You are on page 1of 112

Salalah Grand Mall

SALALAH GRAND MALL


STRUCTURAL AND CIVIL WORK SPECIFICATIONS

CONTENTS

SECTION PAGES

1. DEMOLITIONS AND ALTERATIONS,


EXCAVATION & EARTHWORKS 01-1 – 02-16
2. CONCRETE WORK 02-1 – 02-34
3. BLOCK WORK 03-1 – 03-10
4. ROOFING SYSTEM 04-1 – 04-6
5. METAL WORK 05-1 – 05-6
6. STRUCTURAL STEELWORK 06-1 – 06-9
7. EXTERNAL WORKS 07-1 – 07-26
8. POST TENSIONED SLAB 08-1 – 08-03

1
Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 01

DEMOLITION AND ALTERATIONS, EXCAVATION AND EARTHWORKS

0101. Scope

This specification covers all necessary work required for the site preparation, removal of
existing structures, excavation, backfilling, disposal of surplus excavated material and other
sundry works in accordance with the Drawings and/or Bill of Quantities and as directed in
writing by the Engineer.

DEMOLITION AND ALTERNATIONS

0101A. Schedule and Method

The Contractor shall carry out all demolition work in accordance with the recommendations
of BS 6187; ‘Code of Practice for Demolition’.

The Contractor shall submit, in writing, to the Engineer full details of plant/equipments, and
methods/sequence of work and proposals for protection/safety prior to the commencement
of the work. Work shall not commence until such approval has been obtained from the
Engineer.

The foregoing provisions shall not prevent the Engineer form requiring the Contractor to
vary his plant or methods at any time during the execution of the works should the Engineer
consider it essential so as to ensure compliance with the Documents and Specification.

The Contractor shall not vary his plant or method of working, without obtaining the
Engineer’s written approval of such variation.

The Contractor shall provide all requisite shoring, needling, strutting or other temporary
supports which are necessary for the protection and safely of the existing structure.

The Contractor shall be held responsible for the safety of the existing structure and the
sufficiency of all the temporary works.

The Contractor shall provide all necessary protection for the existing works against the
effect of inclement weather and make good any damage caused to existing works which are
not be demolished.

The Contractor shall protect all existing and surfaces, which are not to be demolished and
any damage so caused shall be made good to the Engineer’s approval at the Contractor’s
expense.

0101B. Materials arising from Demolition

Unusable Materials arising from demolition works are deemed to become the property of the
Contractor, and shall be cleared away unless specified otherwise. All re-usable materials
shall be deemed to be the property of the Employer and shall be neatly stacked at site.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-1
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

Usable materials and or materials specified to be handed over to the Employer shall be
carefully removed and delivered by the Contractor to a location specified by the Employer.

0101C. Disposal

All materials arising form demolition shall be disposed off as directed by the Engineer.
Materials taken off the Work site shall be disposed off in accordance with the requirements
of the Local Municipality and with the Engineer’s approval.

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions and care to avoid interference with the
obstruction or damage, in particular through pollution, to the environment. The Contractor
shall repair at his own expense any damage to the environment resulting from demolition on
disposal of materials.

Burning of combustible material on the work site shall only be carried out with the
Engineer’s approval. Timber infested with termites, lice, dry rot and the like shall not be
removed from the work site and shall be burnt in a location and time approved by the
Engineer.

The Contractor should stock pile different materials resulting from demolition works in
separate piles prior to removal from the work site.

0101D. Permits

Before commencing demolition work the Contractor shall obtain a work permit from the
Municipal Authorities. The Contractor shall ensure that this permit states that all services
have been disconnected. Instructions on the permit shall be adhered to.

The Contractor shall keep the permit securely on the work site for inspection by the
Authorities.

0101E. Signs and Barriers

Where work is required on or adjacent to an area accessible by personnel the Contractor


shall erect barriers and signs, approved by the Engineer, warning of the danger that
demolition work is being carried out.

0101F. Debris, Dust and Noise

The Contractor shall ensure that debris, dust and noise resulting from the work is kept to a
minimum.

The Contractor shall ensure that all debris is removed to a temporary stockpile, on the work
site, if it is not immediately to be carried away from work site.

The Contractor shall ensure that any water courses are not obstructed whilst executing the
works.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-2
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

0101G. Existing Services

The contractor shall maintain and protect existing live services in the vicinity of the
demolition works. Any damage caused by the contractor shall be made good to the
Engineer’s approval at the contractor’s expense.

The contractor shall ensure that any water courses are not obstructed whilst executing the
works.

0101H. Explosives

The use of explosives shall not normally be permitted.

In exceptional circumstances specifically authorised by the Engineer which allow the use of
explosives, storage and usage of all explosives shall comply fully with the Bye-Laws and
Ordinances of The Royal Oman Police and all relevant Government Departments.

The Contractor shall be responsible for damage to the works and adjoining structure, roads,
property and injury to persons or animals, consequent to the misuse of explosive.

The contractor shall be responsible for obtaining necessary permits for the use of explosive.

0101I. Asbestos and Man –Made Mineral Fiber (MMMF)

Where demolition or alternation work entails the handling of asbestos the Contractor shall
comply with the recommendations of BS 6187.

Where demolition or alterations work entrails the handling of man-made mineral fibres
(MMMF) the Contractor shall seek the guidance of the Engineer as to the precaution
deemed necessary for handling these materials.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-3
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

EXCAVATION & EARTHWORK

0102. General

Excavation shall comply with the requirements of BS 8000 - Part 1.

Before commencing any excavation at Site the Contractor shall record the existing levels.

On completion of the excavation of any area, the Contractor shall survey and record the
level of excavations

0103. Soil Information

The Contractor shall be deemed to have visited the Site of Works and satisfied himself as to
the nature of the ground and made himself conversant with the local conditions to be
encountered during the execution of the Contract.

0104. BACKFILL AND FILL

0104A. Material

Backfill and imported fill material shall be any structurally sound material obtained either
from excavations or other sources, approved by the Engineer. The material shall in general
comprise non-plastic granular matter, well graded and free from organic or other perishable
items and shall not contain an excess of fines.

In general and unless otherwise indicated or specified, material for backfill of trenches and
excavations around structures, shall be screened gravel, selected borrow or concrete and
shall be used as directed by the Engineer.

The nature of the materials shall govern both their acceptability for backfill and methods
best suited for their placement and compaction in backfill.

The following definitions of Earthwork materials shall apply:-

A. Top Soil: shall be fertile, friable soil obtained from well drained arable land and shall be
free draining, non toxic and capable of sustaining healthy plant growth.

B. Suitable Material (non structural fill): shall comprise all material that is acceptable in
accordance with the Contract for use in the Works. Suitable material for earthworks shall
be approved soil obtained from excavations within the works or from borrow pits
approved by the Engineer with the following characteristics:

- Plasticity index shall not exceed 6 %-( BS 1377: Part 2, method 5).
- Liquid limit not exceed 40% (BS 1377: Part 2, method 4.5).
- Shall not contain more than 5% of water soluble slats by weight of dry soil (BS 1377:
Part 3, method 8).
- shall not contain fines in excess of 20% passing No.200 sieve (ASTM C117) or in
excess of 2% organic materials (BS 1377: Part 3).

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-4
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

- maximum particle size shall not exceed 75 mm.


- shall not be susceptible to spontaneous combustion.
- shall not contain any other material which the Engineer may deem to be unsuitable
for earthworks.

C. Screened Gravel (Structural fill); shall be material as directed by the Engineer and shall
be chosen from the following:

- Grading similar to that shown below:

Sieve Size Alternatives/Percent Passing


A B C
2 in. (50.8 mm) - 100 -
11/2 in. (38.1 mm) 100 70-100 -
1 in. (25.4 mm) 75-100 55-85 100
3/4 in. (19.1 mm) 60- 90 50-80 70-100
1/2 in. (12.7 mm) 45- 80 - -
3/8 in. (9.52 mm) 40- 70 40-70 50-80
No. 4 (4.76 mm) 30- 65 30-60 35-65
No. 10 (2.00 mm) 20- 40 20-50 25-50
No. 40 (0.42 mm) 8- 20 10-30 15-30
No. 200 (0.074mm) 5- 10 5-15 5-15

- Shall exhibit the following characteristics when tested as indicated:

Test Standard Limit

Los Angeles Abrasion ASTM C 131 40% max.


Soundness (Na2So4 Solution) ASTM C 88 12% max.
Liquid Limit ASTM D 4318 25% max.
Plasticity Index ASTM D 4318 6% max.
Compaction test ASTM D1557 -
(Modified Proctor) (Method D)
C.B.R. at 100% of modified (ASTMD 1883)
Proctor density (96 hr soaked) 80% min.
Field density ASTM D 1556/D2922 100%min.
Sulphate Content BS1377 (Parts 3) 0.5% max.
Chloride Content BS 812 (Part 117) 1% max.

- Moisture content of the compacted material shall not vary more than ± 3% of the
optimum moisture content (OMC).
- Shall possess satisfactory binding characteristics to enable it to be compacted to give a
smooth well knit surface as judged by the Engineer.

0104B. Requirements & Testing

The following requirements, tests and frequencies shall be followed:

Density and OMC for each fill material as defined by ASTM D1557 Method D & determined
in an approved laboratory shall be referenced to the Engineer. The percentage of

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-5
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

compaction shall be determined by the percent of maximum dry density at OMC in


accordance with ASTM D1557 Method D.

If some of the materials are larger than 19 mm the maximum density shall be corrected by
the following formula:

D = (Pf,Df)/100 + (Pcx0.90Dt)/100.

Where D = Corrected maximum dry density.


Pc = Percent of material retained on the 19 mm sieve.
Pf = Percent of material passing the 19 mm sieve.
Df = Maximum density of material passing 19 mm sieve.
Df = Bulk specific gravity of material retained on 19 mm
sieve multiplied by 1000 kg/m3.

The area of excavation and the length of trench open at any one time shall be controlled
according to the site conditions and subject to limits as directed by Engineer.

Excavation support system (wood or steel sheeting, soldier piles, wood lagging and secant
pile walls) and bracing shall be cut off or left in place at elevations/locations determined and
as directed by the Engineer.

Wellpoints and pumps shall be installed under the supervision of competent representatives
of specialist sub-contractors in accordance with the requirements specified under the
relevant clauses/sections.

During progress of work, earth moving operations shall be conducted in such a manner so
as to minimize the creation and dispersion of dust.

Suitable and safe ramps or other covered crossings where required shall be provided
access to construction personnel and other users during construction, and shall be removed
on completion.

A. Excavated material/selected Borrow (non structural fill)

Non Compacted.

- Gradation Analysis - one test per 4,000 m3 of excavated on-site soil stockpiled for use as
compacted on-site fill material and whenever classification of material is in doubt and/or
as directed by Engineer.

- Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index - One test per 4000 m3 of excavated
on-site soil stockpiled for use as compacted on-site fill material and whenever
classification of material is in doubt.
Liquid Limit • 40%, Plastic Limit • 11%

Moisture Density - One per 4000 m3 of soil placed and/or whenever visual inspection
indicates a significant change in material gradation.

Compacted

- In-Place Density - Areas greater than 100 m2; one per 800 m3 placed, or one per
alternate lift, whichever results in a greater frequency. Minimum percentage compaction.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-6
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

Areas 100 m2 or less, one per every half (1/2) meter of compacted fill.

B. Screened Gravel: (Structural Backfill)

- Contractor's soils testing laboratory to provide sufficient inspection to ensure compaction


of fill material and compaction equipment in use.

- Gradation Analysis - One for each source and whenever visual inspection indicates a
significant change in material gradation.

0104C. Plate Load Test

Plate load test is to find the bearing capacity and the settlement of the foundation. A test
plate, square or circular in shape, is used. The plate is placed at the proposed level of the
foundation and is subjected to incremental loading. Settlement at each increment of the
loading is measured and a load-settlement curve is plotted. Bearing capacity and the
settlement of the foundation are determined from the load settlement curves.

Two number of test to be carried out as per engineer’s instruction. Tests to be done as per
BS 5930:1999 Section 4 Clause 31. All test results shall be submitted for the engineer’s
approval after each test.

0104D. Tolerances

Finished surfaces shall be constructed to plus or minus 25 mm of the elevations indicated.


Cut and fill areas shall be graded to within plus or minus 60 mm of the grades indicated.

Edges of embankments shall be completed to plus or minus 60 mm of the slope lines


indicated.

The Engineer shall be provided with adequate survey information to verify compliance with
above tolerances.

Moisture content of fill material shall be maintained within ± 2 % of optimum moisture


content (OMC) as specified in the case of structural backfill.

0104E. Submittals

The Contractor shall submit the following for the approval of Engineer.

- Detailed sequence of work, description of construction methods, including dewatering


and erosion control measures. Formulated schedule and procedures to eliminate
possibility of undermining or disturbing foundations of partially and completed structures,
pipelines and embankments or existing structures and pipelines.
- No excavation shall be permitted until schedule and procedures have been reviewed
and approved by Engineer.
- Information on proposed compaction equipment at least two weeks prior to use.
Compaction operations shall not be commenced until the equipment has been reviewed
and approved by the Engineer.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-7
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

- Details of dust control measures at least two weeks prior to start of any earth moving
activities.

- Details of effective control measures against erosion and sedimentation, prior to start of
earth moving activities.

- Locations of proposed borrow sources for screened gravel and selected borrow, at least
two weeks prior to use of material.

- Laboratory test results every week or as required by the Engineer.

- Written verification of fill lift thickness and compaction weekly or as required by the
Engineer.
- Tamping tools adapted for the backfilling of retention system voids after its removal.

0104F. Workmanship

Materials for backfilling shall comply with and be laid in accordance with BS 6031:1981
Code of practice for earthworks.

Approved imported clean dry sand shall be used for backfilling and filling next to footings,
foundations, underground structures, under sub-floors, etc., and shall be laid in layers not
exceeding 150 mm thick and compacted with compaction equipment or mechanical tampers
when not possible to use such compaction equipment and as approved by the Engineer. A
relative compaction of at least 98% of the Laboratory maximum dry density shall be
achieved at optimum moisture content determined in accordance with Test 13 of BS 1377.

Should the quantity of excavated material be not sufficient for the process of backfill and fill,
the Contractor shall obtain the quantity required of such backfill and fill from approved
borrow pits and transport same to the Site of work at his own expense.

No backfill shall be executed until the footings; foundations, etc. have been inspected,
measured and approved by the Engineer.

Trenches shall not be backfilled until all required tests are performed and until the Engineer
has verified that the pipes and cables have been installed in accordance with the
Specification and the Drawings. Unless otherwise stated in the Specification, selected fine
dry material free from stones, organic matter, lumps and deleterious materials shall be
carefully hand packed and tamped around the lower half of the pipes and against the sides
of the trench, and for the full width of the trench in order to avoid displacement of the pipes.
Filling shall then be continued to a height of 150 mm above the pipes and leveled across the
trench from side to side with selected fine material which shall be hand packed and
consolidated with wooden or other approved rammers.

Each layer shall then be well rammed and consolidated before the next layer is placed, until
the trench is completely filled to the required levels. Power ramming shall be permitted on
layers which are 300 mm above the crown of the pipes provided that all the lower layers
have been hand rammed to a satisfactory level of compaction and tested in accordance with
the requirements of this specification.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-8
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

0104G. Leveling and Ramming

The Contractor shall level and ram the bottom of excavations which are to receive concrete
or base courses. He shall dig out and fill with concrete approved by the Engineer any
defective or soft sports which do not pass the minimum specified soil bearing strength, (if
any). He shall clear trenches and pits of any water, drift sand, rubbish or the like and obtain
the approval of the Engineer before pouring any -concrete or laying any base course.

Materials

0105. Wood

Timber sheeting and lagging shall conform to the following:

- Allowable working stress of not less than 84 Kg/cm2.


- Nominal thickness not be less than 75 mm (3 inches).

0106. Water

Water shall be clean potable water as specified under SECTION 03 Concrete Work.

0107. Concrete

Concrete used as fill for making up correct levels for areas of over-excavation shall be
blinding grade as indicated on drawing.

SITE PREPARATION

0108. Excavation Permits

The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining all permits relating to excavation works
and shall bear all costs involved. The Contractor shall abide by all conditions, etc. laid down
in such permits.

0109. Existing Services

The Contractor shall ascertain the whereabouts of all existing services on the Site, both
above and below ground. Such services shall be removed, sealed or rerouted in a manner
prescribed by the Public Authorities concerned at the Contractor's own expense. The
Contractor shall also be held responsible for all damage sustained by any of the services
adjacent to the site resulting from the Works. Excavations to locate services shall be carried
out by hand.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-9
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

0110. Clearing and Grubbing

The Contractor shall perform the clearing and grubbing (if any) of top soil consisting mainly
of loose soil, vegetable and organic matters, drift sand, unsuitable soil and rubbish by
scarifying the areas to required depths from the natural ground level.

All materials resulting from the above operations shall be loaded and removed from the Site,
transported to and off loaded, spread and leveled at approved dumps as directed by the
Engineer.

0111. Setting-Out

The Contractor shall stake-out the work as shown on the Drawings and secure the
Engineer's approval of his stake-out before proceeding with construction. If, in the opinion of
the Engineer, modification of the line or grade is advisable before or after stake-out the
Engineer will issue detailed instructions in writing to the Contractor for such modification and
the Contractor shall revise the stake-out for further approval in accordance with the relevant
Clause of the Conditions of Contract.

EXCAVATION

0112. General

The Contractor shall perform all excavations true to lines, widths and depths shown on the
Drawings or to such further lines, depths or dimensions as may be directed by the Engineer
to reach a suitable bearing strata.

0113. Dimensions

All excavations shall be carried out to the lines, levels and profiles necessary for the proper
construction of the works as shown on the drawings or as ordered by the Engineer.

If from any cause whatsoever excavations are carried out beyond their true line and level
other than the ordered by the Engineer, the Contractor shall at his own risk, make good to
the required line, level and profile with approved materials as instructed by the Engineer.

0114. Excavation in Rock

Rock shall be defined as boulders, exceeding 0.25 m3 in volume or any kind of stone or rock
formation which in the opinion of the Engineer requires for its removal drilling and blasting,
wedging, sledging or barring, or breaking up with a power-operated hand tool. The definition
shall exclude any soft or disintegrated rock which can be removed with a hand pick or
mechanical excavator or shovel, or loose, shaken or previously blasted rock or broken stone
in rock fillings or elsewhere. Blasting by explosive shall not be permitted.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-10
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

0115. Planking and Strutting

The terms "planking and strutting" will be deemed to cover sheet piling, underpinning,
secant piling or any other method the Contractor elects to adopt for shoring the sides of
excavation and also for planking and strutting the excavations against the sides of adjoining
buildings, public roadways, etc.. The Contractor will be held responsible for shoring the
sides of all excavations, adjoining building and the like and no claim for additional
excavation, concrete or other material and workmanship will be considered in this respect.

The Contractor shall be responsible for any damages, subsidence by any neglect or any
default and shall make good all damages and subsidence and shall make full compensation
to the Client and other concerned parties for any loss sustained due to the above.

In the event of any collapse occurring during the excavations, the Contractor shall re-
excavate and re-instate such excavations at his own expense. No additional excavations will
be paid for, should the Contractor batter the sides of the excavations.

0116. Keeping Excavations Free from Water

All excavations shall be kept clear of water by pumping or bailing or by well-point


dewatering, but the latter system shall not be employed if any danger exists of withdrawing
water from the foundations of the adjoining buildings and such water shall be discharged
clear of the works. The method adopted shall in no way contravene the regulations of the
Local Authorities.

The system or systems to be employed shall be approved by the Engineer. Such approval if
given shall not waive the Contractor's responsibilities and liabilities under the Contract.

Particular attention shall be paid to the installation of sheeting and shoring as may be
necessary for the protection of the work and for the safety of personnel and public.

0117. Storing of Suitable Excavated Material

During excavation, materials suitable for backfill and fill shall be stockpiled on the Site at
sufficient distance from the sides of the excavation to avoid over-loading and prevent cave-
ins or mixing with the concrete during the construction of foundations.

0118. Disposal of Unsuitable and Surplus Excavated Material

Upon the order of the Engineer, all unsuitable and surplus excavated materials shall be
immediately removed, loaded and transported off Site area by the Contractor to dumps
located by and approved by the local authorities concerned.

0119. Excavation for Foundations and Sub-Structures

The levels to which the Contractor shall excavate are shown on the Drawings. Should it be
found necessary to reach a more suitable strata, the Contractor shall perform all additional
excavation as directed by the Engineer.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-11
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

During excavation for foundations, the bottom layer of excavation of minimum 200 mm in
thickness, shall be left undisturbed and subsequently removed manually only when the
concrete blinding is about to be placed in order to avoid softening or deterioration of the
surfaces of the excavation.

Bottom of all excavations shall be formed to correct levels as shown on the Drawings or as
directed in writing by the Engineer and shall be trimmed, levelled and well cleaned before
pouring any concrete.

In the event of the Contractor excavating deeper than the levels shown on the Drawings he
shall make up the difference between levels with blinding concrete as indicated on drawing,
at his own expense.

Should loose soil, bad ground or cavities be encountered within any part of the excavations
the Contractor shall remove such matter and fill to the appropriate levels with approved fill
material levelled and compacted to the Engineer's satisfaction.

After each excavation is complete, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer to that effect, and
no concrete shall be placed until the Engineer has approved the excavation and the
character of the foundation material.

0120. Excavation for Trenches

The Contractor shall excavate trenches and provide all planking and strutting necessary to
install all drainage, sewer, water supply, electrical and telephone cables to the lines and
grades complete in strict conformity with this specification, applicable Drawings and/or as
directed by the Engineer.

The bottom of the trenches shall be accurately graded to provide uniform bearing and
support for each section of the pipe on undisturbed soil at every point along its length,
except for the portions of the pipe where it is necessary to excavate for bell-holes and for
proper sealing of joints. Bell-holes and depression for joints shall be dug after the trench
bottom has been graded.

Care shall be taken not to excavate below the depths indicated. Where rock is encountered,
the rock shall be excavated to the required depth. Uneven surfaces of the bottom of trench
shall be excavated 150 mm deeper. Such depth, if in rock, shall be backfield with blinding
concrete as specified on drawing and when in earth, shall be backfield with approved sand.

Whenever unstable soil, which in the opinion of the Engineer, is incapable of properly
supporting the pipe or duct is encountered in the bottom of the trench, such soil shall be
removed to the depth required and the trench backfilled to the proper grade with sand, fine
gravel or other suitable material approved by the Engineer.

The width of the trench for Drainage at and below the top of the pipe shall be such that the
clear space between the barrel of the pipe and the trench wall shall be 200 mm on each
side of the pipe. The width of the trench above that level may be as wide as necessary for
sheeting and bracing and the proper performance of the work.

Trenches for Water Supply System shall be of a depth to provide minimum cover to the top
of the pipe of 700 mm and avoid interference of water lines with other utilities. Width of
trench shall be a maximum of 200 mm on each side of the pipe.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-12
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

The width of trench for electrical and telephone cables shall be as specified in their relative
Section. Banks may be sloped or widened to facilities placement of cables, but not to an
extent that will cause interference with other utilities.

