfl•iOI, Cll<;:_4q&. Among these, 1fUT takes There are many guns on the table.
singular verb. As �.ita:r
, rtr are also used as singular to indicate respect, 14. 4'1Cflu;ft � mmi 1
� is added to them to emphasize a plural sense : ��.it�, The servant maid is washing clothes.
Qlf�.��. 15. �-ij�'WR�� I ("WR�� �-�) I
Beautiful flowers bloom in the garden.
MODEL SENTENCES
16. �$mn"tRent�� I
1. mrll��-�Ql�� I There are many shops on the sea-shore
Rats run here and there at night. 17. � ��ffloi$�i�� I
2. �llmotif� I Bheemrao eats a lot of sweets daily.
The rainbow has seven colours. 18. am;m-ij���fi:rMff� I
3. csi&<•iitlll��� ? Foreign toys also are available in the market place.
How many ships are there in the harbour? 19. llfciTllm�� . �Cfili I
4. �"fiiITTJ��� l ���-ij�Fmfi� I In villages, agricultural fields are more and buildings less.
Five rivers flow in Punjab. All rivers fall into the sea. 20. �llent � f.ICflt'td � I
5. cqrra-ij���i I Many newspapers are published in Hindi.
Women in India wear bangles. 21. Cflii:fl�<q cfil�mf�<:rli:r�r�� 1
6. 01SiiCl1(1-ijffi;f��� I Kanchipuram silk sarees are famous.
Three sisters live in the hostel. 22. � ll \ifr.fCfH�ff � I
7. �ll�rclT.f� � I Animals live in the forest.
Boats move(sail) in the river. 23. ���G),mt<fti I
This bird gives (lays) two eggs daily.
23
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SIJJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English

24. 'ffi:m ihFi� � i I 8. CASES


There are many countries in the world.
2s. m«r�cnt mf, �3rrPn� i 1 Case is that form of a noun or pronoun which expresses its
There are many religions, castes and languages in India. relation with some other word in the sentence. The relationship
Indicated is like subject, object, means, purpose, advantage,
26. \i1qil�9jl� &lll&l4 �i I separation, origin, possession, material, composition, place, time,
There are a lot of factories in Jamshedpur. etc.
27. amum"1���i? There are eight case-endings in Hindi
How many temples are there in Varanasi? .� This is added to the subject only in certain tenses of the
I VOCABULARY I past, when the verb has an object. Uli � "lSITT1T I
�- rainbow �- cloth . lfi1' It is added to that noun which is also the object e.g. Call
3ral - egg
�- shore fu«wr - bloom Rama : UliefiT�m. CfiT is not generally necessary when
CfiTG - cut, sting
:
the object is inanimate. See cinema �� I "lliM MTm I
fuAHl'11 - toy m - agricultural field �- garden
� .�take � notefiT.
�· - letter . �- rat � - ·forest .� It is equivalent of by. It denotes the tool with which a
� - ship �· - basket �- postman thing is done. e.g. They went to Karachi by plane � � :

- UT- wash
;:ncr*- boat mf religion � � CfilT"€ft" .W I
.� :
It stands for 'to'. I give money to Sita if� CfiT m mn
-
-
at<Wil� harbour �*- rain Gftn garden
{ I It need not be added to the name of a place. e.g. I am
� - mosquito firalf*- sweet � - available
going to Delhi : if�"\ii"T � { I
�- foreign .
'ffi:m - world � - sea .� It means from, than. The monkey falls from the tree � :

� - beautiful � � fi'mn"i I Bharat is older than Lakshman � 'M� :

��i1
. lfiT This connects two nouns. It stands for 'of' or 's. Use CfiT if
the second noun is masculine singular. Use q:ft- if the second
noun is feminine. Use � if the second noun is masculine
plural or respectable person. It is also used if the second
noun is masculine and is followed by one more case.
UliCfil eR, Ulicfi't 1Wf, Ulicfi't �, Uli � �, Uli � eR �I
. ll, 1'l in, at. eR�, ��.�(bathe) takes � not � .
. l, 3": etc., Used to call some one. � 3ffi �, � � , �
3R � 0 wretch !
24 25
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SIJ�S • Learn Hindi
Note: Through English
1. If there is a case symbol after a masculine noun ending . m . 3'T' 6. ��-{) � � I
then change that 3'T into � ·
We see with the eyes.
7. 3nfmefffi-{) � � � I
_ .._... •
Cf'l'-1'(.;:.. __.. •
Cfi1=l'U + __..
"I - 1-1, MScfiT+cnl=� en) I This rule is not
The officer goes to office by car.
applicable to masculine words shown as exceptions in the
8. 3t� (Wf�q:;)� � � I
previous lesson like "U\ill , fQny ·

The teacher gives the prize to Lakshmi.


2. If a case comes aft�r a plura1, add m sound or letter. 9. uanit��� I
'Q"{-l:JU ll, � -�"CR, l'fl'i! - TITTil cnt · Please give this book to Ravi.
3. With feminine nouns ending in t it is shortened to � and m is 10. lfm �qIMll -{) f.fCflt'1tfl i I
added in plural if followed by a case sign. e.g. Msfih41 �' �pfft41 The Ganges starts from the Himalayas.
"CR 1 1 . ftraT\ift 9;«1CflIMll -{) fcmrri Mffl � I
4. When a. case sign comes after a noun it is written separately. Father brings books from the library.
e.g. �-ij 12. � � �� � � � I
We learn many things from history.
5. If case sign comes after a pronoun, it is joined to the pronoun.
.
-=:.. _ �
�.,"°'• But "CR is written separately for clarity.
13 . � ll-rro:r� i I �llmM�%
e.�. �+cnt- I
There is hot water in the bucket. There is red
e.g. 3fl'q'+"CR= 3fl'q' � ink in the ink
pot.
MODEL SENTENCES: 14. CflfT � � 1l �=thn"ff m- ?
1. �en)��·, Do you sleep in the daytime also?
Send Rahim to market. 15. �"CR1%��% I
There is an old temple on the mountain.
2. � �mii!Tcnt �� I
16. � "CR� � � I
Nowadays teachers do not cane the students.
There are many books on the table.
3. ETIGf �en)�� I�-{) 1'0 CfiTi\' I 17. 5n'r"CR1%��% I
Throw away the rotten fruits. Don't cut with knife. A squirrel runs on the branch (of the tree).
4. �-{)� � � i 1 18. �tfillTUT GIT!f ll� m i I
By effort, man becomes successful. The washerman's donkey is grazing in the gard
en (park).
19. � cqmnttmrum i 1
5. � � -{)w� i 1 Delhi is the capital of India.
Sujatha writes letter with pen.
20. � �"M11"f�mq �cfu i
I
The people of Punjab are by nature heroic.
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• �llJ�� • Learn
�!lJ�� Learn Hindi Through English Hindi Through English
21. �ih���i ? 9. POSSESSIVE CASE
What does Satish's father do?
22. �-�hnt�i I The possessive case is denoted by the sign CfiT {of, 's). It denotes
We talk with {the help of) the tongue. the relationship between a noun I pronoun and another noun.
23. m�, crITT l«f GlsT I 1. If the next {second) noun in Hindi i? masculine singular, CfiT is
You boy, don't run there. used before it
24. � � Cfil � i I Mohan's horse� CfiT � Rama's brother rn:f CfiT �
Kareem is Abdul's friend.
Sita's dog mm Cfil� Sita's house mm CfiT t:R
25. mm ifi lffff Cfil ";fllHT�";fW i I
Sita's husband's name is Ramnath. 2. If the next (second) noun in Hindi is masculine plural, ih is
used before it.
I VOCABULARY I Boys of the school� ifi � Mohan's horses � ifi �
�-history JSrmf - rotten lTUT - donkey
Sita's dogs mot�¥ Trees of the forest ���
�· - squirrel wrn - student STM*- tree branch Houses of stone � ifi lfCfiR' Plays of Kalidasa Cfilf{;i�m ifi
�- office U\Gft- washerman 'tfTz - beat �

� - prize >r<:JM - attempt �· - bucket 3. If the second noun in masculine is followed by another case
� - outside �· - capital city w:fiR - successful (cit ,�,Cfil,� ,Cfft ,-ij, 1R) then the CfiT before the second noun
becomes ifi
�'qlq - one's nature
in Gopal's hand 1fli:m;r CfiT � -ij=Tfli:m;r if; m?.f -ij
from the neighbouring house Gf!TR CfiT t:R �= � ifi t:R �
to Sarla' s brother -mMT CfiT � cit = -mMT ih � cit
4. If the second noun in Hindi is feminine cfi1' is used before it.
Gopal's mare 1fli:m;r cfi1' � I Rahim's sisters �cfil'�I
To Ram's mother rn:f cfi1' 'trl cit I girls of the school � cfi1'
M&Rfi"'lr
an assembly of women mcfil'� distance of one mile �

lfu:rcfi1'"¢
paper boat CfiTffiif cfi1' -;rrcr produce of the field m �
"3tT\if

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SIU�� • •
Learn Hindi Through English Sl!J�S Learn Hindi Through English
through your kindness murder of woman 9. � � � Cfil-=lllf � i I
� WU � mcfil� The name of Prema's dog is Nero.
dining table � cfiT � love of mother m cfiT 1'l1ffi 10. GmT CJiT � ctIT.l i ?
5. A peculiar use of � is met with in such sentences as : Who is the owner of the garden?
� mrr � cfR� � I A king had three queens
11. 'q"ffif -ij � �cfil � � i I
The feeling of unity is now weak in India.
� ("ij +�) � � i I I have one sister.
12. � � lf{ -ij fcfi(A 'filR i ?
This usage denotes just the existence of queens and sister to How many rooms are there in Leela's house?
king and I. � mfT cfiT cfR � � will mean that there were three
queens married to the king. The emphasis is on possession. 13. � � cfil � �� i?
However, this usage· is not encouraged. Where do Hindi books are available here?
14. � lf{ cnT � fcmRr i ?
MODEL SENTENCES What is the rent of your house?
l. � � � Cfil -=lllf Cfm i ?
What is the name of Govind's school? I VOCABULARY I
2. � Cfil � 13{<fl({<tt t I � - weak mm - rent, charge 13{<fl({ffl - pretty
The rose flower is pretty. � - rose Gftim - ill � - owner
3. m cfil m attim i , � � � � � .qi ,
Hari's mother is ill. Hence she is in the hospital from day
before yesterday.
4. "fNR cfil � .q.�� t I
There is no ink in Rajan's pen.
5 � � lf{ -ij ctft".l � t ?
Who lives in S1,1resh's house?
6 W cnT irr.ft 1ftor t I
The water of the Ganges is sweet.
7. -ij m,n � � Cfi) � � I
I do not know ( am not acquainted with ) Radha's brother.
8. mm: cfiT lITTf fcmRr � � i ?
How much milk does Prasad's cow give (yield)?

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5lU�� • Learn

Hindi Through English :!!llU�� Learn Hindi Through English
10. PRONOUNS <fiT.r � � � � � � � fcm �
� singular �
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It helps the <fiT.r � � fc:n.:m � � � � � �
speaker or writer to avoid clumsily repeating the name of a person plural
1� •

every time. The Hindi pronouns are as follows. cnTt � � � l l <n" l <t> I � � � � �

,
Singular : �. �.� .�.� .'EffR � ( � is singular in usage ) Suppose after �, �.�,it;\Zll , 'CffR , � there is a noun and if
Plural : �. 3Titl', �. it, �. 'CffR, Cfi1l there is also a case sign after that noun, then these pronouns change
into �.�.�.� ;f�m .m.�;f�;:r.� e.g. .
� who (relative); 'EffR who (question); � somebody, anybody
in which country - � � � m- � � -
In English when a case is added to a pronoun, the latter
-
of that man � � cnr-� � cnr
changes its form.e.g. to + I = to me, by + he = by him, etc., In Hindi
also similar changes take place when case-endings are added to the from this boy - � � � - � � � - � � �
pronouns, as shown below. in these rooms - � Cfilit � - � Cfilit � � Cfilffi � -

Pronoun � en) � cnT � <tr "ii the name of our country -�CfiT�CfiT- ���CfiT - ��CfiT

-q � � mm $ � � � �� MODEL SENTENCES

Wl' � � � � � � WJ "ii W' � l. � (�+cnr) ';f11i � �? mr';f11i � � I
� What is your name? My name is Varadaraj.
� 2. ���mm�?
� ¢ � � � � � � �� From whom do you learn Hindi?

� �
3. � (.q+�) � � (�+CfIT) ttHSih:{'i % 1
� � � � � � �� My sister teaches me.

� � � � WITTT � � � ��
4. imrr\ifT � � -m � I g;ffl '311m I
� Mother is calling you. Go at once.
3n1:f � � � 3n1:f<nT � 3ITT<tT � 3ITT' � 5. ���� �� � I
� � � � � � � � �� We buy rice from that shop.
"R
-a;
6. � � 'tR � � I
� � � � � � � ��
There are waterfalls on these mountains.

'lfl � � � � � � � m� 7. fcm:ft cnT{Uf � it � � ri � I
singular ftm Owing to some reason, he comes here daily.
'lfl � mcnT f;;r;ffi m<nr � � m1f -m � - 8. ��� � (fil ';f11i � %?
plural � What is the name of your friend's .father? � - girl's girl friend).
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SIU�S • Learn Hindi Through English
Sill�!! • Learn Hindi Through English
1 1. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
9. . �(�) � � �thrnrr % 1
Your sister Sheela is my student.
10. � Tfl'cf ll � � W % I Reflexive pronoun substitutes or refers to a noun or pronoun.
We have a house in that village. If we say, 'Rama does Rama's work,' it will sound clumsy. So we
11. F fll$fihRi ll � {11$fihH �-m%? say, 'Rama does his work'. 'His' reflects Rama.
Among these cycles which . is yours? In Hindi 3ttRT is used as reflexive pronoun in such cases.

12. �� .q.ft\lfh:r�, � Gfu � I Instead of saying .q: imw � { we must say .q: 3ttRT W � { I As
Doctor, please look at (examine) my tongue and my teeth. 3ftRT gives the same meaning of Cfil-�-cfi't, 3ftRT has three forms :
13. .q.ft ��ll �Cfi«ft� I 3ftRT-3ttR- 3N-ft
My brother's wife acts in dramas. Use 3ttRT if the next noun is masculine singular
14. "Tf��� it l
You write faster than me (than I do) Use � if the next noun is masculine plural or respectable
person.
15. ��GT.rlmmll��� 1
There are beautiful bangles in both the hands of the bride. Use 3N-ft if the next noun is feminine.
16. � W Cfil ltIDcp;rr %? Use � if the next noun is masculine and is followed by a
What is your house (residential) address? case sign. .
11. � m � ll efiTlfefiffl �? E.g. My name (is Ram) - .q:+Cfil � - im �
In which office does he work? I (write) my n;:ime .q: .q: +CfiT � - .q: im � - .q: 3ttRT �
18. 'Q'fcm m G"ii 11 i:mtt i ? (i.e. My reflects I)
In which class does Pavitra study? MODEL SENTENCES
19. � � Cfil � Ffi� % ? 1. 4GMIH 3N-ft � Cfil1MT f.fiT � t I
Where is the door of this fort (situated)? Nandalal gives his Wa.tch to Kamala.
20. \ill ��m�� I 2. ft«mft � � llW- � 1
One who barks does not bite. (Barking dogs seldom bite) Father sleeps in his room.
2 i . \ill mcra %m�t 1 3. .q: 3t'Q';ft � � �{ I
One who sleeps (much) loses. I write with my pen.
1 ·VOCABl,JLARY I 4. � 3ttRT i:rra � t 1
� - acting CfiRUT - reason � - fort Yogesh reads his lesson.
� - rice . �* - bangle � - quickly 5. mt 3t'Q';ft � f.fi) � � � t 1
\lfh:r* - tongue � - class, grade � - tooth
Hari takes his sister to school.
� * - bride � - name ltID - address 6. � 3ttRT W � � I
They do not sell their house.
� - call �* - brother's wife
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�l!J�� • Learn Hindi Through English
�l!J�� • Learn Hindi Through English
12. ADJECTIVES
7. mn•nTT 3ttR � � "t<:IR Cfiffl i 1
All people love their country. fcf�)'CfOT
8. � � � "tR Tim % I An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun, a pronoun or
Ramya sits on her chair. ,mother adjective. In 'blue sky, ' 'angry sea, ' blue and angry are
9. -ij 3tl:R� -ij � {I .idjectives. In the line, "The woods are lovely, dark and deep, " the
I am popular in my office. words lovely, dark, deep are adjectives as they say something special
10. � JttR T.llT.11-il cnt �m I
about the noun 'woods'.
You call your uncle. Generally an adjective says something about the quality ( �,
11 . 1ff1;f JttR � cnt �U � % I �.�) , quantity (� ) , number ('Qf:q) , state or condition
The cow gives milk to its calf. (ist,mirn) of a noun or merely points out �.�).
12. T.I 4<mi JttR � cnl m;m:r cnraT % I If m-�-m is attached to an adjective, it intensifies the idea.
The peon salutes his officer. e.g. �-mefilll, �-�-"Hllf . �-m�
13. t1t\11W� � � � � � � -ij � i I According to the last letter of the word the adjectives in Hindi
Totaram gives his pay to his wife.· are of two kinds:
14. � � JttR m: � i I 1. those ending in 3TI-�,'CflTH'T,-m-zt,ist,-;:fTI;n,�
The labourers return to their homes in the evening.
2. those ending in other letters - l'Rlf, �
15. � JttR 11-f (�) � "afra �w.:ral I
Man does not know what is in his mind. An adjective ending in 3TI can qualify only a masculine singular
noun. If the noun is feminine, 3TI will become l ·

16. lfm 3tl:R � m � % I


Meera is washing her clothes. If the noun is masculine plural or a respectable person, then
17. � $Hl�liSll<; -ij JttR ml � m: -ij WID % I 3TI will become �-
Ahmed lives in his brother's house in Allahabad If the masculine singular is followed by a case sign then also
18. � � "QTO "lffi!'. � -m % I 3TI becomes �- However, the following adjectives ending in 3TI do
Jacob is memorizing his lesson. not change at all: �. �. �. '3ltGT, �
19. Cfl� 1omq �Hrffi � \11..qRH!{iSl' lR'ffiT % 1 good boy - � � masculine singular
Kalyanram celebrates his birthday every year very well. good girl - � � feminine singular
20. -q: � "WT � � -ij � cnrar {1
good girls - � H:i$fch4i feminine plural
I deposit my full pay in the bank.
good boys - � � masculine plural
masculine respect
I VOCABULARY I good leader - � �
� - officer "Cf)"q"{T - room � - peon
mm -
uncle �· - wife "t<:IR -
love to the good boy - � � cnl noun followed by case
� - calf � - salary m;rTlf - salute All other adjectives ending in any other letter do not change whether
� - in the evening they qualify a masculine or feminine noun or a singular or plural noun.
37
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Sil�� • Learn Hindi Through Engll•h
Sil�� • Learn Hindi Through English
� � - handsome boy - masculine singular 13. � �c6f����� I
The rivers of south India are not very deep.
1IBf � - hot tea - feminine singular
14. ��W-OR�t?
� � - ugly buildings - feminine plural Whose is this new house?
'!Tful Wtt - poor people - masculine plural 15. mfi � � � � 1l <mrr � � I
� CfiTffiil 'Q\ - on white paper - noun followed by case
The minister always travels in the first class.
16. ��cm) m fm;ra � 1
MODEL SENTENCES Fresh eggs are available here in the morning.
i. ��� � t li'R � l'!iaPw: t 1 17. � � �'qi'T mn � t 1
Sudha is a little girl, but she is clever. The body of that patient is w�k.
2. ���i 1 18. � � tJW'Cl'lM � t l
This mountain is high. Urdu is a difficult language.
3. �i:fu;ft� "4141W.:t t I 19. �� .q. � � fi!l'Mm t 1
That yellow building is the court. Tasty food is available in that restaurant.
4. � � �� � � ' 20. ��m.ft'il'tft�t l
Towns in India are dirty. Hamid wears a dirty cap.
5 . ���i:n;ft��i:fim I 21. ���l1Wnt I
Nobody drinks the salty water of the sea. Gold is costlier than silver.
6. � 3'1fu� Cli� � � � � I 1-V_O_C_A_B_U_LA_R_Y__,j
That rich woman never wears torn clothes. 3flfu - rich 3m:rR - easy � - high, tall
7 . �-;fwfhn�tT� t 1 � - sour �- salty � - deep
Leela wants blue saree only. �* - language
� *- silver �* - desire
8. aftiMOH§ 1l Clifsn;;ff.:n:i"f�t � 1
il'tft * - hat �-,lemon
"¥' - broken
There are many ancient temples in Tamilnadu.
-;:f\(;:fT - blue "4141M4 - court � - holy
9. �� 3ffil'R � t 1 � - ancient
Hindi is an easy language. � - first �- yellow
'CfiGT - tom � - ill � - food
10. W 'qi'T i:rr.fhrr� 3ffi � % I
The water of the Ganges is clean and holy. itm' - dirty litR - but �*- woman
.
�* - morning
11. � � � 1l �"¥f�t 1 ���t 1 y;W'ctiM -difficult -.:mrr* - travel
Ramdas has a broken watch in his hand. It is a foreign watch. -ITTr - apple � - gold � - tasty
12. "ITTr lftor 11=iFl'"t � �� 'tfWr t I m - body &)a14H - clever
Apple is a sweet fruit but lemon is sour.
39
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S!IJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English
Sl.l�S • Learn Hindi Through English
13. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
6. The superlative degree is also expressed sometimes by the
Fcl�Tcrail c6l Wfill use of 'ij,
In English, the adjectives undergo certain changes in the �;pr�RT -ij 'll'tt � t I
comparative and superlative degrees, like, good-better-best, big­
bigger-biggest. In Hindi, there is no such change in the form. This is the strongest of these palaces.
1. In Hindi, the comparative degree (�m) is formed by MODEL SENTENCES
putting � (than) after the person or thing with which the 1. f?iRid'l'I q;an-ij � � MSCfiT t I
comparison is made. Trivikram is the tallest boy in the class.
irtl � � � � � t l 2. H¥Ml � � � CfiT 'Q1;fi � '3'ff1l t I
My pen is better than your pen. Water of the river is the best for health.
� Cfilffi � cnii{ � � t I 3. irtT CfiR � � � � � t 1
My car runs faster than your vehicle.
This room is larger than that room.
4. ������t i
2. In the place of � some times � �!ITT or � iitf.'i'E"ltd is used.
An intelligent foe is better than a foolish friend.
3. The degree of comparison can be modified by putting before
5. txl¥f;f)H � txi¥CflH 'CfiTi:r � .qq;\� {1
the adjective words like �.�1Cfil:r,�1�;f.t�<ra I can do even the toughest work.
4. The superlative degree (•iht'llCl'l"m) is formed by putting �
6. 'Ui:r � Tfttmwr � -ij mzr t I
(of all) before the adjective.
Gopal is shorter in height than Ram.
� � i5[ciH{.f:tt � % 1
7. � � !tmi�ii€% Cfi'm"ff t I
Kamala is the most beautiful girl. Swimming is the most beneficial exercise.
WtliHl'l � � � t 1 8. ���-ij�t l
Jiyaram is the worst student. The Ganges is the holiest of all the rivers.
'Um � 3ffioT � � % I 9. �� � �t i
Radha is the tallest of all women. Prevention is better than cure.
5. When the noun compared is not mentioned, the adjective is 10. :mt\RCfi � � �m � � mm t 1
repeated, putting � between them, to express the superlative From physical point of view, man is stronger than woman.
degree. 11. 'Ui:r� �lITT � �f.?1t11< t 1
�� � 3f1Glft the best man As compared to Ram, Rahim is cleverer.
cqffi � cqffi "If""� the heaviest stone 12. 11u � iitf.'i'E"lttt � � � t 1
��� 3f1Glft the worst man Compared to the donkey, the horse is stronger.
1iti1" � 1iti1" "tITT1 the fattest cow
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'.)llJ�s • Learn Hindi Through English
51ll�� • Leani .Hindi Through English
13. ��� � 1'fferr % 1 14. ADVERBS
Gold is a lot costlier than silver. � �Ttfvr
14. m cfIT �'� cfIT � � entf "ift<fi % I An adverb is a word that modifies or qualifies a verb. In other
Home-made sweet is much sweeter than the sweet prepared
·
words, it indicates how a verb (action) is done. An adverb may indicate
in shop. the time or place or manner or degree (amount) of action, with
15. �-qr;ft�� = � �� mm i 1 reference to a verb.
Blood is six times thicker than water. Some examples:
\'
16. � � � � "flTq CfiT � Cfilf &iff&fl % I Time : -3INf, CfiM, "fuif, -art'G lt, �. JR, �. �
Village life is less expensive than town life.
17. "ij JR �'{l � � � � � JR "(fi"�l"� ? Place : ,:mit, 'l:fm', im:r, �. �. �. . am, '3i1R, �
I am an old man now. Where are my best days now? Manner : �. �" �. Uft, �. � : , m, �.
3fflWfi � .
Degree : RlH�H, 'FfTl''qTf, �. m<:r: ,�, 'fm:fi, �. �. �.
Cfilf, �
Adverbs do not undergo any change when used in a sentence.
Whether a verb is in masculine or feminine, in singular or plural, the
adverb qualifying it does not change.
e.g. "l1Ti«ft � "l'ffift % (Gomathi sings well).
f?siH14) � � i (The players play well).
MODEL SENTENCES
1. � it 31cfm -qr;ft � % I
It rains often in Kerala.
2. lffifT\ifb�
t Uif fnm cfiHtf % I
Mother is preparing roti just now.
3. � �?.ff �m-;:rtf � 1
Nowadays students do not read well.
4. � � � � i 1 ��o'Tefi -;:rtf % 1
They see films much. This is not at all good.
5. � � � -;:rtf lfrat I
Ramesh never drinks coffee.
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SIJ� • Learn Hindi Through English SU�S • Learn Hindi Through English

6. *fi� �-Cfi�� ftRirr � i I I have only headache. That too is one sided.
My sister goes to cinema only sometimes. 21. � � \iITT � Vit � � i 1
7. �tmf�Cfilf�u�i ? The naughty boys are ringing the bell loudly.
Why does that cow give less milk?
22. � � � � m? .q m �� -m t1
8. �� � � �m 1 Where are you going? I am just going (for no reason).
Go away from here quickly.
I VOCABULARY I
9. � f�H'i�t'I <ftcfi i I 3Nff* - petition � - potato � - north
This is perfectly all right.
�* - progress "Cfl1:r - less fcfrnm - rent
10. � "IT«f � m-.r � 3rnipsrffi i 1
The people of North India eat potato daily. &t'l'114Cfl - villain �* - cough Vil'* - bell
\iITT � - loudly W'n - at once m - ready
1 1. � -�y;pl ���i I
Horses are running fast in the groun� l �� - late Qll - slowly � - naughty
12. <lq$1Cfll'?l ����fcfrnm�i 1 -;fiG* - sleep � - to rain �t'l�t'I - completely
Ramprakash gives rent late every month. m - just, thus � - headache � - at all
1 3 . � TJfu Qll - Qll � � � i 1
Our villages are making progress gradually.
14. � '1,ct1<14l �l@�t 1
This servant-maid always tells lies.
15. � � crnur � mf 'ql-;:ftG� 3ffifi I
Due to cough, I do not get sleep throughout night.
16. � �-aunn� t 1
The squirrel runs here and there.
17. ��llcn&l�t?
Where does Anjana stay in Delhi?
.
18. �ll &M'114Cfl\iITT ��l l
In films the villain laughs loudly.
19. � �'Cfll W'n � 3Wft � I
You write an application to the officer immediately.
20. ���t 1 � � l{Cfld<9ii l l

44 45

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1 5 . VERBAL NOUNS I GERUNDS

filxrrtfq; � By seeing cinema we get headache.