Excavation for manholes, septic tank, percolating pits and similar structures shall be
sufficient to allow a minimum of 800 mm of clear space between their outer surfaces and
shoring timbers which may be used to protect the banks.

0121. Use of Explosives

The use of explosive is not permitted unless authorised by the Engineer and permitted by
the Royal Oman Police or other authority concerned. Both permissions of the Engineers
and the Royal Oman Police must be in writing.

Where blasting is permitted, it shall be carried out strictly in accordance with previous
agreements approved by the Engineer.

0122. Settlement

The Contractor shall be responsible for making good all settlement of filling that may occur
up to the end of the maintenance period of the Contract, unless stated otherwise in the
Specification.

0123. Testing

The Engineer may at any time carry out dry density tests in accordance with B.S. 1377:Part
4:1990 and such other tests as required, as detailed under the relevant clause and tables in
Section 16 - External Works. The Engineer shall check the results of the tests for the
adequacy of degree of compaction by comparison with the degree of compaction achieved.
Should the compaction be inadequate then the Contractor shall carry out such further work
as is necessary to improve the compaction to comply with the terms of the Contract. All
such additional work and testing involved shall be at the expense of the Contractor.

0124. TERMITE PROOFING

0124A General

Termite proofing shall be provided by an approved specialist Sub-contractor having


experience of similar works completed in the Sultanate of Oman and approved by the
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries/Council for Conservation of the Environment and the
Prevention of Pollution.

Contractors shall submit their offers along with technical specification, appropriate to the
building and a list of jobs effectively carried out in the Sultanate of Oman for a period of not
less than 6 years by the proposed Sub-Contractor.

The chemicals shall be a formulation of soil toxicants approved by the Pesticide Regulations
Committee of the Council for the Conservation of the Environment and Prevention of
Pollution and applied as a water emulsion at a recommended dilution.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-13
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

The Contractor shall ensure that the treated areas shall not be disturbed by relevelling,
digging or earth filling once the treatment is completed as this will disturb the chemical
barrier. In case the treated areas are disturbed (in any way), the area shall be retreated to
restore the chemical barrier.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer detailing the most
appropriate method to be adopted, chemicals to be used, concentration and dosage of
application of the chemicals for the existing site conditions and taking the building details
into consideration, for the approval of the Engineer before commencing any work. The
Contractor shall also furnish full details of the chemicals he proposes to use along with all
necessary documental evidence as required for compliance with the concerned codes and
regulations, local authorities requirements and details of previous usage. The most
appropriate method to be used shall be as decided by the Engineer at the time of
construction after considering all aspects. However any approval accorded by the Engineer
shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his contractual obligations and responsibilities.

0124B. Workman ship

The treatment shall commence after leveling / compaction of the filled soil and before
polythene / damp proof membrane is laid and shall be carried out in the following four
stages.

 Treatment to soil under slabs at plinth level.


 Treatment to junction of Wall and Floor
 Treatment of critical areas such as utility pipe openings, floor drains, expansion
joints and electrical conduit entry points.
 Treatment of Soil along the External perimeter of the Building.

0124C. Guarantee

The treatment shall guarantee that the building is safe from termite infestation for a period of
10 years after completion of the works. The Specialist Sub-Contractor shall give an
undertaking directly to the Employer that in case of re-infestation of the said structure he
shall carry out such treatment as may be necessary to render the structure free from termite
infestation without any extra cost to the Employer.

The Contractor shall submit a counter-guarantee stating that the works have been carried
out in accordance with the drawings and specification and shall be guaranteed free from
termite infestation for a period of ten (10) years from the issue of completion certificate.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-14
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

0125. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

A. Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of
Construction (POMI)" - June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of
Chartered Surveyors of U.K.

B. Unless otherwise stated excavation has been measured from natural ground level.
All filling above natural ground level in making up levels, including beneath
structures, has been measured in the affected section.

C. Contrary to Clause B8.4 of POMI, earthwork support shall be deemed to be


included in the rates for excavation.

D. Rates for excavation shall be deemed to include for the following:

a) Excavating in any type of ground except rock, excavating below the water table if
necessary.

b) Excavating a minimum of 200 mm thick bottom layer by hand just before placing
blinding concrete, watering and leveling off and compacting.

c) Making up for the difference between levels excavated deeper than levels shown
on drawing with plain concrete.

d) Trimming of bottoms and sides of excavation to the widths and depths shown on
drawings and removal of all drift sand, dust and rubbish which may accumulate on
the site or in excavations.

e) Removal of excavated material to spoil heaps in approved locations for


subsequent handling.

f) All dewatering required for keeping the site and excavations clear of all water other
than sub soil water by pumping or bailing or any other means approved by the
Engineer.

E. Rates for filling shall be deemed to include for the following:

a) Watering and compacting in layers and laying to falls and cross falls as specified
and for any additional material necessary to make up for settlement on compaction
of the original ground beneath.

b) Blinding with sand or other approved materials prior to receiving polyethylene


sheet.

c) Any hard packing where required and any temporary retaining boards.

d) All necessary multiple handling necessary and screening of excavated material


and removal of oversized materials from otherwise suitable materials.

e) Taking all necessary precautions when compacting in the vicinity of or over


existing and newly laid services installations and adopting specialized compacting
procedures as directed by the Engineer.

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-15
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

F. Area for Anti-termite treatment has been measured nett. Rates shall be deemed to
include for all works such as creating vertical barrier by trenching around the
building, special treatment around pipes, other penetrations, foundations, etc.

End of Section 01

Section 01-Demolition and Alterations,


01-16
Excavation and Earthworks
Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 02

CONCRETE WORK

GENERAL

0201. Standards

The materials and workmanship shall be in accordance with the requirements of the
appropriate C.P. or B.S. wherever applicable together with any building regulations or bye-
laws governing the works.

The following list is included for guidance only and the omission of any C.P. or B.S. from the
list does not relieve the contractor from compliance therewith.

Code of Practice

CP 102 Protection of buildings against water from the ground.

CP 117 Composite Construction in structural steel & concrete

Specifications

BS 12 Specification for ordinary and rapid hardening Portland cement.

BS 146 Portland blast furnace cement.

BS 410 Specification for test sieves

BS 449 The use of structural steel in building.

BS 812 Sampling and testing of mineral aggregates.

BS 882 Specification for aggregates from Natural sources

BS 1014 Pigments for Portland cement and Portland cement products.

BS 1047 Specification for air cooled blast furnace slag coarse aggregate
for concrete.

BS 1165 Clinker aggregate for concrete.

BS 1243 Specification for metal ties for cavity wall construction.

BS 1370 Specification for low heat Portland cement

BS 1881 Methods of testing concrete.

BS 2739 Thick PVC sheeting (calendered, flexible unsupported)

BS 3148 Methods of tests for water for making concrete.

02-1 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

BS 3681 Methods for the sampling and testing of lightweight


aggregates for concrete.

BS 3797 Specification for light weight aggregate for concrete.

BS 3892 Pulverised fuel ash for use in concrete.

BS 4027 Specification for sulphate resisting Portland cement.

BS 4246 Low heat Portland blast furnace cement.

BS 4248 Supersulphated cement.

BS 4408 Recommendations for non-destructive methods of test for concrete.

BS 4449 Specification for non destructive methods of test for concrete.

BS 4466 Bending dimensions and scheduling of bars for reinforcement concrete.

BS 4482 Hard drawn mild steel wire for reinforcement of concrete.

BS 4550 Methods of testing cement

BS 5075 Concrete admixtures

BS 5135 Metal arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels.

BS 5328 Specifying concrete including ready mix concrete

BS 5628 Structural use of unreinforced masonry.


Part I

BS 5628 Structural use of reinforced & prestressed masonry.


Part 2

BS 6031 Code of Practice for Earthwork

BS 6399 Loading for Buildings

BS 6651 The protection of structures against lightning

BS 8000 Code of Practice for concrete work.


(Part 2)

BS 8007 Code of Practice for foundations

BS 8103 Code of Practice for stability, site investigation, foundations


Part 1 and ground floor slabs for housing.

BS 8110 The structural use of concrete

02-2 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0202. Qualifications

The Contractor shall follow the guide lines contained in the latest editions of the codes,
specification and standards listed above, except where more stringent requirements are
shown or specified.

Plant and field inspection and testing of concrete and all ingredients there in, and
reinforcement shall be performed by an independent laboratory approved by the Engineer at
the Contractors expense. Materials and installed work may require testing and re-testing as
directed by the Engineer, at any time during the progress of the work which shall be carried
out by the Contractor at his own expense.

The Contractor shall provide free access to visit and inspect the materials, stockpiles and
facilities, proposed works, plants and sources of materials by the Engineer.
All tests including re-testing of rejected materials and installed work shall be done at the
Contractors expense.

0203. Method Statement

During the mobilization period the Contractor shall submit a method statement detailing his
proposal for the organization of all concreting activities at the site as well as off site for the
approval of the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit method statements for any particular activity when called for by
the Engineer and demonstrate its feasibility through mockups/placement samples of
appropriate sizes as approved and directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

MATERIALS

All materials shall be from an approved source and only with prior written approval of the
Engineer will any deviation from the Specification be permitted; in the absence of any
Specification all materials shall comply with the appropriate B.S.

The Engineer may at any time request that samples of cements, aggregates, mixing water
or other materials be taken from site and tested to ensure conformity with this Specification,
such testing is to be carried out by an independent laboratory to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

0204. CEMENT

Cement shall comply with the relevant British Standards or any other standards approved by
the Engineer, appropriate for the use to which the cement is being put. Mixing of types or
brands of cement shall not be done.

Cement shall be tested as per BS 4550 and the following criteria shall apply.

02-3 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Ordinary Portland Cement

1) Specific surface shall not be less than 225 m2 per kg.

2) The lime saturation factor shall not be greater than 1.02 and not less than 0.66 when
calculated by the formulae given in BS 12.

3) The mass of insoluble residue shall not exceed 1.5%.

4) The mass of magnesia shall not exceed 4%.

5) The mass of total sulphur expressed as SO3 shall not exceed 3%.

6) The loss on ignition shall not exceed 4%.

7) The average compressive strength of concrete cubes shall be not less than 16
N/mm2 at three days and higher than the compressive strength at three days but not
less than 40 N/mm2 at 28 days.

8) Setting times of cement paste of standard consistence shall be :

- Initial setting time : not less than 45 minutes


- Final setting time : not more than 10 hours.

9) The cement shall not have an expansion of more than 10mm when tested for
soundness.

Special cements shall not be used without the written approval of the Engineer and as may
be directed by him and strictly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Any cement which has become damaged or has deteriorated shall be removed from the
site.

0205. Cement Test & Analysis

Manufacturers test certificates for composition and properties shall indicate the average
values and corresponding maximum and minimum value for a continuous production period
of atleast 6 months (period covered shall be stated) ending not earlier than 3 months before
submission of the data.

The contractor shall furnish on arrival at site of each consignment a certificate conforming
date of manufacture and submit report on laboratory analysis. If such reports are not
available the contractor shall arrange for taking of representative samples from the delivered
cement and establish compliance with the specifications.

02-4 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0206. Cement Storage

Cement storage shall be subject to approval and shall afford easy access for inspection and
identification of each shipment in accordance with test reports. It shall be used in the order
in which it was delivered.

Bagged cement shall be delivered to site in the manufacturer's original sealed bags or
containers and shall be stored in a dry, weather tight, properly ventilated structure, with
adequate provisions for preventing the absorption of moisture and raised at least 150 mm
off the ground to prevent deterioration. The storage shall be large enough to allow sufficient
cement to be kept to allow continuity of work. Not more than 10 bags shall be piled one on
top of the other while shoring in bags. Suitable shading shall be provided to limit the
temperature to 40 deg. C.

0207. Aggregates

Prior to commencing work the Contractor shall obtain, for the Engineer’s inspection,
samples of all the aggregates which it is proposed should be used.
It is preferred that the fine and course aggregates are obtained from the same source
(approved at the commencement of the works), throughout the Contract, if it is necessary to
change to a further approved source, all the tests on aggregates mentioned herein and
elsewhere shall be repeated.

During excavation at a particular source of aggregate, care shall be taken to ensure that the
excavation does not get too close to the high water mark where there may be a high
concentration of salts due to the evaporation of water. The Engineer may inspect the source
of aggregate during the progress of the Contract, and may order further tests if he considers
them necessary.

The Engineer may at any time require samples to be taken from the site and tested at an
approved independent laboratory. Samples are to be provided for each new batch of
aggregates and tested as appropriate.

The contractor shall carry out on site such testing as is necessary to ensure the consistency
of the aggregate supply for grading and impurities.

The following shall apply when tested in accordance with BS 812:-

(a) Shell content shall not exceed 20% in fractions that are finer than 10mm and coarser
than 5mm and 8% in fractions that are coarser than 10mm. No specific
requirements for aggregates finer than 5mm.

(b) Magnesium sulphate soundness – MgSO4 solution 5 cycles loss not greater than
10% by weight.

(c) Clay slit and dust content (material passing 75 cm BS 410 Test Sieve); not greater
than 3% for fine aggregate and not greater than 1% for coarse aggregate.

02-5 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

(d) Total acid soluble chloride content in aggregates (NaC1) shall not exceed.

0.1% of dry weight of fine aggregate.

0.05% by weight of coarse aggregate.

The total soluble sulphate content in aggregates (SO3) shall not exceed.

0.40% of dry weight of fine aggregate.

0.40% by weight of coarse aggregate.

The above limits are subject to the satisfaction of total chlorides and sulphates in the
concrete mix, enumerated elsewhere.

(e) 10% fines value not less than:

- 150 KN for heavy duty concrete floor finishers.

- 100 KN for pavement wearing surfaces.

- 50 KN for others.

(f) Flakiness index for combined coarse aggregate shall not exceed 40.

(g) Grading – within limits specified in BS 882.

The tests shall be carried out in accordance with British and ASTM Standards and the
results shall comply with the limit given therein, or as otherwise stated herein.

0208. Grading of aggregate

Course aggregate shall be prepared as single sized and blended to produce a normal size
grading. The combined grading shall be within the appropriate grading limits laid down in BS
882:1992 Table 3 and as described below.

GRADATION OF COARSE AGGREGATE SEIVE ANALYSIS

Single Sized Aggregate


Sieve Size 40MM 20MM 14MM 10MM 5MM
50 100
37.5 85-100 100
20 0-25 85-100 100
14 0-70 85-100 100
10 0-5 0-25 0-50 85-100 100
5 0-5 0-10 0-25 45-100
2.36 0-5 0-30

02-6 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

The gradation of fine aggregate shall be in accordance with BS 882: 1992 Table 4.

GRADATION OF FINE AGGREGATE SEIVE ANALYSIS

Sieve Size Overall Limits


10.00mm 100
5.00mm 89-100
2.36mm 60-100
1.18mm 30-100
0.600mm 15-100
0.300mm 5-70
0.150mm 0-15

All-in aggregate shall be permitted for low-grade concrete only.

The amount of material passing BS 75 micron sieve in the combined aggregates when
tested in accordance with BS 812 (wet sieving method) shall not exceed the following
limits:-

Fine aggregate 3% by weight


Coarse aggregate 1% by weight

0209. Sampling of Aggregates

Sampling and testing of aggregates when required by the Engineer shall be carried out in
accordance with BS 812. If adequate laboratory facilities do not exist on site, samples must
be taken and sent to a testing laboratory approved by the Engineer. Samples of about
0.015m3 (1/2 cu. ft.) and 0.03 m3 (1 cu. ft.) of fine and coarse aggregate shall be sent in
suitable airtight containers.

0210. Testing of Aggregates

All fine and coarse aggregates shall be imported from sources approved by the Engineer
and shall be within the limits laid down in the table below in respect of contamination and
reactivity:-

02-7 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

CONTAMINATION AND REACTIVITY OF AGGREGATES

Property Method of test & Standards Maximum Limit (% by weight)


Clay, Silt Wet Sieving through 0.075 sieve, Coarse Aggregates
And Dust BS 812: Part 103. Natural or Crushed Gravel 1%
Crushed Rock 3%
Fine Aggregates
Natural sand or
Natural sand/crushed gravel 3%
Crushed rock 5%
Clay Lumps ASTM C142 Coarse Aggregate 1%
Fine Aggregate 1%
Organic ASTM C 40 Colour standard not darker than
Impurities Plate No. 3
Chlorides Acid soluble Coarse Aggregate 0.02%
ASC1 * BS812: Part 117 Fine Aggregate 0.05 %
Sulphates Acid Soluble Coarse Aggregate 0.3 %
as SO3 * BS 812: Part 118 Fine Aggregate 0.3 %
Potential ASTM C 289 ** If the total amount of potentially
alkali reactive material exceeds 0.5 % by
Reactivity weight of the total aggregate the
alkali in the cement shall be
Chemical restricted to 3 Kg/m of concrete .
method of
Cement - ASTM C 289
Aggregate Innocuous
Combination
ASTM C 227
6 month expansion 0.1 % max

* Strict control shall be exercised to ensure that the maximum chloride content indicated is
not exceed at any time. Any violations shall be cause enough for rejection at any stage of
the construction.

** Aggregate may initially be assessed for its reactivity in accordance with ASTM C 289
and if potential reactivity is indicated than mortar bar tests in accordance with ASTM C
227 shall be carried out.

The tests and the maximum acceptable limits sampled and tested in accordance with the
specified BS, shall be as indicated in the table below:-

02-8 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

RELEVANT TESTS AND STANDARDS FOR AGGREGATES

Property Method of Test & Standards Maximum Limit (% by weight)

Contamination and
Reactivity As detailed in the table above

Grading BS 812: Part 103 (Dry) As detailed under Aggregates

Surface texture Descriptive, BS812 Limit not applicable

Water absorption Weighing dry & saturated Coarse Aggregate 2 %


ASTMC128/C127 Fine Aggregate 2.3 %
Soundness 5 Cycles ASTM C 88 MgSO4 12%
Na3SO4 12%
Drying shrinkage BS 812: Part 120 Shrinkage 0.05%

Shell content Coarser BS 812 Part 106 Maximum 5%


than 10 mm Size 2.36 maximum 10%
& 5 mm Finer than No requirement of shell content
2.36 mm
Particle shape BS 812 Part 105.1 Part 102.2 maximum 25 %
Flakiness index maximum 25 %
Elongation index
Specific Gravity ASTMC 128/C 127 Course & Fine aggregate 2.6

Mechanical Properties 10% fines, BS 812: Part 111 Minimum 100kN


Impact Value Part 112 30%
Los Angeles abrasion test 30%
(ASTMC-131 orC-535)

* The limit of 10% may be increased to 16% if aggregate is satisfactory in use.

0311. Frequency of Routine Tests on Aggregate

The Contractor shall carry out the various tests at the frequencies indicated below:

However the Engineer shall reserve the right to call for additional tests wherever it is
warranted.

02-9 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

FREQUENCY OF ROUTINE TESTS ON AGGREGATES

Property Method of Test Maximum Limit (% by Weight)


Grading BS 812 Part 103 Each 2 weeks or per 100 m3
whichever is more frequent.
Material finer than 0.075 mm BS 812 Part 103 Each 2 weeks or per 100 m3
whichever is more frequent
Clay lumps & friable Particles ASTMC142 Each 2 weeks or per 100 m3
whichever is more frequent.
Organic impurities ASTM C 40 Each month or per 200 m3
whichever is more frequent.
Water absorption ASTMC128/C127 Each month or per 200 m3
whichever is more frequent.
Specific Gravity ASTMC128/C127 Each month or per 200 m3
whichever is more frequent
Shell content BS 81 2 Part 106 Each 2 months or per 400 m3
whichever is more frequent.
Particle shape BS 812 Part 105.1 & Each 2 months or per 400 m3
105.2 whichever and 105.2 is more
frequent
Acid soluble chlorides, CL BS 812 Part 117 A&B - At source and On each delivery to
Qualitative, Quantitative Ditto - Appx C site 1 representative test per week
of aggregate to be used
Acid soluble Sulphates SOS BS 812 Part 118 On each delivery to site 1
Appendices A/B representative test per week of
aggregate to be used
Soundness, Mg S04 ASTM C88 (5 cycles) Each 48 concrete days

Mechanical strength 10% fines BS 812 parts 111, 112 Each 72 concrete days Each 72
or impact Los Angeles abrasion ASTMC 131/C 535 concrete days

Moisture variation by Moisture Meters Twice daily for sands

Drying shrinkage BS 812 Part 120 At start of project and whenever


there is a change in the source of
supply.
Potential Reactivity (ASTM C295, C289) At start of project and whenever
–of Carbonate (ASTM C586) there is a change in the source of
-of cement aggregate supply
combination (ASTMP214&C227)

Grading tests shall be carried out daily when concrete is being produced on a regular basis
or before hand when production in irregular.

The contractor is to check with his aggregate supplier that the aggregates when mixed with
other concrete constituents do not give a shrinkage value exceeding 0.065% when tested in
accordance with BR.S Digest No. 35.

02-10 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0212. Storage of Aggregates

The ready mix concrete supplier shall at all times maintain sufficient quantities of each type
of aggregate considered by the Engineer to be sufficient to ensure continuity of work.

Each type and grade of aggregate shall be stored separately in bins; in such a manner that
segregation of the various size particles shall not occur. The floors of the bins shall be of
concrete or other approved material having sufficient slope to ensure adequate drainage of
aggregates before being used for concreting.

Suitable precautions shall be taken to avoid contamination of aggregates by wind blown


dust, etc.

Suitable approved shading shall be provided to control the temperature and any
contamination especially chlorides.

Storage bins shall be emptied and cleaned at regular intervals as approved by the Engineer.

0213 Special Aggregates, Admixtures, etc.

Special aggregates, admixtures, etc. shall not be used without the written authority of the
Engineer and as may be directed by him and strictly in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
If the Contractor wishes to use an admixture he must provide in writing to the Engineer the
name of the product and the manufacturer and the purpose for which it is to be used. No
calcium chloride will be permitted in the concrete.

0214. Heavy Weight Aggregate

Heavyweight aggregates shall be aggregate having a particle density of 4000 kg/m3 or


greater, capable of producing concrete of very high density and providing radiation
shielding.

Heavyweight aggregate shall be obtained from approved sources. The Contractor shall
provide details of the aggregate he proposes to use along with samples and sources for the
approval of the Engineer.

Natural heavy weight Aggregate Barytes (BaS04). Barytes shall be a sulfate mineral of low
solubility, produced from high purity barium sulfate ore. Barytes shall be handled carefully
so as not to cause breakdown in size due to excessive handling, as fine material can
produce retardation of the concrete. Particle density shall not be less than 4500 kg/m3

Alternatively Iron ores may be used for heavy weight concrete production, which shall be
haematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe2O4), or ilmenite (FeTiO3). If this aggregate is used, the
Contractor shall ensure that problems arising due to inconsistent grading, variable density,
high absorption and degradation of material are avoided.

02-11 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

The Particle density shall be as follows:

ilmenite 4700 kg/m3


magnetite 5200 kg/m3
haematite 5200 kg/m3

0215. Water

Water for mixing and curing shall be obtained from an approved source and shall be clean
and free of acids, oils, vegetable, and deleterious matter which may have an effect on the
strength and appearance of the hardened concrete by discolouration or efflorescence.