8. ������t i
In the expression, " Seeing is believing," seeing and believing
are nouns. As they are formed from verbs, they are called verbal Our knowledge increases by reading newspaper.
nouns. In Hindi, verbal noun is formed by adding ;rr to the root of the 9. ���ir.rr.n mra �t I
verb. e.g. 3tRT,�.�.� .�. It is not proper to celebrate festivals with pomp.
As the verbal nouns end in :m, this :m will change into � 10. � 'IR �CIWJT 3ITTJR �t 1
sound if it is followed by a case-ending (Cfil,�,Cfil,etc.) It is not easy to ride a horse.
by eating �+�- � � 1 1. � �-� � 'ffl;raT I
for reading �+� � - � � � Devraj does not know reading and writing.
for saying �+Cfil - � CfiT 12. 1'JFl('ft CfWJT �Cfil� t I &PfT CfWJT � Cfil� t I
To err is human, to forgive divine.
of coming 3tRT+Cfil - 3t"R Cfil
13. �CIWJT"QTQ"t � �u-ij �311 Cfilmvrr ctmrr t 1
in going �+-ij - � -ij
Murder is a sin but to kill enemies in war is heroism.
on return �+'IR - � 'IR 14. � l:R � �Wcfl(Wt t I
MODEL SENTENCES It is difficult to get such a house.
1. � � � �t i -2-
Getting up early in the morning is good. The infinitive (to + verb) also is expressed by verbal nouns.
2. -mm � � t l It is good to walk, walking is good - both should be translated
Leela knows dancing. as � � t l
3. � CIWJT � � 3'TGO t I 1. -ij � -ij � � t1
Doing exercise is a good habit. I want to speak in the meeting.
4. 31cR=R � i:ft;rr � t I 2. CfllT :mlt � CfWJT � i ?

Drinking coffee often is bad. Do you know how to type?


5. 'Wif � � �lfi(Wtttl � t I 3. -ij (fiT{ � � 'ffl;raT I
By speaking truth we get success. I do not know how to drive a car.
6. GA����UGR"ffi t I 4. � 3mwreft�� � � � I
A man becomes famous by giving alms. That lazy boy does not want to go to school.

47
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5. ·�i;in:rf�'6lf 1l cp;rnr.r.rr � m-? 4.
What do you want to become in the future? Please do come to my house this evening
6. cp;fl���GFl'AT� �t? 5. � Cfil1f 'ij 3TI1TT-'tflm � Cfim I
Does yo�r sister like to cook? Do not hesitate in doing a good deed.
-3- -5-
The word, 'for' in expressions like for coming, for going, The case-ending is often dropped after a verbal noun if soon
for reading, etc. , are translated by � �. Though � is not a case­ followed by another verb. The verbal noun retains the � form.
ending here, it is nevertheless a case symbol. Therefore when �
� occurs, the verbal noun will end in � sound. e.g. for going � � � � (� �) � t I Sita goes to see Gopal.
\ifRT+� �-� � �. It also means to go. .q :m1 m (�) � {I Now I go to sleep (bed).
1 . Urft'"c1IT � � � � � m � � I � � � � (cit) 3tra � I He comes daily to teach me.
The doctor is coming for seeing the patient (to see) I VOCABULARY I
2. � -tra � � � � cp;fl � (fi«IT ? �· - habit � - lazy m-ffit * - mistake
What does not man do for filling his stomach nowdays? � - surely GR - alms �* - pomp
3. �cnrcWtll � � � � t 1 f.l.:rn � - regularly 'tfN - sin -tra - stomach
Lalitha goes for bathing in the Cauvery.
�U - famous Gffift' - stale � - fill
4. 3m'l'C1iT�Gflfl'§libvll � �� � � Wm: � t I
� - future �U - war itTft - one who is ill
Today's younger generation is not ·ready to get married at an
early age. cfmrr * - heroism �'q'f* - meeting m:m - ride

-4-
Verbal nouns are also used to denote order. But they are milder
in tone. They sound more like an advice. It is less strong than the
prohibitive l«f. It is not generally used if the person addressed is
older in years.
1 . Gffift' "ttit l«f � I
Don't eat stale bread.
2. cnM � Cfil1f WT Cfim I
Finish this work tomorrow.
3. �f.l.:rq� � I
Read daily regularly.
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16. POST - POSITIONS � - instead of � - equal
�tliifiQCp mG - after � ii - about
-
� in spite of � - outside
In English what we call preposition is understood as post­
position in Hindi. It indicates a relation between a noun/pronoun . -
ftr.rr without � ii - in the middle
and another noun, pronoun or verb. e.g. a book for you, under the � - within iffi - on account of
tree, come with me, he lives opposite this house.
� - at the place of � - worthy
In Hindi, for, under, with, opposite, etc., are placed after the
noun/pronoun. Therefore they are known as post-positions. ' � - worthy � - for
� - for ftrtrfra - contrary to
Generally post-positions take it before them (it lmi) . Some
�U - against mrr.r like -
have cfit before them ( cfit -3ITT towards). Very rarely � is used instead
of it (� �). The case-sign is sometimes omitted. e.g. � 'tfR - lmi - with miA - in front of
across the river. fucrr, � - except � through -

Even though it,cfit,� as attached to post-position have no b. The following post-positions begin with cfit
meaning, yet they are case symbols. They will affect the previous 3Nan - in comparison to � - due to
noun if it is masculine and ends in 3n sound. (Please see Lessons 8 -3ITT - towards <iif.h•arn - in comparison to
and 9). How they affect the pronouns has been tabulated in Lesson � - for the sake of �- concerning
10. e.g. �+cit=�
� - in the place of mfu - like
Inside the room - Cfilm+it �-Cfi'IR it � -
� like, similar to lfmffit' - through
Outside the big room - �+Cfilm+it �-� Cfi'IR it � c. The following post-positions have a �
Opposite your house - Wf +cnt+m:+itmiR - �m:itmiR � before (also it ) � outside (also it)
a. The following post-positions are used with it W far
� - within -
� besides,moreover d. For the sake of style or emphasis, it /cfit /� may be omitted.
-
3«'llC1l besides � - according to For the same reason ftr.rr/iffi/fucrr may precede the noun/
pronoun.
-
3nit beyond,ahead 3nwm:r - around
e.g. ftrmr� �mr (darkness under lamp), m::f �,��ii,
'3iq'{ - above, upon q;roJT - due to ftr.rr � . im � it, fucrr �
� - through am - through e. When -3ITT comes after a number, it will take it not . cfit as in
�it� -3ITT, m: it G);IT -3ITT
� - near -;:flit_ below, under
� - before -
"QR across MODEL SENTENCES

� - toward -qm - near, with (to have) 1. m: it '3iq'{ � Cfft:m � � t I


� - instead of
A crow is flying above the house.
i:ftl} - behind
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2. Cf'lt ll � $ � ira -aol I 19. 3ITTJ � � $�GJC.ratl I
Don't sit under a tree during rain. Today there is a feast at my friend's place (house).
3. � � $ � � Cfl1USl1"11 °% I 20. � � cifi ri t � mm cifi � � 3mft t 1
There is a factory outside this town. Wherever we go, our shadow also comes with us.
4. � � � $ � � 3tffl i I -2-
Officer comes to the office after ten o' clock. All the above sentences make it clear that post-position
5. �� 3tif&n � '11ar4H°% 1 indicators come only after a noun/pronoun in Hindi.
Compared to Rahim, Abdul is clever. Hence, if in any special construction some other word precedes
6. � rn:mq � � � Cfin:f � °% ? a post-position, that word should be converted into a noun. e.g.
Who works in the place of Rama Rao nowadays? 'after Ram has spoken' 'After' is the post position. It comes before
7. c:niR $ � �-v:inrr m t 1
the noun in English. But when translated into Hindi, 'has spoken'
The child is sleeping inside the room. precedes 'after' .Therefore has spoken - a verb - has to be changed
into a noun, i.e. a verbal noun, i.e. � . The translation will be
8. � � � (�) � � ri i 1 wr � �+$ �-wr $ �· $ �
They go just now towards the mosque.
9. filN11€1< $ ifuJ (f7ITTf $ ifuJ) � � °% 1 MODEL SENTENCES
There is a garden behind the church. 1. Clean this room after the tourist leaves.
10. � $ -qm � � cifi � t l � $ � $ � � q;im � "CflU I
Uma has not even a rupee (with her). 2. I read this novel before you read.
11. � m: $ miR � � �� (�) t 1 � � � � .q � '3q'"4 m "QGffi {1
There is a tailor's shop in front of my house. 3. Mother ·sleeps after we have all slept.
12. ���$fcfim"tR°% I � � � $ �lfl"t1Nft m-al� I
Delhi is on the banks of the Yamuna river.
4. He helps others in spite of being poor.
13. � 3t"Q;filff $ � � � m t 1 nfuf�$ ���� � � � I
Narendra is going to market with his mother.
5. Write the essay according to the teacher's instruction.
14. -ij � 3't;;nqq; $ � GCIT �flGtti { I
I buy medicine for my teacher. 3'� $�$ � �U� I
15. � T.fr.ft $ fiR1' � � °tf1"ttT I I VOCABULA(IY I
Joseph does not drink tea without sugar. -
3q'"4l'H novel cit:m - crow
16. ('f� MffT � m ($ �) 1'fffil t 1 fi1Nt1€1< - church T.fr.ft* - sugar
Lakshmi sings like Lata.
� - tailor GCIT* - medicine
17. w:r 3fCflGR * � 1l cp;JT �it ?
What do you know about Akbar? �· - feast � - friend
� - garden �· - help
18. °Cfifuf mf ll � � $ � � mot I
Kareem does not sleep before eleven o' clock at night. �* - mosque Cf'lt* - rain
52 53
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�I.LI�� Hindi Through English
1 7 . CONJUNCTIONS 6. m;:fi GITTr � t. m m � � � i 1
It is raining, yet they go to office.
� GtlEl<P, '�
7. � cfillP.fim- t_ m '4T ¥'fR � � � t I
Conjunctions are words which link or connect words, sentences This work is tough, still Kumar is doing it.
or parts of a sentence, e.g. mother and child, good or bad; I came 8. lfSii �mrnft "l1m ii<ii-ii<ii GC1T � 1
but you had left; You said that you would come; The servant will The more the medicine given the more the disease increased.
wait until you are ready. Put two and two together. (Remedy is worse than disease).
Some of the important Hindi conjunctions are given below. 9. ����.q�tm m��t 1
i. 3ITT, om, �. er - and. �/� has restricted use 'as well as'. Even though Rahim is elder to me in age, yet he is polite.
The use of er is becoming obsolete. 10 . .q � {fcn 3ml� t l � m !Pf � �an I
ii. m, 3t�, err .- or. fcn - or (colloquial). m m . . . m - either... or. I think that today is holiday. Otherwise you go to office.
1 1 . � m � � ri i (f(if � � � � � � � i I
;r . . . ";J . . . - neither ... nor. err is archaic. � . . . (f(if - when ... then.
Whenever my uncle comes, he surely brings toys for children.
iii. 1R, �. �. 'WR, �. � - but. �. � - but also, 1 2 . .q 3ITTf � � 'Cflitfcn .q � l_ I
besides, but, on the other hand. � is now obsolete. I do not take bath today because I am unwell.

iv. �. � .:mr : , m - therefore, hence, consequently. 13. ·�ttvnt � fcn � � � t m-;nff 1
v. Cflitfc1:i - because. �· . .fcn - so that, for the purpose that.
Ask Harish whether he knows Hindi or not.
14. � �t fcn � 3tmlt I
� - as, because. Mohan says that the climate is good.
vi. 3FR/�. . .m - if...then. � - although. m m, m m, - yet, 15. � � t fcn -m � -;nff � 1 1R� � t
even so, still. � . . . omftf - though ... yet. t?i<'iiPctl - even The thief thinks that nobody sees him. But he is a fool.
though. ii<ii-ii<fi - the more. � - however, nevertheless. 16. °!Tful 3t1G1fi � 11cFiR .q ;rm� t 3fu ;r � I
vii. tcfi- (said) that, whether. 3t� that is, i.e. (id est) In the house of the poor man there is neither table nor chair.
1 7 . ��.q � � m m� cnffi � .q�t 1
MODEL SENTENCES Even though there is no rice (available) in shops, yet it is available
i. !Pf � � i:M m m � ? in the black market.
Do you drink coffee or tea in the morning? 1 8 . �f.lcm:i � t fcn-m ��t I
2. 3ITTf � t, � lrnr � -;nfi \il"ffi I Srinivas says that he is not hungry.
Today is Sunday.· Hence the students do not go to school. 19. 3FR � Cfil � 3tral t m� m:ra � � 1R m � t ?
3. � 'eR � trm � � t. ��m;ft1fGTt 1 If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? (Shelley)
There is a tank near my house, but its water is dirty. I VOCABULARY I
4. � � � m t, ll'TR�Gnf�t I �· - age CfiWIT
� - black market
This watch is of course beautiful but its price is much.
� - thief - � - fool
5. � � � fmr i, m UsH"tl!'fl l«f t.n-;nff � I
As he is my friend I do not want to vote against him. �· - hunger l«f - vote

� - climate � - polite
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1 8. INTERJECTIONS 19. FUTURE TENSE

Fciflt'21ila ii)rre;, � � ClilM


An interjection is a word expressing some emotion like pain, The future tense represents an action or a state as yet to take
pleasure, anger, surprise, dislike, disgust, etc. e.g. Oh, Ah, Alas! place or to come into being. Sentences to indicate the future tense
The interjection has an independent existence and has no can be formed by adding appropriate suffix to the verb root. The
grammatical relation with any other word in the sentence. But it may suffix that is added will depend upon the noun: masculine-feminine,
be prefixed to (placed before) a noun while addressing. e.g. Oh God! singular-plural, I person, II person and III person.
The following are the important interjections in Hindi. Subject Verb root Future suffix Future suffix
masculine feminine
1. Surprise - �.3*,anm,�(\ifl) ,�, 3f6m,�t� I "'

if '\jfJ "3it11' -3;rft


2. Applause - cm.�, � . � . ��t. � t I
3. Sorrow - m<:r, m. �. �. �, �. � ! � '\jfJ 3irir 3Wft
4. Joy - 3ffll, �. cm-cm ! �.� '\jfJ � �
5. Disgust - ,
fu: � finJITT ! &ir,3'Ttr '\jfJ � �
6. Shyness - mi., � !
.q,�
7. Distress - �t. �t. �t. � t � !
Note:
8. Rebuke - 'iffi � !
1. All subjects in plural have the same end in masculine �. -

9. Sympathy - "{Tl{! uqi!


2. If l sound is added to masculine suffix, we get the feminine
Some interjections can be used as nouns. forms.
1 . cmm<:r-�lfal�°"ITT ? 3. If the verb root is like � , �, the 31 sound at the end merges
Why are you kicking up a row? with future suffix.
2. � �-��� I -
I will read if � +iilrr-if � I
All began shouting bravo. You will write - � �+3irir-� � I
Women will listen � � W' + iMf - �p I
4. \ifT (live), tfi (drink) are first shortened to ftr and fl:f and then
the future tense suffixes are added as shown in the table above.
ll. (touch) is shortened to � for future tense.
5. The following three verb roots take different forms when the
future tense suffixes are added. These verbs are exceptions
to the rule shown in the table.
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SlU�S • Learn Hindi Through English
Masculine
Subject � � m In which inn will you stay in Banaras?
.,, .,, .,, ') Cffr.f � � � 3Wt � mm ?
it � � � Who knows what will happen in the future?
� � � �
10. �c}t:mfi� � Uff mfi �� I
�.� WIT WIT mm
Perhaps those travellers will reach here by Friday night.
�.:jf('q' � � �
1 1. � � mGra � <ll �U?
�..� Will your father drink sherbat or milk ?
For the above verbs, the feminine forms are obtained by ending 1 2. muft��-ij�mfr.:rr lfto � I
them with Tfl. Vani Jayaram will sing a prayer song at the meeting.
�-�. mm, �. Wf't
1 3. � � l:R � � Cfil (fi� ft:Rirr � � � � � I
�- �. G)lft, �. �
My father will never send members of the family to see cinema.
m - tft, mitt. mitt. �
Note : 14. ����� fcfimcit��Wrr l
It is common practice to write 3nirrrT, �, �, � and Being a big miser he will not give anything to anybody.
so on using <l. But the regular, and therefore preferable, forms are 1 5. ��cit Cftfti&iit'flct -ijefiTf�� � ?
those with � and 'i!-�. �. 3fli!it, � I Will Mohan get any prize in the annual day function?
MODEL SENTENCES 16. �'qN � � .q � (fitir � � Wn" 3ffi m 3ITTTlf � 1
Subhash will finish this work in an hour and then he will take rest.
1. � �� � � � I
I too shall learn Hindi from tomorrow. 17. srcn-m (fi'ijf � 3ffi � � � mm?
2. 3ITTUITTfCfll �� ,R"� � I (tR is the usage.) When will the post office open and at what time it will close?
This evening we shall listen to the news in the radio. 18. l« � -ij ctR � 3ffi ctR &Wrr ?
3. �� l'lli«ft' �� I Who will win in this war and who will suffer defeat?
Tomorrow morning Gomati will go to her father-in-law's house. 19. lffq � � �-ij�ffi- 3ffi � � -ij ;:fi;ft � I
4. �·�����·� I The villagers will sell jaggery in the town and will buy sugar in
Sushma will always wear simple dress because she is poor. exchange.
5. � ��TJtdfefiT�� � I 20. � � � � � cnr� � I
We shall never forget Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
The servant will bring coconut oil from the shop just now.
6. � � �cfft � �� 3ffi � -ij q0tt1�11 1
21. � CfllUSll� � lJ: � � GTTG � I
That wicked fellow will not listen to anybody's advice. He will
The labourers will return from the factory after six o'clock.
repent in the future.
22. lfrnl l« � � � I
7. �lfl����� I
My mother will make (prepare) tea for us all. Geeta will sit (for) the examination this year.
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I VOCABULARY I 20. FUTURE SUBJUNCTIVE
� - examination � - miser � � <PIM
- -
"ffi;i' oil
� jaggery The subjunctive indicates how to express a purpose, condition,
40(11'11 - repent � * - dress wish, permission, advice, order, expectation, doubt and guess
� - labourer m:ft - traveller I >ertaining to future time. It is a form of verb which represents the
� · - father-in-law's house , 1ction not as a reality but as a wish, hope, possibility, etc.
To construct a sentence in future subjunctive, all the rules
roncerning future tense (given in the previous lesson) are to be followed
1•xcept that the last letter of the verb is to be omitted.
-
Future tense � � I .q. � I

Future subjunctive - � � .q. \ilT3i (If he will come, If I go)
To express purpose, the future subjunctive is preceded by
f�, �. � � or 'Hlfcn
Examples
I. � � � W I May God keep you happy! (hope, wish)
?, . .q. � {� � � � GR I wish that my son turns out to
be a doctor. (wish)
:�. ������� I Tell the servant to bring tea. (order)
11 . �.q. mirefilfiAm��? Shall I go to see film this evening?
(permission)
!>. � � � �m � � (�) � � � I Eat fresh
fruits daily so that you will remain healthy. (purpose)
(>. � 3:mf UH' Cfi1' 'tfT::ft' � I Perhaps it may rain this night.
(possibility)
/. 3FT'{tjlm 9jt'<'1Cfl1M<:i �it��"MiGT� I If Sita happens to
go to library, let her return this book. (condition)
8. � � �. i � .q inwf � ? How shall I sing when my
voice is not sweet? (doubt, interrogation)
<) . T.nt � �m T.nt .q. \iJTii, GT.rf1% "6T GJra i I
Whether you go or I go, both are the same.
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Slll!t!'!I • Learn Hindi Through English
MODEL SENTENCES 14. cqmr � {1qf41���m� I
Let the problems of India vanish soon.
1. cp:rr -ij � Cfi1lf � d ?
May I do this work at once? 15. �. � 3ttr.fi lflfJ�$ � 3tlR � CfiT lilR-ti%H � I
2. cp:rr � 3Nl m � m � � � ? Come on, let us sacrifice our life for the sake of our m�therland.
Whether the servant can go home now or stay for some time, 16. �cITT � � � I
3. ��Pcrucrrm ciIT��� ? Give way to elderly people first.
How shall we console those widows? 17. �lfral-ftraT � i Pcn m � � 3ffi � � I
All parents wish that their children live long and be happy.
4. 3FR � � lfm � � � I
If the beggar will beg then only give money. 18. � m9{{ � m-i:R, � cp:rr ?
Let that fellow live or die, what do I care?
5. 3FR!Pf ffl!'fl•fi"I'• cnitm-m�cirr � � 1
If you (will) recommend, that young woman will get job. 19. � 3tlQ'Cfil'"SJcq m I
A happy new year to you.
6. 3TI\ir CfllUSli4 1l�t, � � �';f� I
Today there is strike in the factory, let no labourer go inside. 20. � � Pcfi � � � 'dl"R-� � I
Let God make this auspicious day come again and again. Many
7. � � Tlitfuift � �m� I happy returns of the day.
Let every student read Gandhiji's autobiography.
21. CfllqtllJ'I � ·�:m.n� I CfllqtiiJ\ ��� I
8. 3TitJ � � �� .q. � I Let success be with you! Let success kiss your feet.
Let some one like you enter my life.
22. ·«HiqJl ��. «Hlqt1"1 � � I
9. 3TitJ�CfiT����m I May you go safely, may you return safely.
'
Wish you both a prosperous wedded life for ever. 23. cp:rr -ij ��dlllff $ � � ?
10. ��'lml1 � 3ITHt�li'IH m I Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? (Shakespeare)
Let this tour of yours be pleasant and safe. I VOCABULARY I
11. q;anll � lmf ilH9'il'1 CfiT $�q1H ';f � I $�q1H - use Cf11q41J'I* - success
Let no student use cell phone in the class-room. rr;;r.n * - comparison
.
lllff* - summer �" . .
12. � OC6 -ij "111i ';f � � 'CfilR $ � � ';f W I � - at once, immediately lilR-ti%1"1 - sacrifice
As long as I do npt call (by) name, let nobody step inside the �· - alms � - possible
room. �* - widow �U - old man
13. � � � Pcfi �"'l'tf, � � �Pcfi � m <m I �· - problem «Hlq(I')* - welfare, protection
It is not possible that I'll forget you. My heart remains here�. �· - consolation ffl!'flil'h1* - recommendation
/

wherever I may live.

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Sil�� • Learn Hindi Through English SllJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English
2 1 . PAST TENSE 'BE' VERB I uur � � � .q. m, tn "tR -;rtf m 1
� '�· fil;� Radha was at the temple the whole day. She was not at home.
Singular Mas Fem Plural Mas Fem H .q � (� ll) Tifuf � m I
I was .q m .q m We were �� �m I was a poor man in the beginning .
You were �� �m You were 3tTtf � 3tTtf m ') 'a'F.f m m 3fu � � m 1
He, She, It �m �m They cl � The tea was cold and so it was tasteless.
�m
That, Thi �m -�m Thos � �� �m 10. (lq3'1q:;l"11 � � 2TT, lf1R 3TI\if � � t I
was I
These Ramprakash was all right yesterday, but today he is ill.
were 1 1 . ����� ll CfiT.f-CfiT.f � ?
Note: During the earthquake who were there in the those rooms?
1. All feminine singular verbs end in m 1 2. ��CfiR 3wratM1l"Cflll" � ? cp:n���-;rtf m?
2. All masculine plural verbs end in �- Why was your father in the hospital yesterday? Was his health
not good?
3. All feminine plural verbs end in m.
1 3. � � � � 211 3fu cl � � I
MODEL SENTENCES Yesterday noon he had fever and he was restless.
1. cp:n � � � � .q. � ? 1 4 . 3tTift � GnG rn mfff m 1
Were you at the office at ten o' clock? There was calm after the storm everywhere.
2. � � � ml osiiWll� ll � I 1 5 . � � 3'1!/llt!f.\q:; ���� � I
We all were at the harbour yesterday evening. That IAS officer was younger than all of us.
3. 3tTtf � mM � .q. cnm � ? 1 6 . "11�\'1<"11 cfit iTwft ll � cfit � m I
Where were you in Mumbai last year? Shakuntala had Dushyant's ring in her finger.
4. cl "tffiiT � mq;-t:R 1l � I I VOCABULARY I
They were at the post-office day before yesterday noon. �* - finger ring mur* - storm
s. �'lliur � m 1 � � cfit � m 1 �* - holiday
�* - finger
Yesterday was Gandhiji's birthday. So it was holiday for the
mftmf * - health � - administration
school.
6. s'f.� � 'qf«f � W.rif � � I � - tasteless, vapid osi<Wii� - harbour, seci.-port
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India. m - restless, agitated . � - earthquake
"11'ifff* - peace, calm
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22. PAST IMPERFECT TENSE
8. �Cffri -ij m� -ij � m 1
� � (�) The beggar was wandering in the lanes even in rain.
This is a peculiar construction, not easily translatable. It isj 9. �� atifR m��-ij�Cfi{ffl ?Xf I
neither simple or definite past (e.g. went), nor a continuous action inJ
the past (was going), nor a habit in the full sense (used to go). It .1s:I When Vinod was rich, he used to move about in a car.
somewhat mild in indicating a habit in the past or a repeated pastj 1 0 . � <il6'"ii:4itl � � � ftlm � � � ?l 1
action. That bachelor used to hate women before marriage.
A sentence in this tense is formed by adding m/:a /ffr to the; 1 1 . � '11'ctTofi -ij i:ffa' � � tl 'JO � ?J I
root of the verb according to the gender and number of the subject
as in Lesson 4 and then adding the appropriate past tense symbol We used to get up at five o' clock itself during our youth.
m/?l/?fr/m as shown in the previous lesson. e.g. \il1ffi m, � ?l, 12. mo-mo 'Q"{ � �� � q;uft ?fr 1
'1ffifi ?fr, '1ffifi m. Mother-in-law used to quarrel with daughter-in-law for each
and everything.
MODEL SENTENCES
1 3 . � � cN ncfi m«f 'Q"{ � � ?J I
1. � 41'.\Mctl"I i@r�Cfi{ffl m I Akbar was ruling (ruled) India for fifty years.
That wrestler was doing (used to do) exercise daily.
14. Cfif((.fl�1$ � -qftf � � -ij � q;uft m I
2.. � l'f:tT � � � � � -ij � ?l 1 Kasturbai used to help her husband in his activities.
Before becoming a minister, he was living (used to live) in a
hut. 1 5 . � � (�) � t1"lttmw&)ZM'-ij l'.SIRT � m 1

3. � � � m«J -ij � ?J � � tl mff ?l I Before marriage, Sitaram used to take meals in hotel.
When we were living in South India, we were eating (used tc 16. -ij � -ij �n:rm� fAA'm � m 1
eat) rice only. I used to see cinema every week during childhood.
4. � '4"Ffi � f?nmtt � ?fr � 'M11T G1' GITT � ?l 1 17. ��� 31cfm� ?l��� ?l 1
When there was no scarcity of water, people were taking baH My relatives used to meet me often when we were neighbours.
twice.
18. � � � � *ft iif m�r.nr.mfi ?fr I 31Gf -ij GRraT '{I
5. � � qmur -;r � 'Q"{ m 5Cfil"IG•< � .q � m- ?X 1 Before my marriage my mother used to cook food. Now I
Due to threat, shop keepers took part in the strike unwillingly prepare it.
6. -ij� wg•u; -ij m 1 � -ij �� m 1 1 9 . cfilwrnsmfi � � GCn i:fuft ?fr I 3tGf � •flR-f4j 'ffifi % I
Previously I was in Lucknow. At that time I was learning Urdu
Kamala was taking (drinking) medicine for cough. Now she
7. �Ufl'r4T��i:fr.rr l:Rl � ?l 1 takes tablets.
The doctor was prohibiting the patients from smoking.