The Contractor, when required by the Engineer, shall arrange for analysis of samples of the
water to be made by an approved testing laboratory and the water shall comply in all
respects with the requirements of BS 3148:1980.

The PH value of water shall be within the range of 7-9 and the concentration of inorganic
contamination shall not exceed the values indicated below:

- Dissolved solids excluding those listed below - 2200 ppm 0.20%


- Sulphates, alkali carbonates or bicarbonates - 1000 ppm 0.10%
- Chlorides - 500 ppm 0.05%
- Suspended solids - 2000 ppm 0.20%

Sea water and brackish water shall not be used for the mixing of concrete.

Prior to commencing of concreting and subsequently once every three months, the
contractor shall sample and test the water used for concreting for the presence of Sulphate
and Chloride salts. In between, the amount of dissolved solids shall be checked on a
weekly basis by conductivity methods. Any significant change in the amount of dissolved
solids shall be investigated immediately by further testing for Sulphate and Chloride salts.

The following limits shall apply:

Sulphate - 1000 ppm (mg/ltr)


Chlorides - 500 ppm
PH Value - 5.5 to 8.5
Inorganic impurities - 2000 ppm
Alkali carbonates and bicarbonates - 1000 ppm

Water with PH value outside these limits is of doubtful quality and shall be tested as per BS
3148 to determine acceptability for further use.

Water shall be clean and free from impurities, either in solution or suspension, which might
prove injurious to the concrete or steel.

Retarding and water reducing additives will be of the lignosulphate type.

02-12 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0216. Admixtures and Additives

Admixtures and additives (water reducing additives, retarders, etc.) shall be used only with
the prior approval of the Engineer. Additives shall be subjected to tests before approval and
during progress of work on site at the discretion of the Engineer. All costs incurred towards
all tests shall be borne by the Contractor.

Admixtures shall conform to one of the following standards:

- ASTM C494 Chemical admixtures for concrete.


- ASTM C1017 Chemical admixtures for use in flooring Concrete.
Admixtures/Additive shall:

- have no adverse effect on the shrinkage and water tightness properties of finished
concrete.
- not have any added chloride (0%, Calculated as calcium chloride by weight of cement in
the concrete).
- set retarding and water reducing admixtures, if permitted shall, consist of lignosulphate.

0217. Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall comply with BS 4449, BS 4461, BS 4482 or BS 4483, as applicable.


Structural reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of BS 8110.

High yield strength bars shall be round deformed bars, complying with ASTM 615 Grade 60
and the deformations conforming to the requirements of ASTM standard A305 to 50T,
Appendix 1

Testing of reinforcement shall be as follows:-

10 Nos. of specimen random samples of reinforcement bars available at site from each of
the various diameters of bars being incorporated in the works shall be taken to conduct
tensile test and bend and rebend tests.

All reinforcement shall be free from oil, any rust, scale or other matter likely to destroy bond
before being placed in position in the moulds or shutters. If for any reason there is an
appreciable lapse of time between the placing of the reinforcement and concreting, the steel
shall, if necessary be cleaned before concreting commences.

0218. Precast Concrete Elements

Precast units should be manufactured, handled and assembled by methods that are safe
and yield a competent structure which is satisfactory in relation to its stability, performance,
durability and appearance. The recommendations in BS 5531 shall be followed.

The Contractor shall submit for Engineer’s approval complete shop drawings for the works
and, if necessary, arrange for a field mock-up prior to commencement of production.

Precast concrete elements shall be cast in rigid and accurately assembled moulds giving
the required surface finish specified to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

02-13 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

They shall be cast with concrete as specified incorporating reinforcement and shall be
mechanically vibrated and properly cured. The formwork shall be painted with non staining
mould oil after proper cleaning and reassembling of the moulds and prior to casting
concrete.

Moulds for precast elements can only be used for as many times as they can produce
precast concrete elements of the form size, alignment, dimensions and surface finish
specified and presenting no defects and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Side moulds shall remain in position for half a day and bottom moulds shall remain in
position for seven days. The contractor is to take utmost care in providing for the proper
handling, hoisting, cutting, pinning, building in, including bedding and painting so that these
precast elements are not damaged, and are accurately and solidly fixed in their respective
positions.

0219. Expansion Joint Filler

Expansion joint filler shall be compressible filler sheet of selected soft wood and oak fibres
impregnated with a bitumen emulsion. It shall be completely non-staining and easy to
handle. It shall not extrude when compressed to 50% of original thickness and shall return
to more than 80% of its thickness, after compression. It shall not disintegrate due to
weathering. Density shall not be less than 300 kg/m3.

0220. Water Stops

Water stops shall be preformed, flexible and extruded from high grade polyvinyl chloride
compounds. They shall be of approved make and profile. PVC compound used shall
satisfy the following criteria when tested in accordance with BS 2571 and US Corps of
Engineers CRD-C572-74.

(i) Tensile strength = 13.8 N/mm2 (Min.)

(ii) Elongation at break = 300% (Min.)

(iii) BS softness = 45

(iv) Specific gravity = 1.3

0221. Storage of Materials

All cements shall be stored in a weather proof shed of adequate size having a raised dry
floor or in silos of approved design.

The shed shall be large enough to allow proper aeration and effectual separations of the
various consignments. The old consignments being used before the later ones. Cement
shall not be stored in site for more than 21 days, after this it must be removed from the site
at the contractor’s expense.

02-14 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Reinforcement should be stored clear off the ground and should be protected from
contamination by other materials.

0222. FORM WORK

WORKMANSHIP

The contractor shall supply, design, erect, strike and remove the form work and be entirely
responsible for its stability and safety to carry the wet concrete and all incidental loadings
and protect the concrete from damage and distortion during placing, vibration, ramming,
setting and curing. It shall be so constructed as to give the finished concrete the
dimensions shown on the drawings and of material capable of providing the surface finish
specified. The maximum permissible deflection under all loads shall not exceed 3 mm or
1/600 of the free span, whichever is lesser.

The contractor shall be entirely responsible for the sufficiency of the form work and shall be
required to submit drawings indicating all general fixing and support details for approval.
The Engineer’s approval does not absolve the contractor of such responsibility.

The contractor shall when so directed by the Engineer form the soffits of the beams and
slabs to a camber. The amount of camber and the method of obtaining same shall be
agreed with the Engineer.

Form work shall be so constructed as to prevent the loss of any liquid from the wet concrete
and to be removed without shock or vibration, all wedges used must be nailed so as to
prevent slipping or displacement.

Form work shall be of timber or metal or plastic and shall include all temporary concrete
moulds and their supports.

For concrete surfaces which are to be plastered, commercial ply wood of approved type
shall be used.

For concrete surfaces which are to remain exposed, wrought form work shall be used as
shown on the drawings. Wrought form work shall be of timber boarding wrought faced or
timber framing lined with smooth faced plywood, hardboard or an equal lining approved by
the engineer, or of metal or of fibre glass reinforced plastic suitable to obtain a fair-face
finish on the concrete.

Wire ties to form work passing through the concrete shall not be generally permitted, except
in places specifically agreed to by the Engineer’s Representative.

If internal ties are necessary, then bolts or rods shall be used in conjunction with metal
sleeves placed so that no metal is left closer to the finishes concrete surface than the
specified thickness of cover to the reinforcement On removal of such bolts or rods the holes
left shall be thoroughly filled with a paste consisting of one part cement to two parts of sand.

No ties whatsoever shall pass through any concrete members designed to be a part of a
water tight structure or through concrete having an exposed fairface finish.

02-15 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

All frame work is to be thoroughly cleaned of any old concrete or any other deposits.
Immediately before concreting it shall be thoroughly hosed down with water, temporary
openings being provided to permit the escape of sawdust, shavings, etc. with the water.

Surfaces of formwork shall be inspected and approved by the Engineer’s Representative


prior to concreting. This approval, however, shall not relieve the contractor of any of his
responsibilities.

Unless otherwise specified, the minimum periods before striking form work and centering
shall be as follows:

Columns, sides : 24 hours


Beams, sides : 24 hours
Beams, soffits : 21 days
Walls : 24 hours
Suspended slabs, soffits : 14 days
Soffit of domes & Cantilever : 28 days

The responsibility for the safe removal of the form work shall rest with the Contractor. Any
work showing signs of damage through premature loading shall be entirely reconstructed at
the contractor’s expenses.

During striking of form work to concrete members presenting external angles such as
columns, suspended beams, etc. utmost care shall be taken to avoid breaking of concrete at
these locations.

Observation by the contractor of the minimum time required for the removal of formwork
shall in no way relieve the contractor of his responsibility for insuring that the concrete has
attained sufficient strength for the load and is properly cured.

Fixing blocks and ends of brackets and bars and bolts, wall ties, etc. shall be cast in the
concrete at the time of placing and together with all mortices and holes and apertures.
Chases and grooves, etc. shall be accurately set out in the form work before the concrete is
placed. No part of the concrete works shall be cut away for any item or for any other reason
without the Engineer’s approval.

Before placing reinforcement, internal faces of form work shall be treated with non –staining
mould oil. Care shall be taken that the reinforcement does not become contaminated with
the mould oil. Wash out holes shall be provided for cleaning wherever inaccessible.

All buried concrete members shall be formed with chamfered edges/corners to ensure
dense concreting.

REINFORCEMENT (WORKMANSHIP)

0223. Placing

All reinforcement should be placed and maintained in the position shown on the drawings, in
which the bending dimensions and scheduling of bars should in accordance with B.S 4466
“Bending dimensions and scheduling of bars for the reinforcement of concrete.” Some
definite method of ensuring the adequacy of corner should be sought by the Contractor to
the Approval of the Engineer.

02-16 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Bars shall be tied together with annealed soft iron wire of No. 16 s.w.g. or other approved
for binding.

Reinforcement shall be inspected and approved by the Engineer before the concrete is
placed. Such approval will not relieve the contractor of his responsibilities in connection
with the work.

0224. Spacing Blocks

Where concrete blocks are used for ensuring the specified cover to the reinforcement, they
shall be made of fine aggregate concrete of similar characteristics as the main concrete.

0225. Bending

Reinforcement should not be bent or straightened in a manner that will injure the material.

Where reinforcement bars are bent aside at construction joints and afterwards bent back
into approximately their original position, care should be taken to ensure that at no time is
the radius of the bend less than 4 bars diameters for mild steel or 6 bar diameters for high
yield bars. Care should also be taken when bending back bars, to ensure that the concrete
around the bar is not damaged.

0226. General

The fixing of the reinforcing steel shall be checked immediately before concreting begins.
The reinforcement cages shall be maintained in position during concreting by the use of
adequate concrete spacers, steel chairs and cradles; these shall be provided even if not
shown on the drawings.

During concreting operations care must be taken to avoid displacement of the reinforcement
by plant, operative or wet concrete.

Particular attention shall be given to securing top reinforcement in beams and slabs and
special precautions must be taken in cantilevers to maintain the specified cover. Nylon or
other non metal spacers and ties may be used provided they are of satisfactory design and
provided they will have no deleterious effect upon the concrete or its surface, subject to the
prior approval of the Engineer.

0227. Bending Schedules

All necessary Bar Bending Schedules shall be provided by the Contractor to the Engineer in
such time as mutually agreed so as to preclude delay or otherwise affect the progress of the
Works.

02-17 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

CONCRETE (WORKMANSHIP)

0228. Concrete Mixes Generally

All concrete works shall be carried out in accordance with the BS 8110 & BS 5328 or as
directed by the Engineer.

Details of the proposed mix proportions shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval
prior to the commencement of the concreting.

All mixes are designed mixes unless followed by

‘P’ – denoting a ‘prescribed mix’ specified by mix proportions with a target strength
requirement. The mix proportions for standard prescribed mixes are set out in Tables 1 & 2
of BS 5328.

The designed mixes shall generally comply with Table 1 furnished below unless otherwise
specified.

TABLE – 1

Concrete Type of Nominal Minimum Maximum Characteristic Cube


Grade Content Aggregate quantity free
size mm of water/ strength
cement cement
kg/m3 ratio
(CCS) Minimum
7 days 28 days
N/mm2 N/mm2
In Substructure
C 15 (Blinding) OPC 20 250 0.50 7 15
C40 OPC 20 380 0.45 28 40
In
Superstructure
C40 OPC 20 380 0.45 28 40
In post
tensioned slab OPC 20 380 0.45 28 40
Concrete
C40

The CCSs are for concrete which has been cured at a temperature of 20o C + 1o C and are
the values below which no more than 5% of the test results fall. The 07 day strengths shall
be used as a guide only.

Concrete for water retaining structures shall be watertight and shall comply with the
recommendations of BS 8007.

Concrete for paving or precast units shall be tested to BS 1881 and shall have a minimum
flexural strength of 3.5 N/mm2 at 28 days. If the conc
2
rete has a specified CCS of 40 N/mm or greater, then the minimum flexural strength shall
be 4 N/mm2.

0229. Trial Mixes

02-18 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Preliminary laboratory tests shall be carried out to determine the mixes to satisfy the
requirements of the Specifications with representative samples of approved materials.
Trial mixes cubes shall be made from the three consecutive batches for each mix; the
workability shall equate with the designed target value. Six cubes from each batch shall be
taken, three for testing at 28 days and three at an earlier age as approved by the Engineer.

These cubes shall be cured, stored and tested in a laboratory approved by the Engineer.
The average strength of the nine cubes shall be more than the specified CCS by the current
margin minimum 3.5 N/mm2

Further trial mixes shall be taken if the range (the maximum minus the minimum of the three
cube results in any batch) exceeds 15% of the average of that batch, or if the range of the
three batches averages exceeds 20% of the overall average of the batches.

The mixes shall be tested to determine the following properties also and acceptability
established.

(i) bleeding in accordance with ASTM C 232

(ii) free water/ cement ratio.

(iii) Indirect tensile strength in accordance with BS 1881 including cylinder splitting and
beam tests.

0230. Target Mean Strength

The target mean strength specimen shall exceed the specified characteristic strength by at
least the ‘current margin’. The current margin for a concrete mix shall be determined by the
contractor and shall be taken as the lesser of:

1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 100 separate batches of concrete
of nominally similar proportions and of similar materials and produced over a period not
exceeding 12 months by the same plant under similar supervision, but not less than 2.5
N/mm2 for concrete of grade 15 or 3.75 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20 or above;

1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 40 separate batches of concrete
of nominally similar proportions and of similar materials and produced over a period not
exceeding 5 days by not exceeding 6 months by the same plant under similar supervision,
but not less than 5N/mm2 for concrete of grade 15 or 7.75 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20 or
above;

Where there are insufficient data to arrive at the above, the margin for the initial mix design
shall be taken as 10 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 15 or 15.0 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20
or above.

02031. Contamination of Mix

02-19 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

The maximum total weight of aggressive elements, chlorides and/or sulphates per cubic
metre of compacted concrete is to be:

Chlorides expressed as }
equivalent sodium } 1.0 kg (0.04%)
chloride (NaC1) from all sources }

Sulphates (as SO3) } 5.0 kg (0.20%)


excluding cement content }

The mix constitutes, including water, are to be chemically analysed to the approval of the
Engineer at not less than the following intervals to determined that the above limits are not
exceeded so as to ensure durable concrete :-

(a) at preliminary mix design stage.

(b) before any change of source of supply of materials

(c ) as directed by the Engineer.

(d) one sample per 50 cubic metres of coarse aggregate delivered to site but in any
case, not less than one sample from each day’s delivery.

(e) one sample per 25 cubic metres of fine aggregate (sand) delivered to site but in any
case, not less than one sample from each day’s delivery.

0232. Change of Mix

Where the strength of the concrete mix in two adjoining members differs by more than 50%
of the weaker mix, the following procedure shall apply when the higher strength concrete is
in a column or wall.

0233. Transport of Concrete

Concrete shall be handled from place of mixing to place of final deposit as rapidly as
practicable by approved methods, which will prevent segregation and loss of ingredients. If
shall deposited as nearly as practicable in its final position to avoid rehandling unset
concrete inside the forms; chutes for transporting the concrete will only be allowed with the
approval of the Engineer.

0234. Placing Of Concrete

Before placing the concrete, the moulds or form work shall be cleaned of shaving, pieces of
wood or other debris and other deleterious matter. The concrete shall be carefully placed
and unless special permission is obtained, it shall not be dropped from a height of more
than 2 metres.

02-20 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

After placing it shall be well consolidated until in penetrates and fills all the spaces between
and around reinforcing bars in such a manner as to ensure that the concrete is solid and
entirely free from voids.

Concreting of any member shall proceed in one continuous operation between day work
joints, and the interval between adding the water to the dry material and the completion of
the placing and consolidation of the concrete shall not exceed the initial set of the concrete
or 25 minutes, except as specified for ready mixed concrete.

During concreting a competent steel fixer shall always be in attendance to adjust and
correct the position of the reinforcement immediately before and during the placing of the
concrete.

During concreting of slabs an Electrician shall be in attendance to rectify any damage or


blockage to electrical conduits.

The contractor shall provide a method statement of the proposed concreting operation, if
required by the Engineer. Contractor shall provide prescribed forms on which Engineer’s
prior approval of concreting is sought.

0235. Compaction of Concrete

Unless other wise specified by the Engineer, all structural concrete shall be compacted by
approved mechanical vibration equipment which will, in most cases, involve the use of
immersion vibrators (the vibrators are to operate at a frequency of not less than 6,000
c.p.m.).

The contractor shall make available standby vibrators in good working condition at all times
during concreting which shall be used in the event of failure of the vibrator in operation.

Deep beams of thinner width shall be vibrated with the needle of 28mm diameter.

Vibrators used for slab concreting shall preferably be of electrically powered type.

Where such vibrators are used, they shall be allowed to penetrate the unset concrete by
their own motion are to be withdrawn so as to ensure that no voids remain.

Excessive tamping or vibrating of concrete shall be avoided, sufficient only being done to
ensure thorough consolidation, and a sufficient amount of equipment and labour shall be
available at all times.

No contact with reinforcement or form work, by the immersion vibrator shall be allowed and
care is to be taken to ensure that previously placed set concrete is not damaged in any way.

It is essential that the mix proportions used shall be suitable for compaction by vibrator
without any segregation or loss of material.

If approval is given by the Engineer for hand compaction, the Contractor shall ensure that
the mix proportions are adjusted to provide concrete of suitable workability and strength to
comply with all the requirements of this Specification.

02-21 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0236. Curing

As soon as possible after placing, concrete shall be protected during the first stages of
hardening from harmful effects of sunshine and drying winds by covering with polythene
sheeting. Later on, curing shall be continued by covering with wet hessian, approved spray
on curing membrane, polythene or other approved materials. The concrete surfaces shall
be kept saturated for at least seven days for concrete which is not exposed in the finished
works and as directed by the engineer for concrete that has a surface finish.
All concrete shall also be adequately protected form excessive temperatures, shocks,
running water or other deleterious effects.

Sides and soffits of beams and slabs where moist and membrane curing cannot be carried
out effectively, shall be cured with a spray curing compound approved by the Engineer.
Water retention of such curing compound shall not be less than 75%.

0237. Hot Weather Concreting

The maximum temperature of wet and unset concrete is to be limited to 30oC at all times to
prevent excessively rapid setting times, loss of moisture and shrinkage, etc.

The following precautions should be adopted as necessary to comply with the above limit:-

(a) Shading of aggregate stock piles.

(b) Insulation of water tanks and pipelines and formwork.


(c) Refrigeration of mixing water.

(d) Shading of form work and reinforcement from sun and drying winds.

(e) Cooling of form work and reinforcement prior to, and ahead of the casting of the
concrete by mild spraying.

(f) Covering and spraying with water of hardening concrete surface.

(g) Concreting during the cooler parts of the day.

(h) Refrigeration of concrete mix and/or constituents with liquid gas.

The contractor is referred to American Concrete Institute standard 305-R-77 for


recommended practice for hot weather concreting.

0238. Watertight Concrete Construction

Where watertight construction is specified on the drawings such as basement


raft/walls/water tanks/sumps/holding tanks, etc., the Contractor shall be wholly responsible
for achieving watertightness of the work so specified. Joints in concrete shall be located
only at positions approved by the Engineer.

Continuous PVC waterstops of approved make shall be incorporated in all joints, the
locations of which are to be agreed with the Engineer. Each piece of premoulded
waterstops shall be of maximum practicable length in order that the number of end joints will

02-22 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

be held to a minimum. Joints at inter sections and at ends of pieces shall be made in the
manner most appropriate to the material being used. Joint shall develop effective
watertightness fully equal to that of the continuous waterstop material.
In addition to strength and durability requirements, the design of the mix must be such as to
produce a dense waterproof and damp proof concrete with the lowest possible shrinkage
characteristics.

After completion, a thorough check shall be made on all joints to ensure that no imperfection
exists and tests shall be conducted if directly by the Engineer, to ascertain the same.

The 28 days characteristic cube strength should be less than 40 N/mm2 and the concrete
should be classed as grade C40. The minimum cement content should be 400 kg/m3 for
above ground structures and for underground structures.

All waterproof concrete shall contain approved waterproofing powder, added to concrete at
the time of mixing at a rate recommended by the Manufacturer.

For junctions of slab or beams with columns or walls, the area of columns or wall is to be
cast in high strength concrete, simultaneously with the slab or the beam, with the area of the
higher strength concrete projecting a minimum of 75mm (500 mm for flat slab construction)
into the slab or beam and both mixes well vibrated together subject to the approval of the
Engineer.

QUALITY CONTROL

0239. Supervision

In order to maintain the required standard of quality, the Contractor shall provide full time on
site a suitably trained and fully experienced Engineer who shall be responsible for the
quality control of all concrete work. He shall supervise all concrete mixing and placing, steel
fixing and form work erection and be responsible for all tests on materials, the making,
identifying, marking testing and recording of results for all test cubes and the maintenance
and calibration of all mixing and measuring plant under his direct supervision.

0240. Mixing and Weight Batching

The contractor should use a weigh batching plant for proportioning all materials and the
concrete is to be mixed in a mechanical batch mixer of a type approved by the Engineer.
The plant is to be maintained in good working order and the weigh balances shall be tested
regularly to ensure that they do not deviate by more than 3% of any actual weight.

The mixer capacity is to be sufficient to allow mixing and placing with no possibility of an
“initial set” occurring between batches.

Each batch of ingredients is to be charged into the drum of the mixer whilst revolving and is
to be mixed in its dry state for not less than one minute before water is added from the
measuring tank.

Mixing must continue until there is a uniform distribution of the material and the mass is
uniform in colour and consistency and must continue for at least 1-½ minutes after the

02-23 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

water is added. The whole content shall be discharged before new materials are added to
the drum.
The mixer drum must be thoroughly cleaned out at the end of each day’s work and no
concrete must be left in the mixer drum or borrows during break periods.

0241. Slump Tests

Slump tests are to be used for guidance only and are to be carried out by the contractor as
directed by the Engineer in conjunction with cube tests. Slump tests are to be made as
directed in B.S.

0242. Concrete Sample Testing

Test cubes shall be taken at regular intervals during the progress of the work (and as may
be directed by the Engineer) to confirm that the mixes comply with this specification.

Unless specified otherwise during the progress of the work, the frequency of sampling shall
not be less than the following rates “-

- Columns, cantilevers and other critical members – each 10 m3 or ten batches


whichever is lesser.

- Slabs, beams, walls, bases, etc. – each 50m3 of fifty batches.

- Large pours and rafts, etc. over 200 m3 – each 100 m3 or one hundred batches.

- A minimum of six cubes for each different grades of concrete used during each
working day.

Test cubes shall also be made if the source of supply of materials is altered or when
otherwise required by the Engineer.

Each sampled is to consist of six test cubes made and stored in accordance with B.S. three
for testing at seven days and the other three for testing at twenty eight days.

Cubes are to be clearly marked with the time and date of their manufacture and a record
kept of the exact position in the works from which they were taken together with details of
slump, quality of mix, the temperature and physical conditions under which the cube was
stored prior to despatch.

Tests are to be made in accordance with B.S 1881 at a laboratory approved by the
Engineer. The cube test result sheets must show the age at testing, density, crushing
strength, together with the information referred to above. Strength requirements shall
comply with BS 8110.

The cube testing machine shall be housed in laboratory and calibrated to BS 1610, at the
time of installation. It shall be verified / recalibrated at least once in three months to ensure
accuracy of the equipment.

02-24 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

The results will be unaccepted, if:-

- the average strength determined from any group of four consecutive test cubes does
not exceed the CCS by 0.5 times the current margin, or
- any individual result falls below 85% of CCS.

In such an event any one or more of the following actions, as instructed, shall be taken at
the contractor’s own expense.

- Changing the mix.

- Improving quality control.

- Cutting and testing cores from placed concrete.

- Load testing relevant structural units.

- Non-destructive testing of placed concrete.

- Cutting out and replacing defective concrete.

If the range of individual cube strengths made from the same sample exceeds 15% of the
mean then the method of making, curing and testing cubes shall be checked and the
excessible deviation set right.

Regardless of satisfactory test results, any concrete which, in the Engineer’s opinion is
excessively honey combed or having excessive shrinkage cracks or in any other way
defective, shall be liable to rejection. The onus is on the contractor to establish the
acceptability of such defective works by carrying out additional testing as required at his
expense. Minor defects apparent on stripping the shuttering must be made good at the
contractor’s expense but no such making good shall be carried out until after inspection by
the Engineer and his approval of the proposed treatment has been given. Work which has
not been previously inspected but which shows signs of such treatment shall be liable to
rejection as defective work.

The above additional testing and remedial measures shall be carried out without any undue
delay. The cost of all such delays on site shall be met by the contractor.

Concrete shall be tested for drying shrinkage, water absorption and moisture movement as
directed for which 100 mm cubes and 75 x 75 mm prisms shall be prepared and tested in
accordance with BS 1881.

The acceptable limits are:-

Water absorption : 3% absorbed after 10 minutes;


6.5% absorbed after 24 hours.

Drying shrinkage : 0.05%

Moisture movement : 0.03%

02-25 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

DEFLECTIONS AND TOLERANCES

0243. Deflection of Form Work

The form work must be designed such that it shall be capable of withstanding the pressure
and loads resulting from the placing of the concrete, whatever method of compaction or
vibration is employed without undue deflection or loss of alignment.
The maximum allowable deflections are listed below:

Location Permissible
deflection

Between adjacent framing members + 2mm


Between adjacent ties on a framing + 1mm

Over the full depth of a vertical face + 2mm

Over a 3m length horizontally + 3mm


The form work shall be made generally with the following upward cambers :

(i) Cantilever slabs 3mm for every 1.5 m of span.


(at tip of Cantilever)
(ii) Slabs of span not greater than 3M 3mm for every 3.0 M of span.
(at mid span)
(iii) Cantilevered beams 6mm for every 1.5M of span.
(at tip of Cantilever)
(iv) Beams of span not greater than 6M 6mm for every 3.0 M of span.
(at mid span)

0244. Concrete Tolerances

The contractor shall be responsible for setting out the work accurately and for accurately
making all concrete sections and members in accordance with the dimensions shown on the
drawings. He shall generally construct the works in such a way that the fitting together of
various components of the building such as steel work, block work, doors, windows,
finishes, can be properly carried out.

Any work which is significantly out of level or alignment shall be rejected and shall be rebuilt
at the contractor’s expense. No cutting away or making up of hardened concrete work shall
be allowed without the Engineer’s approval.

The contractor shall adopt methods for the setting out of the buildings which can be readily
and repeatedly checked by the Engineer.

The following tolerances shall not be exceeded.

All setting out dimensions, length of beams and slabs, storey heights and position of
members + 6mm (non cumulative).

Exposed columns, columns with fair face finish and those housing windows and other
frames tied to their faces shall be accurate in position, square and straightness to within +
2mm.

02-26 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Cross-sectional dimensions of concrete members/ sizes + 3mm.

Displacement from straightness shall be within 2mm in 3 metres (non-cumulative)

Surface levels of floor slabs


- Generally (In 10m length) : + 6mm
.. + 3mm
- Local undulations

Verticality of columns and walls


- In storey height : + 6mm
- In full building height : + 20mm

Variation in size and location


of openings, sleeves and
embedded fixtures : + 6mm

Variations in stairs
- In riser : + 3mm

Twist in members shall not exceed 3mm in 3 metre


(Non-cumulative)

Regardless of the tolerances permitted, the Contractor shall consider building details that
adjoin each other, where finer tolerances may be called for.

Any defective work like deviations from the working details in respect of setting out, correct
lines and levels verticality, or sizes and thickness of members, shall be removed and
reconstructed or other wise rectified to the approval of the Engineer.

All remedial work shall be done without undue delay and the contractor shall be responsible
for any extra expense in making good the defective work as required.

PROTECTION OF CONCRETE

0245. Protection of Foundation

Owing to any aggressive nature of the ground conditions, wherever specified, reinforced
concrete below ground level and/or contact with soil shall have a protective membrane.

The membrane shall be approved self adhesive waterproofing membrane. All concrete
surfaces shall be surface dry and brushed free from dust before application of the
membrane. The membrane shall be preformed self adhesive and of tropical grade. It shall
comply with the following testing and performance requirements.

Minimum tensile strength : 5000 psi (34.5 N/mm2)


(ASTM D638)

Minimum tear strength : 280 N/mm


(ASTM D1004)

02-27 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Minimum puncture resistance : 290 N


(ASTM E154)

Vapour transmission rate : Less than 0.03 g/m2/24


(ASTM E96 Procedure B) hrs.

Water resistance : Excellent


(ASTM D2939 (i), (ii) )

Thickness : 2.1mm (minimum)

Under structural concrete the membrane shall be laid on a concrete blinding layer, sticky
side downwards, extending 300mm at least beyond the line of the structural concrete to be
placed above. The blinding layer shall be dry, smooth, and free from nails and shall be
primed with one coat of approved primer.

After construction of the concrete work above, the vertical (or battered) surface shall be
primed with approved primer.

At all internal angles between horizontal and vertical or battered surfaces 25 mm x 25 mm


fillets shall be formed using approved bitumen putty. A spray of 10 x 10mm shall be
provided at all external corners.

The waterproofing membrane shall be applied to the vertical faces, sticky side to face,
bringing downwards over the fillet and extended horizontally over the 300mm width of
membrane extending along the top of the concrete sub-base. The membranes shall be
pressed tightly together to form an effective watertight joint.

Any joining of the membrane shall be by overlapping a minimum of 100mm. The overlaps
shall be pressed firmly together to provide a watertight seal.

All junctions between vertical surfaces and top surfaces of concrete below ground shall be
reinforced with a 300 mm wide strip of membrane, equally between both surfaces, before
fixing the main membrane. The membrane protection of all concrete shall be carried out to
a minimum of 15 cm above ground level.

When a backfill material is to be placed against membranes they shall be protected by


approved sheets. Sheets used for protection shall be robust, durable and light weight.
They shall have permanent life even under exposure to saturated conditions and shall be
minimum 10mm thick. Notwithstanding the provision of these sheets, the greatest care shall
be exercised by the contractor in selecting and placing fill so that the membrane is not
damaged.

Special attention shall be paid to the junction between piles and pile caps to ensure the
concrete is fully protected, all of which shall be to the Engineer’s approval.

0246. Protection under Paved Areas/Ground Slab

The formation level shall be prepared using a 50mm layer of rolled fine sand or concrete
according to the drawings.

02-28 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Approved polythene sheeting is then to be laid to provide an impermeable membrane. The


sheet shall be of 1200 gauge (0.3mm).
Sheets of polythene are to be lapped by atleast 150mm. The upper sheet shall be turned
back and mastic tape applied approximately 75mm from the edge of the lower sheet. The
upper sheet shall then be struck down and the edge sealed to the lower sheet with 75mm
wide approved polythene joining tape.

Where paved areas adjoin structural concrete, a water proof joint is to be formed between
the approved sheeting and the protective system to the structural concrete or the polythene
sheeting shall be married at all edges to the DPC as directed.

0247. Concrete Coating

Generally, all the concrete below grade in contact with soil shall be protected with two
component solvent free liquid epoxy resin modified with refined coal tar as specified. It shall
have excellent adhesion and shall be applied at the covering rates specified by the
approved manufacturer. It shall be in ready to apply condition, not requiring addition of
thinner at site. The protection shall be applied to the top of the building concrete and to the
outside surfaces of all buried concrete and continued upto formed ground level/pavement
level as applicable.

Before application, the surfaces must be cleaned to remove grease and loose material and
irregularities and blow holes in the surface must be filled with a sand cement mix and
brought to an even surface. Each of the coats must be applied at the rate specified by the
manufacturer.

The coating at sides shall be covered with a layer of building paper (conforming to BS 1521)
even while the second coat is still tacky, in order to prevent damage while backfilling. At
least 2 days shall be allowed to elapse for the coating to achieve full setting strength before
back filling.

The coating at the top of blinding concrete is made in three coats over evenly finished
blinding concrete. The final coat shall be blinded with clean, sharp sand, 1 to 2mm in size
(7-14 mesh), while it is “sticky” and then allowed to dry. The three coats shall be applied in
perpendicular directions forming a minimum DFT of 500 microns.

0248. Cutting/Chasing Of Concrete

No holes or chases shall be cut in reinforced concrete after its placement. If found
absolutely necessary the contractor shall seek prior approval of Engineer and shall make
good the cut or chased portions with approved repairing compounds.

JOINTS IN CONCRETE

0249. Construction Joints

Concrete shall be stopped at the end of a period of work only at construction joints which
shall be located in such positions as may be authorised by the Engineer. Such construction
joints shall be vertical or horizontal or both as required.

02-29 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Vertical joints shall be formed by adequately secured rigid stop boards designed to pass
continuous steel bars without temporary bending or displacement.

At construction joints, both vertical and horizontal, the surface of the completed concrete
shall be prepared by spraying, wire brushing or chipping so that it is free from all laitance,
scum and loose material and shows a slightly roughened texture in which the tips of the
coarse aggregate are exposed.

In case of walls and columns, the initial 100mm up from the bottom of each lift shall be cast
separately to provide ‘Kicker’ for securing the shutter for the wall or column thereto. The
surface accepting the kicker shall be treated as above. The kicker shall be vibrated.

All construction joints shall be identified in the construction scheme and shall be approved
by the Engineer before actual construction commences.

Generally the position of the construction joints, unless otherwise instructed shall be located
as follows:-

(a) A joint shall be formed horizontally at the top of a foundation including raft foundation.

(b) In the case of columns, walls (circular or rectangular) and shafts, horizontal joints shall
be formed 25mm below the lowest soffit of beams and/or slabs meeting them at the top.

(c) Suspended floor slab and beam joints shall be vertical and be located at or near one
third the distance of the span. Joint in slab shall be parallel to the principal
reinforcement.

(d) “Kickers” of columns, walls, etc. shall be incorporated in the previous concrete from
which it projects.

(e) Concrete in an upstand at the bottom of walls/shafts shall be placed at the same time as
the slab or other work from which the upstand projects.

(f) In case of raft slab, the joint shall be provided in the middle strip and shall be specially
designed to keep the raft damp proof.

(g) All exposed walls such as parapet walls or basement peripheral walls shall be cast in
lengths not exceeding 10 metres and shall be constructed on the alternate bay principle.

(h) Exposed roof parapet shall have expansion joints as detailed in drawing.

In general, vertical joints shall be formed away from corners and horizontal joints above
splays or openings. Corbels or brackets shall be poured monolithically with the wall, etc.

Concrete shall be placed in one continuous operation upto the construction joint. In case of
large volumes of concrete, the contractor shall arrange for working in shifts in such a way
that no interruption to the pour occurs.

Proposals for the casting sequence and the layout of joints shall be submitted by the
contractor for the Engineer’s approval.

Particular care shall be taken while placing of new concrete near a joint. This concrete
shall be well compacted attentively. In case of in-situ structural joints, preparation shall be

02-30 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

carried out preferably when the earlier concrete has set out not hardened. With a fine spray
of water or wire brushing, the outer mortar skin may be removed so as to expose the larger
aggregates without disturbing them.
When bonding concrete to existing hardened concrete the existing concrete shall be well
chipped to expose the aggregate and well washed to remove all loose particles. This
surface shall then be “buttered” with a rich cement grout immediately prior to the new
concrete being placed.

“Keys” shall be provided whenever directed at the construction joints.

0250. Design Joints

Unless otherwise indicated in the drawings or elsewhere, all contraction joints shall have
two coats of rubberised bitumen painted on the surface that is cast first. It shall be ensured
that the reinforcement provided for bending is continuous. However, temperature/ shrinkage
reinforcement shall be discontinuous across the joint.

Expansion joints shall incorporate a resin bonded cork filled board and dowel bars with
compressible pad at the end of the debonded half length, conforming to the details on the
drawings.

0251. Joint Sealants

Contraction and expansion joints shall be sealed with poly sulphide sealant. The joints shall
be in conformity with the manufacturer’s recommendations having due regard to the period
of concreting, the size of the concrete panel and the time when the sealer so to be run. The
joints shall be prepared, cleaned and primed in compliance with the manufacturers’
instructions and the surface shall be neatly finished.

0252. Water Retaining Joints

These joints shall be constructed meeting with the requirements of BS 8007.

0253. Light Weight Concrete

The light weight concrete shall comply with the following requirements:-

(i) The cement shall be ordinary Portland cement meeting with the requirements of BS
12 or it shall be Portland Blast Furnace cement meeting with the requirements of BS
146.
(ii) The principle aggregate can be vermiculate or other suitable material with the prior
approval of the Engineer.

(iii) The sand and water to be used in the concrete mix, concreting and curing of the light
weight concrete shall comply with the requirements enumerated elsewhere.

(iv) The minimum 28 days’ cube crushing strength of the concrete shall be 1.2 N/mm2.

(v) The density shall be between 1000 Kg/m3 to 1200 Kg/m3.

02-31 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Light weight concrete specified for structural steel encasement shall have surface
reinforcement of 5 kg. /sq.m (minimum).

Light weight concrete for roofing shall have K-value equal to 0.11.

02-32 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0254. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

A. Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of
Construction" - June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors of U.K.

B. Columns underground have been measured from the top of the foundation to the
top of the ground slab. Tie beams and strap beams have been measured up to the
top of ground slabs where applicable.

C. Columns have been measured from top of slab to the soffit of slabs.

D. Beams have been measured to their full depth without deducting portion within
slab. Slab beams have been measure as beams.

E. Upstands, parapets, kerbs and the like have been measured from the top of the
slab from which they project.

F. Rates for concrete shall be deemed to include for:

a) the supply of all materials, storage, plant and equipment, tools, admixtures, trial
mixes, mixing, sampling and testing.

b) hoisting to any height, lowering to any depth, depositing concrete in position,


vibration and compacting, curing and hacking surfaces for key.

c) surface treatments to unset concrete such as tamped, troweled or floated surfaces


as required and for finishing to falls or slopes.

d) forming construction joints and edges of beds where laid in bays.

e) cutting or forming mortises, apertures, grooves, chases, rebates and chamfers.

f) grouting, casting in-pipes, pipe sleeves, ducts, dowels, fixing bolts and the like and
building in ends of lintels, etc.

g) casting wall ties into concrete and subsequently straightening and building into
joints in blockwork.

Formwork

G. Rates for formwork shall include for all formwork items all props, struts, stays,
wedges, bolts, all cutting, labour, including applying shutter oils, angles at
intersections, forming all grooves, throats, sinkings and splays, raking and circular
cutting around all pipes, ducts, curved work and all other work whatsoever
necessary to achieve the surface features and finishings required and strings of
stairs, striking and rubbing down and making good concrete surfaces after
formwork is removed.

H. Contrary to Clause C4.1.6 returns to walls, ends, projections and reveals of


openings or recesses have been included with formwork to walls.

02-33 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Reinforcement

J. Rates for reinforcement shall include for all reinforcing bars or mesh and links and
stirrups as detailed on the drawings including cleaning, bending, overlaps, cutting
and notching, all necessary supports and spacer bars, distance pieces and steel
binding wire.

Precast Concrete

K. Rates for pre-cast concrete units shall include for moulds, stoolings, ends, angles
and junctions. Rates shall include for surface finishes as required and for fixing
cramps, ties or holes and plugs or inserts and for hoisting, building-in, bedding,
jointing and pointing as required.

Sundry Item

L Polythene sheet has been measured nett with no allowance made for overlaps.
Rates for polythene sheet shall include for laps, tapes used for joining overlaps,
straight and curved cutting, waste and for fitting around obstructions.

M. Contrary to Clause G2.1. measurement of tanking and waterproofing has not been
sub divided into flat, sloping or vertical coverings but is measured together.

N. Contrary to Clause G2.2. Waterproofing and tanking to skirtings has been


measured with the main area of waterproofing and not separately.

O. Rates for wall ties shall include for fixing to formwork, bending and casting into
concrete and subsequently straightening and building into joints in blocks.

End of Section 02

02-34 Section 02-Concrete Work


Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 03

BLOCK WORK

0301. SCOPE

This specification covers the materials, manufacture and workmanship for but not limited to
the following items to be incorporated in the works:-

- Steam Cured Concrete block work


- Precast claustra screen work
- Fire stoppings
- all accessories and associated items

0302. SUBMITTALS

The Contractor shall submit for the approval of the Engineer, samples for the following along
with the manufacturer's product data and certifications that each type complies with the
specified requirements and the local municipal laws and regulations.

- Each of the masonry items


- Other manufactured products
- All associated accessories
- Fire stop products

Onsite mockup sample panel shall be erected for the approval of the Engineer before
progressing any work.

Mock ups offsite or on job for the fire stops shall be provided by the Contractor as directed
by the Engineer.

0303. TESTING

The Contractor shall provide samples and carry out the specified tests for each of the items
at an approved laboratory at his own cost and submit the report along with any explanations
and recommendation of the laboratory whenever called to do so by the Engineer.

Testing shall be carried out for each batch received or mixed and produced at site and/or as
directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS

0304. Cement

Cement shall be as specified under "Section 03 - Concrete Works".

03-1 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

0305. Water

Water shall conform to the requirements specified under Section 03 Concrete Works.

0306. Aggregate

Aggregate shall conform to the requirements specified under "Section 03 - Concrete Works"
and to BS 1199 & 1200: 1976 and BS 882:1992.

0307. Additives

Additives to mixes for blocks and mortar shall be from approved manufacturers and shall be
used strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Additives shall only be used
with the Engineer's written instructions.

0308. Wall Ties

Wall ties shall be Stainless Steel wire butterfly-type wall ties to BS 1449 Part 4:316.

0309. Damp - Proof Courses

Damp proof course shall be 1.5 mm thick self adhesive bituminous rubber membrane,
comprising an elastic rubber / bitumen compound as layer of high performances cross
laminated, high density, polythene (HDPE) carries film of type suitable for hot climate. DPC
shall be from an approved manufacturer and shall be used strictly in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. DPC shall be provided at all plinth beams having blockwork
above and at locations shown in the drawings.

MANUFACTURE

0310. Mortar

Mortar for concrete blockwork shall be cement/sand mortar (1:4) composed of one part
Ordinary Portland Cement to four parts of sand by volume for works above and below damp
proof course level

Claustra blocks shall be manufactured of cement and fine aggregate 1:5 mix by volume
made in approved mould. All constituents of claustra blocks shall conform to the
requirements specified under "Section 03 - Concrete Works."

Mortar shall be mixed in approved mechanical mixers. The mixers shall be kept clean at all
times. The ingredients for mortar shall be measured in proper clean gauge boxes. Mortar
shall be prepared with the addition of the minimum quantity of clean water for workability.
The sand used shall be dry when proportioning. In case it is not possible to obtain dry sand
allowance shall be made for bulking when gauging by volume.

03-2 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

The mean compressive strength at 28 days for each mortar shall conform to BS 5628: Part
1: 1992.

Mortars shall be used within thirty (30) minutes of mixing. Hardened mortars shall not be
used in the work and shall be removed immediately from the site.

0311. Steam Cured Concrete Block work

A. Manufacture

Blockwork shall comply with BS 6073: Part 1:1981. Type A.

Concrete blocks shall be obtained from an approved local factory with a proven record of at
least 5 years.

Concrete blocks (solid or hollow) shall be manufactured in accordance with BS 6073: Part 1:
1981 and in the following dimensions. (Work sizes):-

Height - 190 mm + 1 % Tolerance (200 mm coordinating size)


Length - 390 mm + 1 % Tolerance (400 mm coordinating size)
Width - As required + 1 % Tolerance

The thickness and work sizes of blocks shall be as indicated on the drawings and as
directed in writing by the Engineer, but shall conform to 75, 90, 100, 140, 190 mm work
sizes. Coordinating sizes are 85, 100, 150, 200 mm.

Concrete blocks shall comply with the following requirements:

The density of the concrete blocks shall not be less than 1500 kg/m3 but shall not exceed
2160 kg/m3.

The Compressive Strength at Twenty Eight (28) Days shall be 70 kg/cm2 for non-load
bearing walls and 100 kg/cm2 for load bearing walls, expressed as force per unit of net
cross sectional area.

The water absorption shall be 20% or less of dry weight.

The design of the cavities and webs of the hollow concrete blocks shall be submitted to the
Engineer prior to manufacture. The thickness of the face shell and of the membrane of solid
portions shall not be less than thirty five (35) mm. The total volume of the cavities shall not
exceed 50% of the volume of the block.

Concrete blocks shall be hard, sound, durable, sharp, rectangular shape, clean with well
defined arises free from cracks, flaws and other defects.

Closers and half blocks shall be purpose made; cut blocks shall not be used.

The Engineer may permit the manufacture of the blocks at site at his discretion subject to
the production of sufficient satisfactory evidence that the Contractor has the necessary
know how, equipment and facilities to do so. If manufactured on site, the blocks shall be
press moulded in approved moulds and vibrating pressure machines with a minimum of
2800 cycles per minute in accordance with BS 6073: Part 1:1981.

03-3 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

Aggregate shall be so sized, graded, proportioned and thoroughly mixed in a batch mixer
with such proportions of cement and water as to produce a homogeneous concrete mixture.