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20. �mm��� � m 1 �"tR� mfcfi�i:rm� 23. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


� ?it I 3f11Uf � ( � )
This clerk always used to come late. On enquiry, he used to The past continuous tense indicates an action that was going
say that he had no watch. on in the past at a particular time. The completion of that action,
however, is not known for sure.
Note:
Sentences in past continuous tense are formed by adding rm-­
A special form of the habitual past is obtained by omitting
�-� to the root of the verb (see Lesson no:S, present continous
m-i'-e.ft-e.ft. It is used in narrating a repeated act of the past. e.g.
tense ) according to the gender and number of the subject and then .
1lf twOtr lfit 1t tQf 'GfM am lTN lWT � I We would (used to)
by adding the appropriate past tense indicator m-�-?.tt- m as shown
go there every morning and return in the evening.
in Lesson no.21. e.g. :m m m, :m � �. :m � ?it, :m � m.
I VOCABULARY I
MODEL SENTENCES
�* scarcity - -
lfU1T* hatred
1. .q MOT qtjO\llifl< cnPT'RT WJ rm- m 1
�* youth - �* hut, cottage -
I was listening to Lata Mangeshkar's song.
-
Q1:1t1IT* threat � neighbour - 2. Wf �Clir-fll � EitG � � ?
qgMEll'i wrestler - 1RT � prohibit What were buying in the shop?
3. 8RO\lict1n1� cp:ft � m m ?
-
ft<\ldcU< relative � clerk -

Why was Harishankar laughing at that time?


-
lllnl week -
ftl'W* rule 4. l:fTQq� � �� �-q:r � m m 1
Madhav was filling up an application form for job (employment).
5. itt � Uft-Uft�� ?.fi l
Cool breeze was blowing slowly (gently).
6. Cfi<'f � � � � -qr;fi-� m m 1
It was raining continuously from seven o'clock yesterday.
7. � Cfi<'f mt:Jcnl � � .q. � � ?it I
Urmila was speaking at a meeting yesterday evening.
8. � � � � "IU{ Cfrt � ?it I
The boat was crossing the river fast.
9. lff � q;) � � � � ?it I
Mother was kissing the child with love.
10. 7ITTl � � � llm � � ?.fi I
The cow was grazing the grass along with the calf.
11. � � l!{Gf m � � � � � � � I
We were all sleeping soundly because we were very tired.
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12. mq 'CPif � "SiITT � -U � � ? 24. PAST INDEFINITE TENSE
Why were you crying so loudly?
13. ¥mr � (mtlmr) � (�) � � 1 ��
Dogs were barking throughout the night. An action mentioned as done in the past without any definite
reference to the time or its condition is said to be in past indefinite
14. wnt-� 3nclim -ij�� � I tense. e.g. I came, I saw, I conquered (veni, vidi, vici, - Julius Caesar)
Aero planes were flying in the sky.
3ITTIT , �. \ifral. To form the simple past tense.
15. crri � GJr<rf��rr.nio .q � � � � 1
(a) If the root of the verb ends in silent 3t , lengthen it to 3tT to
Farmers were sowing the seeds after the rains.
form masculine singular, and change it into � for masculine
16. H�Rht1iGcif-ij rn-i:rm� m 1
Girls were making noise in the class. plural. In feminine singular it becomes l and in plural l (imfil,
17. fi.nm � �dR �-'tR-ij CfiTlf � � m I �. �. �)
Sudhir was working in the museum last year. (b) If the verb root ends in m/m, m is added ( 3f((:IT , mm) which
18. � � � ft.ml � � ? becomes if in masculine plural <:ft" in feminine singular and � in
To whom were you writing the letter? feminine plural. But where the use of 'lll is optional, it may be
19. m CfllttTShll"t"ff� � �CfiR�� � I avoided using only the vowel form. Hence �.�.3flf are
Narain Karthikeyan was driving the sports car fast. preferred instead of 3nit, 3mft, 3mff
20. � � -ij �� � � I (c) Root ending in � first shortens its vowel. lf-�3tl. Root ending
Children were playing ball in the playground. in t first becomes l· m-fum, 'tft-it\<:rr
21. � � mo:rr -ij � ��nrm•ft� � m I Masculine Feminine
In the shade of a banyan tree an old woman was selling fish. Verb root Singular Plural Singular Plural
22. � �� � � I � �T � � -qeff
The bullocks were pulling the cart. � � � � �
23. � &lllif.ICfl � � ('l'Cf; � � � I m � � � �
That philosopher was thinking for a long time. -u Um � � �
24. �-ifu) � -ij � � � I The following verbs are exceptions to the above rules and
Trees and plants were drowning in the flood. their past tense is formed as follows:
I VOCABULARY I Masculine Feminine
� 'tR - museum � - application �· grass -
Verb root Singular Plural Singular Plural
-
� to graze � - to kiss isl - cool � � � t'ft ('ff

&lllif.ICfl - philosopher -::nq * - boat �* - job � WIT � G'T �


� fcfri<:rr � � �
� - calf � - banyan tree � · - flood
� -s.:m !� � �
w.n* - wind 'JfT Tim � � 11f
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At this juncture, we are expected to know that verbs are of 7. � trn 3ITTJ � � -qfm. � cnc;r � I
two kinds - transitive and intransitive. A transitive verb has certainly Your letter did not reach (here) till today (till date); perhaps it
an object. e.g. She wrote a letter. Here 'wrote' is the transitive verb will come tomorrow.
because it has 'Jetter' as its object. However, the object may be
8. �c:nM�"lfm 1 � 3ITTJ � �� I
understood sometimes and not expressed openly. e.g. I ate. Herei
'ate' is a transitive verb even though the object has not been stated.: Francis went to cinema yesterday. Hence he got up late today.
I must have eaten something. That is enough explanation. 9. ���Tm � "Hlm I
On the other hand, the intransitive verb does not admit of an The servant brought four eggs from the shop.
object. e.g. He died suddenly. 10. mi � ll �ri� 1 � � � 31<it� ml I
An object is a person or a thing that is affected by the action Rama lived in the forest for 14 years. After that he returned
of the verb. To find out whether there is an object, we should put to Ayodhya.
the question what/who to the verb.e.g. 1 1 . 3fl'tf ctiIw.t1'd1 ll CfitT � ?
Saw - saw what, saw whom. There will be answer, expressed Where did you stay in Kolkata during holidays?
or understood. Hence 'saw' is a transitive verb.
1 2 . �11 �-cm�mt ?
Died-died what, died whom. There cannot be any answer, Why did the people laugh suddenly in the meeting?
Hence 'died' is an intransitive verb.
13. � � � � l .q .q:y� � � I
In the present lesson, we shall have only intransitive verbs in
the model sentences. Sentences in the past tense with transitive They did not forget me. I also did not forget them.
verbs are constructed in a different manner. This will be explained in 14. <rnft� ttl'11ii'lH ����lf� I
the next lesson. The travellers took bath in the Yamuna river behind the Taj
Mahal.
MODEL SENTENCES
15. l1ffi1'\ift CfiT CF<41 s3tl? �-cm -u -m m ?
1. 3ITTf Cfitf cift $<'114'ifi"::rtf ftrm I What happened to mother? Why was she crying?
Today cardamom was not available anywhere.
2. � ��Tfu;ft-� I
16. �-::iicfift ll � ���I� (1'1� l'l(�)ftrm I
Suddenly the bullet emerged from the gun. In that job I got a good pay.
1 7 . � Chtl4tM � � � � I
3. � � � � CIWr mJ .q Tm tra tf mm I
Because of headache I slept only four hours yesterday night. Some peddlers sat under the tree.
18. � � � 3ITTf tf � � I
4. � Gm � ffr;ra � � � l �.q �--'1f�"30'U I
The train stopped just for a minute. Therefore I got down The school opened only today after the holidays.
quickly (in haste) VOCABULARY
5. Wl��CfiGT� ?
$Hi4+t\* - cardamom -
� forest
When did you return from abroad?
tt'1�t'l* - pay, salary Chfi41HI - peddler
6. cnc;r � � lfr-fhmrr 3fu � 1l � 3tllll 1 . .
� * - nfle, gun � - suddenly
Yesterday it rained heavily and the river was in spate.
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SIJ� • Learn Hindi Through English SIJ�!i • Learn Hindi Through English
25. PAST INDEFINITE TENSE Here � is in masculine singular, not because the subject,
TRANSITIVE VERBS Ram, is masculine singular but because the object, a horse, is
masculine singular.
� �-� �-� �
2. tllf � Gl � � I
As mentioned in the previous lesson, a verb is called transitive
The object, two horses,is masculine plural. So we have the
only if it has an object, whether expressed or implicit. In other words,
the object is the most important aspect in a sentence having a verb �
transitive verb. Therefore the verb will be in masculine or feminine 3. tllf � ��� I
gender and in singular or plural number according to the object in Though the subject is masculine, the object is in feminine
such sentences. singular and hence the verb is formed according to it.
(1) 4. tllf � G)-rml� I
This rule is applicable only in the following four tenses: The object, two cows, is in feminine plural. So we have the
1. Past Indefinite - e.g. I ate. verb � I
2. Present Perfect - e.g. I have eaten. 5. � � � "Q"Sf ftwrorr I
3. Past Perfect - e.g. I had eaten Though the subject is feminine, the verb is in masculine singular
4. Past Doubtful - e.g. I might have eaten. because of the masculine singular object, one letter.
If a sentence falls under one of the above four tenses and if 6. ��GT 3tlli � I
there is an object (mentioned or understood), then the following steps The object, two mangoes, is in masculine plural. So we have
become necessary. This procedure is known as 'ne' rule. the verb � though the subject is a female.
i) Add � to the subject. � is the symbol of the first case. (see 7. tllf � � q:;) � I
Lesson 8 ). Here the object is Sita (feminine singular). Yet the verb is in
ii) Put the verb in masculine/feminine gender and singular/plural masculine singular because the object is followed by cnt
number according to the object. 8. m � I The object has not been mentioned. It may be
iii) If the object is not mentioned or if it is followed by cnt then the mango (masculine) or roti (feminine). The number or quantity
verb will always be in masculine singular. too is not known. It may be one mango/one roti or it may be
iv) The following verbs, though transitive, are exceptions. That more. As the object has not been mentioned, the verb remains
is, they will b e formed according to the subject: in masculine singular.
m,�.�;ftfR,�.�. The auxiliary verbs � (can), � (2)
-
(finish) and ('111' (begin) also do not come under this rule, but In the case of exceptions "RT.�,� ;fi:l'R the verb will be
will be formed according to the subject. in its normal form, i.e., according to the subject.
Examples 1. "'l�cfi'(l;ft � � I The servant maid brought vegetables.
1. tllf � ��� I 2. ����� ? What did the leader say in the meeting?

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SllJ� • Learn Hindi Through English
7. iiicfi'I�H � � °QfT.r � "\ifl1"lm I
3. � Cl<iT � ""1' � ? Why did Gandhiji not utter a lie? The watchman woke me up at five o'clock.
4. � � � � 1lm l Ram forgot that story. 8. ml' � � �� � � � � � I
5. � ltft' � � � � I We met the minister this morning My wife bought Japanese toys for our daughter.
(3) 9. 3tltR m -ij fcfio.ft 1f(-ij �?
When more than one noun is the subject of a transitive verb How many cows did you see in the field?
in the past tense, � is added only to the last noun. 10. mcfiR � � � cm � � tiTfmr "cfi'I' I
�. � 3fu: � � �qft I Ram, Krishna and Gopal made The Government tried to remove poverty.
the mistake.
1 1 . � � -q-ttan -ij mii:r � -ij "tfm fcnm I
But if the subjects are pronouns (l,You, etc.), then � is added Kanchana passed the examination in first class.
to all the pronouns.
12. Cf<ff � 3mfGffi -ij � � fcl�IQ"1 � ?
�, � 3fu: � COM' � � I I, you and he saw the
exhibition yesterday. Did you read that strange advertisement in the newspaper?
(4)
13. 3ITTf �tiUClftll i, � �Gfffi � � I
Today is new moon day. Hence I did not shave.
In the case of some verbs, � is sometimes used and sometimes
omitted. Both usages are permitted. � !J�'(Gqi �. � �'(Gqi 14. � -ij � -� mi fflt•flfi\cti GFfi � 'q'f1l iW;rr I
� (They fought the case). Both are correct. Cf<ff � �? Cf<ff �
All political parties, small and big, participated in the election.
�? (Did you understand?) Both are correct. � � (He chattered ), 15. � -qfum � � "cfi'l' �� � � CfiiUSll� � I
� � � GfCfiT (He talked a lot of nonsense). Both are O.K. The Birla family opened (started) many industries for the
progress of the country.
MODEL SENTENCES
16. �� ltft'Cfif � fcnm 3fu:� lfTFIT� I
1. ����� � � I
People welcomed the minister and garlanded him.
I sent many applications for job.
2. �������� I 17. llicr"cfi'I' � � WRft� �w:n•ncn-ifur� 1
That traveller brought a costly camera from Singapore. Village women sang folk songs during marriage.
3. wA � "CFihrr� � ? 18. � �� ("11$RfiM fcfil:ft cif�� I
Why did you insult me? She did not show her new cycle to anybody.
4. m� -ij � � Cfi)f� � � � I 19. �STCfi���? CFn���?
The officer did. not ask any difficult question in the interview. Where did you place the postal stamp? Did you lose it
5. ������ I somewhere?
Abdullah ate five bananas day before yesterday. 20. � � -ij � � � � I
6. �� 3rrfn � � ? I sold my old books in the shop.
Where did you buy this mirror? 77
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SIU�S • Learn Hindi Through English SU�S • Learn Hindi Through E ngll ah
21. ·q,;r�l� i:riscit� � � �q'fcn<n I 26. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
The Kauravas fought with the Pandavas for 18 days. Jm:lif �
22. � � � m: �&« (&ftt&d) Tcnm I The present perfect tense is, in fact, a tense of the past. It
The secretary signed the order. represents a completed act, the effect of which is still present. It
23. "3�n:r�mt � ;r m � m 3fu ;r T.1l(f m , brings a past act into relation with the present. In other words, it
That ascetic drank neither coffee nor tea. denotes an action concluded recently.e.g. I have eaten. 'Eaten' shows
24. 5Cfl1"1&H�g;im� � 3ffi wR �� � ? that the action was over in the past. 'Have' indicates that it is recent
What did the shopkeeper tell you and what reply did you give? past. So we have to use both past tense and present tense symbols.
I VOCABULARY I 1. Write the sentence in the past indefinite tense. (see Lesson 24)
� - strange � - mirror � - difficult 2. Add present tense symbols t m,i,i according to the subject.
� - banana Titl"aft* - poverty 3. If the verb is transitive, then it will be according to the
� - election
object.(see Lesson 25)
+ilcfil&H - watchman, guard srcn� - postal stamp
4. Then add i or i according to the number of the object.
GR - party, group &ftt&d - signature � - costly
5. � will be added to subject.
'tllffi * - garland Rl::tti4'1 - advertisement � - secretary
Examples
� - question �&« - signature
1. 'd4Ufl"l � % I (The servant has come). 3m:1T is past tense
and % is present tense. Hence it is present perfect tense. We
use i because it stands for 3rd person. (�/�)
2. if c:rITT Cfi.q:J � � '{ ( I have never gone there). � is past
tense, '{ is present tense. '{ is used because the subject is if .
3. 'Ulf����i (Ram has written a story). This sentence
has transitive verb 'write'. Hence the verb will be according to
the object � which is feminine singular. So the sentence
ends in � % I
4. "3'fl � "d'R 3'1lf �i I (Usha has eaten four mang9es). Usha is
feminine singular. But the verb is in masculine plural. It is
because eat is a transitive verb and the object "d'R 3Tilf is
masculine plural.
5. � � % ( He has read ). The verb is in masculine singular
because the object has not been mentioned.
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6. 3ft<:rTtrcfi � lroilT q;l- � � (The teacher has taught the 8. � � � GJTG � 3fvfi-3fift � t I
students). The object students is plural but the verb is in After crying much, the child has just now slept.
masculine singular because the object is followed by CfiT 9. � � � � fq;ra���t I
7. In the case of verbs ('fl.�,�,fi:«;r the verb will be according Ashok has returned from office just five minutes back.
to the subject as they are exceptions.
10. 3ntrcfiT � 3ITTf � � t I
Note:
Your letter has become available (has reached) only today.
In referring to historical facts, it is customary to use present
perfect tense instead of simple past tense.
1 . tm � 1l � -mM' � f I Ram has lived in the forest for 14
(Transitive verbs) (Verb according to object)
years.
2. ct1lt4at� � �Clil1«1'T H•l€.1 1<41 � I Columbus has discovered i. � � cnr �wrr t 1
America. I have heard Nehru's speech.
2. cp;rr � i'lR!til..���i ?
MODEL SENTENCES (intransitive verb s) {verb according to
Have you seen the play Harishchandra?
subject)
1. .q ��� amrr { 1 3. 'm � � � ll �-m � � i I
I have come here many times. That writer has kept a lot of books in the cupboard.
4. 3ITTtcfiT!tH'llttT � � � GJTG <1q1<401 � � i I
2. cf�:rqpn.fivfi � � ll� ii' ?
Have you ever flown in an aeroplane? The majority of people have not read the Ramayana after
childhood.
3. � irfuif � � ('l'Cfi � t I 5. � � � Gt;:q�01 "tR � � � � � i I
That patient has slept for a long time.
On my child's birthday my friends have sent gifts.
4. �Cfil � � � t l 6. 3furTQqi � � � � � � 1'm i I
Mahesh has got prize often. The teacher has hit me once severely.
5. � � -ij � -ij� t I 7. � � Urftefil�� � t I
Razia has spoken in Hindi in the meeting. The doctor has saved the patient from death.
6. �n 3ffi � �f 1 8. � -qfum � � � imrH"1� m � i 1
The guest has brought apples and guavas. The Birla family has given (donated) lakhs of rupees for
temples.
7. � � ftm:R � � -ij � f I
The bridegroom's relatives have stayed in an inn. 9. �to1�q1<���� �l$fihH �i I
Krishnakumar has bought a new motor cycle.

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10. � �lfffi � m wrr % 1 27. PAST PERFECT TENSE
We have heard this song earlier also.
� '!ffiPIM
11. "Wf���-;rr;ft � ���% I The past perfect tense indicates the form of the verb that
My grandmother has not eaten anything during the fast. expresses an action completed before a particular point in the past.
12. 3-lf.raT � �CfiR��% I It is formed in English with 'had' and the past participle (like 'gone').
Anita has driven her car herself. The stress is on completion of an act, once for all, and it need not
13. � mnrCfl 3r.nPm � � m % 1 necessarily be connected with remote past.
Till now I have not drunk (tasted) pomegranate juice. In every way, the past perfect resembles the present perfect
14. ������ % I except in the final ('be') verb. That is, instead of {-m-%-i the past
The labourers have made (built) this long road. tense forms m,�,m,2ff will be used. In other words:
=
Present Perfect past + present
15. � &ffifi � \il'ClT-ft -ij CfilHt "CPT � CfifcraT � � % I
Every person has written at least one poem during youth. = +
Past Perfect past past
16. (ft�"R\11-R � � � ftraT\ifi � G1 � cfrr �mi 1 Therefore the past perfect tense is formed by adding to the
My father has taken leave for two weeks to go on pilgrimage. past tense m,�,m,2ff according to the subject, if the verb is
I VOCABULARY I intransitive.
-
3R"R pomegranate � - guava If the verb is transitive (having object), then the verb will be
formed according to the gender and number of the object. � will be
� - gift �* - pilgrimage added to the subject. MT, �. "@', ftrFr are exceptions.
-
wm bridegroom -;rr;ft* - grandmother (mother's mother)
MODEL SENTENCES (intransitive verbs) (verb according to
� - gift, award � - to save subject)
'qff.fUT - lecture, speech &ffifi - person 1. � 9ft1Cfl1Hll � � � 34'"41fl � 2ll I
� - fast,vow I had brought five Hindi novels from the library.
2. Cfi(W[Wf� � � I
Yesterday you had slept soon (early).
3. '4"rn1' � cfi't miJ -ij '4'Fft' G1mT m I
It had rained in Kashmir valley the day before yesterday.
4. �;ifl�G{id41Gll � 4&etH1(4&etl41) � � I
The President had stayed in Hyderabad for a fortnight.

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��S Sl!J�S • Learn Hindi Through Engll11h
7.
The Patna train had started at four o' clock. Mohammed Ghouri had invaded India.
6. � c(lq1C4Hl � �:n:p:p:r� � m 1 ·
8. sl.3iiilsCfl<� Gfr.rah€t � � � rn fc'tim m I
Radhika had come here during Deepavali time. Dr. Ambedkar had struggled for the progress of the dalits.
7. ���*ft m fllNtltH'efil l"li m I 9. #i'tR � SCfi1'1GH� � �'CflT � � m I
My mother had gone to the church last sunday. On demand, the shopkeeper had sent a fine variety of rice.
8. � � -ij � � � · 10. �tjimf��'CflT �fc'tim m I
Gandhiji had been born in Porbander. That scholar had translated the Rig veda.
9. 41Cfl<i•fn�Ttr�Hfcn 'Cfltm � � m I 11. ���-���m� � � � m 1
The servant maid had not returned till noon. The bank had called computer literate youngmen for interview.
. 12. ��-ij(f{lt-(f{ltc:€1'�� m I
10. (f<:IT 3TitJ 3ITTf � -rmf "tWft -ij � � ?

Had you taken bath (bathed) in hot water this morning? We had seen a variety of things in the exhibition.
13. � 3ttRT � � � m. � 3l� �� 1
I had not studied my lesson. So the teacher became angry.
Transitive verbs (verbs according to object) 14. ����1TRTGITT-GITT Wff m I
1. ��7JW'Tffq � � -ij � m I We had listened to this song again and again on the radio.
I had bought this cow in the village fair. 15. W-ffi � � 'ql«f �(fl;r m�Cfli � fc'tim m I
2. ?PR i:rn -ij � c:€I' Gfffi � m I The Mogul rulers ruled over India for 331 years.
You had written useless things in the letter. 16. � fuq 1�q; � � Pcr.rcr �u-ij 'q'f1l ffim m 1
3. � � 3lR � iN<m"1 � � � � m 1 Our soldiers too had taken part in the world war.
When the officer entered, the peon had opened the door at 17. � � � 'CflT "tWft ftrm m nr� �� '1fl1T 1
once. The crow had drunk the water of the pitcher. Then it flew
4. � � � � � � � � "<R � I away.
My brother had read all the twelve novels of Premchand. 18. � �� � -ij m � � l � �m� I
5. � "1G&G � � {1i�C41M ¥� 'fflTT4T I �� men� I My father had put (kept) money in the table drawer. It
That mischievous boy had awakened the sleeping dog. So it disappeared.
barked. 19. � � ��� � m I
6. � � � � E"'€f � � � �m � � I The police had caught all the thieves.
My father had given me fifty rupees for pocket expenses. 20. � � ��llfUra fu&i41 m I
Mohan had taught maths to Ashok.
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21. fifi«l"11 � � -ij � � � I 28. DOUBTFUL PRESENT TENSE
The farmers had sown seeds in the fields. �tr crcf1noJ qm;r
22. <l�QIM � �� ?.fl I This tense is used to indicate the doubtful nature of an
The Governor had hoisted the flag. action. That is, we are not sure whether an action is taking place at
23. ������� � � I the time of speaking. e.g. may be writing, may be cooking. Only in
The washerman had not washed the clothes properly. the future, as we enquire, we come to know whether the action (e.g.
24. ������ � I writing) is really taking place. So this tense is formed by the
combination of present indefinite tense + 'be' verb of future. This
The child had ,thrown away all the toys. 'be' verb in future, i.e. it takes the following forms �. �. itil,
25. cti4T.41Rtll � mft �cil'��� � I ittft, �. 1Wft' according to the subject. 'May be going' will take the
The employees had shown black flags against the minister. following forms.
Masculine Feminine

ll \ilTffi {m I Wf � ffe I 11 'iffift tfT I WI' 'iffifi mrft I


I VOCABULARY I W' � � I mq � ffe l W' 'iffift � I 3n-q" � mlft I
� -translation � - attack, invasion 3q�m - novel
�' � \ilTffi 'itm I ci, �� ffe I �'� 'iffift �I ci,� 'iffifi mrft I
Cfli:if.41{1 - employee � -
black � · - kind, variety
As we add ' ing' to the verb ( he may be reading ), we may also
-
� expenditure -
� pot, pitcher mil* - valley use the continuous form. This form has been explained in Lesson 5.
� - pocket � - flag Gmif* -
table drawer So we may translate 'may be doing' in two ways.
-
<HS*cffll fortnight � � - to be born � - hoist (flag)
i) using present indefinite form - Cfi«ITWTI (masculine), "Cfl«ftittft
(feminine)
� - throw � · - fair � - stuggle ii) using present continuous tense - � W Wn (masculine), �
ufT ittft (feminine)
MODEL SENTENCES
1. � �\ill'ffT WTI I
Mohan may be going to office.
2. � ctiilsqfit n-mn cil' GR � � I
That multi-millionaire may be giving alms to poor people.
3. irrfh�c:u& 1� �GCIT &th�tt l WTI I
The patient may be buying medicine from the dispensary.
4. "twr � � -irrM" mwW11 1
Goods may be coming by train.
5. lll<n � �ittft I
Maya may be drawing a picture.
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6. mR cfiiT � -ij � cnr"ffi;r 3mrr.ft ��mm I 29. DOUBTFUL PAST TENSE