The recommended mix to obtain the compressive strength and finish required is as follows:

50 kg cement
0.15 m3 fine aggregate (graded up to 4.8 mm)
0.30 m3 coarse aggregate (graded up to 9.5 mm)

Pre-Cast concrete blocks shall be manufactured in approved vibrating machines. If for any
reason the strength requirement is not achieved, the cement shall be increased at the
Contractor's own expense. The water used in the mix shall be clean and of a sufficient
quantity to allow complete hydration of the cement without providing an excess when
moulding.

Blocks manufactured on the site shall be cured in the shade by being kept thoroughly moist
with water applied by sprinklers or other approved means for a period of at least seven (7)
days. The blocks shall be stacked on a clean and level platform free from earth or other
impurities during the curing process, and shall be stacked in honeycomb fashion after
curing. The blocks shall not be used prior to one (1) month after the date of manufacture,
nor shall any blocks be used that have not been inspected and approved by the Engineer.

B. Control joints

Control joints shall be provided in the form of reinforced concrete in all walls longer than 6
meters at mid span or as agreed with the Engineer and reinforced concrete bond beams in
all walls more than 3 meters clear height, at mid wall height or at lintel level. The size and
reinforcement steel shall be as indicated on the drawings. The anchoring of the bond beams
and bond columns shall be as detailed on the drawings. Concrete, steel reinforcement, etc.,
shall be as specified under Section 03 - Concrete Work.

C. Workmanship

The blockwork workmanship shall comply in general with the recommendations of BS 5628.
All blockwork shall be set out and built to the respective dimensions, thicknesses and
heights shown on the Drawings or as instructed in writing by the Engineer.

All walls and partitions, where shown on the Drawings without indicating the type of the
block to be used, shall be built in hollow concrete blocks, unless otherwise directed in
writing by the Engineer.

The blocks shall be well soaked before being used and the tops of walls left off shall be
wetted before work is recommenced. All blocks shall be well buttered with mortar before
being laid and all joints shall be thoroughly flushed up as the work proceeds. All joints shall
be uniform and shall not exceed 10 mm. Blockwork shall be carried up in a uniform manner
no more than six courses being built in any one day without the prior permission of the
Engineer. Any wall left at different levels, must be raked back. All perpends, quoins, internal
and external angles, etc. shall be kept strictly true and square and the whole properly
bonded together and leveled round. All blockwork shall be plumbed vertically.

The surface of the walls and partitions prepared for rendering shall have the joints raked out
20 mm from the face of the wall to form key for the plaster.

03-4 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

All block walls shall be bonded to adjacent reinforced concrete structures by means of
stainless steel wire butterfly type wall ties at every third course, complying in all respects
with BS 1243: 1978 and DD 140. Half of each tie shall be cast into the reinforced concrete
and the remainder set into the block wall. Partitions shall be bonded to main walls by
toothing at every third course to a depth of not less than 100 mm.

Cavity walls shall be built raising the skins of blockwork at a similar rate and incorporating
wall ties at 900 mm horizontal centres and 600 mm vertical centres spaced diagonally.

Cavities shall be kept clear of mortar droppings and the inside faces of blockwork shall be
pointed as necessary for correct application of insulation.

All walls and partitions shall be properly cured by sprinkling water for a period of not less
than three (3) days after completion of laying the course.

The top most course of walls and partitions terminating against soffits of beams and/or slabs
shall be built with solid blocks of appropriate sizes.

Walls and partitions terminating against soffits of beams or slabs shall be tightly wedged
with temporary metal wedges after mortar in bed joints has attained its initial set, and the
joint packed with bitumen impregnated building board strips of appropriate thickness (10,
12, 18 mm), and close with minimum of 20 mm mortar on either side or with fire-proofing
material, as required and specified.

Special block shall be fitted next to the reinforced concrete structure, door and window
jambs and sills, and to form chases for the ends of door and window lintels. If hollow blocks
abut any built-in fixtures e.g. door and window frames, apertures, louvers, etc. they shall be
filled with grade 17 concrete and where shown reinforced on the drawings.

Where blockwork is described as fair faced, selected hard, sharp, clean blocks shall be
used with well-defined arises and perfect rectangular shape. Joints shall be finished off with
neat flush pointing, taking care to keep mortar away from adhering to any part of the block.

Blockwork over lintels shall be reinforced with two layers of expanded metal mesh
reinforcement or steel bar as required by design, well bedded in mortar and 150 mm longer
at each end than the lintel.

Controlled joints shall be provided as detailed under control joints specified on structural
drawing.

D. Curing
All walls, partitions shall be properly cured by sprinkling water for a period of not less than
(3) days after completion of laying the course.

Where hollow blocks abut openings or any built in fixture like door/window frames, ties, etc.
the cavities in the blocks adjacent to the openings, ties, etc. shall be filled with Grade 25
concrete.

Where a plasticiser is added to the mortar, the plasticiser shall be used strictly in
accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and only with the approval of the Engineer.

03-5 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

For non load bearing wall, the top course of block work shall be constructed after the
structure above has been constructed and the props have been removed and a period of 14
days minimum has elapsed after the construction of the remainder of the wall. All voids in
the blocks for the top course are to be filled with Grade 25 concrete, 24 hours prior to
erection. The joint between the top course of blocks and the structure above shall then be
packed tight with semi dry mortar well rammed in.

Expanded metal strips of minimum 15mm wide shall be fixed along the joints between
masonry and concrete, before rendering or plastering.

Backfilling shall not be placed again block walls below DPC within 21 days of completion of
the work unless permitted otherwise by the Engineer.

Where chases are required to be cut into hollow block walls, the voids of the blocks so
affected shall be filled with Grade 25 concrete. All damaged blocks shall be repaired as
directed or replaced. Chases shall be vertical. Horizontal or diagonal chases are not
permitted. Services passing through block walls shall be either through sleeves or under
lintels provided to prevent damage to the services. Chases shall be cut with a cutting disc
or other mechanical means to achieve a neat chase and to minimise damage to blockwork.

“Slip Joint” shall be provided on top of block work under lintel, beam and slab bearings,
(after filling the voids with concrete in case of hollow blocks) consisting of two layers of
approved bearing strips. The strips shall form a thin sliding joint and shall be capable of a
load carrying capacity of 0.7 N/mm2. The strip shall be of appropriate width. The edges of
the two strips shall be sealed to prevent ingress of fines and concrete grout. Filling of voids
with concrete shall be completed 24 hours prior to the casting of beams, slabs etc. above.

E. FAIR FACE
Walls which are to be left unplastered shall have a fair face consisting of selected blocks
having unblemished surfaces and with good, clean arises and pointed as specified as the
work proceeds. Special care shall be taken to prevent defacing of the wall by mortar
droppings, etc.

F. WALLING FOR PLASTERING


Walls which are to be left plastered shall have the horizontal joints raked out to a depth of
15mm to form a key.

G. CAVITY WALLING

Cavity walls shall be built to the dimensions shown on the drawings and the two thickness
shall be bonded together with proprietary wall ties. Extra ties shall be provided at reveals,
quoins and openings.
The cavity shall be kept clear by lifting screeds or other means approved by the Engineer
and shall be left clean at completion.

03-6 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

The ties shall be of non ferrous/galvanized mild steel. There shall be atleast five ties per
square meters surface area of the wall and shall be staggered. Additional ties shall be used
near openings. The ties shall be sloped towards the exterior side to prevent water from
flowing along it from outer to inner leaf. Ties shall be given a bituminous coating before
insertion to protect them from corrosion. The ties are built into horizontal bed joints during
construction. The length of the ties shall be approximately 8 cms. Lesser than the total
thickness of the wall.
All Block works unless otherwise noted in the drawings shall be 200mm light weight
thermalite block of density 550 Kg/M3 .

0312. Fire Stop Products

Fire resistant products for fire stops shall be of the appropriate type suitable for the specific
application as specified hereunder and detailed as "typical details" on the drawings.

The product shall be capable of stopping the passage of fire, smoke and water through fire
rated wall, floor and ceiling penetrations, claddings and expansion joints for the specific
designed fire ratings of the adjacent areas. The product shall exhibit the minimum designed
fire resistant properties when tested as per BS 476:Part 20:1987 and shall be approved by
the Royal Oman Police Authorities (R.O.P). Necessary certificates to establish the above
shall be produced by the Contractor to the Engineer.

The products shall be obtained from an approved, established and proven firm and shall be
applied by experienced personnel strictly in accordance with the written instructions of the
manufacturer and to the approval of the Engineer.

Mild steel selves appropriate for the size of the cable/pipe passing through it, with the least
annular space around them shall be provided in the walls, floors & ceilings. Alternatively
similar openings to those of the sleeves may be provided in concrete. The size of the
openings shall be minimum recommended by the product manufacturer.

The following products shall be provided as appropriate for the situation and as detailed on
the Drawings and to the approval of the Engineer.

- Silicone sealant: Silicone sealant shall be an elastic fire rated silicone sealant, fire tested
to BS 476: Part 20:1987 and approved by R.O.P.

- Mastic: Mastic shall be an intumescent, graphite based mastic with expansion pressure
of minimum 7 bars and fire tested to BS 476: Part 20:1987 and approved by R.O.P.

- Light Weight Mortar: Mortar shall be light weight and fire resistant mortar with vermiculite
additive. Light weight mortar shall be used always in conjunction with intumescent putty
as specified below. The mortar shall be fire tested to BS 476: Part 20:1987 and
approved by R.O.P.

- Intumescent Putty: Intumescent putty shall be putty based on graphite and shall have a
7 bar expansion pressure and shall be tested to BS 476: Part 20:1987 and approved by
R.O.P.

- Backing foam: Backing foam shall be a one component, ready to use, polyurethane
based adhesive expanding sprayed foam. It shall be fire tested to BS 476: Part 20:1987
and exhibit one hour integrity rating.

03-7 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

- Mineral Wool/Rock Wool: Rock wool/Mineral wool for fire stop applications shall be of
minimum 45 kg/m3 density.

The recommended treatments for various applications shall be as follows in keeping with
the recommendations of the manufacturer of the product and shall be read in conjunction
with the typical details, detailed on the drawings.

Junction of block walls terminating against soffits of beams and slabs shall be treated
follows:

For 1 hour fire rating: The block wall shall be built so that the gap between the top of the
wall and the soffit of slab/beam is a minimum of 10 mm. The gap shall then be wedged
using steel wedges and shall be packed with fire resistant backing foam for the entire
thickness of the wall.

Expansion Joints: The gap between walls/slabs shall be filled with mineral wool/rock wool to
a minimum depth of 50 mm and the ends filled with fire rated silicone sealant for a minimum
depth of 20 mm on both the faces of the wall/slabs.

Metal pipe crossings

The annular space around the pipe shall be packed with rock wool/mineral wool and the
ends shall be filled and sealed with fire rated silicone sealant to a minimum depth of 20 mm.
The size of the circular opening shall be maintained as the barest minimum as
recommended by the mastic manufacturer.

Non-metal pipe crossings less than 50 mm diameter:

The annular space around the pipe shall be packed with rock wool/mineral wool and the
ends shall be filled and sealed with fire resistant mastic to a minimum depth of 40 mm on
each side. The size of the circular opening shall be maintained as the barest minimum as
recommended by the mastic manufacturer.

Non-metal Pipe Crossings of diameter 50 mm and more:

Non-metal pipes of diameter 50 mm or more shall be provided with a pre-assembled


graphite based intumescent wrap contained in a stainless steel housing, fixed around the
pipe with metal fixings. Mineral wool/rock wool backing shall be provided as indicated on
drawings. The size of the circular opening shall be maintained as the barest minimum as
recommended by the mastic manufacturer.

Single Cable or Bunched Cables

The annular space around cable or bunched of cable crossing shall be packed with rock
wool/mineral wool and the ends shall be filled and sealed with fire resistant mastic to a
minimum depth of 40 mm on one side for floor crossings and on both sides for wall
crossings. The size of the circular opening shall be maintained as the barest minimum as
recommended by the mastic manufacturer.

03-8 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

Cable trays crossings:

Fire resistant intumescent putty shall be applied to a width of approximately 30 to 50 mm at


the bottom of the bundles on the cable tray in the centre of opening in the wall/slab. This
layer shall be retained by fire resistant mortar on either side. The cable shall then be placed
above this layer of mastic and mortar. The cables shall be covered by another 30 to 50 mm
wide layer of fire resistant putty in the centre of the opening as before and retained by layers
of fire resistant mortar on either side. A Gl plate/sheet shall then be placed above the layers
and any gaps left above the plate/sheet shall be closed with concrete. The total thickness of
the fire resistant intumescent putty shall not be less than 1/3 the total diameters of the
cables. The mortar thickness shall be at least same as the putty thickness.

In case where it is not possible to apply the putty below the cable a double layer of putty
could be applied on top of the cables and increasing the thickness of the surrounding mortar
accordingly.

03-9 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

0313. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

A. Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of
Construction" - June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors of U.K.

B. Rates for Blockwork shall include for the supply of all necessary materials,
manufacture, sampling and testing, hauling, hoisting, scaffolding, curing and
erection of blockwork to the dimensions shown on Drawings and as specified.

C. Rates for blockwork shall be deemed to include for:

a) all rough and fair cutting and waste, cutting and pinning to soffits, cutting to and
plumbing angles, inter-sections and ends, bonding with wall ties to reinforced
concrete members, forming openings, chases, mortices, leaving temporary
openings in walls for structural members and making good.

b) raking out joints as the work proceeds to form a key for rendering or pointing as
required or cutting grooves for flashings, etc. and for leaving weep holes.

c) 200 mm high reinforced concrete bond beams at middle height of block walls with
a clear height of 3 metres and more.

d) 200 mm square reinforced bond columns and mid span of block walls more than 6
metres long.

e) providing all solid blocks at tops of walls, bearing courses to lintels, at reveals, free
ends and intersections, wedging and providing and packing filler and forming
mortar joints.

f) forwarding all necessary galvanized steel lathing as specified.

g) admixture to mortar upon the approval of the Engineer.

h) forming cavities including wall ties as specified and all extra materials and labour
for closing cavities at sills, jambs, etc..

j) fire proofing material, where necessary, between the last course and soffit of
slab/ceiling.

k) all fire proofing works in accordance with Drawings and Specification.

End of Section 03

03-10 Section 03-Blockwork


Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 04

ROOFING SYSTEM

0401. SCOPE

This specification covers flat and pitched roofs of reinforced concrete construction including
thermal insulation, waterproofing and surface finishing.

0402. QUALIFICATION

The membrane including protection and all associated accessories and works shall be
executed by a specialist firm having at least 6 years experience in installation of materials
described herewith in the Sultanate of Oman. The specialist shall provide evidence of
successful completion of similar works for the approval of the Engineer before commencing
any work.

The manufacturer's qualified representative shall visit the job site immediately prior to
commencement of works and as and when required and directed by the Engineer to satisfy
the Engineer and to instruct the specialist in the correct methods of execution of the Works.

MATERIALS (FOR FLAT ROOF)

0403. Light Weight Screed

Light weight screed consists of Cement, sand and foam/polystyrene beads. The ingredients
shall conform to, and shall be in proportion and mixed as, those specified for Concrete Work
in Section 03. Works to be carried out by a specialized agency. The required density being
1000-1200 kg/m3 . Site control to be maintained to achieve required wet density in order to
have a dry density as mentioned. During operation cubes to be taken with standard moulds
of 150X150X150mm on completion of 28 days. Cubes to be tested for crushing strength and
dry density.

0404. Roof Waterproofing Membrane

The roof waterproofing membrane shall be a 1.5 mm thick flexible, performed, self adhesive
bituminous membrane, comprising a thick self adhesive rubber/bitumen compound and
special high performance polyethylene ((HDPE) carrier film.

The membrane shall comply with the requirements indicated in the table below when tested
as per the ASTM standards shown:-

04-1 Section 04-Roofing System


Salalah Grand Mall

Table for Performance and Testing Compliance

Property Test Method Typical Value


Long 56 N/cm.
Tape Strength ASTM D638-91
Trans 52 N/cm.
Long 48 N/mm2
Tensile Strength (Carrier film) ASTM D638-91
Trans 45 N/mm2

Long 100%
Elongation Film (Carrier film) ASTM D638-91
Trans 70%

Long > 300%


Elongation (Compound) ASTM D638-91
Trans > 300%
Adhesion to Primed Concrete
ASTM D1 000-88 30 N/cm.
at 23° C.
Adhesion to self at 23° C. ASTM D 1000-88 28 N/cm.
Local 290 N
Puncture Resistance ASTM 154-93
Deflection 70 mm

ASTM -D570-88 (after


Water Absorption 0.14%
24 hrs. immersion)

Environmental Resistance ASTM D543 To conform

0405. Textured Aluminium Sheet Combined Roof Waterproofing Membrane

All surfaces that are left exposed to sun without any insulation or concrete paving slabs or
gravel layer like sloping surfaces, skirting, upstands to platforms, filleting to pipe
penetrations, etc., shall be provided with an additional layer of heavily embossed aluminium
sheet self adhesive membrane over the layer of roof water proofing membrane. The
aluminium sheet combined self adhesive membrane shall be fully UV resistant to sunrays.
The aluminium combined product shall be obtained from the same manufacturer as the
waterproofing membrane.

0406. Thermal Insulation Extruded Polystyrene Boards

The thermal insulation material shall be injected closed cell extruded polystyrene boards
with skin and rebated edges (ship laps) conforming to BS 3837: Part 1: 1986. It shall be type
A, grade UHD (injected moulded boards with skin) having a standard dimension of 1000 x
500 or as approved by the Engineer and of 50 mm uniform thickness and a density of
minimum 30 kg/m3. The boards shall exhibit the following characteristics:

04-2 Section 04-Roofing System


Salalah Grand Mall

Physical Properties Unit Value Method of Test

Cross breaking strength :min Kpa 275 BS 4370: Part 1:1968 Method 4

Compressive stress: min Kpa 190 BS 4370:Part 1:1968 Method 3


Water vapour transmission at
(gm / Ns) 1.9 Appendix C
38Oc; Permeability max
Thermal conductivity maximum
W/(m K) 0.036 Appendix A
at10°C
Dimensional stability at- 80O C
% 0.5 Appendix B
max. change
Extent of burn -Type A < 125mm BS 4735

0407. Filter Membrane

A filter membrane shall be provided at the upper surface of the thermal insulation slab
where it is called for and shown on the drawings or described elsewhere in the specification.
The membrane shall be lap jointed with minimum of 200 mm over lap.

The filter membrane shall exhibit the following characteristics when tested in accordance
with the relevant BS / DIN standards.

Composition: 70% polypropylene and 30% polyethylene.

Resistant to mild dilution of alkalis and acids between PH 2 and PH 12 values.

Tensile strength (200 mm wide, Mean of length and across):


Breaking load - 1.6kN
Extension at max. load - 25 %

Grab strength (200 mm wide):

Breaking load -700 N


Extension at failure load - 75 %

Tear strength:

Trapezoidal 75mm -300 N


450mm -900 N

Permeability at 100mm constant head - 50 Its/m2 sec

Pore size:
at 90% summation - 100m
at 50% summation -70 m

Weight per m2 - 135 g


Thickness under 2 KN/m2 load - 0.7 mm
The membrane shall not be affected by salt water, oil and petrol and shall be fully ultra violet
stabilized and resistant to growth of fungi and bacteria.

04-3 Section 04-Roofing System


Salalah Grand Mall

0408. Pre-Cast Concrete Slabs

Pre-Cast concrete slabs shall be hydraulically pressed units size 400 x 400 x 40 mm thick.
The surface of the slabs shall be fairly smooth and light grey in colour. Transverse strength,
water absorption and all other characteristics shall be in accordance with BS 7263.

0409. Gravel Layer

Gravel for roof shall be rounded wadi gravel without any sharp edges or protrusions of size
20 to 30 mm. Gravel shall be that which is passing through No. 28 Sieve and retained on
No. 20 sieve as per BS 410: 1886, "Test sieves", with the allowable tolerances and shall be
devoid of dust. The gravel shall be reasonably sound and durable and to the approval of the
Engineer. Gravel shall be laid to thicknesses indicate on the drawings over a layer of filter
membrane.

WORKMANSHIP

0410. Waterproofing

The membrane shall be handled and applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's
written instructions. Surfaces to be covered shall be clean, flat, dry and free from any matter
likely to adversely affect the performance of the waterproofing. The manufacturer's primer
shall be applied prior to laying the membrane.

The membrane shall be brushed and smoothened out to ensure that all air is excluded from
under the membrane. Continuity shall be achieved by overlapping adjacent rolls by
minimum 50 mm laps and firmly rolling. The joints (overlaps) shall be well rolled with
sufficient pressure to ensure complete waterproofing and bonding. Suitable edge rollers as
recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.

The membrane shall be dressed and bonded into mouths of rainwater outlets and well fitted
and sealed around openings.

When roofing abuts against vertical surfaces such as walls of parapets, upstands, platforms,
columns, etc., it shall be carried up for a minimum height of 150 mm above the highest level
of the screed or as shown on drawings; forming triangular fillets and tucked into purpose
made grooves 20 x 20 mm and sealed with a sealant compatible to the membrane as
recommended by the membrane manufacturer and to the approval of the Engineer.

Pipes and other structures piercing the roof shall be primed and the roofing membrane shall
be dressed up to required heights, over properly formed triangular fillets all around. An
approved flashing shall be provided covering the top and sealed using approved sealant.

All angles and corners, internal and external or other obstacles shall be provided with
reinforcing strips of minimum 200 mm width.

All exposed surfaces at skirting to walls, around pipes and obstructions, etc., shall be
provided with an additional layer of 1.5 mm thick embossed aluminium faced self adhesive
membrane similar to the waterproofing membrane in all aspects and shall be adequately
bonded and sealed.

04-4 Section 04-Roofing System


Salalah Grand Mall

0411. Insulation

Insulation shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's written instructions.


Cutting and shaping shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations.

Surfaces to receive insulation shall not be contaminated with any matter likely to affect the
performance of the material.

0412. Pre-Cast Concrete Slabs

Concrete slabs shall be laid loose (i.e. not jointed or bedded) with no gaps between them.
Care shall be exercised to prevent damage to the underlaying layers.

Broken or damaged slabs shall be rejected.

0413. Gravel

Gravel to roofs shall be laid to thicknesses indicated on the drawings over a layer of filter
membrane. Care shall be exercised to prevent damage to the underlaying layers.

0414. Testing

The waterproofing system upon completion shall be subjected to testing by flooding with
water up to a depth of 100 mm above the highest point of the screed laid to slope but
limiting the depth to ensure that the average weight of the water so flooded does not exceed
150 kg/m2. The water shall be retained for a period of 24 hours. The Contractor shall
arrange for all material and labour required for the execution of the test, inspection of works
and for any making good of works or any associated works that may be required.

0415. Guarantee

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a guarantee stating that all work has been
carried out in accordance with the drawings and specification and shall be guaranteed free
from defects in material and workmanship and shall be leak proof for a period of ten (10)
years from the date of issuance of the completion certificate. The Contractor shall agree to
repair
(Including any replacement of materials) any leaks resulting from defective materials or
workmanship during the guarantee period at no additional cost to the owner.

The Contractor shall also pass on to the owner any and all guarantees provided by the sub-
contractor and manufacturers of individual members of the system.