Kerosene may be easily available in the ration shop. �tr �
7. � � cfiil � �mm I An action which might have taken place in the past is said to
Amarchand may be selling silk sarees.
8. ffl{'111€1{ cnf l'kT � -m mm I be in Doubtful Past Tense. We are not sure whether the action had
The church bell may be ringing (tolling). really taken place or had been completed in the past.e.g. Gopal might
9. � �·� m G'Jlf � � � I (would ) have come for the marriage. In a way it indicates presumption
Students may be selling old books at cheap price (rate). or inferred certainty.
10. -uq-;n� w:r.fi �� � � 'ql«f-ij mm qj'{ � � I In this lesson also we have to check whether the verb is
Ramnath may be travelling in north India with his wife.
intransitive or transitive.
11. � �,� "{5l'RT � qj'{ m mm 1
My sister-in-law (elder brother's wife) may be preparing food. We have first to form the past tense (see Lesson 24). Then
12. � Mlir mra cfiil � � � � m � 1 add ""' �' mrt' &)1ft' �' mm as shown in the previous lesson
Leaders may be trying to establish peace. according to the subject, if the verb is intransitive.
13. � cti�f:a 1tl �cfiil � orfu:sr � �mr.r "Q'ffi � I
But if the verb is transitive, it will be formed according to the
The Government employees may be getting their pay on the
last day of the month. object. Then to indicate doubt, we have to add mm, &)lfi,"t\it ,mq
14. � � Cli1'{11T � -ij Mlir m � � I according to the gender and number of the object. � will be added to
Due to famine, people may be dying in Orissa. the subject. "RT, Gfnwr, �. � are exceptions. They will be formed
15. � Mlir � � � � om � � . according to the subject.
Old people may be playing cards to while away the time.
16. � firirMT-ij "3j';ft � � &Ffi I MODEL SENTENCES (intransitive verbs) (verb according to
She may be wearing woollen clothes in Shimla. subject)
17. � �3if�� 3fffil mm I 1. CfiM � � � mq I
This smoke may be coming from the kitchen. Yesterday you might have slept early (would have).
18. ������ '€11Miti\ �'\ifr.ffi I
They may be thinking that we do not know their trick. 2. ������ I
The expert might have talked about this disease.
I VOCABULARY I stfcfi�t ����'M'mmm I
3.
� - famine � - last l'kT - big bell The postman might have brought a letter for you.
'€11Miciil * - trick,craftinessmrctR* - picture orfu:sr* - date
4. mm � -ij � ri m &Fft 1
om - playing cards G1lf - price �311 - smoke · Sita might have lived in Sri Lanka for a year.
� - attempt �· - brother's wife mM' - goods 5. 01Sllctlti � � � � tft � � I
� cnr "ffi;r - kerosene � - time � -cheap The students of the hostel might have got up at five o'clock
� · - establishment itself.
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6. �-;nff fcfi 3TI<f � � � �� m-;nff I 6. � $4QCR:< � � � cif 1'11!!£lS'fli\1 "* fmt�� I
It is not known (we do not know) whether the Aryans had The police inspector would have called the rowdy for enquiry.
come from somewhere or not. 7. ��� T.ffi cif � i:fll<iqlfi Cfil � � � I
7. � � -ij -qr.fTGffi=ff � ��itl-% I The judge might have given the punishment of rigorous
It might have rained somewhere nearby because the air is cool. imprisonment to the thief.
8. � � -ij� � � "*i:JR��� I 8. 'fcrwJ >r�:ncnnfi � � -ij � -lft &>I!!If.1<4i � Wft 1
In olden days our ancestors would have gone to foreign Vishnu Prabhakar would have written many stories in Hindi.
countries across the sea. 9. f�m��wwr� cnnm %��"*��fcnmniITtn� 1 ·

9. � "* � � � -ij ·qfTnft � � � lR � I The tenant is quarrelling because the house owner might have
More than 500 persons would have died due to earthquake in demanded rent.
Iran. 10. �� MTmm �"*��mmlfl I
10. �U"* �� �a:rn ilrt � I Manorama would have taken leave due to chronic cough.
In the course of the war, bombs would have fallen on the 11. fiftt � � cnr��u�� 1
buildings. The cat might have drunk the whole lot of milk.
1 1 . � � � -;nff Gffi;rr � I 12. � � � 3fu "'€fi;ft � mTft I
My brother would not have told a lie. The servant might have bought wheat and sugar.
13. � � %, � 3R mfi i:fl(Rfl'dl $�� I
My idea is (I think), he (they) would have reached Kolkata by
Transitive verbs (Verb according to object) now.
14. � � � �ftrarf�:si� mlfl. �. � � cn< � i 1
1. � \11"ilql!!M � � I The guest might have eaten some spoilt sweet. See; he is
You would have seen the Taj Mahal. vomiting.
2. � cnmm ( &>H)am) -ij fc!fiO-,HR � � ? 15. �� � -ij � cnr � ftql'CIH � � I
How much money would you have earned in business? Rekha might have read the tragic news of the accident in the
3. ��"{SIRT��� I neswpaper.
The cook might have prepared food. 16. � � -q-ffrr �� I
4. �"* �� � �.qr RO\ld�l'll cir"fcrcm-f.n:rn'uT � � I The boys would have flown kites.
Raju's father might have sent wedding invitation to all his I VOCABULARY I
relatives. �* - vomiting Cfimm - business
5. ������-;nff � I i:fll<iqift - imprisonment fcnmn - rent
The advocate would not have told this secret to anyone.
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!/..� • Learn Hindi Through English
30. PAST CONDITIONAL TENSE
Rt><i4i;H - tenant 01Sllctlfl - hostel
� - age, period M�#iiH* - enquiry, investigation igig'tc( �
It is a kind of past tense. It denotes that if a certain condition
� - tragic 'Giwr - in the course of, during had been fulfilled in the past, certain action would have resulted out
�* - accident f.n:i::rur - invitation of it. It, of course, means that neither the condition was fulfilled nor
the resultant action took place. The past conditional tense is formed
� - ancestors � - bomb in the following manner.
� -rowdy � - secret i) The conditional part (clause) of the sentence will begin with
� - specialist � - strict, harsh 3FR/�. There is no harm if it is omitted.
ii) The second part (main clause) will begin with m.
iii) In both the parts, to the verb root m-�-"fft-(ff will be added
according to the gender and number of the subject. It is almost
like Present Indefinite Tense (Lesson 4) except that there
feminine plural will end in "ffl (and (ff only in negative sentence
and the final i is dropped as in � \iITTff ). e.g.
� � � I �i:m:rm� I We read. We pass - Present Indefinite
Tense.
3FR � � oT (�) i:m:r m I If we had studied, we would
have passed - Past Conditional
MODEL SENTENCES
1. 3FR WJ iiPral oT � � � � I
If Ram had asked, I would have given him loan.
2. 3FR 3t� fl«;ffi oT � � � I
If a teacher had been available, I would have learnt Sanskrit.
3. � � ·tmn;q'4· m m � � � � &fli;n1 1
If I had got money, I would have bought some essential books.
4. 3FR � � � � m lfr.rr� � -ij � I
If that swimmer had not saved (her), Meenakshi would have
drowned in the tank.
5. 3FR � qGl54RI �, ol � �mr-Pmn I
If I had got promotion, I would have got more pay.
93
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6. WR �� ';:r � if TICl"O'T cil' ciR lfmfl ? 17. WR � 3ITT � � � if � rra � � -mn 1
If Sri Ram had not gone to the forest who would have killed If there had not been bugs and mosquitoes, the child would
Ravana? not have cried throughout the night.
7. WR � ";:r � if � � � fetH�HI (3ITTITTft) � I 18. WR � imfrr -q'jlm if � � � � � I
If there had been no Gandhiji, we would have got freedom
If the guilty person had apologized (asked for· pardon) the
late.
judge would have released him.
8. WR � � � � � M if � � ';:r m 1
If my father's health had been all right, he would not have 19. WR �� � if �� I
taken leave. If you had got up earlier, you would have seen the comet.
Note:
9. �mFIT�'tfufiif �Cfilf � I
If Sarala had drunk (taken) medicine, (her) cold would have In some grammar books, it has been advised to add -;r to the
become less. subject and put the verb in past tense and according to the object, if
10. WR��if�� � I the verb is transitive. e.g.
If Padma had liked (wanted), she would have worn silk saree. 1. If he had read WR � � � I
11. WR � (�) .q. � M if � � � I 2. If she had bought the pen � � � � M
If there had been unity in th� country, we would have made
3. Had you written a letter � � 'l1:f � �
progress.
12. <Stl<SIlid if � '1ITTIT, iriTffi if � '1ITi'11 I 4. If I had taken the medicine � � � 'tft m � I
If(you) had knocked it would have opened. If you had asked, 5. If I had called you WR � � � �
you would have got it. As the above construction is laborious, it is not followed by
13. �� � Hi'4H'11§.q. � .q. m �if.� � I most people. The native speakers would prefer the following form
If Vivek Oberoi had stood in the election in Tamilnadu, he in the place of the above:
would have certainly won. � .WR � � �. � � � �{h�o"i �.� � '11:f �
14. 3fl'R � mr � � if � � 1 �. � .q GC!l 'tft � '-\. WR .q � � I

If we had taken(eaten) banana daily, we would have been I VOCABULARY I


healthy.
3ITTITTft * - freedom �* - unity
15. WR � � Mif � � 'H"lit I
If the laundry had been opened, the customers would have Cf\if - loan <Stl<Slll'11 - knock at the door
brought clothes. � - bug � -customer
16. WR� � if �ClilR .q. � � � I � - cold trouble iRrcf; - swimmer
If guests had come, they would have stayed in this room � - comet � *- promotion
comfortably.
� - mosquito � - country, nation
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3 1 . HABITUAL TENSE 3. He would habitually drink.
� i)r.rcr; � Cf§fTf<n + Cfi{ + W1T
The habitual tense represents an action as habitually or Past Tense Mas.sing. Future
regularly done in the past or being done in the present or to be done
MODEL SENTENCES (Habitual Present)
in the future. It is different from a particular act of the past, present
or future. It refers to a general fact. Yesterday he went to Mumbai - 1. .q m,- � T.m1 mCfmll t 1
a particular act, simple past tense. He used to go to Mumbai once I am in the habit of drinking tea daily in the morning.
every month-habitual act, Habitual Past. 2. �-cmm-llmm� m ?
The following is the procedure to form a habitual tense: Why are you in the (having the) habit of sleeping during daytime?
i) Write the sentence in past indefinite tense (Lesson 24). But do 3. >l'Cfim -;:rcft-ij � CfmfT t' I
not add � to the subject. Prakash is in (has) the habit of bathing in the river.
ii) Whatever be the subject, write the past tense verb in masculine
4. '3"'q'f �qIT � 3fTCfT Cfi«ft t' I
singular only like .:mc:rr, �. But for �. instead of l'l<ff, use Uma is in (has) the habit of coming here in the evening. .
�.
5. cqmr � � � � citl �ir.m:rr � i I
iii) Then put cnt and add m--a-tft according to the gender and The people of India are in (have) the habit of celebrating some
number of the subject, i.e. Cfmll, �. Cfi«ft (Lesson 4) festival every month.
iv) Finally add: 6. ·������i 1
{-m-t--i according to the subject in habitual present (Lesson 3) The poor people have the habit of always wearing dirty clothes.
m-�-m-m according to the subject in habitual past (Lesson Habitual Past
21) 1. T.m1 iM' � GfTG .q � � Cfmll m I
In the case of habitual future, cnt itself will change according After drinking tea, I used to read newspaper.
to the subject.
2. � � � � � � 1 3tGJ � sm?
-mi/�, �/ CfiM/�, �/cntifi (Lesson 19) You used to study well formerly. Now what happened?
Examples
3. � � '1l"l<:1l Cfi«ft m I 3tGf � \il1(ft I
1. Ram used to eat an egg. Lalita used to go to temple. Now she does not go.
+
4. �ml'iftqITl:f� � � a ��� � I
Past Tense Mas.sing Mas.sing. Past tense My father has got diabetes. So he used to take walk (stroll) in
2. I am in the habit of reading newspaper the morning.
.q � � + CfmfT + !1
Past Tense Mas.sing Mas.sing. Present tense
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5. \ilif � � :mfu � � � mR � 'ifl<:fT � � I Habitual Imperative


When that actor was rich he used to go to Kashmir every 1. "Tf 31cRR � 3ITTll cnU I
year. You make it a habit to come here often/be coming here often.
6. � �mGT��� � I 2. ��cqm-ij "it'ffi � I
Our ancestors used to lead simple life. Please (you) make it a habit to always speak in mother-tongue.
7. � � � cnn;r -ij � 3fu Y>flt'tiil't mfil � ( 3PR-� � ) 3. � � fl•Ufm: w � CfiU 1
�� � I Make it a habit to read (do read) newspaper daily in the morning.
During the period of Akbar's rule, Hindus and Muslims used (2)
to live in peace. A special form of the habitual past is obtained by omitting �
8. lfR:fi�G)'��� 3ITTIT � � I and the auxiliaries (final verbs) m,�.�.m. It is used for narrating a
The Jhansi passenger train used to come two hours late. repeated act of the past. The main verb will be in form if.
9. � lr-ft 3tmam���� � � I 1 . � Ml1T � � � \ifffi ('ifl<:fT �> 3ITT mir Cfil' � <mer
I used to get old age pension through money order. �) I
10. mf.tmfit;ri � ����� � I We would (we used to) go there in the morning itself and return
Sania Mirza used to play tennis from childhood itself. in the evening.

11. � � -qr.r � � m I 3R � � 3TIG"ff � � I 2. ��\ift�l'ftrr -ij � I


Kumar used to chew betel leaf earlier. Now he gave up that Sri Ramanand used to bathe in the Ganges daily.
habit. I VOCABULARY I
12. '€HUlf"ilii? \ift � q;r� � 3fu � � � I � - actor 3PR-� - peace & tranquillity
Charan Singh used to reply to letters certainly and at once. � - stroll, take a walk � - festival
Habitual Future 'QCfiRT - to cook lf� - diabetes
1. � 3ITTI' � ��� I i:r-l'RT - celebrate � - dirty
Mohan will make it a habit to learn English from today.
2. mm am � � � I
Hereafter Sarala will make it a habit to cook.
3. � �-ij � � � �� I
Ganesh will make it a habit to wash his clothes himself in the
future.

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32. SHOULD - MUST - OUGHT TO
7. 41Cfl{l;ft "CfIT 3TIGT ifu:r-rr � I
- The servant-maid should grind flour.
To indicate that something must be done or should not be 8. iitu � � � -;rtf � � I
done or something is desired by somebody, � is added at the One should not pluck flowers unnecessarily from the plant.
end of a sentence. e.g. You ought to read. He must go now. They
should wait. What do you want? When � is added to the sentence: 9. � � $ Grre; � -;rtf � � I
i. One should not drive a vehicle after drinking liquor.
add "CfIT to the subject. (Lesson 1 0)
ii. add � to verb root - 3TRT, �- 10. �mm"CflT� fe&1•f1 � I
iii. If there is an object, the above � will change into ;ft' if the One should teach Hindi to people who desire.
object is feminine and � if it is masculine plural 11. I
CfiM CfiT "Cfl1lf 3:mf � 3ffi 3:mf CfiT "Cfl1lf 3Nf � �
Should read book (Fem. Sing.) - � � � I We must do tomorrow's work today itself and today's work
Must buy horses (Mas. Pl.) - � � � I now itself.
iv. If there is no object or if the object is followed "CfIT, only � is to 12. ��1il'T{"Q'{t!lfi-ij��� 1-;rtf "ffi � "CfIT �\ifl3TI I
be added to verb root. You must pass the examination this time. Otherwise forget
The patient must sleep - Wft -Cfl) � � I marriage.
We must call that servant-maid back - � � '1lctiU•tl "CfIT cmm 13. � "CfIT � � � � � '
�� I Old people must wear spectacles while reading.
MODEL SENTENCES 14. � �"q"{ R!l(lc:ti�-;rtl�� I
1. � m � i l � 3R l;R � � I We should not believe in rumours.
It is getting late. I must go back home 15. � "« cnm fcfi � 3:mf� � � I
2. � -Cfl) � � ('fR � � �-;rtf�� I Tell the washerman that he should bring the clothes today.
A guest should not stay anywhere for m�re than three days. 16. � CfiTT{ft �"q"{�Cfi{"ft'� I
3. � m <fR � � .-�T<::nir� GCn -;rtf 1ft;ft � 1 Man must take pity on dumb animals.
Similarly a medicine should not be taken for more than three
17. � "ctil � � $ � � mr -ij � � 3ITT � �
days.
'3o.IT � I
4. � -Cfl) � � $ Gfft -ij � � W:quft� � I To preserve health, we should sleep early in the night and get
The clerk should immediately write a note (on) about this matter. up early in the morning.
5. 1fa: 1fFfi � (-ij) -;rtf � � I
18. ��$�$�"«������� '
(One) should not bathe in dirty water.
We must reach the station at least 15 minutes before the
6. �"CfIT <fun� "q"{ GCff 3ffi � t.ft' � I departure of the train.
One should give medicine and diet to the patients at the correct time.
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19. mm � mr.r � Cfl1u91•11 % 1 � � � � � Cfillf 3. � � � � � � � I I should have sent morn

��� ' invitations. (object Mas. Pl.)


A vacant brain is devil's factory. So we must always do some 4. mtrCflT � � � � 2ft I You should have read this
work or other. book. (object Feminine Sing.)
20. 3ITTf it � � it m;A �\ifffi � I "3""fCflT � � �I 5. oo "ctil""d""@ft MctilR4i'MT"fi� m I The servant should have
Today's children sit before TV. They should play daily. brought fresh vegetables.
2 1 . � �"Cfll" � � e1IT �anit���-ij � � I (3)
Old people should walk in open air to protect their health. Then there is the simple use of � to denote what one wants or
22. m�"Cfll" � 1frq -ij � � � � I needs.
The State Bank should open a branch in every village. Examples
23. � 3ltR �"Cfll" (�) �Cfiro� I 1. mtrctlT "Cf4T �, �? What do you want, sir?
We must love our country. 2. � � m � I I need some money.
24. � �m"Cfll" nmft� it ��Cfiro� I 3. 3iU"ctil"Cf4T�, G1" 3mi I What does a blind man want, two
Our leaders should struggle to eradicate poverty. eyes.
25. � � �� � � Cfiro � I 4. �"Cfll" �-qr::ft � I The thirsty person needs some water.
You must memorise Abraham Lincoln's speech. 5. T.14Uefl "Cfll" � -mm e1IT � � I The peon needs leave for
26. 9fdCflIM4 it 3iGl � "Cfll" litIO'ifltt -.fflf "CfWfi � I a week.
Nobody should talk (engage in conversation) inside the library. (4)
(2) Another special usage is connected with style.
In constructions like you should have, he should have, etc. , 1. He must come - a) � 3fRT � I (simple statement)
the same procedure as shown above is followed. Then add:
b) � �fcli � � I ( style)
i. m if there is no object or if the object is masculine singular.
2. Soldiers must obey their superiors.
ii. � if the object is masculine plural.
a. �QI�� "Cfll" ��� lfr.f.ll � I
iii. 2ft if the object is feminine singular.
b. �q1�� "Cfll" �fcli� ��� lfR I
iv. m if the object is feminine plural.
Examples: I VOCABULARY I
1. � "ctil" � 3fRT � m I Salim should have come at once. �* - rumour � - flour �* - diet
(no object) ft"tquft* - note, remark 'tfm;n - grind � * - pity
2. �"ctil" �GRRT � m I The cook should have prepared ..* - branch � - health

meals. (object Mas. Sing.)


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33. AUXILIARY VERB - PRESENT TENSE 5. �� "fmr ll � ll � � t I
HAVE TO
We have to talk in Hindi in North India.
� fitirr, 'it, Ql' 6. � MltTi cfil � ll w.n � t I
To indicate necessity, requirement or obligation, m is used. The poor people have to live in lanes.
To indicate force or compulsion, � is used.
7. � ll ¢ � i � � �� � � � t I
While m is mild, � is strong. m indicates voluntary action. There are so much of bugs in the cot that we have to sleep on
� is more forcible than m. m places stress on the action - that it the floor only.
has to be performed. There is no choice regarding the action. � Transitive verbs
places stress on the doer. He/She cannot avoid the work. But people
use � at most places. 1. � � q:;nur � � cfil � � � t I
That clerk has to take leave due to illness.
When m/� is used:
2. � 1Sf€f � imp;r� � � t I
1. add cfil to subject. (Lesson 10) I have to sell the watch for my expenses.
2. add ';ff to the verb root. 3. � cfil � �� ��i I
3. If there is an object, the above ';ff will be for masculine singular Manohar has to wash his clothes himself.
object. It will become ';ft if the object is feminine and � if the 4. � cfil m- � <iTir cnm mm t I
object is masculine plural.
The labourers have to work throughout the day.
4. Then put mm t/� t. But if the verb is transitive put mm I 5. �cfil�ll�Tfra7TRT�t I
� according to the object. Then add t to indicate present
Pushpa has to sing prayer song in the meeting.
tense.
6. � cfil � � � fFRsr.rr � t l
MODEL SENTENCES (Intransitive verbs) Writers have to write a lot throughout !ife.
1. ��f;f{\ifRT�t I 7. �1lliCliR��mm���t 1
I have to go home early. We have to give much rent for a house in towns.
2. � MltTI cfil mJ ll � Ocfi \if'('ll":ff � t I 8. mrcr cfil 3{�:fhft;p�:f � � � i I
Doctors have to keep awake till late in the night. Raghav has to type three letters just now.
3. � cfil -tfrT.1 � � '3o.fT mm t I 9. � (�) cfil WJ��CfiVft�t I
The Collector has to get up at five o' clock itself. The driver has to clean the vehicle daily.
4. � cfil � � � \il'Rl mm t I 10. �cfil'Cfilm<fil'z � � t I
Bharat has to go to Bangalore next month. The advocates have to wear black coat.

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34. AUXILIARY VERB - PAST TENSE
5. HCfl&�11: CfiT � CfiTG-fT � I
HAD TO
The woodcutter had to cut the tree.
6. ctiri' � CfiroJT � � � I
� fs\xJr 'q"$1'
Due to rain we had to get drenched (we were drenched).
To indicate that some action had to be performed in the past
as a matter of duty whether one liked it or not: 7. � Cfil � � � � I
Babar had to fight with the Rajputs.
1. add CfiT to subject (Lesson 10)
8. m-� -ij mrcit � Woll � I
2. add ';fl to the verb root. At the condolence meeting, all had to remain silent.
3. If there is an object, and if it is masculine singular, adding ';fl to 9. � 'H"� -ij "fuil' � lSIT-fi � I
verb root is enough. If the object is feminine, this ';fl will change I had to eat fish daily in Lakshadweep.
to -;ft_ It will change to � if the object is masculine plural. 10. 3'Tf� Cfiro1f � � Cfi) � � � -ij � � I
4. End the sentence with � if there is no object. If there is an Due to economic reason, Harish had to give up his studies in
object, it will be � for the object in feminine singular and � the middle (halfway).
in plural. If the object is in masculine plural, end the sentence 11. ��Cfi)CfilJf � miA 3fCAT m=<f � 'Cf'IBr � I
in � . Kunti Devi had to reveal her secret in the presence of Karna
Examp l e s (to Karna).
1. I had to go - � \ifR'T � I (no object) 12. � � � � � � �r�=niq-�· � � 1
2. I had to write letter - � ira � � I (object Mas. Sing.) I had to pay Rs.SO to repair the watch.
3. I had to write three letters - � ('fR' 1f5f � �I(object Mas. 13. � � � � m � Cfil � t.:IT � I
Pl.) Due to illness my brother had to resign.
4. I had to sell this cow - � �1TT(;l' � � I (Object Feminine. 14. OOTCfil � �� � � � � &t\G;:f\ � I
Sing.) Rajesh had to· buy this costly saree for his sister.
5. I had to sell two cows - � GT � � � I (Object Fem.P l.) 15. cfiTHsrfre:�· � ��Cfil� � � �� .
MODEL SENTENCES
Rakesh had to take a loan from the government to buy a car.
1. �Cfi('f � �\ifR'T� I . 16. � � m��-ij���������
I had to go to Madras suddenly yesterday. \ifr.raT m I
I had talk to him in Telugu only because he did not know any
2. �>rUR 3'� � � � �?
other language.
Why had you to meet the headmaster?
l voCABULARY I
3. � Cfi) �� � "tf � � I
Children had to play inside the house only. 3'Tf� - economic, financial � - resignation
� - debt, loan ,
� � - become wet
4. �Cfil� 01�tC:Ct("1 -ij � � I
Sita had to stay in ladies hostel.
�* - repair HCfl��Hi -woodcutter
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6. "3"6:1 �q;)��� � 3fuf.roiit �� I
3 5. AUXILIARY VERB - FUTURE TENSE The top officer will have to think over this matter and decide.
WILL HAVE TO
7. �mtfilwmr� 3f�R111ct mI tfil��$ 1
� fs\RfT '�. �· The leaders will have to remove/eradicate superstitions from
To indicate that a certain action will have to be performed in society.
the future, this form is used. It indicates obligation and not compulsion
(�) . The procedure is the same as explained in the two previous 8. � gft � m«r � � O'Gt � � llGJra�i:$fl' I
lessons. If you happen to go to north India, then (you) will have to talk
i) add tfil to subject in Hindi only.
ii) add � to verb root 9. lmii' tfil 3t�CfiT� irr.RT � I
iii) If there is �n object change � into ;ft or �' if necessary. Students will have to accept (obey) the advice of teachers.
iv) Finally to indicate future add $ /� if there is no object. If 10. �q;)���� mcnR tfil � e.t!H&I� � � I
there is an object, change $/� into �, i:$fl', �; The Government will have to open new factories to remove
�. m-rtl, mrtf as required. unemployment.
Exampl e s :
11. �efft � � �*rr 3fu � q;)� � I
1. You will have to go now. � 3R � � I We will have to connect the Ganges and the Cauvery for the
2. You will have to buy a watch. � � � !Slfl<%'1l i:$fl' I country's benefit.
3. You will have to bring some fruits. � � i:nM � � I 12. m��tfil 01�1!fft �m-rtl (���) I
MODEL SENTENCES We will have to give (grant) scholarship. to poor students.
1. � 3ITTf � tfil ��· I 13. � � tfil G1' � 3tlU1i CFiro $ I
Today I will have to go to office early. This patient will have to take rest for two months.
2. ����CfiT"ffivr <'l"RT $ I
You will have to bring kerosene from shop. 14. Cfil«"rT � efiT
���� � 3icfi ll�m-rtl I
We will have to print this poem of Kamala Das in the next
3. � efft wrfit � � Gt•H:i&11 ��Cfiro$ I issue of the magazine.
We will have to control population for the country's progress.
mtfil 3'tRTCfilfU�-�em�� I 15. �efil�U��� 3UYGITT � � I
4.
Shekhar will have to keep his room neat and clean. For improving knowledge, one will have to read newspaper
daily.
5. �&n ll-qm � � � �� � � i:$fl'/'Q'ftm:r cnro
1$rr 1 16. � � � �� 3'tRT � � · I
We will have to work hard to pass in the examination. I will have to sell my house to settle loan.
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Sit!�$ • Learn Hindi Through English
36. AUXILIARY VERB 'CAN'
17. �cit�-i:m;r � � I
The trader will have to send (despatch) goods at once. � � '�·
18. ���� 3fu�cit���� I To express the possibility of performing of an action, �
The bridegroom and the bride will have to get up early in the (can) is used. This 'mfi is added to the root of the verb, to convey the
morning of the wedding day. idea 'be able to, ' 'can' 'may'. The root of the verb does not undergo
any change. But � will change according to the tense and the gender­
19. � lft llf;:qR01 efit GJ'Cf'ff �� mr-Hmtt cnr.ft �/mr"51Giu<firo number of the subject.
mm I
Subject Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
I alone have to make all arrangement for birthday feast.
Mas Fem Mas Fem Mas Fem

I VOCABULARY I .q �t �i � � • •
3icn - issue of magazine 3it1Rn>Cli{'t - superstition il1'f �it �it � � � �
�.� �t �t � � mm �
� - advice 0i��fft* - scholarship
. �.3TI1f
mtR'T - to print \if"iff(§41 * - population � � � � �
-!}, <) �i i
� - to connect �* - arrangement Reference Lesson 4 Lesson 24 Lesson 19

�· - feast, banquet �* - bride MODEL SENTENCES


� - control � - decision 1. � �lft�m � Wfiffi "'{ I
"511Tfff* - progress "51Giu - arrangement I can give you money only tomorrow.
�* - unemployment �* - hard work 2. cp:rr � � .q � � -m ?
Can you talk in Sanskrit?
�u * - increase � - scholarship
3. �<qN � Cfillf � � Wfi"ffi t I
� - society Subhash can do this work quickly.
4. lfRT��'ij � 'ffi �t I
Meena can swim even in a deep river.
5. •im•[� � � Wfi"ffi t I
The bear can climb the tree.
6. � {G � efit, ��tG«�cit �'i:m�flt'1 I
A drop of ink can make ten lakhs think.
7. � � �-tjfuf � � � � lfCfifil t I
Nowadays anybody can enter the temples.
8. cp:rr � � 3tH1cfiift "'{?
May I come in?
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5�5
9. � � % � � ���� CfiH1cfiT I 37. AUXILIARY VERB 'FINISH'
I regret that I could not do anything for you.
� fil;m '�·
10. �Wft��Wmfil I
That patient could not eat anything. To express the sense of finish or completion of an action,
11. � � �cit � � fiRm � � � I ¥ is used. This is added to the root of the verb. As per meaning,
We can see any film this Sunday. the sentences will be in the past tense only - past indefinite, present
12. Cl"fri � CfiRUT CfiM � ct1ifi.11tl G1RR � 3TI � I perfect and past perfect.e.g. I finished eating, I have finished eating,
Due to rain, some employees could not come to office yesterday. I had finished eating.
13. ��� 'CIU!l°ttG � ? Subject Past Indefinite Present Perfect Past Perfect

Could you buy that house? Mas Fem Mas Fem Mas Fem

14. � l:fTTTM c#iT "GITTf � � � � mfil I � wnr � ¥T l wiil t ¥T m wf;'t eft


Nobody could understand that mad man's talk. wf;'t eft
"¥ � � "'¥ � ¢� "'¥ �
15. CfiM � 2fl' l � � � lll(Wf � �� I �
There was a strike yesterday. So the traders could not send goods.
� wnr � ¥T t ¢% ¥T m wf;'t eft
16. mfura irCfi � � Gire; mmft i:rtl&rr fi;mr � I
�. 3m � � "'¥� ¢� "'¥ � ¢�
After her health becomes all right, Madhavi will be able to
write examination. -!}, �
/.
Reference Lesson - 24 Lesson -26 Lesson - 27
17. 3tN CfiGf �\ill � ?
When will you be able to go to Chennai?
MODEL SENTENCES
18. � CfiM mro � c#il � � � m � ?
Will Sarla be able to come for blood test tomorrow ? 1. ��fiRm� GITT � � I
19. ��tll ��cit��� I I finished seeing this film many times.
The detective police will be able to catch the murderer soon. 2. � � � (f'Cfi � � � m ?
20. �� 3ITTf wn:f (f'Cfi � 'Cfl11f l{U� "Cfl"{ � I Have you finished learning Hindi by now?
That labourer will not be able to finish this work by this evening.
3. � ma � � m I
21. � � iiR.r m �(fCfitf� � � I
I will be able to give you loan up to Rs.500 only. Ahmed had completed reading the lesson.
22. ����tfit�TTT";r�, 1fR"tfit�-:.rRf��� I 4. � � � � cit � � I
Man will never be able to sing like the cuckoo and he will not The doctor finished seeing that old patient
be able to dance like the peacock also. 5. �'J{ �TTT � % I
I VOCABULARY I Aameena has finished singing Urdu poems.
� * - cuckoo �41 - detective � -blood 6. � � tf � ur � � I
� - regret l:JTTTM
- mad •*-test, investigation We had finished washing clothes in the morning itself.
� - bear � - peacock

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7. � mtf 3ttr.IT � � � ? 21. -ij � -ij -ffi �� m I
Did you finish selling your house? I had finished swimming in the tank.
8. ����� I 22. qwj��� '1114GIG � m ¢ I
The boys have finished playing cricket. Due to debt his property was (had been) confiscated.
9. � � fmy � 2J I Note:
The writer had finished writing the story. It is possible to extend the meaning of � to future tense
10. -r.ICfiPlllfUT wmJ (�) m � I also, then it will mean 'would have' e.g. 'When would you have your
His lecture was finished. studies finished?'
1 1 . �� �iff.P:slRT W � � I If we wish to use � in future, we have to add the forms of
All the guests have finished eating. m. Please refer to lesson 19 under exceptions. In short, �. �.
12. � cfl' m � � q:;) tf � ¢ � I �' 1Wtl, mm' mTt ,""ITTtft will be the termination depending upon the
The women of the family had finished bathing at five o'clock subject.
itself. � 3tGi l'JT � mTt I They would have finished singing by now.
13. -ij -i:nM � "3:r?.Tlf mm tr 3ttRT mu mr-r JJf€f � � 1 � � i:n: $" ¢ 1WfT IThe letter would have finished
I finished spending my full pay in the first week of the month reaching there.
itself.
� \ilCl'R fm9 � mTt I They would have finished writing the
14. � OR � � -ij �$°�t I reply.
Your telegram has finished reaching here in an hour.
15. f�ra'hnu � tft ¢ ?JT 1
The cat had finished drinking the entire milk.
16. � ·.�T�rr.nhft �cqr -ij � � ?
Did the Prime Minister finish speaking in the meeting?
17. � mq � � � � ?
Have you finished taking rest?
18. � �·�·�· °Q'ftan im:r � � m 1
Prasad had finished passing IAS examination.
19. � � 'tfTO mG � � I
The boys finished memorising their lessons.
20. � cfl' � i:n: mr � mTGf � � 3TIGn � � t 1
On doctor's advice my friend has given up the habit of drinking
liquor.
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SIJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English
38. AUXILIARY VERB 'BEGIN'
7. �mR i, �� � lfPR Mll'T I
� fi\xrr 'M'if' He is poor. So he started begging.
To indicate that an action has started or has started just now 8. � l'J1JTtlfir llR Ml1T O"ijf ?Pf � � Tffi � ?
or will start soon, this form of verb is used. When Ganapati began to sing, then why did you go out?
1. The main verb will end in � ( 3fR, '1fR) 9. ��� � (fil'ff �(Wflft I
2. ('f1T will change according to the tense and according ot the Revati started working with enthusiasm.
subject. 10. ����(Wflft I
Subject Present Tense Past Tense Fl,lture Tense
The river started flowing from the mountain.
Mas Fem Mas Fem Mas Fem 11. � � m:R � I
-q �t �{ WIT "M"1fT � � We began to laugh continuously.
¥ wrn- m- � &) � "M"1fT wM wWft 12. � 31� -qt� � � � � I
<f&, � �i �t WIT "M"1fT � � They started reading for the examination just now.
WJ, 3ntr wrn- � �� � wff � � 13. i:N<14l � � �� q;) � Mll'T i I
-a-, � The peon has started burning old papers of the office.
Reference Lesson 4 Lesson 24 Lesson 19 14. "«UR� ll' � � Mll'T I
Note: It is possible to use Ml1T; , Ml1T m, Ml1T tft1TT to indicate present Sudheer started speaking continuously in anger.
perfect, past perfect and past doubtful respectively. 15. l'fli���� 3fu�� (Wflft ?.ft I
The guard showed (waved) green flag and the train had started
MODEL SENTENCES
moving.
1. -ij -fuif �: "ri' � � � Wral "{ I 16. 3tGJ�� �-�� � � I
I begin to write lesson every day from six o'clock. Now we have started understanding Hindi a little.
2. � � � �tiT¢-m � � � I
17. Cf'ri� cnrorr ��� wff I
The school boys begin to play tip-cat (game) in the evening.
Due to rain, shops began to be closed.
3. �� � GlTG � � � � I
The soldiers begin to do exercise after getting up. 18. "5r�\if\'�� (tiT) �\if\'� � Mitit I
4. � mr tiT � m Mll'T ? The Prime Minister will start meeting the President every
Why did the child begin crying in the night? Monday.
5. 3mfim ll'�lJR � 3fu lITT � � I
19. 'ffiil' � � CfITTOT 3t1lT � � � ('l'1f\" I
Clouds began to spread in the sky and peacocks began to Due to fast wind, fire started spreading everywhere.
dance. 20. �������� I
6. � �Mll'T �mTffi tiT � 1 Children began insisting on seeing the circus.
The dog started barking because it saw the thief.
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Hindi Through English :!illl�:!i Learn Hindi Through English
39. AUXILIARY VERB - ALLOW 4. ·�����'GM��cfilctii4qltl-ij��-;rtf�I
The Speaker of Lok Sabha did not permit the leader of the
� fiRJ '� ·
opposition party to interfere in the proceedings.
To express giving permission to do an act, � is used in Hindi. 5. f'4:tqf'4q:4IH4 � � -msif "ctiT -qtflITT -ij � � � I
In this context it does not have the usual meaning of give. Using �. The university did not permit some students to appear for the
we can construct expressions like let one go, allowed one to speak, examination.
will permit one to see. 6. ���"ctil"llff �m�� I
i) Put the root of the main verb in � ending form �.�.� The mosquitoes did not allow the guests to sleep throughout
ii) Use � according to the gender and number of the subject and the night.
according to the tense. 7. -itfi\lft � � � �m� (�, �) � I
The minister permitted me to take a photo of him.
iii) If the sentence is in past tense and if it has an object, add � to
8. i.flcfi)Gil� Tffi -Ch) � � � I
the subject and use � according to the object. {see Lesson 25) The watchman did not let the thief to run away {escape).
iv) If the sentence is in the past tense but without an object, � Future Tense
will end in � I 1. �iitITTft � 31cfffi � ��� I
MODEL SENTENCES Present Tense My father will not allow me to see cinema often.
1. �� 3flf;fi � � � i I 2. � ���� °!iR��� I
Our officer will not permit us to make phone calls from office.
He allows {lets) me read his book.
3. � � �lffu;t' "ctil � � � ?
2. � 3t� -msif cnl' � � � I Will the doctor allow the patient to drink tea?
Some teachers do not allow the students to play. 4. 5Cf'ii'1GIOsrfuft °rt �-Ch)� � WIT I
3. � lfl��-ijm�� I The shopkeeper will not allow exchange of saree bought earlier.
His{her) mother does not allow him{her) to sleep during daytime. Imperative
4. � � 3N:fi1flcnl'�GR'R�� I i. ram 3ITT � GT ,
The sick child does not let its mother to cook food. Live and let live.
Past Tense
2. �-Ch)��mirr.J � GT I
Allow the porter to unload the luggage from the cart.
1. q1fGl'11'1 � � CfilITT -ij �-���� I 3. � 3N:fiGJra � � I
The teacher did not allow me to read story-book in the class. Please allow me to speak my matter.
2. �� 3ttA � "ctiT � � � �� � � I 4. �Tifui "ctill«f�, � 3tR �
Gopal did not permit his brother to go to see the exhibition. Please don't obstruct that poor man. Please allow(him) to come in.
3. cqmr�� f4�f<?14i <ii' ctilUSll� ��� I 5. ?Pf �-Ch) ftni; GT � 3ttA cniR .q � GT I
The Government of India did not permit foreigners to open Allow Ahmed to stay in your room just for two days.
factories.
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40. THE ABSOLUTIVE 9. � � � fftN11"'1nl � t I
13\d°<Plfiltcp � '�· David sits in the church wearing coat.
To denote doing a work after finishing/doing some other work 10. lfm� �qlH'"4 � � � cfIT OUFi � t I
earlier, � is used. That is, it stands for 'having done' . e.g. I go to Descending from the Himalayas, the Ganges river flows towards
office after eating food. The actual work is 'going the office'. The the sea.
work done earlier is eating. The � will be added to eat �- i.e. 1l 11. ftmtt �� -ij � � � i I
� � "{ + l'.SfRT � I i.e., � l'.SfRT � � � t I When Taking up the guns in the hand, the soldiers fight.
there are two actions, � is added to the first in time. 12. :flcti<14"\ � �tfm� I
The servant maid will go home only after washing the clothes.
i) Therefore, in constructions like the above, � is added to the
13. mr ll iftt � � -mt� I
root of the verb (�;�,m)
Hearing a noise in the night, we all got up.
ii) If there is already a � (as in � �. m:IM � ), totally there 14. � �:fmnn'l� � "CfilfffiT % 1
will be one � . i.e. � � + � = � �. He earns money by begging alms.
MODEL SENTENCES 15. ���v.rcfi{ ����t 1
1. � "ctiTf cnTlf 'Chit I I want to fly freely becoming a bird.
Do any work after thinking. 16. � � -ij � Tcn.fR "tR � � I
Swimming in the flood, we reached the shore.
2. m"CfiT ���g3tT � � ;mm I
17. � � � � � � mn I
Seeing the mother, the child became happy and came running.
Seeing the monkey, the child laughed clapping the hands.
3. � � wfu (�RCfiHcti< � I
18. � STCfi-l:R���� I
Emerging from the flowers, the fragrance spread.
Going to the post-office I bought post card.
4. ma ll � "CfiT � � � ('lit I 19. -qaft�-�� aiil<cti< � 1i'R'ffil % I
Seeing a snake on the path, we started running away. The bird builds nest after collecting each straw.
5. 3tN "Q"{T&rr ll "tfm � � � ?
20. � � ur:f � I
What will you do after passing the examination? Reading the question paper, the students became bewildered.
6. � mr "CfiT �•i€4<::ifh1 1 � � � I 21. � "CfiT � 'qlTRT � � � � � i:fml� I
They sleep after reading the Bhagvadgita in the night. Seeing a dog you should not flee because it will chase you.
7. � � � � m� { t 22. � cfrr � Gm � � 1sfP1�� m-"30ffi ?
I am coming just now after seeing the drama. Does not your blood become hot (boil) on seeing the bad
8. � � � � �m 1 condition of the country?
Go to school, (after) taking all the books. 23. � � � ltR-�Ul � � � � � � 'i I
Indians waste (their) time sitting here and there gosslpping.

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SU�:::i Learn Hindi Through English �:m�5
24. 3ttR lfriFrcn� � � ��·�� �� � I 4 1 . PRESENT PARTICIPLE

Dissatisfied with the behaviour of his master, Suresh gave up acl"iuiict>1GIct> cpcin
the job. A participle is a kind of adjective. It qualifies a noun or verb.
I VOCABULARY I But it is formed from a verb and it retains some properties of the
verb. So it may be called verbal adjective. e.g. � � - a moving
� * - fragrance � - to be perplexed
train.
� - nest O"IFft � - applaud
i) The present participle is formed by appending 1'11 to the bare
ftr:rcFiT - straw � - question paper root - �.3ffifT,'\il"ffiT. �-fQmrr 9}"0Cfl1Mt4 mobile library.
� - collect rn - noise ii) Being an adjective ending in m sound, the present participle
. *
� - snake WJU - fragrance will change according to the gender and number of the noun it
qualifies. e.g. � "QT;:fl, ��. ��. (see Lesson 1 2)
iii) For the sake of clarity, sm may be added after the present
participle. This sm will change into sl/gr!. where necessary.
� sm "QT;:fT m'!:n � t I Flowing water is clean.
� sl � 'tll l«f � I Do not board a running train.
���citl«f� Do not pluck the just-blossoming flowers.
iv) The present participle may be used as adverb also, indicating
how the verb (action) is done. Then it will come before the
verb. It will agree with the subject.
� M<ltll sm \iITTfT t I Gopal goes smiling.
� � gr!. 3ffit � I Boys come running.
�����f.iCflMffli I Sita moves out VJearing a new saree.
v) If there is an object and if Cfi1' comes after it, the participle will
be in -a form.
-ij 1'11i«ft' Cfi1' � gr!. � { I I see (find) Gomathi singing.
31'� � Cfi1' rn � gr!. � � I The teacher finds the
students making noise.
vi) If the present participle is followed by �/C@O, it will be
preceded by �
� � � � at the time of Gopal's going.
� � C@O at the time of his/her sleeping.
� � � � at the time of Sita's singing.

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!i� • Learn Hindi Through English
vii) If the present participle is doubled for effect or style, it will
10. �������% 1
I have never seen him playing.
take it form.
11. � 3:ffi � CfiTma-(�) ��UT� � � � 3m:.t I
� irff -itff m \iITTfT % I The child sleeps while weeping . .
Leaving (his) wife and son sleeping Siddharth came out of the
�-� mr "ITT � % I While looking on, the night falls. palace.
viii) With "ti', the present participle ( it form) denotes immediately
12. "ij �-� ?.Tcn� I � ���� I
after or as soon as.
I became tired writing continuously. Nevertheless I continued
� � 3ffil' "ti' � 'm1Tl' I As soon as the police came, the writing.
thief fled.
3fltl' � � -q:;r slR-tl{111 I As soon as you reach, please drop 13. ��-� � � I
Vimala began to weep while talking.
a letter.
ix) A present participle can be used as a noun. 14. � � GR �-� 1Tfuf "ITT � I
� CfiT � CfiT mm I A drowning man catches at a straw. Giving alms continuously King Raghu became a pauper.
CJlt mil CfiT � % I He makes the crying persons laugh. 15. � �-� *6 3fRi � ('llff 1
By always reading, my eyes began to ache.
MODEL SENTENCES
16. �°ti' Tfra CfiT GfR GfR wffl � � '3iGf � I
1. -ij � � -ftfiffl 9fd&l1W'I CfiT � {I We became bored hearing the same song again and again.
I am a member of a mobile library.
1 7_. i.IQUfti CfiT�-� ��� I
2. mot � � � -ij� I The officer became frustrated calling the peon again and again.
Sita descended into burning fire.
18. � � ma--ma- � i I
3. Tiffl � � q:;) � � � g3n I Some people talk while sleeping.
Seeing a crying girl I became sad.
19. 3fftlCfil l'R � �� � � � I
4. mffi CilrT � T.f$rr ?
Searching for your house I had to roam much.
What thing a dying man would not desire?
20. w.ft � � -� "tR?.R m Rm' \iITTfT % I
5. .-�-�s3n<rITT amn 1 Even a stone wears out by the continuous flow of water.
Mahesh came here running and panting.
21. ma- � ¥CfiT "ffil mn.ro I � if Cflt� "&iWTr I
6. '©M'11il&l�g3n� I
Don't disturb a sleeping dog. Otherwise it will bite you.
The villain spoke smilingly.
VOCABULARY
7. M&lifiili ';fTi.l(ft � l'J11ft i I I I
Girls sing while dancing. � - however � - to be bored €fr1'1iil&l - villain
8. � � s3n � 1R T.l'm I � � - continue ftm;:n' - wear out, rub � - search
The monkey climbed the tree by jumping. P.fCn.rr - to be tired � - to ache � - to pant
9. Cflt'qltffi � s3n� % I mro - to be defeated
That mad fellow runs screaming.
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!ii!!J!t!�
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MODEL SENTENCES
42 . PAST PARTICIPLE
1. � �g3TI"� � I
'!C1<Pil'R<P � Wear washed dress (cloth) daily.
In the famous line by John Keats "Heard melodies are sweet,
2. cp;fTGJM��� �i?
but those unheard are sweeter, " heard and unheard are examples
Is dry wood available in the timber-yard?
of past participle. The past participle is formed just like past indefinite
3. '·<!fnthm� fimR � 3t11l c:iit wu �'
(See Lesson 24). Let us recollect those rules briefly here and apply
Forget what has gone before, think about the future. (Let
them to past pa11ticiple.
bygones be bygones.)
i. The past participle is formed by appending 3TI" to the root -
�.'Q191,Wfl,
4. 1fttii � � lffi � I fift � � MT:dt I
Don't pluck flowers from plants. Bring fallen flowers.
ii. Root ending in � shortens its vowel. lt=�3TI". Root ending in l
al�o shortens its vowel and take c:rr. ·tff="fqc:rr,\ift:�. 5. wft' sl Glra 'tR Pc!�ern.:t lffi cnU I
iii. Root ending in 3TI" I :dt also takes c:rr. mm' mm . Don't believe in what you only heard (hearsay).

iv. Exceptions have been indicated in Lesson 24. 6. wr-iR� R:�aG1�1 -dit c:rTG � � �u cnra � 1
We perform annual ceremony for dead relatives.
Briefly, the past tense form itself is used as past participle.
U sage
7. -i:i:ft -dit � cp;rr i ? � � � ¢ (sl) � � � i I
What is a minister's throne after all? It is just like a broken
i. A past participle can be used as an adjective. If the participle
chair.
ends in 3TI", it will change according to the subject. g3TI"-�-sl
also can be added depending upon the subject. 8. �(gm) °GRCfllm � "Qtqi I
� � ffR � � I Dry (dried) leaves are falling. It is a sin to take back the donation (gift) given.
� � -i:fU g3TI" � � I I saw a dead snake. 9. 'furR (�) � � filHR=tllhrsu�· (WPff 1
ii. It can be used as a noun. Seeing the flowers that have blossomed, butterflies started
llTI cnT lffi lfriT I Do not strike those already dead. hovering around.
�-�CfiT� ��� I The educated should be civilized 10. � � � �� � 'tR � � mc:rr I
also. Seeing the open window, the thief entered into the house
iii. When it is used as adverb, it takes � form. through it.
� 'tfn;fi" � � (�) ml I The girl came wearing yellow 11. ����� � ?
saree. Who was the girl who sat here silently?
<IW��li� � Cfii:rl � 'ffi'fCm'. GfU � � I The emperor sat with
a sword tied around his waist.
� � � Cfii:R: � � 3rr::rT I Don't come inside the room with
the shoes on.
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Hindi Through English 51.1�� Learn Hindi Through English
(2) 43. COMPOUND VERBS
If there is a noun or pronoun b.efore a past participle,
then ��
add <!fiT/in/<f:t to that noun or pronotm . Which one to add
depends
on the number and gender of the noun that comes after A compound verb is a combination of two verbs. This combi­
the past
participle. nation helps in emphasizing or intensifying the meaning. e.g. went
away, fell down.
1. ����"!IifW� I A verb is rendered intensive by adding another suitable verb to
The book I bought was lost somewhere. its root. The root of the verb will remain unchanged whereas the
2. �� g)("t(fl�lfl �<f:t � (iqjtjOj � t ? additional verb undergoes changes due to tense, gender, number.
Have you read the Ramayana written by Tulsidas? e.g. lffi sn"RT - to kill outright, STM � - to throw down, �
'3"o.il- to speak out, � sn"RT - give away, lSIT � - to lose definitely
3. � -qftft� � � � � I
The saree you asked for is not available nowadays. In the examples cited, S"TFRT, �. "30::fT have been used as the
.
4. � � if; � � JQ;:qiff � � I additional verbs. But they do not retain their original meaning. They
All the novels written by Premchand are famous. only strengthen or develop the meaning of the main (first) verb.
\iff,�.� .STM,�,"30,�,lffi ,�,� are some of the verbs used
(3) as the second verbs of the compound verbs. These verbs occur in
If there is Cfl1" after the object, the past participle will be earlier lessons also in different contexts. There they have a meaning
in � of their own. Here none. The procedure is:
form.
� fHfqffl Cfll" � � � � i. Put the main (first) verb in its root form (m;u, �)
I I saw Saraswati sitting there.
ii. Add the �econd verb according the tense and the subject.
(4) iii. If the sentence is in past tense and if there i� an object, the
The past participle can be doubled. second verb will be formed according to the'-object's gender
and number. Add � to the subject in such cases.
-q � -� � ll<n I I got tired of (continuously) sitting.
iv. The main verb does not undergo any change. But ilfFI" is an
exception. In past tense, it will also change along with the
second verb. "'€1"('1T l"J<n, "€ffi �, � �. � 11l-
v. Compound verb is generally not used in negative sentences.
l .\iff: It is used to express completeness or finality. � is not to be
used when \iff is used as last verb.
\T1::f ('l1ffq' iti\' W ll<n
I
Ram ate up all the bread.
mmefiR��m� I
Sarala slept away at nine o' clock yesterday.
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\ill G°lTIPTfm � � I � 3N-ft� � � � � Wft I
What happened once, that happened for ever. She will give away her old books only to me.
3Mf � � (p.l"J �wr � m 1 �qiilH � .q � � � I
What use repenting now? The birds pecked (ate away) the Hearing the news I started out at once.
field (grains). 4.'S11'r : It gives the idea of completion or thoroughness, with
fi!$fc6H � � .q � il'Rll<fT I vehemence and within a short time. The idea of throwing
I fell down while riding the cycle. also is suggesteq.
� � �u i:fi � I m'� 3mrr.fi � � "<:fil � swraT t I
The cat will drink off the entire milk. The elephant breaks up the tree easily.
tffift � � l1<fT I �1qi"I�� �u� "<:fillITT STMT I
The washerman took away the clothes. Hanuman killed the demons (in full).
2. � : It indicates doing a thing for one's own sake. Further, it � itffi;r � � � cnt mrr � STMT I
emphasizes the meaning of the main verb. A mischievous boy broke the glass pane of the window.
�l{<:fiH��cfil�lfr.J(Wff 1 "Q11TM � � 3ti:R � � � I
The money-lender confiscated the peasant's land. The mad fellow tore away his clothes.
(p.l"J���m� ? HCfl��·� � � � STMT I
What! Did you finish eating so quickly? The woodcutter cut away the tree.
3tTtf � � fmr�\J� � � 1 5.�: It signifies the suddenness of an action. It is also added to
You please take (away) some money for expenses. verbs which signify some act of consciousness for emphasis.
� � � � m;rWTT I It also denotes chance, happening. 3tT � means to befall,
Abdul will certainly accept your matter. to happen to come.

��'CR�� I ��lJitftcfil � cfiT � � M1TJ -{)' � I


e
I had (finally) purchased that house. Hearing the news of the death of Smt. Indira Gandhi peopl
burst into tears.
3. �: It signifies doing a thing for someone else. It also emphasizes
� � � ��� � I
the meaning of the main verb.
Hearing the jokes of the jester, we burst into laughter.
� 3tlfR � 3JtRT "ffiU Q;r�.q.Gfk� I
����� I
That rich man distributed all his wealth among the poor.
The monkeys jumped from the tree (suddenly).
f.11a1\Jfl � afli•1silat "<:fil�� I � � � MlTJ 'lfJlT � I
Shivaji defeated Aurangazeb. Hearing the noise all people woke up.
�� ���"fi<ft I � "tR � � � I
Ramdas sold out his old watch. At a distance, a mountain came into view.
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GR" � means to be possible.
P �GR"��� , a short time!
You have completed writing such a big book within such
I did whatever I could.
� $"'fQCfG{ � � tit �lffil I
6."30 : 'to arise, to get up' indicates (suddenly) start to . . . It also has
The police inspector gave a blow to the rowdy.
the force of unexpectedness.
9 .�: It implies the idea of doing a thing before
hand (priority,
�� � ��'3tl 1
precedence) or keeping safely.
Seeing (having) a bad dream, Komala screamed.
� tit � � fu;r cifq "30T I -i:i::fi � t'4 i<iq'SI � TISJT % I
Seeing the accident my heart trembled. The minister has kept the resignation letter ready.