0416. Car Park Roof Cladding

Roof cladding shall be proprietary make profiled powder coated 0.7 mm thick aluminium
sheets. The profile and colour for roof panels shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

04-5 Section 04-Roofing System


Salalah Grand Mall

The Contractor shall provide detailed shop drawings and samples of materials along with
design calculations for Engineer's approval before placing order.

The size and spacing of the roofing sheets and purlins shall be coordinated with the
structural support system in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturers to
meet the design requirements and as approved by the Engineer.

The fixing shall be as per the manufacturers written instructions. All flashings gullies,
gutters, shall be provided as required and to Engineer's approval. Gutters, gullies, etc. shall
be water proofed appropriately as directed by the Engineer.

Fascias shall be of GRP and shall be duly coordinated and fixed as appropriate and
approved by the Engineer.

0417. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

A. Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of
Construction" - June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors of U.K.

B. Rates for Roofing shall be deemed to include for:

a) Supplying all necessary material, plant, equipment and tools, storage, sampling
and testing, haulage, hoisting and execution of all water-proofing, insulation,
testing and other works as detailed on drawings, specified and to the satisfaction
and approval of the Engineer.

b) Preparation of surfaces to be covered.

c) Cutting as necessary and for fitting around obstructions.

d) Overlaps and forming collars and watertight joints around roof outlets, pipes, ducts,
etc. passing through roof slabs.

C. Rates for skirtings and flashings shall include for dressing over 'angle fillets,
bending, tucking-in edges and for all laps, ends, angles and inter-sections, etc.

D. Rates for screeds shall include for fillets and the like and for making good around
pipes, sleeves, ducts, etc. rates for screeds shall include for laying in bays, if
necessary, including temporary formwork and dividing strips.

E. Contrary to Clause C2.1. measurement of tanking and waterproofing has not been
subdivided into flat sloping or vertical coverings.

End of Section 04

04-6 Section 04-Roofing System


Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 05

METAL WORK

0501. SCOPE

This specification covers ferrous and non-ferrous metal intended to be used in the Works all
in accordance with the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS

0502. Steel

Steel plates and structural steel shaped sections shall conform to the requirements of BS 4:
Part: 1993 for Hot-rolled sections, BS 4848: Part 2: 1991 for Hot Finished Hollow Sections
and BS 4848: Part 4: 1986 for Equal and Unequal Angles.

0503. Bolts and Nuts

Bolts and nuts shall conform to the requirements of BS 4190: 1967 for ISO metric black
hexagon bolts, screws, and nuts.

0504. Washers

Plain washers shall be made of Stainless steel. Taper or other specially shaped washers
shall be made of steel or malleable cast iron and shall conform to the requirements of BS
4320: 1968, for Metal washers for general engineering purposes.

0505. Galvanized Steel Pipes

Galvanized steel pipes shall conform to the requirements of BS 1387: 1990 ISO "Medium
Series".

0506. Paint

Paint for Metal Work shall comply with the applicable requirements as specified under
"PAINTING AND DECORATING".

0507. Aluminium

All aluminium elements shall be manufactured of extruded sections of aluminium alloy, to


BS 1474: 1987 Type HE9 or ISO Al Mg Si 6063 or AA 6063 T5 mechanically jointed. Fittings
shall be aluminium alloy in accordance with BS 4951: 1973.

05-1 Section 05-Metal Work


Salalah Grand Mall

All parts and members shall be of aluminium commercial quality like (A1 - Mg - Si) heat-
treated, free from defects impairing their strength and durability and containing not more
than 0.4% copper. All exposed surfaces shall be polished to a mirror-like surface, free from
defects, and shall be light etched and anodized OR polyester powder coated to colours
and/or finishes as shown on Drawings and/or as directed in writing by the Engineer.
Aluminium shall be treated to comply with BS 1615: 1993 and BS 3987: 1991 to provide an
anodization not less than 20 microns thickness or polyester powder coated by electrostatic
spraying and hard stoved to not less than 60 micron thickness to comply with BS 6496:
1991.

All aluminium sections shall present clear straight and sharply defined lines and shall be
free from defects and imperfections that may impair their strength.

All screws, bolts and other necessary accessories shall be of aluminium or other non-
corrodible material and shall match in colour and consistency the finish of the anodization or
the polyester powder coating as applicable.

Aluminium elastic glazing beads shall be provided to all windows and doors which are
assembled by pressure to fit with the relevant groove in the profile.

The glazing bars shall be threaded or interlaced at points of intersections and machine
tanned to frame.

0508. Stainless Steel

Stainless steel sections, sheets and strips shall be of austenitic non-magnetic steels to BS
3100: 1991 and BS 1449: Part 2: 1983, 18/10/3 chromium-nickel-molybdenum group (Grade
316).

MANUFACTURE

0509. General

The Contractor shall be responsible for the correctness and accuracy of the dimensions of
the finished articles.

He shall carefully check the dimensions indicated on the Drawing, verify any changes, and
ascertain the sizes at Site which will enable him to prepare Final Working Drawings for
fabrication and erection purposes. Such Drawings shall be submitted to the Engineer for his
verification and approval.

Fabrication Orders can only be placed after the contractor has obtained in writing the
approval of the Engineer on the above Drawings.

The steel sections where specified to be factory rustproofed shall be rust-proofed by hot dip
galvanizing, metalizing or sheradizing process. The rust-proofing shall be sufficient to
withstand the 72 hours salt-spray test as provided for in BS 7479: 1991. If the rustproof
coating suffers any damage during the progress of work, the damaged part shall be
recoated to a minimum of the original thickness to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

05-2 Section 05-Metal Work


Salalah Grand Mall

WORKMANSHIP

0510. Steel Elements

All steel parts shall be accurately set out, cut, framed, assembled and executed using
proper bolts or welding electrodes. All cut parts shall be saw cut, no oxygen burning shall be
permitted except for pipe supports. All welding shall be electrical welding, clean and of
proper workmanship. All cut parts and welded sections shall be ground even and filed
smooth with rounded edges.

All steel members in contact with the soil shall be painted with two (2) coats of protective
bituminous paint. All doors, frames, staircases, etc. shall be given at least one (1) coat of
approved rust inhibiting primer before delivery to site.

Frames for doors and windows shall be provided with not less than (3) adjustable type
anchors on each jamb; maximum distance between anchors shall be eight hundred (800)
mm.

All joints shall be machined to a close fit and all pins and screws shall be countersunk and
dressed flush after assembly.

Forging shall be sharp and true. Curves, intersections and members of the same size shall
be halved together.

The plain surfaces shall be smooth, free from warp or buckle. Moulded members and mitres
shall be clean, cut straight and true. Construction joints shall be welded to their full length
and cleaned off flush on exposed surfaces.

All work shall be erected plumb and true to lines and rigidly secured to walls, floors or
ceilings as shown on Drawings and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

0511. Aluminium

The Contractor shall furnish and install all aluminium units as indicated on the Drawings.
Workmanship and installation shall be in accordance with recommended standards of first
class Aluminium Manufacturers.

All aluminium work shall be performed in a shop where the grade of metalwork is of
recognized quality acceptable to the Engineer. All items shall be installed plumb, straight,
square, level and in proper elevation, plane location and alignment with other work. All work
shall be designed for adjustment to field variations, fitted with proper joints and
intersections, adequately anchored in place, strictly in accordance with best practice.

Where aluminium surfaces come in contact with metals other than stainless steel, zinc,
white bronze or small areas of other metals compatible with aluminium surfaces, they shall
be kept from direct contact with such parts by painting the dissimilar metal with a prime coat
of zinc chromate primer or other suitable primer, followed by one or two coats of aluminium
metal and masonry paint or other suitable protective coating, excluding those containing
lead pigments, or a non-absorptive tape or gasket shall be placed between aluminium and
dissimilar metals. Steel anchors and connecting members shall be hot dip galvanized or
zinc plated after fabrication.

05-3 Section 05-Metal Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Aluminium surfaces in contact with lime mortar, concrete, plaster or other masonry materials
shall be painted with alkaline-resistant coatings such as heavy-bodied bituminous paint or
water-white methacrylate lacquer.

Aluminium in contact with wood or absorptive materials which may become repeatedly wet
shall be painted with two coats of aluminium metal and masonry paint or a coat of heavy-
bodied bituminous paint. Alternatively paint the wood or other absorptive material with two
coats of aluminium house paint and seal joints with a good quality of caulking compound.
Where aluminium is in contact with treated wood, wood shall be treated with
pentachlorophenol, 5% minimum concentration or approved equal, followed with the
protective measures described for aluminium in contact with wood or other absorptive
materials.

The aluminium work shall be designed and anchored so that the work will not be distorted
nor the fasteners overstressed from the expansion and contraction of the metal.

Before shipment from factory, aluminium surfaces requiring protect- ion shall be given a
coating which will protect the metal during construction. In areas where appearance of the
finish on aluminium items is important, a coating of methacrylate type lacquer shall be
applied as specified hereinafter.

Apply two sprayed coats of water-white methacrylate lacquer having a total minimum
thickness of 0.015 mm, which when applied to the aluminium surface shall be capable of
withstanding the action of lime mortar for a period of at least one week in an atmosphere of
100% relative humidity at 40 degree centigrade, the action of 10% (by weight) muriatic acid
for a period of six hours at 20 degree centigrade, and the action of atmospheric weathering
for a period of 12 months. The coating shall be applied in the manufacturer's plant to the
exposed surfaces of all aluminium components subject to staining from alkaline mortar and
plaster, abrasion and other construction abuses. Before application of lacquer, the
manufacturer shall remove all fabrication compounds, moisture, dirt, accumulations and
other foreign materials to ensure proper lacquer adhesion.
Upon completion, the Contractor shall clean all aluminium work as required by removing
protective tape or other coating, using mild soap or detergents and clear petroleum spirits.
Acids, caustics and abrasives shall not be used. Where cleaners are used to remove excess
sealing compounds care shall be exercised to prevent damage to seals or staining or
damage to adjacent work.

The Contractor shall be responsible for the protection of all aluminium work until the
completion of the works, and only units in perfect working order and in perfect condition
shall be accepted.

0512. Aluminium Extruded Expansion Joints

Extruded aluminium expansion joints shall be of a proprietary make, and of types as


indicated on the drawings complete with all fixings and fixtures, from a manufacturer
approved by the Engineer. Extruded aluminium expansion joints shall be installed strictly in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Floor and wall joints shall be sealed with an elastomer filled proprietary joint seal with
galvanized steel or stainless steel retaining profiles on each side securely bolted to the
structure for internal or external applications respectively. Retaining profiles shall be set
below the plaster or screed so that only the elastomer and the edges of the profiles show.

05-4 Section 05-Metal Work


Salalah Grand Mall

Joint width shall be 20 mm and the joint cover shall be capable of absorbing ' 35% free
movement of the joint width. All corners, cross connections, curbs, tee joints or other special
accessories shall be shop fabricated.

0513. Aluminium Sheeting

The aluminium profiled sheeting to the roof and fascia of the covered parking shall be
aluminium sheet not less than 0.7 mm thick polyester paint factory finished, fixed with self
tapping stainless steel screws with a built-in washer and a neoprene sealing washer at
centres recommended by the manufacturer. The sheet shall be multi ridged, with main
ridges 45 mm deep at 250 mm centres and two smaller ridges in between. The sheet shall
be in accordance with BS 4868: 1972 and shall be properly lapped with mastic tape and all
required edge trims, closure pieces, flashings, gutters, etc..

All contact with different metals shall be prevented by means of PVC barrier tape or fibre
washers. The paint colour shall be to the Engineers approval and shall be factory applied
from a standard colour range.

05-5 Section 05-Metal Work


Salalah Grand Mall

0514. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

A. Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of
Construction" - June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors of U.K.

B. Rates for Metal work shall include for submitting shop drawings, assembling,
cutting and waste, welding and grinding, drilling, counter sinking, bolting ad
riveting, shop coating with rust inhibitive primer, haulage, protection and storage,
softwood sub frames, hoisting and fixing in position, caulking with mastic, grouting
mortises with cement and sand grout and inspection of metal work at workshop by
the Engineer as specified.

C. Rates for galvanized work shall include for the treatment of cut ends, etc.. as
required by the specification.

D. Rates for doors shall include for ironmongery as specified including matching fixing
screws, etc. and shall include for fixing, taking off before painting and then refixing.

E. Rates for doors shall include for fitting and hanging and rates for glazed doors shall
include glazing beads and accessories as specified.

F. Rates for doors and windows shall include for approved design and quality weather
and draught seals.

G. Rates for all aluminium works shall include for submitting detailed design criteria
and calculations allowing for factors such as the size of panels, wind load, weight
of glazing, etc. to substantiate the size, strength and design of the proposed
extruded sections.

End of Section 05

05-6 Section 05-Metal Work


Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 06

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK

0601. Scope

This specification covers fabricated and unfabricated structural steelwork to be used in the
Works, all in accordance with the Drawings, this specification and as directed by the
Engineer.

All structural steel work shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of BS 449:
Part 2:1969, BS 4360: 1990 and BS 5950, and other standards specified therein except as
otherwise instructed in this specification or in the Drawings.

0602. STANDARDS

All structural steel work shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of BS 449:
Part 2: 1969, BS 4360: 1990 and BS 5950, and other standards specified therein except as
otherwise instructed in this specification or in the Drawings.

All structural steel work shall conform to the following British Standards, in addition to other
standards included in this specification.

BS 4: Part 1:1980 Hot rolled sections


BS 449: Part 2:1969 Use of structural steel in building.
BS 709:1983 Testing of fusion welded joints and weld metal.
BS 1387:1990 Screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars and for plain end
steel tubes.
BS 2994:1987 Cold rolled steel sections
BS 3692:1967 ISO metric precision hex bolts, screws and nuts
BS 4190:1967 ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts
BS 4320:1968 Metal washers for general engineering purposes.
BS 4360:1990 Weldable structural steel.
BS 4395:Parts 1 &2 High strength friction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for
structural engineering.
BS 4604:Parts 1 &2 Use of high strength friction grip bolts in structural steel work.
BS 4848:Part 2:1975 Hollow Sections.
BS 4848:Part 4:1986 Equal and unequal angles.
BS 5135:1984 Arc welding of carbon & carbon manganese steels
BS 5493:1977 CP for protective coatings on Iron and steel.
BS 5531:1988 CP for safety in erecting structural frames.
BS 5950:2000 Structural use of steel works in buildings.
BS 7079 Preparation of substrates before application of paints and related
products.
BS 7419: 1991 Holding down bolts.
BS EN 10143: 1993 Continuously hot-dip zinc coated sheet and strip.
ASTM A 36 Specification for structural steel.

06-1 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

MATERIALS

0603. General

Steels used for structural steelwork shall be manufactured to comply with BS 4360: 1990,
Weldable structural steels and ASTM A36. The grade of steel shall be 43 unless otherwise
specified. All materials shall be free of seams, cracks, flaws, laminations, injuries, and other
defects of any kind.

0604. Steel Sections, Angles and Tubes

Steel sections shall conform to the requirements of BS 4: Part 1: 1980 "Hot-rolled sections".

Steel angles shall conform to the requirements of BS 4848: Part 4: 1986, "Equal and
unequal angles".

Circular hollow Sections (CHS) and Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) shall conform to the
requirements of BS 4848: Part 2: 1975 "Hollow Sections".

0605. Bolts and Nuts

Black bolts and nuts shall conform to the requirements of BS 4190: 1967 "ISO Metric black
hexagon bolts, screws and nuts", strength designations as indicated on the Drawings.

Close tolerance bolts and nuts shall conform to the requirements of BS 3692: 1967 "ISO
Metric precision bolts, screws and nuts".

High strength friction grip bolts, etc. shall conform to the requirements of BS 4395: Parts 1 &
2, "High strength friction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for structural
steelwork".

Washers other than for friction grip bolts shall conform to BS 4320: 1968 "Metal washers for
general engineering purposes".

0606. Test Certificates

Manufacturer's Test Certificates for all steel used for fabrication or for bolts for the works
shall be supplied. They shall include for all the mechanical tests described in the appropriate
specification and also a chemical analysis. Notwithstanding the fact that test Certificates will
be submitted, the Engineer may request to have independent tests performed and to inspect
material prior to fabrication.

MANUFACTURE

0607. Straightening

All plates, bars and sections shall be flattened and straightened and made free from twist
before any other work is done on them. The method adopted for this work shall be such as
not to injure or mark the material.

06-2 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

0608. Machining, Cutting and Planing

All bearing ends of trusses shall be accurately machined true and square. Bearing plates
shall be machined to receive trusses.

Cold sawing shall be used when it is required to cut a section accurately to length.

Flange plates, if made from sheared plates, must have had at least 3 mm removed on each
sheared edge by planing.

0609. Camber

All members are to be fabricated with cambers built-in to take into account deflections due
to self weight and applied loads.

0610. Shop Connections

Shop connections may be either welded or bolted as specified in the Drawings. The
dimensions of all welds shall be clearly specified on the working drawings and the length of
weld specified shall be the effective length excluding end craters.

All hollow or tubular sections shall be sealed completely at all open ends with a welded plate
except where such sections are connection to other sections with a continuous weld around
the full perimeter of the junction.

0611. Marking

Each piece of steelwork shall be marked distinctively before delivery, indicating the position
and direction in which it is to be fixed. Three copies of a complete marking plan are to be
supplied to the Engineer before erection commences.

0612. Completion of Fabricated Parts

All completed work must be exact to the dimensions required. Every piece of material shall
be free from rust, scale and pitting, true to thickness throughout and free from lamination,
twist and distortion.

In the case of welded fabrication any distortion remaining in the member after welding
operations are completed shall be rectified by the Contractor to the approval of the
Engineer.

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

0613. Design Drawings

The Contractor shall be responsible, unless otherwise specified, for the design and
sufficiency of the structural steelwork. Where certain sections of the work have been

06-3 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

designed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall check and verify the sufficiency of the design
and take full responsibility for it.

The Engineer will supply the Contractor with the information and drawings he requires to
prepare and complete design.

In the event of any contradiction or ambiguity in the information or drawings supplied by the
Engineer becoming apparent the Contractor shall immediately inform the Engineer and
obtain from him written clarification.

The Contractor shall submit the design details and calculations, along with necessary
drawings for the approval of the Engineer. The proposed system should be certified by a
registered, experienced, professional Engineer.

The Contractor shall carry out all necessary modifications and changes instructed by the
Engineer and resubmit further details of design until the final approval is accorded by the
Engineer. Approval accorded by the Engineer shall not relieve the contractor of any of his
contractual obligation who shall be responsible for the safety of the system.

The Contractor shall not be entitled for any extra time or cost for the process of approval.

0614. Shop Drawings

The Contractor shall, unless otherwise specified, prepare and check shop drawings
incorporating sufficient information for the proper fabrication of the steelwork.

Before commencing fabrication the Contractor shall obtain the approval of the Engineer in
writing to all shop drawings.

The Contractor shall carry out all necessary modifications and changes instructed by the-
Engineer and keep furnishing further shop drawings till such time the final approval is
accorded by the Engineer.

This approval will signify verification of the correct interpretation by the Contractor of the
Engineer's requirements but shall not signify approval of the dimensions. Notwithstanding
such approval the Contractor shall be entirely responsible for the accuracy of the shop
drawings, the correctness of detail and the proper design of connections and joints and shall
not relieve the contractor of any of his contractual obligation who shall be responsible for the
safety of the system.

The Contractor shall supply the Engineer with complete sets of working drawings.

0615. Prefabricated Steel Members

The prefabricated steel members to the car parking shades shall be pre-engineered
designed, supplied and erected in accordance with the following provisions:

a) Structural steelwork shall be designed in accordance with BS 5950 and BS 449: Part 2:
1986, live load shall be 0.6 KN/m2 and wind load shall be 1.0 KN/m2. Alternatively the
structural steelwork may be designed accordance with the American Institute of Steel

06-4 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

Construction manual "Specification for the design, fabrication and erection of structural
steel for Buildings".

b) Light gauge cold formed structural members shall be designed in accordance with the
American Iron and Steel Institute "Specification for the Design of Cold Formed Steel
Structural Members or in accordance with BS 2994: 1987.

c) The main I columns and rafters shall have bolted connections and shall have an epoxy
paint finish with a dry film thickness (DFT) of not less than 300 microns.

d) Purlins shall be galvanized Zed painted to match the remaining steelwork.

e) Sheeting to roofs and fascias shall be as specified under aluminium sheeting. Gutters
shall be not less than 16 Swg with supporting brackets securely fixed to the structure.
Outlets from the gutters shall discharge next to the main columns via PVC rain water
pipes supported from, the main beams.

f) All design drawings and calculations shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval
before any fabrication is put in hand.

g) Erection shall be in accordance with BS 5531: 1988.

h) Contractor has the option of fabricating members as detailed in structural drawings.

WORKMANSHIP

0616. Erection of Steelwork

The Contractor shall be responsible for accurately positioning, leveling and plumbing all
steelwork and placing of every part of the structure in accordance with the drawings and to
the satisfaction of the Engineer. All stanchion bases, beam and girder bearings, etc. shall be
securely supported on suitable steel packs.

Any lifting or erecting machinery shall be to the approval of the Engineer and shall be
removed from the site if he considers such appliances dangerous or unsuitable for their
functions.

The Contractor shall be entirely responsible for the stability of the building during erection
and shall arrange that sufficient tack welds, bolts, braces or guy ropes are used to ensure
that work will remain rigid until final bolting, riveting or welding is completed. The Contractor
shall supply and fix, without extra charge, any temporary bracing which may be necessary.
The permanent welding, riveting or bolting up of connections shall not be carried out until a
sufficient portion of the structure has been erected and temporarily connected up, to ensure
that there will be no straining of members during the erection and lining up of the remainder
of the structure.

Packs for leveling up stanchions shall be shown on the shop drawings and the number of
packs provided shall be 25% in excess of the theoretical requirement. Packs shall not be
larger than is necessary for their purpose, and shall be sawn and not sheared or flame cut.
Packs shall not protrude unduly from stanchion bases they shall be grouted in and the grout
shall totally enclose them.

06-5 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

All steelwork shall be erected in the exact positions as shown on the drawings. All vertical
members shall be truly vertical throughout and all horizontal members truly horizontal,
fabrication being such that all parts can be accurately assembled and erected.

At stanchion splices and at other positions where concrete cover to the steel is liable to be
restricted, bolts will be placed with their heads on the outside of the member.

Steel stub columns cast into concrete shall be cast in before attaching other members.

0617. Holding-Down Bolts

The Contractor shall supply any holding down bolts detailed complete with washer frames of
appropriate size or anchorage channels in accordance with BS 7419:1991. The bolts shall
be made so that they will not turn when the nuts are being tightened and the bolts must not
be connected rigidly to the anchorage washers or channels. The Contractor shall also
supply such templates as are necessary for the proper positioning of the bolts.

0618. Riveting

Shop riveting may be permitted at the discretion of the Engineer, where practical and the
rivets and method of riveting shall be in accordance with BS 4620: 1988 and the BS
specified therein. No site riveting will be permitted.

0619. Bolting

The Contractor shall supply all nuts, bolts and washers including spares and service bolts
required for erection.