� � 'qNUT � � �. � ��'3tf I � -;:ftcn{ � �Cfif�����TISJT% I

When Socrates was giving a lecture, his wife shouted. I have instructed the servant to wait for the guest.
? 'd4<itt'1 � f.l�'?l&l CfiTClilfU �� TISJT% I
� CfllT � -ij � '30aT %
The peon has kept the director's room cleaned (already).
Why does Ahmed speak in the middle?
"&fTtrrtl � � tit "'d1tf '*t zj-� '*t � � -mft m I
7.�: It gives the idea of finality, suddenness, hast� , doing a thing The business man had (already) given the news to the police
without forethought or in desperation or doing forcibly. about the possibility of a theft.
� "tfllffi tit <itf l«f �. � m lffi � I 10.m: It indicates completion after effort.
Do not tease that mad man. Otherwise, he will strike.
� � 'Qft.ml �� � "Cffif �� I
� � � -ij � m -ij �Cf<n tn{ tor I I worked so hard that I got through the examination.
Without thinking about the consequence what (awful) thing
�W'Rtit� � � I
have I done! I managed to drive the enemy back.
H1qv�•6 � � fQm '*t mfht14<;icn:it tor 1 � -mt mt ·q�CfiHfW 3q;:im"l 1!U�� I
The careless son lost the entire property of his father. I read throughout the night and finished that novel.
� '*t � � �U Uift' � 1R "30 tor I
The patient sat up in his bed against the doctor's instructions.
"i'l6'li'llGI � � tit � C!llGW6GR" tor I
The prince became the king after killing his brothers.
8.lITT: It gives the idea of impropriety or foolishness.
� � � "IR � � � llm I
He dashed off a full article on this subject.

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!iilLl�!ii Learn Hindi Through English '.!ilLl�!ii • Learn Hindi Through English
44. CAUSATIVE VERBS (b) If the first vowel of the root is long, shorten it. � and m change
murrdcP � into l and '3. � and :ID remain unchanged.
An action can be carried out in one of the following three '1fT1RT - wake \iflTRT - awaken '1t•lcU"ll - cause to awaken
ways:
� -conquer firam -help to conquer Pi1'1C:H"11 -cause to be conquered
1. The subject himself does the work.e.g. The car goes.
� - go around � - rotate Y>f!CIHl-cause to rotate
2. A second person gets the work done. e.g. The driver drives
the car. � - lie down � - to place R-leCIHI - cause to be placed
3. A third person makes the second person get the work done. � - learn fu©HI - teach fu&CIHI - cause to teach
e.g. The owner asks the driver drive the car. � - speak � - call �HCIHI - cause to call
A verb whose subject does not function directly but acts through "ffi'1T - float "ffir'1T - set afloat � - cause to set afloat
another agent is called causal verb. When there is only one person
getting the work done, it is called first causal. When there is a second � - stretch � - spread CfiHCll"ll - cause to spread
person who makes the first person get the work done, it is called � - run � - to race Gl$C11'1I - cause to race
second causal. � - see 'fusrRT - show �&<:IHI - cause to show
Since, 'causing something to be done' is an action which must
Note: �&HHI (for 'fusrRT) and fu&Hl"ll (for fu&HI) are colloquial.
be directed towards somebody, all causative verbs are invariably transitive.
"&"RT has exceptional forms: fulHHI (feed), fulHCIHI (cause to feed).
The first causative verb is obtained by adding 3fT to the root.
The second causal is made by adding err to the root. e.g.
(c) Roots ending in long vowel shorten it and append m in the
1. � (f;R � % I (Action done by the subject)
first causal and 'H'CIT in the second causal.
2. � (f;R � % I (First causal done by one agent)
� - sew fuHHI - get sewn fuHCIHI - cause to get sewn
3. � � �(f;Rifr1Clll'11 % 1 (Second causal with two agents)
"tft"1T - drink � - cause to drink fCIHCIHI - cause to give to drink
Similarly we can form � (to read), "QGR1 (make read, i.e.
teach, first causal), � (cause to be taught, second causal), iT'rr-n"­ � - give � - make to give RHCI HI - cause another to give

fTRRT-fl)<Cl1'1I. "fi1;n' - sleep � - put to sleep tif!CIHI - cause to put to sleep


Formation of causal verbs
UAT - wash � - get washed � -cause to get washed
(a) Roots ending in consonant and having the first vowel short
� - weep �- make cry �HCll"ll - cause to weep
take 3fT and err .
CfW1T - do � - get done Cfl(CI HI - cause to get done
(d) The following forms may be noted
� - listen � - tell i-f<:iHI - cause to listen
� - to be sold itv.n" - to sell R!CflCll"ll - cause to sell
'30'1T - rise '30RT - raise � - get raised
� - is made GRRT - make Gt"ICIHI - cause to make
flil'$1'11 - understand flfl$11'11 - explain flfl$1CIHI - cause to explain
� - opens � - to open �<:IHI - cause to open
1R'1T - die 'fl1ro - kill lRCfRl - arrange to kill

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• Learn Hindi Through English

� - leave a place � - give up � - liberate 12. �Cfill:r �3ft I

� - sit ftrar.n - to sit Rtaet 1'11 - cause to seat Cause (somebody) to get this work done (by somebody else).
¥'11 - break itself � - to break Met HI - cause to break 13. � ��-PfffiT t I
The child drinks milk.
� - burst � - to crack �set HI - cause to burst
14. lff �cit �U ft«;mfi t I
1"iZ'1T - get torn �- tear 4'i�etHI -cause to tear The mother feeds the child with milk (makes to drink, suckles).
� - stop, stay � - to stop �CfletHI - cause to stop 15. lft ·c:mn) � cit �u fQHetldl t 1
MODEL SENTENCES The mother causes the nurse to feed the child with milk.
1. � mm t I 16. � � mr mm;r iNmfr� me.r � �m-cn� 1
The child sleeps I shall cause (arrange) to send all your luggage to your house
through the peon.
2. ;/ICflU"fi �cit�t I
17. � isf -qr;ft fqHl$l{ � ftit f<siHl$1{ I
The maid-servant puts the child to sleep.
Make me drink (supply me with) cold water and feed me with
3. lff ;/ICflU"fi � � cit tlHetltfl t I
roti.
The mother gets the child put to sleep by the maid-servant.
18. -q) 'tfm � "1' � � 3ttr.fi fl1$fcfiH � 1f{i:q'ff "1' � � I
4. �fTmrr t 1 As I do not have money, I will not be able to get my cycle
The tree falls. repaired.
5. � �filmrr t I
19. ���� Cfl1!fSfiq � Cflti1f.ll1i"w1rai 1
The servant fells the tree. They make listen (tell) stories in the children's programme in
6. ���� ff1<et1a1 t 1 television.
The owner gets the tree felled by the servant. 20. ��� m m, �� � � '
7. ���f l The vehicle (car) was moving fast, I caused (somebody) to stop
The students learn to write. it.
8. 3t� ��cit�ft.mrra' f I 21. � � � ml � fuHldl {1
The teacher teac.hes the students (how) to write. I get all my clothes sewn by the tailor.
9. '51'UR� 3t� ��cit� fu&etld f I 22. -q) � � �iITTJ � wrra f I
The head-master causes the teacher to teach the students to My neighbour awakens me everyday at five o' clock.
write. 23. �lltl'iltli� fi11q<q<� dl'ilqt!H iil'1etllll I

10. � Cfill:r cnU I


Shahjahan caused (had) the Taj Mahal built in marble.
Do this work (yourself).
11. � Cfi11:r cnum I
Have this work done (by somebody).

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• Learn •
SlU� Hindi Through English SU�S Learn Hindi Through English
45. VOICE 5. As an object is necessary for an action to affect, the verb of
Cffill' the Passive Voice can be transitive only. The verb will be
according to the object. e.g. A mango . was eaten; Two
The form of the verb indicating the relation of the subject to
mangoes were eaten. In Hindi the verb should agree with the
the action is called Voice. In other words, it is the form of a verb that
number and gender of object.
shows whether the subject of a sentence performs the action or is
affected by it. Hindi has three voices: Active Voice, Passive Voice �it� � � \ifra1 % 1 (Object Mas. Sing.)
and Impersonal Voice. � it �. � � I (Object Fem. Pl.)
1. The Active Voice � �) shows that the subject does fcht1Hl it��� I (Object Mas. Pl.)
something or is or is becoming something. The subject is the
doer. "Ulf\ifralt 1 -qmffm 1 ��t l �� I �� I 3ft«rr it amR � � I (Object Mas. Pl.)
Wt � I In these sentences "Ulf, -qm.�.�.if are the doers ���� I (Object Fem. Sing.)
of the acts denoted by the verbs. 6. The Impersonal Voice is always in the neutral construction.
2. The Passive Voice (Cn1f �)· represents the subject as acted The verb will always be in masculine third person singular
upon. Hence the subject is not the doer. The object behaves because only the action denoted by the verb is important.
like the subject and is directly related to the verb. e.g. The Though it sounds unnatural, a sentence will be like, 'Sleeping
enemy was killed; I was called. Here, enemy and I are not the is done by Rama I Sita I boys I girls.' The intransitive verbs of
doers. On whom the result of the action (killed, called) fell the Active Voice undergo change in Impersonal Voice. e.g. I
-
go (AV.) Going is done by me (1.V.). In Hindi:
assumes more importance than who killed or called.
The result of an action will always fall on the object - the
"Ulf it/�it1� it/ H�Rh41 it mm \ifralt 1
affected thing. Hence the Passive Voice is restricted to transitive � \ifT<:fT \ifra1 t I
verbs (verbs having objects) only. However, the Passive Voice 7. The Passive Voice is formed by:
is not much used in Hindi. a. Combining the verb � to the main verb changed in to
3. In the Impersonal Voice there will be no object and so the past tense. e.g. � �. � �. � �.
verb will be intransitive. Sometimes it does not even have a
b. This compound verb will agree with the object in gender
subject. The action denoted by the verb itself serves as the and number.
subject. If a subject is mentioned, it will be shown as able to or
c. The tense of th� Active Voice is to be maintained.
unable to do something. However, it is mostly used to express
inability. d. The subject will be followed by it.
4. The verb of Active Voice can be instransitive ('Ulf mm t, � Active Voice Passive Voice
'ill) or transitive ({1'1i � %, � � t). The verb will agree "Ulf � °tfm % I "Ulf it � °tfT °\1ITTft % I
with the subject except in four tenses of the past.(Lesson 25) �Cfifq'� I �itcnrq'�� I
� � �"Q";r � I � it � -q;r � � I

1.
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SIJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English
SU�S • Learn Hfndi Through English
13. � � �� TfMT-;:rtT\iITTfl I
8. Active Voice: Subject + Verb according to subject in gender and
· Being 1 weak, he is not able to walk.
number
14. � mm � � ftr.ra � � � -;:rtT \iITTfT I
Passive Voiee: Subject + � + verb according to object in gender We people are unable to sit quietly even for a few minutes.
and number
15. ��ul-ij HHCfHl CfiT "Wim-;:rtTfci:im \iITTfT I
Impersonal Voice: Subject + � + Verb always in third person Swords are not used in modem wars.
masculine singular form 16. CfliR-IGitl ��'tl'Cfn�ifRri � I
Kalidas was considered the greatest poet in Sanskrit.
MODEL SENTENCES 11 . . cn�-cn� � "Ql: � m � � i 1
1. � � � T.fTCffi � � \iITTfl t I Comets have been seen in the sky sometimes.
Rice is eaten much in South India. 18 . cnm \iITTfT t fcifi � "Ql: �-iftU -;:rtT i I
2. �WftcitGCJT��? It is said that there are no trees and plants in the moon.
Was the patient given medicine? 19. � fci:im �,*ft�tt�t l
3. � -ij lf{ � � fci:im \iITTfT t I What can be done, my luck itself is bad.
Wheat is produced much in Punjab.
4. � � �� � � '
This news was sent to him at cince.
5. �� fcl�41H4i -ij � �\ifffit t I
Hindi is taught in all Kendriya Vidyalayas.
6. llictl-ij GfCfift CfiT �U GCfT � � -ij $l"d+HH fci:im \iITTfT t I
Goat's milk is used as medicine in villages.
7. � "ICR.'iHCfiG'"ll111;ft � lffiT � I
That Naxalite was killed by bullet.
8. � � \iITTfT t fcifi \ill Gira� -;:rtT � q1t � t I
It is seen that the very thing which we do not like takes place.
9. � ftl"!t oqft&rr � � � "t!Gi � � ri i I
Nowadays all subjects are taught from the point of view of
examination only.
10. � � -ij � �-�"Ql:fmsft"flf I
In olden days, books were written on palm leaves.
11. ��-ij��� �;;nm-;:rtT� I
In this climate even one step cannot be taken by me.
12. -Qe 'ilnsr� � GITG � � -;:rtt \iITTfT 1
After eating stomachful I am unable to get up.
1 41
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SllJ�;s • Learn

Hindi Through English SllJ�S Learn Hindi Through English
46. CONNECTING THE SENTENCES 9. ��� -immr �ma �1fG1tfti 1
�� Those whom you consider holy persons are, in fact, frauds.
Let us see in this lesson how to combine sentences like: He is 10. ���1R �l(lcim�mcm"3(RT � � t 1
my friend. He lives in this house. It will be combined as follows: One The person whom you trust is not loyal so much.
who lives in this house is my friend. In Hindi we use \ifl for this purpose. 11. ��.q����i� �"*�&imcim mrrr 1
\ifl is a pronoun. Hence it will change if followed by a case. There have been dozens of such leaders in our country who
This has been dealt with in Lesson 10. In brief, it will change as endured imprisonment for the sake of freedom.
follows : � singular - �, futftCfll /ftm', ftn:m' ,f�H'iCfl l/� / (2)
�.�.fiffl' "IR Now we shall see how to combine sentences like: I went to
the office. No one was there. It will become one sentence like: When
� plural - �-;{, ftRcflt /�, �, ftRcf>T /� /
I went to the office, (then) no one was there. In Hindi, we have the
� ,ftr.rij,ftR"tR I
following expressions:
MODEL SENTENCES When . . . then �-"d'Gf
1. � � 1f \ifl �t cm � � t 1 Where . . . there �-�
The person who lives in this house is my friend. How much . . . so much ftra";n-"3(RT
2. \itl �ctt �� tcm &i1('1ia� # � � lSmfl t 1 How . . . similarly 'dtm-mn/iml
One who cheats others gets cheated in course of time.
MODEL SENTENCES
3. � -qm � i � 3TIG'{ (� �) � � i 1 1. �lfl';fi� M1JT � lffi � M1JT I
All people respect one who has money.
When it started raining, the peacock began to dance.
4. fifft' � 1f w � t cm t � 1 2. �-� uif CfIT ";f1'l(IT � t "ffGf � 3tmrrn�·� i 1
In which country the Ganges flows, it is Bharat . Whenever there is a decline in morality, then God takes an
5. � � ( �) ffm� �t � 3ffilFfi � �� ftJFl'it/ incarnation.
�� fi:wral' I 3. � nq; � -ij � t "d'Gf nq; � ft:tlJ\€fll Wfllf � m I
One whose age is above 30 does not get a job easily. We will not become slaves of anybody as long as there is unity
in the country.
6. � � �W;rr t cm� � �� I
4. � 3ITTft 3ffift t -cm�-inu m � t 1
One who has given us stomach will also give us (provide us
with) food. Where the storm blows there trees and plants fall down.
5. �� \iff3fl' I ftra";n �W3fl' I
7. � � 'Cfl'im1JGT�Wn�� m9i � � � I
Go wherever you like. Eat as much as you want.
One who has made this room dirty, let him also clean this.
6. ���t�uir 3ffi � � � I
8. \itl � i.lq&idl t cmrir.rr � t I
All that glitters is not gold. This the (very) place where Rama and Hanuman had met.
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• Si�� • Learn Hindi Through English
Si\ll�5 Learn Hindi Through English
7. ����� i . �� � � i 1 47. THE USE OF fti AND �
Wherever wisemen go, people welcome them.
fls
8. �oq;��t��.q��� I For reporting a speech, there is only one form in Hindi, namely,
1.
As far as I am concerned, I cannot lift so much weight. the direct narration. There is no such thing as indirect speech
9. � � �nm�,'IR�ftn;r�Wfif I in Hindi. To report somebody's words, the same words of the
I looked for him here and there (everywhere) but could not speaker are reproduced with 'fen (that). Therefore, the two
meet him. sentences, The boy said, 'I will go to college,' and 'The boy
1 0. � oq; � (t'Gf oq; 3m:I' I said that he would go to college' would be the same in Hindi:
As long as there is life, there is hope. � � Cfi&T Pen .q � \ilrl;Trr I There is no harm if the English
11. � G)q:Rht ftto�"tfi('f � � � m I pattern with inverted commas is followed, i.e., � � Cfi&T. •.q
Take as much fruits as you like from this basket. � \ilrl;Trr ' It is also possible to use the indirect form of
12. � ��� I speech as found in Eng!ish. � � Cfi&T Pen � � � I
As much money, so much worry.
13. -�ff;m1401'{fff � wfi 'i '3(RT .q � {I
2. Pen is used as conjunction.
I am not so much rich as Shri Narayanamurthy. � Gftt � 'GfRf t 'fen 3m 3tT � I
14. � �'llH4 'IR � hJ � 'i � iscn � t l It is a very nice thing that you have come.
The higher we climb the Himalayas, the cooler it is . .q � tfc:n� � � t 1
15. . � � � � � lim � 'i � � � � lim � I know that he is a glutton.
�M 1
Even a professor does not have (possess) as many books as a 3. Pen is used in the sense of or I whether.
writer does (has). �\ifT3ftit Pen�?
16. � \1i1r � � � � lim 'i m � � lim � � I Won't you go or not?
India does not have so many war ships as America has.
t fc:n �?
17. � � � � � -q � � � � � � m 1
Is it not so?
You become my guest for as many days as you will stay i n this
town. ���� � fc:n -qy;ft� fc:n -;rtf I
18. ���� I We cannot say whether it will rain or not.
Like father like son. 4. 'fen is also used as infinitive (to). � � cnm 'fen � lf{ � I
19. ·�mnnlf mn'Cfillf 1 Tell the servant that he go home (Tell the servant to go home).
As is the pay so is the work.
tnm
20. � Cfillf(t) �-::m:r ('t) I
As is the work so is the name (fame). The most popular and multi-purpose suffix CfTMT is joined to noun,
2 i . ��m-3ftit. ��/�CfWfimfi � 1 verb and adverb and thereby give meanings such as owner, doer or
as belonging to a place.
As you sow so shall you reap.
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5lll�� • Learn Hindi Through English :!illl�� • Learn Hindi Through English
l .With Noun about to close - � Q14CllHI
a. When Cffi'IT is appended to a noun, it denotes: one who the train is about to start - � q:a4C11Hl % I
sells, one who deals in, one who is concerned with, etc. If the speaker - �IH4CllHI
· the noun is masculine with 3tT end, the 3tT will become �·
3. With adverbs
�+Cffi'IT- �ql{cllH I.
that which is above - &Q<CIIHI
4'1HCIIHI - fruit seller �\i'l(•flCI IHI - electrician
the house below - 01"1�CllHI 1rcfWf
3HSIGtHCllHI - paper boy «�CllHI - vegetable seller wall that is behind - cft0CliM'1 �
"Q"""� - made of stone flia1$C1IHI - verdor of sweets 4. Cffi'IT may indicate futurity.
�UCITHT - milkman lll&lCllHI - cartman
.q. Cfi'H' � \i114CllHI "'{ I I am going to Mumbai tomorrow.
9;�«CllHI - policeman elcflCllHI - one wearing cap
MODEL SENTENCES
"1Cfli"1CllHI - house owner tlat$CllHI - Mumbaikar
1. � � �3Wft"fcn�?
b. The masculine plural form will end in � and the feminine Will you (feminine) go to Delhi or Jaipur?
form will be 'Cffi'ft.

2. ftraNfhir"R "fcn � lffifNfi � � "R "Hl 1


moneyed persons - a�C11H Father said that you take money from mother.
sell�rs of bananas - �HCllH 3. � �� %-fcn� � "'1'tf� I
a book with binding - �t"GCllHl � That actress says that she does not know dancing.

side lane - GtHHCIIMt � 4. � �� % fcr; .q. :mq "HlrTI e6J mn cfi'HfCfiT I


I am very happy that I could render service to you people.
c. If Cffi'IT is tagged to a plural noun, that noun will take 3iT or
5. �"4' "Cfl"ITT fcr; �� �� "\i1Tl{l'fT I
\
m form.
Gandhiji said that we would certainly get freedom.
one with Jong hair - � "Gt'TH'+Cffi'IT -� Gtlt'llCllHI
6. � "4' �� "Cfl"ITT Tcn � � � � % I
one with big ears - � Cfll'1lCllHI The doctor told the patient that your (his) health is slightly
girl with small eyes - mi\' 31Tii +'Cffi'ft � -mi\' �iOOCllMi better.
� · 7. � � � im%-fcn ���Cfil � 2lT I
We have read in history that there was lack of unity among
2 . With verbs (gerunds) Indians.
one who reads - �+Cffi'IT - 4�4CllHI
8. � � "4' � � � ftwron % Tcn � <{lq1C1Mt "CflT 3mMT I
one who knows - \i11"14CllHI My sister has written in her letter that she would come for
the tomorrow that will not come - � 3ii4CllHI CfiH' Deepavali.
the train to Pakistan - 41fcfi'Rl1"1 \i114C11Hl �
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!iilJ� • Learn Hindi Through English
!iilJ� • Learn Hindi Through English
9. � lH�cuA � ���minmift��1 48. AGREEMENT OF SUBJECT WITH VERB
I told the vegetable seller that we need fresh vegetables daily.
We know that subject and verb have close relationship. If the
10. citt � � � 3mf'Q'T";ft��� I
subject is singular, the verb too will be . in singular. If the subject is
Nobody knows whether it will rain today or not.
plural, the verb too will be plural. If the subject is a pronoun like I,
11. � CfiT Cfillf\iti"i�ct IH CfiT ���i I you, he, etc. the verb too takes the form appropriate to that pronoun.
One who knows computer work gets job quickly.
Apart from these neat rules, in Hindi, if the subject is masculine, the
12. iiMl ri cti<�ctrA Cfil � � � i 1
verb will be in masculine. If the subject is feminine, the verb too will
All people like the person who talks sweet things.
be feminine. In certain tenses, when the verb is transitive, the verb
13 � �Cfill:r Cfi(�CllMI cti4�r:fl 3tmFfi�mmCfmIT% I
will be according to the object in number and gender.
The employee who works well gets progress {promotion)
easily. So far good. But what will be the form of the verb if a) singular
14. -cm� q�•�ctiA ��Cfilm 1 and plural nouns, b) masculine and feminine noun, c) different pronouns
Chide those children who are making noise there. come side by side as subjects in the same sentence? In English, when
15. 3'� ��-ij1i"�thn� � � i 1 a_ multiple subject consists of a third, second, and first person pronoun,
The minister is about to speak (give lecture) within a short the verb is in the first person. Let us take the case of Hindi.
while. 1. If the sentence has more than one subject, the verb will be in
16. 3ITTJ � ctiilf&iq -ij 'ifl1T�Gl •11�ct1A �i I plural.
Two singers have come to participate in today's programme. Wf 3fu "M"a;ifOT � i I
17. �"q""� lfCfiR CfiT�ctf.tt? 2. If the subjects are human beings and one of them is masculine,
Who is the owner of that house (made) of stone. the verb also will be masculine.
1s. m Mact1H1 � � � � t 1 Wf 3fu 'eftm ri i I
The clock (watch) that costs a hundred rupees also works 'eftm 3fu Wf ri i I
well.
� 3fu M�Rfi4j ri i I
19. � elt1lct1M1 !!fil�<�� amrr � ? M�Rfi4j 3fu� ri i I
Where has that traveller wearing a cap come from?
3. If the subjects are not human beings, yet living things {animate),
20. t#!Wq<; Cfi(�CllMl "IRCfi����� I then the verb will agree with the nearest subject.
We (one) should never believe those who flatter.
� 3fu � �H� i l
� 3fu � "€11: "l"tf i I
4. If the subjects are not living things (animate) and each is singular,
then the verb will be in plural and masculine.
�� 3fu�� i l
� 3fu mFfi � i 1
148
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SU�!i • Learn Hindi Through English SU�S • Learn Hindi Through Engl i sh
5. If the subjects are not living things and in plural, then the verb 11. If there are two nouns in different genders but with a single
agrees with the nearest subject. adjective, then the gender and number of that adjective will be
"11iM � filot$4i� i I according to the nearest noun.
l'iloi$4i � "IJiM � i I �� � �
6. In certain tenses when the verb is transitive and formed �� ��
according to the object and if there is more than one object,
12. Pairs like lfffil - ftrnr, �-�.�-� are treated as
then the verb will be formed according to the nearest object.
masculine units. So we have to say: � lfraT-ftrat,� cqyf­
�� � �lSffre:r I �' � "T."ffirl-� .
�� �� � I The readers of this book need not feel confused over the
��'itf � �� I complexity of these rules. They will be able to come to grip with
these rules in course of time by extra reading in Hindi.
7. If Gf;ilor � is placed after the subjects which are of different
genders, then the verb will be masculine. However, when a sentence looks clumsy or sounds unnatural
by following the above rules, it is advisable to recast the sentence or
"11iM � iiidi $41 Gf;iT ftn;ffi i I break it into two so as to make it sound normal.
�. �. 3ITffl � � i 1 Instead of saying,'tfurr � TI'f -3Tiit i (as per rule 2), better say
8. Some grammarians do not agree with the rule no.2 above but 'tfurr 3ffift i � TI'f �:ff3rntT� I or 'tfurr � TI'f Gt.n' -3Tiit i I (rule 7).
recomrhend that if the subject are of different genders, the
Instead of saying, g;i:r �Cf&\illit m (as per rule 10), better say
verb agrees with the last. It is to be decided by personal choice.
g;i:J \ilTff m � Cf& �:fhmrr i or g;i:J �Cf& Gf;iT \ilTff i I (rule 7).
TI'f CfiT � � � H�fffi4j 3mft i I
9. If the two subjects are quality or feelings, the verb remains in
the singular.
� Sfilu � � g3n I I became angry and sad.
� � � �gm I He (she) was grieved and surprised.
10. If the subjects are pronouns in different persons, the order of
preference for verb will be first-second-third person plural.
-ij, � g;i:J \ifl� i I
-ij, g;i:J �Cf& \ifT � i I
g;i:J �Cf& \ifT � m I

150 151
�IU�S • Learn Hindi Through English
51JJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English
;;ITT � \if\ir °ll � #i7ft I
49. SPECIAL FEATURES OF SOME CASES
U'f °ll oimr � I
q;)
While "ll � means meet or see, cit � means become
1. It comes after an object, if the object is a human being.
available
�uqcit� I
-ij U'f "ll fi:«;rr I I met Ram.
It is not necessary if the object is a non-human being or an
inanimate thing. �uqcitfi:«;rr I Ram got it.
��'l'J"P.1� I Other longer verbs which take a "ll are: � Cfi{, m$rr Cfi{,
Cflfl � Cf& � � ? tJHISfild � (meet), �Cfi{, qre;J"Cfi{ (promise), �Cfi{, �
2. Both cit,it are used with nouns denoting time. Cfi{ (love), �m (pleased) � Cfi{, � Cfi{ (refuse), � Cfi{.
cit denotes a point of time (at) whileit denotes a period (during). 2. In expressions like 3rRsfi"ll �, cnRT "ll WRJ, �lf{;:rl, there
Cf& mf cit 3m:rT I He came at night. is no harm if "ll omitted.
Cf& mr it 3m:rT I He came during the night. lfil /Tn /?it

3. But if the noun is qualified (has an adjective), both cit,it may be a. Hindi has two kinds of verbs: (i) direct like �.�.�.
omitted. (ii) verbs formed by adding Cfi{ to a noun like qre;J Cfim, <nG
Cfi<'r mr � Cfl1T cfin�
�? . cnm, � cnm (believe), etc.
-mm-Cf&�� 3tlf? In English, when we say, 'I expect a telegram,' we use 'expect'
4. cit is omitted when the verb indicates going to or coming from as a direct and single verb. There is no direct verb in Hindi for
a place. 'expect' . So we have to say: do expectation which can be
� 3ltR--3ltR" l:R (cit) � � I translated as '3«fian Cfi{, � Cfi{.

-ij Cfi<'r � l:R 3m:rT I 'I expect a telegram' will become 'I do expectation of telegram' .
If two nouns are connected by of, the of is translated as Cfil­
5. cit is to be added with the days of the week and the dates.
�-c:it depending upon the next word (Lesson 9) in Hindi. '3«fian
m-ircmcit. ��cit is feminine while � is masculine.
6. cit may be added to inanimate things for emphasis. 1. I expect a telegram = I do expectation .of a telegram.
� "m lSIO cit "Q'!ZT I -ij m c:it '3«fian Cfi«JT {I
� m CfiT � Cfi«IT {I
1. It is used when the verb is �.�.�;i:ri1T,�.�,S{ 2. We respect them = We do respect of them.
� U'f°ll � ��cntf I � � � cnffl i I (CfiT because � is masculine)
"ij(fianit��� I �� � cnffl i I \clft' because � is feminine)a
3'� � mif°ll � � I
1 53
1 52
��!! • Learn Hindi Through English SIJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English
3. He helps me = He does help of me. g. � is used to indicate relationship, parts of the body, property,
�'ij+c:fa1'GG/«&14t'11cn«TI% 1 ('q"G'G, «&14t'11 feminine) irrespective of the number and gender of the next word in
Hindi.
�� «&14t'11 cnm -% I
� � (fR � m I Dasharatha had three queens.
4. The teacher praises the student = The teacher does
mr
� � � '% I Ram has a daughter.
praise of the student.
3't� lrnf 'Cft' mim /� � i I (Ctl' because � � � � mff � I Animals have four legs.
�.� feminine) � 3'lftl 3JTGlft � G1" l:R � I That rich man has (possesses) two
houses1
b. fflr/cfa is used to express the value of a thing.
�����%I Ahmed has only one hand.
(fR m cfiT � - a pen costing three rupees.
� � � e.ft I We had a sister.
� m fflr � the horse of the value of thousand rupees.
� � � � � � I The minister has four secretaries.
c. fflr/'Cfa is used to indicate the source of a thing or maker.
� 31TI:i";J"&l, � cp;rr � ? What can one, who has no eyes,
� fflr ircnR a stone house see?
� c:fa lffi'IT a garland of flowers if /t:R
� c:fa � a gold ring a. it is used adverbially. ��it - briefly, �it - openly, 'Tf�it
� c:fa � a silver watch - secretly.
b. it denotes price. G'tt m 1lf�ra�·n�? How many apples
g)H<"fi&I« c:fa '(1'41401 the Ramayana authored by Tulasidas
will one get for ten rupees?
�cfa �����\ilTIIT I "Stone walls do not a prison c. Sometimes it is omitted.
make" (Richard Lovelace)
� � fflr \ifrif � � lR (it) !3'T I
d. fflr etc. are used to indicate a place or residence That child was born in a washerman' s house.
� fflr � the merchant of Venice � m:R1 (it) Clllc6R 2n?
1"ffq fflr 3"TG1ft villager Who was there at that time?
\iletl&'tt"llH � $Hl&1�1& � � Jawaharlal Nehru belonged to ��(it) � � � i 1
I

Allahabad. Nowadays tomato is very cheap.


e. fflr is used to indicate one's age d. Sometimes it �,1R � are used to mean from among or for
emphasis.
G'(t <iffif fflr � ten year old boy
��it� amnrcif�t 1
f. fflr denotes strong negation.
Among these fruits the mango is the best.
� "1i"A fflr � I He will not (at all) go.
154 155
St!J�S • Learn Hindi Through Engl i s h
SU�S • Learn Hindi Through English
� � -ij � f.ictMll '1ITTIT t I 50. PARTING ADVICE

Gold is dug out of mines. �


� �-ij � � f.ictMl'"l I 1. The absolutive form � (Lesson 40) should be added to the
He took out the watch from the pocket. word concerned. It is not to be written separately.
� "IR � � �>illm I ft!Hlcfl<, w-�. it-�
Carry the book from the table.
2. In the case of compounds, hyphen should b e placed between
the nouns concerned.
Other examples are: G);ii -ij �, � -ij �, � 1R � etc.
. "Ulf-"R�, imrr-ftrar, *-'-t-f, �-T«'R, �-�I
e. The following verbs take 1R before them. 3. Hyphen should be placed before m,�
� � rely on, �/RlitcUfl � - believe, � � - "TJ-'fll, 3fl"tf-� ctill
invade, attack, � (WF1r.rr - blame, � � - be angry, 4. Hyphen should be used in certain words to avoid ambiguity.
wi:r � commit atrocity. �-('l"'('CI' is different from � I
f. Sometimes we may omit 1R . 5. I n pairs like �-� .';Jf-� , use the vowel rather than Cf. �
.q � 'qfq (1R) �fl �. ��. ';Jf �.
I prostrate before you. It is to be noted that our currency notes have the word m
instead of �-
��(1R) � 3ftllfR � I
6. It is no longer the practice to use right-slanting stroke below
Great disgrace will fall on your head.
some Sanskrit words found in Hindi. fu&R, � are now in
im:ffi � � (1R) � � I use. � � are becoming obsolete.
The parcel reached its destination. 7. �, \ifl' should b e written as separate words.
m ��� (1R) �? � � \ifl'' � Cfl..%41<'1I<'1 \ifl'' � \ifl'
Where will the poor man go to? 8. �, lffil , crm should not be written separately.
� -era (1R) <f& � � Gl l �. �, ql'1C1q1� . �. �
Send this lefter to his address. 9. Some words have two forms in currency. Both are acceptable.
Some examples are:
�-�
1Wft-7Tlff
GTcm-�
�-�
�-� RI<'1�<'1-RIcyH
�-� 'Cl'Tlm-crrftm

�-�
156 157
�IB Appendix - I
�a �1 �<=w4 R-t ll I
C LASSIFIED VOCABULARY

� raisin
lITTllft mozambique
� grape
�Rl'fil custard apple
ai;;fu: fig tffiu orange
� walnut, chestnut peach

3R"ffif pineapple � apple
31'fR pomegranate
� guava
� plum � oleander
� peach 'fil'R'I lotus
3fTl1 mango �. �.
plum �. CfiTt lily
��
� jack fruit q;;;ft bud
·fcfiwflwr , �. � pandanus
currant � chrysanthemum
�. �
� banana � flower of
pomegranate
� elephant apple
� daisy
� date
� balsam
� musk melon
� tulip
� apricot
1J'llGf rose
'.f11"1"11':!'1 rose berry
11GT marigold
� pompelmoose
T.ii:rr, � yellow jasmine,
� cherry magnolia
""1'11fl rose apple � jasmine
� tomato sweet jasmine

� water melon olive

� thorn apple basil
wim
"'1'l#t orange � narcissus
oml'mft pear rfTlTCfi'1T prickly pear
� lemon � cobra flower
1'.l1ftm papaya � myrtle
� jujube, plum lfriro daisy
� wood apple mRr:rr round jasmine
1 59

SU� Learn Hindi Through English Learn Hindi Through Enflll•h
myrobalan "€il<: rice milk
�. � sun flower aric!m
potato � jaggery
WR:.� silk cotton �
colocynth 1ITTcr meat
� yellow gram
� <ft clarified butter
� long cucumber black gram
� � sauce
� pumpkin white gram
germ • bitter gourd
� 'l'fl 'ifRT, �� sugar
ai¥ horse gram
� guava ivy gourd
� �.� butter milk, whey
� � wheat � nutmeg
arri:r mango � mushroom � field pea ;;rrfcr;ft mace
� tamarind � pumpkin � gram � cumin seed
qmlf graft � squash gourd � rice curd
<liTO wood musk melon w
� �. � beaten rice
q;izT thorn cucumber � cinnamon
m oats
;;r"{ milk
lJOoft stone � carrot WT
�. ;;ft barley af.rin coriander seed
1ftG gum mm cabbage � millet
pine cluster beans 'll1<li salt
� TqR, � mi sesame
� bark snake gourd � cheese
�. Nffm � pulse
� rind beet root tfR betel leaf
� aR paddy
;:;icr coir sour lemon � thin rice cake
;;i'lftU � pearl millet
root water melon i:nc! Ui't loaf
� CR'¥ �' �. ll'l<llT maize � pistachio
� conifer af.rin coriander � pea Ol1G1+I almond
�. �, WID branch � spinach, potherb �. � pulse of lentil 1f'ffi"if butter
cm palm tree mint
� � green gram, cream
as stem ilor pumpkin (white) 11<'!T{
kidney bean
� coconut "CllTil onion � gruel
� ground nut
;:fm margosa cauliflower � meat
� .nit red gram
leaf cabbage fif'f pepper
�. � � 00 finger millet
� holy banyan tree capsicum 1lraj chillies
�fif'f mf.im cow pea
acacia � brinjal � sweets
� � sago
�. Olc:, C!C banyan lady's finger ilrm sugar candy

oim bamboo lentil � liquorice

oO;;r seed mr chillies � jam
aW egg
� plum, jujube radish � small mustard
� 3f'fR pickle
� birch Mt fenugreek Vol molasses
� ginger
un pulp yam � salad
�� �. � cardamom
mulberry garlic � castor seed
�� � {«. � sugarcane
.ro cypress bottle gourd Utt bread
� Clift curry
teak sweet potato � butter milk
�. � �� Cfifi cashew nut
cactus turnip <'llC!T parched rice
� �l<'ll111 CliT<'ft fif'f pepper
drumstick � clover
� -ttm minced meat
greens �ro;r wine
� � saffron
Wr sabre beans
1 60 161
• Learn Hindi Through English •
SU� SU� Learn Hindi Through English
w�� honey � crane � fox � fish
�noo soup � goose, swan �TC!iRt � hound lf� bee
ri yellow mustard m:� . � lion � frog

� betel nut � bull � snake


"3ic camel
� semolina, coarse WR pig � oyster
flour � tortoise
� elephant
mo dry ginger � dog
1%Vf deer
� aniseed � mule

�. � turmeric �T rabbit thumb



� asafoetida mm hare intestine
3fj!lR boa, python �. 3lfu
mrr donkey, ass � ring finger
� crab
� cow arm, 'l'R,� eye
� earthworm
� swallow � squirrel finger
� bug �. •
� owl �. � jackal heel
firo1rc chameleon �
� wood pecker � rhino ailo, mo. arm: lip
� centipede
� pigeon � alligator � shoulder
<ff grain moth
ClillIB. � cuckoo � horse � temple
� snail
q,ian crow 'iftm panther, leopard waist, loin
'iflcr black ant CfiJR, cm:
� eagle � mouse
CfiBl{ wrist
'1ffit ant
�. Tftu vulture $ mole • arm pit
fuqcmft lizard
1flW sparrow �� boar ear
� glow worm, q;-1"[' q;uf
� ruddy goose furn; giraffe q;r;ft � little finger
fire fly
� red-legged � pony elbow
� louse �.�
partridge leopard
� -;;flq; leech �T, GITT1, <Jlf hair
�. � bat �� hippopotamus
"efll1T prawn � skull
� kite � antelope
� cricket �. Vffi , � blood
� chicken � mongoose
� grasshopper 'lWf neck
cftCR partridge � monkey
� locust <ml, cf;o throat
oTcrr parrot m goat
Cifcr;rr, � wasp lffi'I cheek
� magpie Ofl'C[' m: tiger
mam butterfly � anus
"'¥11 stork � stag
� cockroach 1JGf kidney
� quail � cat
<fti:rq; white ant � lap
<rffl1iI duck, drake � ox, bullock
'f17f cobra '¥'fl knee
Gl"!lT weaver bird �w bear
imm. � moth �' "!lf, m<'f skin
om;r hawk, falcon � sheep
� horse flea � nipple, teat
� nightingale � wolf
of{ wasp �. � breast
cock 'lffi buffalo
lfTI � scorpion �.� buttocks
hen lfl'R, � crocodile
"Tff � spider � face
lt.i1' mRc!iT canary iriAT lamb
� fly "flit braid
llR peacock ape
� � mosquito -rncfT chest
� o !'tich �Ofl'!T hyena

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Learn Hindi Through English •
SUR!!S SUR!S Learn Hindi Through English
� jaw mouth, face underwear, half
�. � fu;r CfiT <{tu heart attack �
� thigh fist pant
� � sinus
� liver mf.r socks
vagina � stone �
� tongue shoe
� backbone "!J�' <1'fiCIT paralysis �
� ankle itq hat
fim'f penis � elephant
Wi leg iltft cap
RR head
�T dysentery
� chin � pillow
� blister
� � bone
index finger � towel
vm. �.� pimple, acne
Cl<'!<iT sole � palm
� abscess � gloves
CITTj palate � hand
� deafness mm dhoti
� spleen � heart frrcg half pant
orcmiR piles
GTCf tooth . ;; ; ;; . . .
;,· · ..... · ·· · · fever �. � turban
� '_ ,' , , ' , , ,' ;,; "',,\,1',o ,, ' , , , ' , :«
' <'�f�;o<><,'� '� Ttl�.,� DiseasesTF''"'''
: ;::fl' :,o{fj �
� jaw trousers
� fistula �
� beard �!:T hydrocele
diabetes 'RGT curtain
arum blindness �
� brain �T bed cover
ilRm epilepsy
fu;r heart ar;;ftuf' 3!'l'iif'
11lRt4i�G cataract i\it belt
nostrils � indigestion
<[� � chickenpox � mantle veil
'l('J vein
3ffum: diarrhoea
<r!f+IT, !\1<r tuberculosis lIB<rG" bolster
� goitre
<rTCfi' <rTfuq;r nose �T table cloth
� lame
CfiW[ constipation
� nail �� dengue mm socks
CfiTl1<'IT ' tj'tfWn jaundice
� pulse �� influenza � (� ) stockings
Cfilm � typhoid
<rITTr navel �ftm;rr small pox � quilt
� hunchbacked
'f<'ICfi eyelid m� leucoderma � handkerchief
� leprosy
- � headache <'fOfTGT cloak, gown
rib mm cough
swelling � petticoat
-.IBf foot m"f scabies �
� elephantiasis qciT uniform
� calf of the leg � itch
� cholera �l%r chemise
fto back .m baldness
tf<1CIR salwar, trousers
� pupil � gout, rheumatism
�i�t�� ,� � �}����t1n,1 � saree
-ilc: stomach
� abortion
lR'<fiT whitlow affiTm bodice
�ft muscle
-rrr dumb � napkin
� foot, leg
� giddiness � blanket
� lung � ring
� small pox q;lfli;r' ¥CIT shirt
Offfi'I arm pit � bracelet
� dropsy lf<\GT, � cushion
.ro-rft � bangle (iron)
eyelash 1fjq � bolster
� cold
�. onm earring
� arm � cover
� malaria, ague
q;\'cr hair pin, brooch
orr.r hair �. � plague • muffler
cft;r nose pin
�. � eye brow Gm asthma � . veil
� zircon, sardonyx
� diarrhoea �. 'ifW sheet
� gum � bangle
1W-n � ringworm m cloak
forehead � gems
�. ;;f<R blouse
1 64 1 65


SU� Learn Hindi Through English SU� Learn Hindi Through English
� medal WIT tin m wife's sister
� wife
� wristlet � iron father trm mother-in-law
1'loT' OTI1l
nose ring WJlRlR marble � co-wife
�. � 'f"f, � son
- sapphire -mm lead daughter 'l,, -i'
irft. � o> '.": , ·
w. �. � anklet m<rr gold son's son
-chm
64'.l'titd�':L'!;���upati(}.
"Cf"fT emerald afczntr<fi teacher
'11m son's daughter
� topaz anwiffi engineer
� father's sister's
� turquoise CfiTCfif, � father's younger son �. 3lGJC!iR actor

� armlet brother (uncle) father's sister's an!:l<l'fffi advocate


'P'fiT
� pebble Cfilcfu, � father's younger husband � commission
11lf.rcf; ruby, carbuncle brother's wife, sister agent
�. �
aunt sister's husband CfK'IT1fiR artist
1W tiara, crown, �
� elder sister's daughter-in-law butcher
diadem � � �� �
husband father's sister, � farmer
� coral ¥f, ¢
�. � elder sister aunt
mm pearl � green grocer
ilo husband's elder mfMrr brother's son
� lapiz lazuli, � potter
brother � brother's
cat's eye � treasurer
� husband's elder daughter
�. �. micli ear pendant ..moo shepherd
brother's wife � sister's son
m oyster •, 1fTl.TCli musician
al"{ father's elder aj-;;fT sister's daughter
�� agate 1qlO!T milkman
brother's wife, � brother
� neckband � peon
aunt mm, mcr;r brother's wife
� necklace �. � watchman,
�. mm father's elder l!ilu mother's
mu diamond security
brother brother's son
GT<n � magician
father's father � mother's
� detective
00 father's mother brother's
�ft:i;i:' :it ��,;�fl;· . Mfi.�rais :11i,rr.
� mica � binder
� son-in-law daughter
zyim steel -m, lITTIT mother weaver
� husband's �
q;fq glass mm mother's brother, � jeweller
younger brother
• bell metal � uncle � tinker
husband's youn-
� coal ger brother's wife mm mother's � contractor
� chalk brother's wife � postman
�. � husband's sister's
� sulphur lftm mother's sister's
husband � betel leaf seller
husband
� red ochre 'FR husband's sister Wit oil vendor
lilm mother's sister,
�. �. <:;;ra- silver � daughter's son � tailor
aunt
� magnet "ifCITeft daughter's � broker
-moo mother's sister's
� zinc daughter GT{ midwife
son
crr.rr copper <mft grandson � sub-inspector
fc!mcrr, � m step mother
� coal tar � grand daughter ml! nurse, guardian
� father-in-law
tfRf mercury 'fRT mother's father (female)
� wife's sister's
ti brass '11rft mother's mother carder
husband WnIT
WR"[ yellow ochre 1l'Rr husband mBT wife's brother � plumber

1 66 1 67
su�s • Learn Hindi Through English SU� • Learn Hindi Through English
'IT{ barber � reporter �TTOINRT urinal � fireplace, stove
;nfcrq:; sailor � secretary �f floor � stick
� journalist � soldier � portico W<1"fl. � sieve
� betel leaf seller � goldsmith ORfl1<n verandah � broom
� grocer � merchant � drawing room � swing
� watchman � physician 1f'l"R dais ilcro basket
� priest � barber � parapet � small box
WITTlCfi publisher � confectioner � arch � box
� manager . 11;:�1!! m-u gutter � bucket
�. mci:rrqq; lecturer ;l�lt,�,,�.·:i�� ::ftffl , '';;,<' \o;:.)ff'
� ; /;', � kitchen � lid
� pedlar
Building ,qp.d .:its.Pal1S .·. <'.;�}Jf; U�RGR ventilator � earthen lamp
� carpenter armt attic, garret �T¢R rafter � oven
� weaver 3ITTfT niche � stair � pillow
'li<fT sweeper aMlit fire place C!1Sfil plank for sitting
�. � bathroom
� fisherman ari'lR courtyard � scale, balance
labourer afRt eaves n;;y :'fI�L) CICfT pan

, 'd; �iL
�1''
brick , '
�. � boatman {c am, mm plate
� banker �� pillar � shelf CIR wire
lffi'ft gardener � tile anf.rr mirror C!IBT lock
� printer � granary � iron box � three-legged stool
1:t�ft clerk � window � mortar �. Gcit.l tooth brush
� accountant <{it peg cfi'ift comb � matches
(traditional) � platform q;iro bowl 00 earthen lamp
�. W!crow sculptor 'KfT lime qjAft small bowl, cup milk pot
�azyft
� sweeper � door frame � frying pan p censer
m-.n cobbler � bar ladle � pan

� dyer £§ef roof, terrace q;izr fork � screen, curtain
u;;i mason � thatch chair � bed

� cook � window railing axe �. � door mat

� cashier � lattice � kettle 'l10RT cradle
mm clerk � chain � tiny mortar for m saucer
� writer, author � peep hole medicine u:rIBT cup
� accountant � latrine me cot � flower vase
(modern) � door � pitcher purse

�i:m� auditor �. � door sill � mat � utensil, pot
� blacksmith �. � corridor, � spoon <rR'tt bucket
CfCfu;r lawyer threshold brush
�. 'ITlft, �
� physician(native) 'ffi tap key � pastry roller
"C!T"ffi, ¥f1
� lecturer <ffq foundation � tea pot � bottle
ftr�. 3fci:rrqq; teacher 'R'fIBT gutter 'iITT'IT{ cot � sack, canvas bag
� editor � plaster � tongs �. � churn stick

1 68 1 69
• • Learn Hindi Through English
SUru!S Learn Hindi Through English
pestle � pick axe m<l, �

� table � shovel �, "!il1J'1
� reed stool � blow pipe
� Monday
� candle GJW auger
WTWm: Tuesday
\ ,�;��1:$���·�!;'., H;;;Jr
� dish wro mallet cffic!, � spring
� Wednesday
� quilt � sickle �, <ro:ft summer
OJ�WlRtctR, � Thursday
� rope � hammer 'f!'ff, '1f1ffi, omrRf rains
� Friday
um string cm plough �RC(. �Kil:,
�Tf.r<m: Saturday
�,�, � lantern �fur, ;;mT winter
�, � Sunday
mer tumbler, bowl �, � autumn
(In Hindi it is customary to begin with
�ft�TT glass pane �, >IT"ft, � east
Monday)
�mft phial � west

� box eflllUT south


afternoon
� nut cracker ;:mR north
new moon
soap �, � right
� January today
stone to grind 0!1<rT, Cf1lf left
� February midnight
condiments arm before
1fRf March tomorrow/
jug, pitcher miR in front of,
� April yesterday
needle opposite
l!"{ May (according to verb)
winnow � behind
"'¥ June dark half of the
scythe -qm, f.rcR:, �,
July lunar month
earthen kettle � near �
� August lllUT , 'tf<'I moment
distant
fuciOR September � hour
beginning
October � half yearly
arrU saw middle �
� November � quarterly
� razor end
fuiOR December ITT, W<m day time
<fur nail
�, � noon
¥J<'f, ¥l<'fl spade
'11\l, '11il'flU fortnight
� axe black
(i.e. 14 nights)
� scissors rose colour
day after
� pen knife ochre (Starting around tomorrow/
� knife orange colour middle of April) day after
� small knife blue yesterday
Wit chisel yellow (according to
� nut violet �, � verb)
� bellows brown lllTCfUT , mCR 'ffefm full moon
'MR lancet red �. � � forenoon
� syringe white anfm, 'fOrR �, �, � dawn
ii"! bolt screw golden q;rfcfq;, <iiITTtCfi �, �.
� screw driver green lfl"lf�ftif, 3flTWf m, mcr: morning

..m, � �, lITTf, � month

1 70 171


suggs Learn Hindi Through English SU� Learn Hindi Throuf!h Ena,Hsh

29 67 � 700 .. . mam
mr, "Uf.r night �
��. �'Rft century 30 cirn 68 � 800 ... anom
Wll, �, �. 31 69 � 900 ... .n -m

� evening 70 mm: 1000 ... '%�
32 orffim

� Ill bright half of the 33 ctcfm 71 �
lunar month 34 � 72 �
1 25 � -m
00 century 73 �
35 �
�. � week 74 � 150 �m
36 oofur
� millennium 75 � 250 �m
37 -Mm'
38 � 76 � 1500 ��
39 � 77 � 2500 ��
'%
40 � 78 �
2 m
41 � 79 �
3 cfR
42 � 80 3ffift 14 �. Wf
4 'fR
43 mmmr 81 � I ':!.I �
5 -qtq
44 � 82 � 2':/.i �m
6 �:
45 � 83 RRrm
314 � cfR
7 ma
46 � 84 �
8 ano % tj);f
47 � 85 'filmt
9 ";ft 1% �m
48 � 86 fu<:nm
10 � 2% � cfR
49 � 87 � '/
11 � 3 '% �
50 '1'il'IB 88 �
12 � 2/
3 m�
51 �
89 "ifCITTft
13 � Y2 anm
52 OIT<R 90 �
14 � 1Y2 �
53 � 91 �
15 � 2Y2 �
54 � 92 �
16 - 3Y2 � cfR
55 � 93 �
17 � 0.1
56 �
94 � Gllri:rnq \%
18 �
57 �
95 � 0.2 Gllri:rnq m
19 �
58 96 � 0.23 G�ri:rnq GT cfR
20 aim �
59 � 97 � per cent (%) . "1it �, mIB
21 �
60 mo 98 �
22 �
61 �
99 �
23 �
62 OITT!O
100 .. . m
24 � � � � )f �
63 � 200 mm
25 �
300 . .. c!Rm f. 19 l � � 0
26 � 64 �
65 � 400 .. . 'fR:m
27 �
66 fui:mro 500 -qtq"fft
28 � 600 .. . �: m

1 73
1 72
• Learn Hindi Through English •
SU!®i Learn Hindi Through English
3 3. lm(m�'f �nrm� 1 50. �'m�� I
�TI! Appendix - D
Everyone is unhappy in his own Where there is a will, there is a way.
way. 5 1 . �� ;;il iW 'R � � I
15. � � � � � � � � I 34. W'f-'TI'f it anlt, � � '>!lit I The proof of the pudding i s i n the
The hand that gives, gathers. eating.
To quake at work but sweat at food.
i. am 'l1<'IT m � 'l1<'IT 1 16. � 'l:ficr � � � � I 35. m romr mnrr q;r � 1 52. ;;rR Ofift om3T � I ;;rR i m � i I
All's well that ends well. Cut your coat according to the cloth.
An empty mind is the devil's work­ Have life have everything.
2. aim w � m arm1 17. �!:Tl<: � � � I
shop. 53. m m m � � 'TI'ft � 1
A blind person will need eyes Lending breeds enemies.
36. �iW"<R�onmIT"� I Much effort much profit.
most. 18. ���Cli't� I
Murder will speak out. 54. Fm aITT: � m I
3. aim it CfiAT � I The pot calls the kettle black.
37. m � � � I Live and let live.
A one-eyed man i s king among 1 9. � "<IT�r<1mT CliT I
To carry coals to Newcastle. To sell Much ado about nothing. 55. ·fuprrffi it m � � q;'( I
blind persons. A figure among
ice to the Eskimos. 38. 1firr � m<PnGm, ��m� 1 To bite the hand that feeds.
ciphers.
20. *ft � i:fiTcl;r l:JCliCIR I Do in Rome as the Romans do. 56. Fm'fiT m'fT � 1fT'fT I
4. afa;;r.r 'flR't �� I
Much cry, little wool. Great boast 39. � it mer <fun I Praise the one who pays.
It is an empty vessel that makes
little roast. Misfortune seldom comes alone. 57. �mit� � I
sound.
2 1 . � � � it ;;ftu 1 40. � � � � � � I Might is right.
5. 3!'RT � � I
A drop in the ocean. 5 8. � an<l1 <ffiT 1flll I
Self-help is the best help. Nearer the temple, farther from god.
22. �m q;r <¥fl 'f mm q;r � 1 Evil got, evil spent.
6. 3l'<l � � w ;;ror � � 117.fl 4 1 . � q;r ;;WIT � 3fR 1f1'q q;r fu<\a- 1
Neither a lender nor a borrower be. 59. � ��T <ffiT � I
mi 1 A prophet is not honoured in his
23. 1:!,'li 3f"!R � -.ITTm: 1 Do in Rome as the Romans do.
What use calling a doctor after own place.
One post one hundred candidates. 60. � om, <ffir � I
death? 42. � 'lil � � � I
24. 1:1,'lim��"if'tif � I Like father, like son.
7. 3flft � � i 1 Traitors are the worst enemies.
A pimple upon ulcer. 61. � � <ffir � I
There are miles to g o before I 43. <n<IB <fil 1Tfu tfT<R � I
25. 1:!,'!i�<il� I As you sow, s o you will reap.
sleep. The wearer knows where the shoe
To kill two birds with a single stone. 62. � � tm "lnrf l
8. affu � � fu;r � � I pinches.
26. 1:1,'li l<iA" it m � � WIT "if CfiT'f I As the king so are the subjects.
Out of sight out of mind. 44. � 'liT 'fT1l" � I
Two dogs and a bone never agree. 63. � q;v:[T tm "WIT I
9. awr wA- "<R � mm 1 Nothing succeeds like success.
27. 1:1,'li � � cm:ft � � I As you sow, so you will reap.
Prevention i s better than cure.
I t takes two to make a quarrel.
45. 'fR K.l <fi't � m afau wr 1 64. � Clil "ffirr 1
10. anlt � -qm- mf I A nine day's wonder. Earthly glory
28. aITTf 'ifl?: "«ITTl � � I Tit for tat. An eye for an eye and a
Between Scylla and Charybdis.
is transient (Sic transit gloria mundi). tooth for a tooth.
1 1. a:rrq 'l1<'ff °ffi � '11<'1T I A fog cannot be dispelled by a fan.
46. � � afau 1 65. ;;il � � � � 'ltf l
Good mind good find. 29. ci;'lft 'fT'f � 1R Cfi'lft<n� 'fT'f 1R I
Shadow under the lamp. Barking dogs seldom bite.
12. 3ITll � 3WPJoAm � <n"ll I Every man has his hour.
47. ;;ror O<fi <ifu C10! O<fi amr I 66. ;;il cflq;) 'liilT � � � �'R'" I
Money for money and interest in 30. � � � � ma � I While there is life there is hope. Return good for evil.
addition. Practice makes one perfect.
13. 3fTC!� � <ft ;;r;;rfi i I 48. � it � WR: � � I 61. -m oi'tcr 1flft m GITcf 1flft 1 -m san m san 1
3 1 . � amTACfivnW�I It i s hard to live in water and an­ Let bygones be bygones.
Necessity is the mother of
Easier said than done. tagonize the crocodile. 68. -m � t � m 1
invention.
3 2. CfiT<'IT af&R � GRl"OR I 49. � 'fiTll � �. �·ci;:hr.rcm:? Whatever will be, will be. Que sera,
14. � � $ � 1
To the illiterate letter of alphabet What use the sword where a needle sera.
Prevention is better than cure.
means nothing. is needed.