The size of ordinary round holes and edge distances for black bolts shall comply with BS
5950. Holes shall be drilled, not punched, and reamed if required to the correct size. All
burrs due to drilling must be removed. Flame cutting of holes shall not be permitted.

All holes for site connections shall be accurately centres in the shop, so as to render
unnecessary any reaming or drifting during erection.

High strength Friction Grip Bolted Joints where specified or approved by the Engineer shall
be in accordance with the requirements of BS 4604: Parts 1 & 2, use of High Strength
Friction Grip Bolts in Structural Steelwork" and the bolts shall comply with the requirements
of BS 4395: Parts 1 & 2, "High strength friction grip bolts". Such bolts shall be "Torshear" or
other similar approved type which, after tensioning, give a positive visual indication that the
required minimum pre-load has been attained. The tensioning of the bolts to produce the
required friction shall be carried out by use of an automatic non-calibrated tool.

Generally the tightening tool shall be power operated but in certain cases the use of a hand
operated tool may be permitted subject to the prior approval of the Engineer.

06-6 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

0620. Welding

All welding shall be metal-arc welding carried out with modern plant of adequate capacity
and complying in all respect with the requirements of BS 5135: 1984 "Specification for Arc
Welding of Carbon and Carbon Manganese Steel", and BS 4872: Part 1:1982 Tests for use
in the approval of Welders.

Electrodes shall comply in all respects with the requirements of BS 639:1986 Covered
Electrodes for the Manual Metal-Arc Welding of Mild Steel and Medium Tensile Steel.

0621. Testing of Welds

The Contractor shall carry out tests in compliance with BS 709: 1983, Destructive testing
fusion welded joints and weld metal in steel, BS 2600: Part 1: 1983, Radiographic
examination of fusion welded butt joints, BS 3683 Non destructive testing and BS 3923:
Parts 1 & 2 Ultrasonic examination of welds, as required by the Engineer.

Isolated slag inclusion and gas pockets whose greatest dimension exceeds one-eighth of
the thickness of the thinner plate joined shall be cut and the joint re-welded. Porosity and
stringers shall be dealt with at the discretion of the Engineer.

0622. Inspection

Every facility shall be given to the Engineer or his Representative to visit the Contractor's
works and to inspect the steelwork during all stages of preparation and fabrication. Any work
which is not in accordance with the Specification shall be corrected at the Contractor's
expense. Inspection by the Engineer or his Representative shall not relieve the Contractor
of liability for rectifying any defects which may subsequently appear or be found during or
after erection.

0623. Protection of Steelwork

The steelwork, prior to delivery, shall be cleaned from scale, rust, dirt and grease, etc. by
means of sand blasting to near white profile Sa 2 1/2 standard. The cleaning shall be
thorough and to the entire satisfaction and approval of the Engineer. The cleaning shall
proceed each day over the extent of surfaces which can be painted on that day.

Immediately after cleaning as described above, the surfaces, which shall be thoroughly dry,
shall be given one coat of approved zinc rich epoxy primer or other approved or specified
priming paint. Site weld locations shall be left free from paint within 150 mm of the weld
position and contact surfaces in connections using High Strength Friction Grip Bolts shall
not be painted nor shall lengths to be encased in concrete. Immediately after completion of
erection all damaged paint shall be scraped off and made good to the approval of the
Engineer. The Contractor shall also clean down and apply one coat of primer to all site
bolts, site bolted connections and site weld locations and the paint work generally shall be
left in sound condition for subsequent painting.

All paint to be used shall be stored under cover in such conditions as will preserve it from
extremes of temperature and the paint shall be used and applied strictly in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions.

06-7 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

Surfaces which are to be brought permanently into close contact or made inaccessible
either in the shops or upon erection shall, after cleaning, be given two coats of Zinc rich
epoxy primer to BS 2523 Type A or other approved or specified paint and the surfaces shall
be brought into contact while the paint is still wet.

All enclosed surfaces of box members shall be completely sealed by oiling or by coating
with an approved Bitumen Paint and all such members and tubes shall have their ends
closed by suitable plates welded in position.

Steelwork shall be stored on site on steel or timber blockings to keep all sections clear of
the ground.

The steel sections where specified to be factory rust-proofed shall be rust-proofed by a hot
dip galvanizing, metalizing or sheradizing process. The rust-proofing shall be sufficient to
withstand the 72 hours salt-spray test as provided for in BS 7479:1991. If the rust-proof
coating shall be damaged during the progress of work, the damaged part shall be recoated
to the original thickness and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Painting on Structural Steel

0624. Surface Preparation

Steel surfaces shall be prepared by sand blast cleaning in accordance with BS 7079. Blast
clean to BS 7079 average surface profile to Sa 2Vz standard.

Surfaces should be dry and free from visual contamination in the form of grit, dust or grease
before abrasive blast cleaning.

0625. Priming

Zinc phosphate epoxy primer shall be applied immediately after cleaning as described
above on dry surfaces and at temperatures in excess of 10 degree C and under conditions
of reasonable relative humidity, i.e. not exceeding 85%.

Apply material by airless spray in one or more coats to a firm thickness not less than 50
microns.

0626. Under Coat

Under coat shall be two pack epoxy resin based high build coat and shall be applied by
airless spray on zinc phosphate primer 2 hours after the application of the priming coat to a
thickness not less than 100-125 microns DFT per coat. A minimum of two coats shall be
applied.

0627. Finishing Coat

Finishing coat shall be two pack epoxy resin based paint applied by airless spray to a
thickness of not less than 50 microns DFT. The paint shall be a tough chemical and
abrasion resistant coating.

06-8 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

0628. Tolerances for Structural Steelwork

Notwithstanding any other references to the Contrary the following tolerances in


construction of structural steelwork shall be allowed.

No structural steelwork member shall differ from the lines, level and plumb shown on the
Drawings by more than 3 mm and any such departure from the true line or plumb shall not
occur at a rate in excess of one percent.

In preparing his shop drawings and designing the steelwork connections, the Contractor
shall make such allowance for lack of fit and ease of erection as he shall consider
necessary. These allowances shall not cause the overall tolerances specified in the two
preceding paragraphs to be exceeded.

Any work lying outside the above mentioned tolerances shall be dealt with as directed by
the Engineer and at the expense of the Contractor.

0629. Grouting Bearing Plates

All bedding and grouting shall be carried out using a proprietary make, high mechanical
strength, free flowing epoxy grout. The grout shall be a 2 component aggregate filled epoxy
resin, based on a low viscosity liquid reactor producing the following characteristics:

- Compressive strength at 7 days : > 70 N/mm2


- Tensile strength at 7 days : > 8 N/mm2
- Flextural strength at 7 days : > 20 N/mm2

Bearing plates shall not be grouted until the steelwork has been finally leveled and plumbed
to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The preparation of the concrete surfaces receiving the grout, mixing application, curing, etc.
shall be strictly in accordance with the written instructions of the manufacturer.

0630. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of Construction" -
June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors of U.K.

Rates for Structural Steel work shall include for the preparation and submission of detailed
shop drawings and all necessary back-up calculations as may be required by the Engineer.

End of Section 06

06-9 Section 06-Structural Steelwork


Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 07

EXTERNAL WORKS

0701. SCOPE

This specification covers items of work to be executed outside the external walls of the
building including, but not limited to, fencing, gates, paving, kerbs, roads and the like.
Where materials, manufacture and workmanship of items in External Works are not
described in this section the relevant specification in other sections of this Document shall
be deemed to apply.

0702. EMBANKMENTS

0702.1 Description

This work shall consist of constructing roadway embankments, including preparation of the
areas upon which they are to be placed; placing and compacting of approved material within
roadway areas where unsuitable material has been removed; and, placing and compacting
of embankment material in holes, pits and other depressions within the roadway area, in
accordance with the specifications and in conformity with lines, grades, thickness and
typical cross sections shown on the Drawings or established by the Engineer. Only
approved materials shall be used in construction of embankments and backfill.

0702.2 Foundation Treatment

When an embankment is to be made, all vegetable matter shall be removed from the
surface upon which the embankment is to be placed and the cleared surface shall be
completely broken up by plowing or stepping to a minimum depth or two hundred (200) mm
or as otherwise directed by the Engineer. The material of which the foundation is composed
shall be adjusted to moisture content within the moisture range and compacted to the
compaction to which the subsequently placed embankment is to be constructed as
designated on the Drawings.

0702.3 General -Embankments

Logs, trees, stumps, weeds, heavy grass or other undesirable materials shall not be placed
in embankments. Roots occurring in embankments shall be thoroughly bladed with a motor
grader until the earth has been broken from the roots.

When an embankment is to be constructed over an area previously occupied by a building


basement, cellar, irrigation canal, well, any previous excavation or other such construction
that will not permit use or normal compaction equipment, embankment construction shall
confirm to backfilling requirements specified in "backfilling For Structures" until normal
compaction equipment can be used.

The Contractor shall be responsible for the stability or embankments and shall replace
sections of same which, in the opinion or the Engineer, have been damaged or displaced

07-1 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

due to carelessness or neglect on the part of the Contractor; or, due to natural causes such
as storms and not attributable to unavoidable movement of the natural ground upon which
the embankment is made. During construction the roadway shall be kept shaped and
drained at all times.

The Contractor shall use MSHTO Class A-1-a(0), A-1b(0) and A-2-4(0) soils as specified in
MSHTO M 145, or other materials which may be approved by the Engineer. The criteria for
approval shall be as in Appendix 'A' to this section.

In areas subject to flood and prolonged inundation of the embankment, such as at bridge
sites, material used in the embankment, unless rock, shall be MSHTO Class A-1-a(O), A1-
b(O) or A-2-4(O) soils. Other soils may be used only with the written consent of the
Engineer.

Side slopes shall be neatly trimmed to lines and slopes shown in the Drawings or as
directed by the Engineer and finished work left in a neat and acceptable condition.

Roadway embankment of earth material shall be placed in horizontal layers not exceeding
two hundred (200) mm (loose measurement) and shall be compacted as specified and
approved by the Engineer before the next layer is placed. Effective spreading equipment
shall be used on each layer to obtain uniform thickness prior to compaction.

As the compaction of each layer progresses, continuous leveling and manipulation will be
required to assure uniform density. Proper moisture content shall be maintained in order to
obtain required density. Construction equipment shall be routed uniformly over the entire
surface of each layer. A motor grader shall be used on the embankment at all times during
the placing and compacting of earth material.

0702.4 Moisture Content Requirements

Moisture content of the soil at the time of compaction shall be within two (+/-2) percent of
the optimum moisture content corresponding to the modified Proctor Curve.

When moisture content of embankment soil does not fail within required moisture range,
water shall be added and thoroughly mixed into the soil by approved methods or the
material shall be aerated, whichever is needed lo adjust the soil to required moisture
content.

Moisture content in the soil layer shall be uniform. The Contractor - shall mix the material by
any approved means till such time as, in the opinion of the Engineer or by evidence from
test results, sufficient uniformity in moisture content has been achieved.

0702.5 Density Requirements

Layers more than three hundred (300) mm below sub-grade revel shall be compacted to
ninety (90) percent of maximum dry density determined to AASHTO T 180 Method D. For
all soils, with the exception of rock fill material retained on a three fourths (3/4) inch (19.1
mm) sieve, maximum dry density thus obtained shall be adjusted for such over-size
material as directed by the Engineer. Subsequent layers shall not be placed and
compacted unless the previous layer has been properly compacted and accepted by the
Engineer.

07-2 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Layers three hundred {300) mm or less below subgrade level shall be compacted to ninety
five (95) percent of maximum dry density determined according to AASHTO T 180 Method
D.

0702.6 Benching

Where an embankment is to be placed on appreciably sloping ground, this surface shall be


benched in steps or trenched in accordance with the Engineer's instructions, including if
necessary any under-ramming of the affected part of the Site.

CRITERIA FOR APPROVAL OF MATERIAL

Unsuitable material shall include:

Material from swamps, marshes etc.

Material susceptible to spontaneous combustion

Stumps and perishable material

Soils of liquid limit exceeding 35% and/or plasticity index exceeding 6%.

Excessively wet materials

Materials containing more that 5% of water-soluble salts by weight of dry soil.

Uniformly graded fine sands, typically from beaches and desert dunes.

Suitable material for road works shall be approved non-plastic material free from the
excavation or a source approved by the Engineer, which shall have the following
properties:

CBR At least 30% at 95% of MOO or 15% of MOD as appropriate

Liquid Limit less than 35 and Plasticity Index less than 6 %.

Water Soluble Salts less than S% by weight of dry material

Maximum Particle size not more than 100mm

MDD is Maximum Dry Density by Test 13, BS 1377.

0703. SUB-BASE AND BASE

0703.1 Definition of Sub Base and Base

Sub base is that portion of the road cross-section, which lies between the top of the
subgrade and the underside of the base. Its width will be according to Drawings, or as
directed by the Engineer.

07-3 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Base is the portion of the road cross-section, which lies between the top of the sub-base
and the underside of the bituminous surface. Its width will be as shown on the standard
Drawings.

0703. Granular Sub-Base

0703.2. A Description

Work shall consist of furnishing, placing and compacting one or more courses of aggregate,
including binder soil if required, on a prepared subgrade in accordance with the
Specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades, thickness and typical cross sections
shown on the Drawings or established by the Engineer.

During the execution of the works, the Engineer may issue revisions to the scheduled sub-
base thickness based on tests on the sub-grade and the Contractor shall then adjust such
revisions by so shaping the sub-grade cut as to maintain the profile cross-sectional
elevations shown on the drawings.

0703.2. B Materials

'Granular Sub-base' shall be of the class 'B' as shown on the Drawings or directed by the
Engineer. Sub-base material shall be free from dirt, organic matter, shale or other
deleterious matter shall be or such quality that it will bind readily to form a firm, stable sub-
base.

When the stationary plant method is used aggregate will be accepted immediately following
mixing based on periodic samples taken from pug mill output. When a road mix method is
used aggregate will be accepted after necessary blending and before raying, based on
samples taken from combined windrow for each layer. When aggregate is a total
aggregate, it may be accepted at screer1ing plant or crusher- Acceptance of material by
the engineer does not constitute acceptance of the sub-base, only that material is approved
for use in sub-base.

Material for 'Granular Sub-base' shall conform to requirements specified below.

CLASS 'B' SUB-BASE

Class B Sub-Base shall consist of uniform mixture of gravel and/or stone fragments with
sand, silt and clay, conforming to the following requirements:

AASHTO SIEVE PERCENT PASSING


2 inch (50.8 mm) 100
1-1/2 inch (38.1 mm) 70-100
1-inch (25.4 mm) 55- 85
3/4-inch (19.1 mm) 50- 80
3/8 inch (9.52 mm) 40-70
No.4 (4.75 mm) 30-60
No.10 (2.00 mm) 20-50
No.40 (0.425mm) 10-30
No.200 (0.075mm) 5-15

07-4 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Grading is based on aggregates of uniform specific gravity and the percentages passing
the various sieves are subject to correction by the Engineer when aggregates of varying
specific gravities are used.

Liquid Limit (AASHTO T 89) 25 Maximum

Plasticity Index (AASHTO T 90) 6 Maximum

Sand Equivalent (AASHTO T 176) 25 Minimum

Loss by abrasion (AASHTO T 96) 50 Maximum

Equipment

Equipment shall conform 10 the standards specified and shall be according to type and
number outlined in the Contractor's detailed programme of work as approved by the
Engineer.

0703.2. C Construction Requirements

Preparation of Subgrade

Unless other subgrade preparation is called for on the Drawings or subgrade preparation
appears as a separate item for compensation in the Bill of Quantities, the Contractor shall
as part of the work of sub base, prepare subgrade. Formation of subgrade will vary by
either placing granular sub-base on roadway surface as previously constructed or by
excavating sufficient material from roadway to form the shoulders and placing granular sub-
base on subgrade obtained. In either cases subgrade shall, as hereinafter described, be
brought to lines, grades and typical section shown on the Drawings for the bottom of
granular sub-base. Soft and yielding material or other portions of the subgrade, which will
not compact, readily when rolled or tamped shall be removed or broken off to a depth of not
less than (150) mm below surface or subgrade. Holes or depressions made by removal of
material, as described above, shall be filled with approved material and the whole subgrade
brought to line and grade and compacted to density designated on the Drawings or directed
by the Engineer.

SPREADING

Sub-base aggregates shall be spread on subgrade, which has been approved by the
Engineer. Sub-base, which has been placed on subgrade not approved by the Engineer,
shall be removed at the Contractor’s expense.

Sub-base aggregate shall be spread on approved subgrade in layers not exceeding one
hundred and fifty (150) mm compacted depth. Spreading shall be done by approved
mechanical spreaders, distributing materials to required width and loose thickness. Where
required sub-base thickness is greater than one hundred and fifty (15) mm material shall be
placed in layers of equal thickness but in no case shall a layer be less than seventy five
(75) mm thick. Under no circumstances shall Class A Sub-Base be dumped in a pile on the
subgrade.

07-5 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Material shall be handled so as to avoid segregation. Segregated material shall be remixed


until uniform. Suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent rutting the subgrade during
spreading sub-base material. No hauling or placement of material will be permitted when, in
the judgment of the Engineer, weather or road conditions are such that hauling operations
will cause rutting of subgrade or contamination of sub-base material.

Compaction

Moisture content of sub-base material shall be adjusted to obtain specified density prior to
compaction, by watering with approved sprinkler trucks or by drying out, as directed by the
Engineer. Sub-base shall be compacted to one hundred (100) percent of maximum dry
density as determined according to AASHTO T 180 Method D, or as deemed appropriate
by the Engineer. Moisture content direct by the Engineer shall be the optimum moisture
content determined from the Moisture/Density test performed in the laboratory on sub-base
material, or as otherwise directed by the Engineer after compaction trials as specified in
this section. The soaked CBR must not be less than thirty (30) percent at this specified
density.

Sub-base aggregate shall be compacted by approved compaction equipment progressing


gradually from the outside towards the centre with each succeeding pass uniformly
overlapping the previous pass. Rolling shall continue until the entire thickness of each layer
is thoroughly and uniformly compacted to specified density. Rolling shall be accompanied
by sufficient balding, in a manner approved by the Engineer, to ensure a smooth surface
free from ruts or ridges and having proper section and crown.

Any areas inaccessible to normal compaction equipment shall be compacted by


mechanical tampers until satisfactory compaction is obtained.

Each layer of sub-base course must be completely compacted and approved by the
Engineer prior to delivery of materials for a succeeding layer of Sub-base.

0704. Aggregate Base Course

0704.1 Description

This work shall consist of furnishing and placing one or more layers of aggregate, including
additives if required, on a prepared surface in accordance with the specifications and in
conformity with the lines, grades, thickness and typical cross sections shown on the
Drawings or established by the Engineer.

Materials

Materials shall conform to the requirements for the class 'A' 'Aggregate Base Course'
specified or directed by the Engineer. All aggregates for base course shall consist of clean,
tough, durable, sharp angle fragments free of any excess of thin or elongated pieces and
reasonably free of soft, disintegrated or decomposed stone, dirt or other deleterious matter.

Crushed gravel or stone fragments for base courses shall consist of the product obtained
by crushing gravel or stone that, if directed by the Engineer, has first been screened in
such a manner that not less than ninety percent of the material to be crushed is retained on
a one-quarter (1/4) inch sieve. The amount of crushing shall be regulated so that at least

07-6 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

eighty percent, by weight, of the pieces retained on the No.4 sieve have at least one
mechanically fractured face.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Base course aggregate shall conform to the following physical requirements:

Loss of Sodium Sulphate Soundness Test


(AASHTO T104) 10 percent maximum

Loss of Magnesium Sulphate Soundness


Test (AASHTO T 104) 12-percenl maximum

Loss by Abrasion Test


(AASHTO T 96) 40 percent maximum

Thin and Elongated Pieces, by weight


(Larger than 1 inch, Thickness less than
1/51ength) 5 percent maximum

Friable Particles
(AASHTO T 112) 0.25 percent maximum

AGGREGATE BASE COURSE CLASS A

Coarse materials for Class A base course shall be crushed rock or crushed gravel
conforming to the following grading requirements:

AASHTO SIEVE PERCENT PASSING


2-1/2 inch (63.5 mm) 100
2 inch (50.8 mm) 90-100
1-1/2 inch (38.1 mm) 35- 70
1 inch (25.4 mm) 0-15
1/2 inch (12.7 mm) 0- 5

Fine materials for Class A base course shall be quarry screenings or natural material and
of suitable binding quality as approved by the. Engineer. Material shall be free from foreign
or organic matter, dirt, shale, clay and clay lumps or other deleterious matter and shall
conform to the following requirements:

AASHTO SIEVE PERCENT PASSING


318 inch (9.52 mm) 100
No.4 (4.75 mm) 85-100
No.100 (0.148 mm) 10- 30

Plasticity Index (AASHTO T 90) 6 maximum


Sand Equivalent (AASHTO T 176) 30 minimum

Combined material shall consist of a mixture of all-aggregate uniformly graded from coarse
to fine to conform to the following gradation requirements:

07-7 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

AASHTO SIEVE PERCENT PASSING

2-1/2 inch (63.5 mm) 100


2 inch (50.8 mm) 90-100
1-1/2 inch (38.1 mm) 60- 90
1 inch (25.4 mm) 42- 77
3/4 inch (19.1 mm) 35- 70
112 inch (12.7 mm) 25- 60
No.4 (4.75 mm) 15-40
No.10 (2.00 mm) 10- 26
No.40 (0.425mm) 5- 15
No.200 (0.075mm) 2- 9

Plasticity Index (AASHTO T 90) 6 Maximum


Sand Equivalent (AASHTO T 176) 30Minimum

Equipment

Equipment shall conform to standards specified and shall be according - to type and
number outlined in Contractor's detailed programe of Work as approved by the Engineer.

0704.3 Construction Requirements

Subgrade Preparation

If no sub-base layer is called for in the pavement, the Contractor shall, as a part of the work
and prior to delivery of materials for base course, prepare road bed surface by sprinkling,
blading, rolling and lightly scarifying, where necessary, until the proper crown is obtained.
However, in the process of shaping the road bed, the originally compacted crust or top
portion of the road bed shall be disturbed as little as possible. When completed and ready
for base course construction, the roadbed shall be well compacted, smooth, hard and
uniform, all irregularities having been bladed out and rolled down.

Method of Construction

A) Combining aggregates and water: Aggregates for base course shall be combined into
a uniform mixture and water added in a central mixing plant. When binder is to be added it
shall be combined in the central mixing plant.

Moisture added to aggregates shall be that required, as designated by the Engineer, to


obtain specified density thereby preparing an aggregate completely ready for compaction
after spreading on the roadbed. In no case will wetting of aggregates in stockpiles or trucks
be permitted.

B) Placing combined aggregates: Aggregate for base courses shall be delivered to the
Site as a uniform mixture and shall be placed on existing roadway, prepared sub-base or
prepared subgrade, as the case may be, in a uniform layer or layers not exceeding one
hundred and fifty mm, in compacted depth. When required base thickness is greater than
one hundred and fifty mm, material shall be spread in layers of equal thickness. Aggregates
shall be placed using a mechanical spreader of approved type working to control guide
wires.