1 74 175
SIJ�S • Learn Hindi Through English SU� • Learn Hindi Through Engll•h

69. �<ir�'li"T � I 87. ;wr � , G"�R � I


A drowning man clutches a straw. Much cry little wool. Unless you yourself go, much can­ Riches have wings.
70. GR' ·<thrf�i:n 'li"T W � irnT OfffiT I 88. -;f\1f <r lfTiT � � m"ll "'P. '<it "ft I not be accomplished. 124.omi't iii � onat "ft � l{1;fct I
Never look a gift horse in the mouth. Crows are never the whiter for wash­ l 05 .oftcft � f.ffiR � anlt cfil" Wfr � I Rod is the logic of fools.
71. � ll� 'liT<'IT t I ing. Let the past bury its dead and think 125.�roor �c?tw� 1
There is something rotten. of the future. When wine is in, wit is out.
89. -;fl1f �cfi'nnrcR: � 1
72. <ft<m: � m 'li"R � � I 106.ofllm: cfil" <:RJ�ORTOR I 126.���ili I
A little learning is a dangerous thing.
Even walls have ears. Sorrow makes the hour longer. All side with the strongest.
90. � '!><: -efurr ll 6R I
73 . � � �. � � "fl l 107.<{G-<{G"fl� '>Wll t l 127 .w:mm: <if �nu� I
Do good and forget it.
Have many acquaintances but Little drops make the ocean. A word is enough to the wise.
91. -.ft m � � � � <ir � I
friends very few. 108.�"ft� 'll<'ft l 128."fm:�m aITTt � I
Sinning all six days and going to Better to wear out than to rust out.
74. �m ll <:'RT � lfF.lT � <r ui:r I Misfortune at the very outset.
church on Sundays.
Between two stools one falls on the 109:•M ��iii 3TilT� "ft �? 129.-mu OfffiT � anm � GITc: 1
92. 'f':��T��R'I� I Sow thistles and expect pickles. Better give the wool than surrender
ground.
There are plenty to preach but they 1 10.� � <r � � I the whole sheep.
75. �l:l"'li"T���..ftm t 1
don't practise. No prayer in empty stomach. l 30.mm � � m � � 1
A burnt child dreads the fire.
93. 'f':T!:fr.H!'l� � � I 1 1 1 .'ifu iii anlt � � I Softness does not pay.
76. �a- q;y �a aj\<: '1At q;y '1At I
A slave cannot even dream o f hap­ Casting pearls before swine. 1 3 1 .� � if m \Nm 1
Oil and truth will come to the sur­
piness. 1 12.lR � ci't � it 1fi1T I Things follow their own inclination.
face.
77. ��m� I 94. 'fl � � 1l m � orra � 1 To a pure mind, tub water becomes 1 32.�lflm, � 31� 1
Distant drums sound well. The child is the father of the man. the Ganges. Jack of all trades, master of none.
78. �R���t l 95. w arom m 'f': "!U «Wil t 1 1 13 .�(lf'jf) � m <r<n ;;qy.;;qy G<ll <ft I 133.� cfil" 'fil'!T{, � it � I
Let us see which way the wind Money i s a good servant but a bad The remedy is worse than disease. Evil got, evil spent.
blows . . master. 1 14.lRffi <WT � <mil I 134.� cfiir<f 'lil aooft w?
79. � "ft � � � I 96. Wl aITT � 'IIT 'l�thioia- � 1 A desperate man clings to anything. A fair face needs no makeup.
Better late than never. Love and logic have no relation. 1 15."i:R�<ir<rlfKr I 135 -� � <!il'l'iTCc!T t I
80. !lToiT 'li"T 'fffiT <r 'ER 'Irr <r "f[c: 'Irr I 97. � <m � � 'IIT � I Don't hit a man when he is down. Diamond cuts diamond.
A rolling stone gathers no mass. A blindman is no judge ofcolours. l l 6:flr<rl' oftaih:rm ci't w � q;p;f't? 136.� f.R<rr;1 iii mer � 'lTC! I
8 1 . <r � � <r um � I 98. � cfi't 1'!'i q;ar -aq; -m: � 1 When two people agree, no scope The child is the father of the man.
No flute, no dance. No priest, no for intermediary.
Butcher's knife cannot wait indefi­
prayer. 1 17 .<MT � crm >f'i!T I i .
nitely.
� ;)JJA&���, ,
82. 'f OIT'i' � <r '4i:n, � � � I As the king so are his subjects. ai<R:�-bodyguard
99. "1R'lif��if ui:r-ui:r I
Money i s everything. 1 18.�nrrffi t W-n � 't � � � orr<:" I � mm-finger-print expert
A wolf iri lamb's skin.
83. <r Wrr ilIB, <r � � I Sweet are the uses of adversity. � m!:l<fiR't-zonal officer
I 00.GJG arom � "!U I
No source, n o result. 1 19.<:Wf 3TI'IC! '5fTC! "ft � '1': '1':C! furR I �T"IR m!:l<fiR't-fire-fighting officer
To be a badman is better than to
84. ;rift �<ft R;p;ii't I Constant use wears out anything. alf� -advocate
have a bad name.
Glamour does not last long. 101.� 1fill 1l� !:Jl;:rr 1 120.mft � 11"1fl '1': or01 <r <r<n I aim�-superintendent
85. 'IT"f <r � aWR � I Make hay while the sun shines. The lion has lost its teeth but not aim� -chairman, head
A bad workman quarrels with his its roar. . � m!:l<fiR't- section officer
l 02.f.r.n 3fl1T ¥f � \300! I
tools. There is no smoke without fire. ·
1 2 1 .U\if �aihit� U\if '1Rl fr.rr I �l:l"R m!:l<fiR't-research officer
86. 'l"R'li, � m�. � � ¥ 1 Living from hand to mouth.
103.f.r.n � � � I �-agent
Humility always works. No pains no gains. 122.�ili�� � I
�-conservator of forests
Threat works.

176 1 77

!lillJ�� Learn Hindi Through English SU� • Learn Hindi Through English

ar2f�mft-economist � 3fITTlllCfi- superintendent of police � an�- planning officer


� 3ffaci;Rt - public relations
3f<"f ORCr 3ffaci;Rt - small savings officer � 3ll'!'Rf -police commissioner �-ambassador
officer aj'q anaci;Rl-enquiry officer wmR 3ff� -publication officer �-governor
3fRT'f-professor ici;cf;-typist � an�-publicity officer �-president
� 3ffaci;Rl-income ta" officer :sTCfi"f< "fITT �'f'l;-superintendent of post �aR 3f�-head master �-cashier
3ll'!'Rf- commissioner offices ��-prime minister � �-employment officer
3f11i\;;rq;-organizer � -postmaster ��-principal � Wlllcti-auditor
am:l\l'll �-reservation clerk �-postman �-manager �-accountant
am,ffeim -stenographer ��-technical officer m-�-managing editor � arfm:lllcti-wild life warden
�-dietician �-tahsildar � �-principal secretary �� anaci;Rl-commercial tax
� � �-upper division clerk cm:�-telegraph clerk ��m!Cli-administrator officer
�-high commissioner �-gunner �ITTR an� -administrative officer � � 3ffaci;Rl-sales tax officer
�!l If.t4WtG-horticulturist >ITTT1ifCfi-instructor fihwrr�1if-head of department
�-station house officer
�-vice-chancellor �aR!fotict'l'h-dentist �-lecturer f<mR �-pilot
��F!i-deputy director G<:orR -gatekeeper Wiq;-sender, despatcher >;[1'! �-labour commissioner
�3ffaci;Rl-sub divisional officer � �-deputy tahsildar "!Ii� finm 3ffaq;ro- adult education � �-joint secretary
;:iq<l'ill%1 - lieutenant governor officer �-secretary
�-sailor
;:iqus�qRt-vice-president orrc: aik1:rr:r f.ro1ifCfi-inspector of �"CfiO<ITOT anaci;Rl-social welfare
f.r;;ft �-private secretary
;jql"m1if-vice-chairman weights and measurements officer
��TCfi, Fm�TCfi-director
'f;1fR 3ff� -officer commanding �-storekeeper "ifcflllcti- surveyor
�-controller
'filf�ffi!T�!Ff;-works manager � �-cabinet secretary � �-cooperative officer
� 3ffaci;Rl-employment officer
� f.roe;rci;-factory inspector lf;it-minister W:1ifl an�-security officer
f.roe;rci;-inspector
�-artisan, tradesman lRfGTi'T an� - polling officer � an�-information officer
� £�-election officer
ofu:frm;ft-entomologist 11�1<l1Cfiq1<1-postrnaster general � an�-reception officer
�. �m�r-judge
��c: mm 3ffaq;rn-pou ltry �a<f<ffil -advocate general � 3ff� - health officer
�-registrar
development officer �TCfi-director general
��-registration clerk
�-university registrar �1ifCfi-inspector general
'mR 3ff�-port officer
� 3ff�-agricultural officer �-mayor
tJ'JfCfil< -journalist abolition-�, aicr
� ��TCfi-station director 11�i0l<iliq1<1-accountant general
� �- ex-officio secretary above cited-"3m�'l:Ff
cit<srrm1J-treasurer lf!O!�-goods clerk
� 3ffaci;Rl-transport officer absence-�, �
iWft"lf ��TCfi-regional director � �-chief engineer
W1ifCfi-examiner abstract-m<
�'l"T"1i � 3"a<ii T<T- regional �l§l:! f.rqf"f"f 31"P!'ffl - chief election
'l1fc.r 3ff� -tourist officer acceptance-�, t<ftCfiT<
transport officer commissioner
'l'"1f<te;rci;-supervisor accommodation-an<ml
iWft"lf�!Ff;-regional manager ���T-chiefjudge
'1"�-veterinary doctor accord-�"CfiVll
� 3ffaci;Rl-treasury officer � �-chief justice
� 3ffaci;Rl-passport officer accordingly-�
w.'R 3ff�-mining officer � lf;it-chief minister
�-councillor account-�. �. �
1311\"1i f.ro1ifCfi-food inspector � �-chief secretary
� an�-archaeological officer acknowledgement-�. � �.
�-detective <rif.rCfi�- mechanical engineer ��
'.!<IMl��a1 -archaeologist
�3ff�-medical officer m'flftctic:Wlllcti-travelling ticket examiner
�-epigraphist act-3ff�
� 3ffi:�-census officer
178 1 79
• �llJ�;'; • Learn Hindi Through English
SllJ� Learn Hindi Through English
exemption-w investigation-aj-q
acting-� cancel-<!0�
expedite-�® �� issue-��
action-�. � casual leave-��
explanation-� joining date-�"RrN
ad hoc-CIG� certificate-Wf1111'1'J!
favourable� necessary action, the needful-3fl'f�
adjourn-�� charge-"lfill<:, CfiT!fi:m:
figures-� �
adjournment-<'11'"1R circular-'lfu:r;r, 1TlRft�
file-� office memorandum-�"fil<1"1
administration-"lf�ITTR clarification-�
financial year-f<ffir (fmfti:r) � officiating-�
administrative-"lf��, "lf�rmf.rq; classification-�
following-f.'t1<1folRrn on-behalf of- <lil am -«
administrator-"lf�TIB'li come into force-a{lIB .q 3fRT, ��
for consideration-� ordinance-ar��T
ad valorem-<r� competent-�l\Pl
for disposal-f.r<rcf.t iii � original copy-�>rfcr
advance-il�Jlft, 3flWr concession-R<n<ra
for information-� pass-ar.rITTr �
advice-� concurrence-�
for signature-� ili � pay-�. �
affidaviM�, � cond ition-�m
foregoing-� pending-f.r"<;if.m
affix-WTRT condone-lffifi �
forthcoming-3f11lllft permanent-�
aforesaid-� confidential-�
forthwith-�. � petition-�. �
age limit-3fl>im-irr confirmation-ffe
further action-:mlt <lit � please acknowledge receipt-'ll'fCi't
agriculture-�, Weft consent-�
gazette-� �
allowance-� consultation-trolf�f
gazetted-� post-'lG
amendment-��ITTR context-�
grade-� posting-�
amount-ufo, � contingencies-�
grant-� postpone-�/� �
annexure-� copy->rfcrf.ITT­
handover-� prescribed-f.r<ra­
announcement-i:(<'!R, � correspondence-�
honorarium-� priority-m�
annul-�� counter signature-�im:
honourable-� probation-'Rl'I, -qfuftlffT
appendix-'limf'SC dearness allowance-��
in accordance with-iii � proceedings-�
application-� � decision-f.ivf<r
in addition to-� � proclamation-� ·

appointment-� demi official letter-arl:f��


in connection with, in continuation promotion-�. �
approval-� department-f<fmlT
of-iii "fioig.q proposal-�
arrears-� departmental-fr'ifT1fl<r
in due course-<r� provident fund-� f�fo
article-� designation-"fG'il1'!
in force-Ml'J.. provision-"lf<iu
as per-iii � despatch-m
in general-3fllf clR 'R public- �. 3fllf
as regards-iii aITT: .q, iii � .q direction-FR�R
in lieu of-ili � .q put up-ilw �. � q;'{
assent-� discharge-am�
in respect of-� � .q qualification-�
attestation-m� discipline-31'!�ITTR
in view of-m � qualified-<ilnf
audit-i'tmWIITT disciplinary action-31'!�rmf.rq; �
increment-� � rank-�
ban-m dismiss-� �. � �
indemnify-�� recall-'fl'IB ¥fRT
basic pay-� � · dispose-f.r.R:R
indiscipline-311�11�1'1,}ta1 receipt-�. m
bearer-� draft for approval-� mikr
initials-wn:rrim:• recommendation-IBm�T
bribery-�. ft� earliest possible-��® inspection-f.ro� reference-tt'G'+f, �
by order-��r "«, -� "« earned leave-arfofu�
instruction-��T, � reinstate.-��
by return of post-<fil<ft � "« enclosure-�� interim-ai"afti:r reminder-�
bye-law- � endorsement-�
cadre-wm enquiry-�
180 181
• SU� •
SU� Learn Hindi Through English Learn Hindi Through English
remission-� urgent-� 1 1 . �=good, easy
remuneration-"TIR�, � vacancy-Rffir �. Wf11
Suffixes are elements attached to a verb
representation-� vacant-� 12. affl\=inter
root, noun, pronoun, adjective for form­
resignation-�, � verification-m<n'R � ing related words.
resolution-� warning-� 13. �=bad Primary Suffixes
retire-00 � � with regard to-�.r.i!:Tlt wm (attached to root)
retrenchment-� yours faithfully-� 14. 'fl\= again, re I . root itself used as noun
rule-f.r:l+r, Cf>T1RT yours sincerely, yours truly-anqq;y � �-� (sport)
sanction-�, � 15: tr=with, same 2. lengthening/modifying the
salary-� �. � vowel of the root
scale of pay-� lfR Prefixes are words which are not used 16. m;=with �-"!IB (gait)
independently but modify the meaning "fm;r;:rr-iR (friendship)
schedule-� �
of a word, when attached to it in the 3. �=doing habitually
scheme-� Secondary Prefixes (indigenous)
beginning. � (drunkard)
seal-� 1. ar, 3R=without, lacking
Primary Prefixes (from Sanskrit) 4. 3lT, am abstract nouns
sealed-� �. 3R"IR
1 . 3l denotes negation/lack
section-�, am 2. �=bad, evil � (quarrel), �
�-�
seniority-�, <Rt<rar W'IT<'f 5. 3ITTi=fit for
� - arffim
serial number-SfilTiq; 3. �=lacking f.r<m;= saleable
3l becomes 3FJ: before vowel
sir-� � 6. 3TICl>=doing habitually
�-� 4. f.r=without � (swimmer)
specimen-�, OfT'flft � - 3f.'t'TR
staff-� 'flf, � m 7. 3!lcf' 3lR' an<R:, 3!lcfT' �. t Cf'
2. 3!'1=contrary
stamp (revenue)-� WR 5. for;, =without ('ft, 'f form abstract nouns.
3!'1lfR' �T¥! f.R-� (unmarried) ORT'f (protection)
statement-� , OfllR 3. 3l'f=contrary, inferior
submit-��T � 6. 'IR=full wrR (tax)
�. � � � (decoration)
subordinate-al�, � 4. 3lT=until, contrary
substitute-� Arabic and Persian Prefixes � (invitation, call)
�. 3ff1RUT
surety-� I . lR=without, against, un � (cry)
3fRR (taking)
surplus-arl'!:T� �. �. � � (laughter)
3fl"lllA" (coming)
survey-Wf� 2. 'fl=without ORIB (savings)
5. ;o<f=near, vice, sub
suspend-f.r<;ff.m �
� ilRcft (counting)
�. �. � 3. i:lil=per � (smile)
suspension-f.r<;i<R 6. �=evil, difficult
temporary-�, � i:liT � (per rupee) 8. 'fl forms gerund/verbal noun
-wr. � 4. m=without � (drowning)
tender-f.tfctGT 7. f.r\=without
<'l1'IBT 9. cnm one who does/works with
through proper channel-maqq:
f.rifi:r' f.R.rog 5. GIG=bad
tour-Giu 8. >!=very, forward �!:Tcnm. �
transfer-�, � � Secondary Suffixes
>JOI('!' wITTr
6. il=without (attached to a noun/ adjective)
true copy-� � 9. >ifu=against, opposite, every
� I. an{, arm, � , '{, '1-1, 'lT form
typing-cq;uy
�. >ITTr�. � 7. �=every abstract nouns
under consideration-fcRrro!:Wr 10. fcr=without, special, away
�� firor{ (sweetmeat)
undersigned-ar�e;Rt fcJm;r' fcJm";f' �T � (sourness)
until further orders-� �w � (ICfi
1 82 1 83
Sl!J�� •

SU� Learn Hindi Through English Learn Hindi Through English
� plough <fr drink
� (bitterness) � buy
� bend, bow i:iIB grind
"!100 (poverty) m eat
WI swing � ask, enquire
'1f1IWR (madness) � bloom
cqq; fall � get caught
� (old age) mm feed
� stroll 'R get torn
2. m pull
CTOf
an, w:rr , t f<;rr, � form adjectives evade, postpone "1119 tear
l<ffilT (thirsty) wr open (itself)
Wf; remain itq; throw
� play
� (of Kolkata) � break t.ot- spread
lit lose
� cheat ORI
� (rosy) escape
� dig
� (poisonous) � stay, wait ORff save
� (you) open
� (of the market place) � be afraid OfOf clock strike
1TT sing
3. w:rr, "t form diminutives � frighten � ring a bell
� bury
f.rWn (young daughter) � put down � increase
m count
� (hill) ¥ drown O[ffi tell
fiR fall
Persian Suffixes � swing � change
to be threaded

1 . "t forms abstract nouns
� close, put lid on
fur wear out � flow
��ft (pleasure) � push, jostle om: divide
� enter
2. 1R, TITT:=dealing in t<r search orlu tie
� wander
� (magician) it carry ¥ weave
'iil15f taste
� (helper) cft6 break, smash � call
� climb
3. an;n , ;;rq; ' f<r' lf<{, GR form w swim � sell
� shine
adjectives � pat � sit
"f{ graze
� (annual) � spit oft sow
"fOf walk, go
� (dangerous) Garr press, suppress oft<'! speak
'il<'!T drive, conduct
� (salty) Rm show � wander
'if[C lick
� (wealthy)
� give 'lTI: fill up
� shout
'W see 'l1JT[ run away, escape
iiflffGR (landlord) � scream
Gi9 run � bark
� steal
..•..• WlCfiT frighten forget
<.DlR.ECT��s.·. · .·. . � kiss �
. .. .. m wash � send
me select
· twithoqt usin.,tl;.�/d(>)
an come print � bathe '>ffq; bark

� get up ;;rq dance lR die
fuq hide
� fly -m.i seize
f.rq;;;r start, get out >RT refuse, reject
;rcR get down touch � catch 11'T1r demand

'3C!R unload, remove � cook l1'R accept
� give up
wear � read l1R beat
� ;;i1TT wake up anothe�
Clim earn � bum
� serve f?ror meet, get
cg do ;;ry � recognize � smile
go
� tell � wear w put, keep
;;f1Tf wake up
q;'fq shiver ;:;jl<[ know � reach � live
q;g cut 'llO! bring up � crawl
-m live
jump win
� melt u weep, cry
¥ '1ftCf
� knock � add, connect
tj'\c beat � stop, prevent

1 84 185
• Learn
SUR!S • Learn Hindi Through English �l(JI�:;} Hindi Through English
'RT d i rty fu<: fearless
� fight a1lfR: rich
� deep f.ITT<;rr unique
;;iitr jump � international
<f\m wet, damp "ITlT short
� bring 3{T� spiritual
I <'llG .nor round � mischievous
load 3lTf¥t final
1rfT dumb � pointed. sharp
� write 3ITTITif easy
� poor 'fREil angry
i'r take 3lT\ilTG independent
l1'fu;rr proud � useless
� lie down 3llef.iq; modem
� hot � tiny
me return � honest
1R'R! wrong -;ff.;n low
� decorate � suitable
lukewarm '1'11 new
� rot � opposite "lfl1rl1
� ochre 'lTlit famous
'1m1f understand � liberal
rose ;ffi;rr blue
� endure, put up with � useful wiiiT
mi:flur rural � salty
mm teach � sad
<RT dense, thick .f8T yellow
-m sew � high, tall
� proud � ful l
� learn �� rough, uneven
"'1«<'I wounded � enough
WI hear � historical
"liVrr inferior � pure, holy
W'IT make (baby) sleep anm mean
� broad � lovable
m sleep affm upside down
� irritable � old
� think q;{ many
� clever >rT"fR ancient
� entrust, handover � difficult
� alert, tight '1cliT ripe, cooked
� laugh � severe, cruel
' � cunning �-mm educated
� go away � miserly
� glittering i:zrrm thirsty
� defeat cm less
� smooth � nutritious
f%or sway � weak
'Wm pungent � last, previous
� give ajerk � few, little, something
..mr small '1'!<f;T definite
q:;-;;;n raw
obstinate m:r"'I happy
� sufficient �
� much � every
� central
3RlT separate � false �er famous
<Wra soft
3fif<'f steady � crooked 'liCT torn
cfitO!T thorny
aITTJq; much ¥T broken i:fi\q;r tasteless
¥! total
am'><i unciviiized CfiC[ cut i;sr cold � violet
• many qm;rr black i\q; correct � wasteful
�lier restless �, � bitter � loose � old

� half done Cfil<R coward Cfll9T strong oiG closed


� strange beautiful itJf fast, sharp, intelligent orr;ft balance

amr.r final happy � healthy OfGlrr�T roguish
Wll
aim blind mm empty <ffiilT fresh � ugly
� improper � special <it13T pungent � notorious
� unsuitable rough, uneven � little oITi:m: sick

� alone open 00 right (side) �T unconscious
W'T
� temporary � bad ¥ffi lean, weak OIWf plenty
� good mm slow, faint � dishonest
� sour
1 86 187

�l!J�:!i Learn Hindi Through English
� deaf fmrsc special
· � foolish mmr broad, liberal
GRfOR equal AA'lf strange, peculiar
onm stale �� mischievous
� grand, superb �� urban
orri:n left � balance
� ugly �a- clean
�-morr innocent �ITTJ calm, peaceful
mU heavy ftrf� educated
'l1U full � official, government
� showy � beautiful
� hungry � clean, pure
� terrible � dry
� forgetful � easy
� brownish � straightforward
lf\or sweet � correct
� faded maRUT ordiary
+rrfuq; monthly mq; clean
� great � lazy
lf�� famous � satisfied
� strong � courageous
+flcr fat wtfmr sweet smelling
1RlfRT wanton t!'l'<l' civilized
� ordinary mm straight
� difficult �IITTJ safe
� hardworking � cheap
� charming � praiseworthy
� sweet 'fl"R desolate
� foolish � golden
� costly m white
m-nr suitable � healthy
� tasty � independent
u:;r <ftfuq;' � tasty
� political � permanent
� interesting � green
<'fTOf red � '>!U prosperous
OIT!iCli suitable � ever smiling
� lame �� clever
oiOfr long � airy
��ft foreign � every
� rare � light weight

188