07-8 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Material shall be so handled as to avoid segregation. If the aggregate spreader causes


segregation of material or leaves, ridges or other objectionable marks on the surface which
cannot be readily eliminated or prevented by adjustment of spreader operation, use of such
spreader shall be discontinued and it shall be replaced. Segregated material shall be
removed and replaced with properly graded material. No surface patching shall be
permitted.

Hauling and placement of material will not be permitted when, in the opinion of the
Engineer, weather or road conditions are such that hauling operations wilt cause rutting of
road surface or contamination of base course material.

C) Immediately after placing, base course material shall be compacted to a density of not
less than one hundred percent or Maximum Density as determined according to AASHTO
T 180 Method D, or deemed appropriate by the Engineer. Field determination of density
shall be made in accordance with AASHTO -T 205. The percent of density shall be
adjusted to compensate for weight and volume of aggregate larger than aggregate used in
compaction control test, where applicable. The soaked CBR must not be less than eighty
percent at this specified density.

Rolling shall be continued until the entire thickness of each layer is thoroughly and
uniformly compacted to density specified. Final rolling of completed base course shall be by
self-propelled roller. Rolling shall be accompanied by sufficient blading in a manner
approved by the Engineer to ensure a smooth surface, free from ruts or ridges and having
the proper section and crown. When additional water is required it shall be added in the
amount and manner approved by the Engineer. Each layer of base course must be
completely compacted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer prior to delivery of
materials for a succeeding layer.

0705. BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT

0705.1 Preparation of Road Surfaces

It shall be the Contractor's sole responsibility to maintain the surface in an approved


condition, conforming to required grades and sections. Defects, which may develop, shall
be immediately corrected at the Contractor's expense.

Prior to the application of bituminous material all loose materials shall be removed from the
surface and the surface shall be cleaned by approved mechanical sweepers or blowers
and/or hand brooms until it is as free from dust as is deemed practicable. If deemed
necessary by the Engineer and if the surface is an earth surface or a water-bound base
course or sub-base, the cleaned surface shall be given a light application of water and
allowed to dry to a surface-dry condition before bituminous material is applied. No traffic
shall be permitted on the surface after it has been prepared to receive bituminous material.

0705.2 Heating of Bituminous Materials

Heating shall be with equipment as specified. Use of any method of agitation or heating
that introduces free steam or moisture, into bituminous material is prohibited. Materials
heated to temperatures above twenty-eight (28) degrees C higher than the maximum
application temperature specified in Table 'Bituminous Wearing Course' shall be considered

07-9 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

rejected as overheated, the material can be sampled and tested. Reacceptance or final
rejection will be made by the Engineer on the same requirements under which the material
was originally tested.

0705.3 Prime Coat

Prime coat shall be applied to approved earth surfaces, water-bound base courses, tops of
roadway shoulders and concrete bridge decks and pavements as soon as practicable after
they have been prepared and are sufficiently dry, as determined by the Engineer.

Areas to be Primed

All surfaces that will be covered by bituminous pavement or order by the Engineer.

Application of the Primer

Medium-curing cutback asphalt, Grade MC-70, shall be applied by approved pressure


distributors operated by skilled workmen. Spray nozzles and spray bar shall be adjusted
and frequently checked so that uniform distribution is ensured. Spraying shall cease
immediately upon clogging or interference of any nozzle and corrective measures taken
before spraying is resumed.

Hand sprays will be approved only for priming small patches or inaccessible areas that
cannot be primed by normal operation of the distributor.

Care should be taken that application of bituminous material at the junction of spread is not
in excess of specified amount. Excess shall be squeezed from the surface, when required
by the Engineer. Skipped areas of recognized deficiencies shall be corrected by means of
approved hand sprays.

Test Section and Rates of Application

Rate of application for prime material shall be specified by the Engineer within the limits
shown below as determined from field trials conducted on a test section or sections. The
Contractor shall, prior to the time he intends to begin priming operations, prepare a test
section of an approved length to determine the rate of application of prime coat. On work
where surfaces to be primed are constructed of different materials, a test section for each
type of material shall be prepared by the Contractor.

Test methods shall be determined by the Engineer and performed by the Contractor in the
presence of the Engineer.

The Engineer may order subsequent test sections and/or alter previously established rate
or rates of application when he deems it necessary.

07-10 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

APPLICATION RATES BITUMINOUS MATERIAL


Type of Surface Kilograms per Square Metre
Minimum /Maximum

- Earth surfaces, shoulders,


Water-bound base course. 0.8
1.2

- Bridge wearing surfaces,


Concrete pavement 0.2
0.4

- Other surfaces as determined from field


tests

d) Protection of Adjacent Structures

When bituminous materials are being applied, surfaces of all structure, wheel guards,
guard rail, curbs and gutters, and other roadway appurtenances shall be protected in a
manner approved by the Engineer to prevent them from being splattered with bituminous
material or marred by equipment operation. In the event that any appurtenances become
splattered or marred the Contractor shall, at his own expense, remove all traces of
bituminous materials and repair all damage and leave the appurtenances in an approved
condition.

e) Weather and Temperature Limitations

Prime coat shall only be applied when the surface is dry; when atmospheric temperature is
above fifteen degrees C; and, when the weather is not foggy or rainy.

0706. Bituminous Base Course

Description

This work shall consist of aggregate and bituminous material mixed in a central plant and
spread and compacted on an approved primed surface in accordance with the
Specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades, thickness and typical cross sections
shown on the Drawings or established by the Engineer.

Materials
Mineral Aggregates

Mineral aggregates for ‘Bituminous Base Course’ shall consist of coarse aggregates, tine
aggregates and filler material, if required, all complying with the following requirements:

A) Coarse aggregate: Is material retained on an MSHTO No.4 sieve and shall be clean,
hard, tough, crushed gravel. It shall be clean, hard, tough, durable and sound and shall be
of uniform quality and free from decomposed stone, organic matter, shale, clay, lumps and
other deleterious substances.

07-11 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Coarse aggregate shall be free from excess of flat elongated pieces (in no case more than
10%) which, when coated with asphalt, shall pass a stripping test performed in accordance
with AASHTO T 182.

Crushed gravel for use as course aggregate shall consist of the product obtained by
crushing material so that not less than ninety percent of material to be crushed is retained
on a standard AASHTO No.3/8 inch sieve. Crushing of gravel shall be regulated so that at
least ninety percent by weight of the material retained on an AASHTO No.4 sieve shall
consist of pieces with at least one mechanically fractured face and when tested for stability
of bituminous mix shows satisfactory stability. Coarse aggregate used for 'Bituminous Base
Course' only, may be uncrushed angular material, which meets the angular and, other
requirements specified.

B) Fine Aggregate shall consist of that portion of the total aggregate that passes a
standard AASHTO No.4 sieve. Fine aggregate obtained by crushing gravel shall be
produced as specified above and after crushing at least eighty-five percent by weight of
material passing an AASHTO No.4 sieve and retained on an AASHTO No.8 sieve shall
consist of piece having at least one mechanically fractured face. Should natural material
passing an AASHTO No.4 sieve be included in the mixture, this material shall be included
in the mixture; this material shall be fed to the dryer as a separate aggregate and the
amount used shall be so limited that the mixture of fine aggregates will contain not less
than twenty-five percent by weight of crushed aggregates.

When the combined grading of coarse and fine aggregates is deficient in material passing
an AASHTO No.200 sieve, mineral filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such
as rock dust, including limestone dust, slag dust, hydrated lime, hydraulic cement or other
approved mineral matter. At the time of use it shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and
essentially free from agglomerations. Filler material shall conform to the requirements of
AASHTO M-17. Gradation requirements are as follows:

Sieve Percent Passing


(by weight)

No.30 (0.600-mm) 100

No.50 (0.300-mm) 95-100

No.200 (0.075-mm) 70-1

Combined mineral aggregate shall meet quality requirements specified in Section


‘Aggregate Base Course' and shall conform to the following physical requirements:

Sand equivalent: (AASHTO T 176) determined


After all processing except for addition 45 minimum

Plasticity index (AASHTO T 90) 6 maximum

Loss of Material Stability by submerging


Specimens in water at 60 deg. C for 24 hours
as compared to stability measured after 25 percent
Submersion in water at 60 deg. C for 30 minutes maximum

07-12 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

When tested according to AASHTO T 11 and AASHTO T 27 combined mineral aggregate


shall confirm lo the following grading:

AASHTO SIEVE CLASS A CLASS B


SIZE PERCENT PASSING

1-1/2 inch (38.1 MM) 100 100


1- inch (25.4 mm) 100 80-100
3/4 inch (19.1 mm) 80 -100 70 -90
3/8 inch (9.52 mm) 60 -80 55 -75
No.4 (4.75 mm) 45 -65 44 –62
No.10 (2.00 mm) 30 -50 33 –48
No.40 (0.425 mm) 15 -32 16 -27
No.20 (0.074 mm) 3 -10 3-10

Grading limits specified are based on materials of uniform specific gravity and shall be
adjusted by the Engineer to compensate for variations in specific gravity of individual sizes.
Gradings may be varied by the Engineer on the basis of Marshal Tests to obtain optimum
stability and life of the completed 'Bituminous Base Course' mix.

Asphalts

Asphalt for 'Bituminous Base Course' shall be petroleum asphalt, cement, grade 60 -70
penetration, conforming to the requirements in Table in Section "Bituminous Wearing
Course". The asphalt shall be prepared by refining petroleum. It shall be Uniform in
Character and shall not foam when healed to 176.7 degree C.

Liquid asphalt for tack coat shall be rapid curing type cutback grade RC-250 or emulsified
asphalt (SS-1) as directed by the Engineer and shall conform to the requirements specified
for liquid asphalts in Tables 2 and 4 Section 'Bituminous Wearing Course'.

Job-Mix

At least thirty days (30) prior to the date the Contractor intends to begin production of plant
mix 'Bituminous Base Course' mixtures but, after receiving approval of the aggregates from
the Engineer and, after the delivery, to site or the asphalt specified for 'Bituminous Base
Course' the Contractor shall make written request for the approved job-mix formula from
the Engineer.

The job-mix formula will be prepared by the Contractor in the Project Laboratory under the
supervision of the Engineer.

The job-mix formula shall combine mineral aggregates and asphalt in such proportion as to
produce a mixture confirming to the following composition limits by weight:

PERCENT
Total mineral aggregate 97 –95
Asphaltic binder 3 -5

When tested according to the Marshal Method bituminous mixture shall conform to the
following requirements:

07-13 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Stability (kgs) 800 minimum

Flow (mm) 2.0 -5.0

Voids in total mix (percent) 4.0 -7.0

Voids filled with asphalt (percent) 60 –75

Trial mixes shall be prepared by the Contractor and will be tested in the presence of the
Engineer.

The Marshall Test procedure will be used to determine the percentage of liquid asphalt that
is to be incorporated into the mixture. The number of blows shall be seventy-five at each
end of the mould.

Gradation of combined aggregate including mineral filler shall be within the limits specified
for the class of 'Bituminous Base Course' to be used. The Engineer may vary the specified
limits where he deems it necessary; on the basis of tile Marshal tests, to obtain optimum
stability and life of the completed mix. The job mix formula, thus approved by the Engineer
shall be designated as “Job Standard Mixture" (JSM) and shall thereafter be the approved
mixture.

Upon receiving the job-mix formula, approved by the Engineer, the Contractor shall adjust
his plant to proportion individual aggregates, mineral filler and asphalt to produce a final
mix that, when compared to the job-mix formula, shall be within the following limits:

Maximum Variations Of Percentage Of Materials

AASHTO NO.4 and larger +/-5 percent


AASHTO NO.10 and retained on No.200 +/-5 percent
AASHTO NO.200 +/-1.5 percent
Asphalt Cement +/-0.3 percent

The Engineer will test the mix periodically and, if necessary, direct the Contractor to
readjust the plant to maintain conformity to the job-mix formula. If, during production,
grading of the aggregate alters, the mix shall be redesigned and the plant readjusted.

The assistance of the Engineer in the preparation of the job-mix formula in no way relieves
the contractor of the responsibility of producing a bituminous mixture meeting the
requirements of the Specifications.

Placing Of The Mixture

Bituminous mixture shall be spread and finished true to crown and grade by automatically
controlled bituminous paver. Bituminous mixtures may be spread and finished by hand
methods only where machine methods are impractical as determined by the Engineer.

Automatically controlled paver shall spread bituminous mixtures without tearing the surface
and shall strike a finish that is smooth, true to cross section, uniform in density and texture
and free from hollows, transverse corrugations and other irregularities.

07-14 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Paver shall be operated at a speed which will give best results for the type of paver being
used and which co-ordinates satisfactorily with rate of delivery of mixture to paver so as to
provide uniform rate of placement without intermittent operation of the paver.

Mixed material shall be delivered to paver in time to permit completion of spreading,


finishing and compaction of mixture during daylight hours. Bituminous mixtures shall be
delivered to the paver at a temperature between one hundred and thirty nine and one
hundred and sixty three degrees C. Mixtures delivered to the paver at lower temperatures
shall be discarded.

The leading half of half-roadway paving shall not get ahead of the trailing half of the
pavement by more than one average full-day of paving and, in no case, shall leading half
be more than five tenth (0.5) km ahead of trailing half without written permission of the
Engineer. If the Contractor fails to comply with this requirement the Engineer may suspend
paving on the leading half until such time as the Contractor shall pave the trailing half to a
point approximately even with the leading half.
Longitudinal joints in successive layers shall be offset not less than one hundred and fifty
mm nor more than three hundred mm. The width of surface or top course placements shall
conform to traffic lane edges as shown on the Drawings.

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, where successive layers are to be placed, the
surface of the existing layer shall be swept clean with a power broom, or by other means as
approved by the Engineer, and a tack coat applied.

Bituminous mixtures, except on leveling courses, shall be spread in a placement thickness


so that after rolling, nominal thickness of compacted bituminous material will not exceed
eighty mm. Where practical top layers should not exceed sixty mm.

Maximum thickness for layers may be increased slightly when such increase is more
adaptable to total pavement thickness and when in the opinion of the Engineer, it is not
detrimental to placement and rolling conditions.

Compaction of Mixture

After spreading and strike-off and as soon as mix conditions permit rolling to be performed
without excessive shoving or tearing, the mixture shall be thoroughly and uniformly
compacted. Rolling shall not be prolonged till cracks appear.

Rollers shall be of steel wheel and/or pneumatic-tyre type and shall be in good conditions,
capable of reversing without backlash and shall be operated at speeds slow enough to
avoid displacement of bituminous mixture. The number and weight of rollers shall be
sufficient to compact the mixture to the required density while it is still in a workable
condition. Use of equipment, which results in excessive crushing of aggregate, will not be
permitted. A minimum of three rollers, two steel wheels and one pneumatic-tyre type shall
be used with each spreading operation.

Initial or breakdown rolling shall be done by means of either a tandem power steel roller or
a three-wheel power steel roller. Rolling shall begin as soon as the mixture will bear the
roller without undue displacement. Rolling shall be longitudinally, beginning at low side of
spread of material and processing toward the high side, overlapping on successive trips by
at least one-half the width of rear wheels. Alternate trips of roller shall be of slightly different
lengths.

07-15 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Motion of roller shall at all times be slow enough to avoid displacement of mixture and
spread of roller shall be as approved by the Engineer. To prevent adhesion of mixture to
roller, wheels of roller shall be kept properly moistened with water but excess of water will
not be permitted.

Initial or breakdown rolling shall be followed by rolling with pneumatic tyred roller. Final
compaction and finish rolling shall be done by means of tandem power steel roller unless
otherwise designated. When specified density is not obtained, changes in size and/or
number of rollers shall be made as corrective measures to satisfy density requirement.
Under some conditions, the Engineer may order that initial breakdown rolling be
accomplished by means of pneumatic tyred rollers. When such rollers are used for
breakdown rolling, the water spraying system on the roller must not be used so that
asphaltic concrete will not cling to the tires.

Rollers shall be operated by competent and experienced roller men and shall be kept in
operation continuously, if necessary, so that all parts of pavement will receive substantially
equal compaction at the time desired. The Engineer will order the mixing plant to cease
operation at any time if proper rolling is not being performed.

Road density requirements shall be equal to or greater than ninety-six percent of the
Marshal Density of each day's production or that of JSM whichever is greater.

Mixture that becomes loose, broken, mixed with foreign material or which is in any way
defective in finish or density or which does not comply in all other respects with the
requirements of the Specification shall be removed, replaced with suitable material and
finished in accordance with the Specifications.

Contact Surfaces

Contact surfaces of curbing, gutters, manholes and similar structures shall be painted with
a thin uniform coating of asphaltic material approved by the Engineer. Bituminous mixture
shall be placed uniformly high near the contact surfaces so that after compaction it will be
seven mm above the edge of such structures.

Joints

Joints between old and new pavements or between successive days work shall be made
so as to ensure thorough and continuous bond between old and new mixtures. Transverse
construction joints in previously laid material shall be constructed by cutting material back
vertically for its full depth so as to expose a fresh surface.

Before placing fresh mixture against a cut joint or against old pavement, the contact surface
shall be sprayed or painted with a thin uniform coat of RC-250 or SS-1. Where a finishing
machine is used, the longitudinal joint shall be made by overlapping the screed on the
previously laid material for a width of at least thirty mm and depositing a sufficient amount
of mixture so that the joint formed will be smooth and tight.

Side Road, Entrances and Laybys

Side roads, entrances and laybys shall be surfaced as shown on the Drawings or as
ordered by the Engineer in accordance with the requirements of the Specifications.

07-16 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

0707. Bituminous Wearing Course

Description

This work shall consist of the construction of one or both of the following described
asphaltic concrete courses on an approved, primed or tacked, base, sub-base, subgrade,
bridge deck or concrete pavement in accordance with the Specifications and in conformity
with the lines, grades, thickness and typical cross sections shown on the Drawings or
established by the Engineer.

Materials

Mineral Aggregates

Mineral aggregates for "Bituminous Wearing Course" shall consist of coarse aggregate, fine
aggregate and filler material, if required, all complying with the following requirements:

Coarse aggregate shall meet the requirements specified in Section 402 "Bituminous Base
Course".

Fine aggregate shall meet the requirements specified in section "Bituminous Base Course".

When the combined grading of the coarse and fine aggregate is deficient in material
passing the AASHTO No.200 sieve, mineral filler shall be added as approved by the
Engineer. Mineral filler shall meet the requirements specified in Section 'Bituminous Base
Course".

The combined mineral aggregate shall meet the quality requirements specified in Section
“Aggregate Base Course" and in addition shall conform to the following physical
requirements:

Sand equivalent:
(ASSHTO T 176) determined after all processing
except for addition of asphalt binder 45
minimum

Plasticity Index (AASHTO T 90) 3


maximum

Loss of Marshall Stability by submerging specimens ~


in water at 60 degrees C for 24 hours as compared
to stability measured after submersion in water at 60 25 percent
degrees C for 30 minutes maximum

When tested according to AASHTO T 11 and AASHTO T 27, the combined mineral
aggregate shall conform to the following gradings:

AASHTO SIEVE SIZE CLASS A % PASSING

3/4 inch (19.1 mm) 100


1/2 inch (12.7 mm) 80 -95

07-17 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

3/8 inch (9.52 mm) 60 -95


No.4 (4.75 mm) 48 -62
No.10 (2.00 mm) 32 -45
No.40 (0.425 mm) 16 -26
No.80 (0.200 mm) 8 -18
No.200 (0.075 mm) 4–8

Grading limits specified are based on materials of uniform specific gravity and shall be
adjusted by the Engineer to compensate for any variations in specific gravity of individual
sizes. Gradings may be varied by the Engineer on the basis of Marshal Tests to obtain
optimum stability and life of the completed 'Bituminous Wearing Course" or 'Bituminous
Leveling Course Mix".

Asphalts

Asphalt for 'Bituminous Wearing Course" or "Bituminous Leveling Course" shall be


petroleum asphalt cement, grade 60-70 penetration, conforming to the requirements
specified in Section "Bituminous Base Course".

Jobmix

At least thirty (30) days prior to the date scheduled to begin production of plant-mix
"Bituminous Wearing Course" mixtures and after receiving approval of the aggregates from
the Engineer and after delivery on site of the Asphalt specified for "Bituminous Wearing
Course" the Contractor shall make written request for the approved job-mix formula from
the Engineer. The job-mix formula wilt be prepared by the Contractor in the Project
Laboratory under the supervision of the Engineer.

The job-mix formula shall combine material aggregate and asphalt in such proportion as to
produce a mixture conforming to the following composition limits by weight:

PERCENT

Total Mineral Aggregates 96 –94


Asphaltic Binder 4 –6

When tested according to the Marshal Method, the bituminous mixture shall conform to the
following requirements:

Stability (kg) 1000


minimum
Flow (mm) 2.0 -4.0
Voids in total mix (percent) 4.0 -5.0
Voids filled with asphalt (percent) 65 –75

Trial mixes be prepared by the Contractor and will be tested in the presence of the
Engineer. The Marshall test procedure will be used to determine the percentage of liquid
asphalt that is to be incorporated into the mixture. The number of blows shall be seventy-
five, at each end of the mould.

07-18 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Gradation of the combined aggregate, including mineral filler shall be within the limits
specified in the Specification for the Class of 'Bituminous Wearing Course’ to be used. The
Engineer may vary specified limits where he deems it necessary, on the basis of the
Marshall tests, to obtain stability and life of the completed mix. The job-mix formula thus
approved by the Engineer shall be designated as, Job Standard Mixture' (JSM) and shall
thereafter be the approved mixture.

Upon receiving the job-mix formula, approved by the Engineer, the Contractor shall adjust
his plant to proportion the individual aggregates, mineral filler and asphalt to produce a final
mix that, when compared to the job-mix formula, shall be within the following limits:

Maximum Variations of Percentage of Materials Passing

PERCENT
AASHTO NO.4 and larger +/- 5
AASHTO NO.10 and retained on the 200 +/- 4

PERCENT
AASHTO NO.200 +/-
1.5
Asphalt Content +/-
0.3

The Engineer will test the mix periodically and, if necessary, direct the Contractor to
readjust the plant to maintain conformity to the job-nix formula. If, during production, the
grading of the aggregates alters, the mix shall be redesigned and the plant readjusted as
outlined above.

The assistance of the Engineer in the preparation of the job-mix formula in no way relieves
the Contractor of the responsibility of producing a bituminous mixture meeting the
requirements of the Specifications.

Placing of the Mixture

Wearing Course: General shall meet the requirements specified in Section "Bituminous
Base Course".

Compaction of Mixture

Shall be carried out as specified in Section "Bituminous Base Course".

Road density requirements shall be equal to or greater than ninety-eight percent of the
Marshal density of each day's production or that of JSM whichever is greater.

Protection of Fresh Mixture

The Contractor shall protect all sections of newly compacted mixture from traffic until they
have hardened properly.

07-19 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

0708. ROAD MARKINGS

A highly durable plastic material complying with BS 3262 -Part 1 applied as a hot-spray
coating at 1.5 mm thickness. The material should comprise a binder of hydrocarbon
polymer and non-volatile mineral oil with a pigmented aggregate and ballotini reflective
beads.

Properties:

Climate : Tropical grade material to suit the following


temperature ranges.

Winter 15 deg. C - 25 deg. C

Summer 25 deg. C - 51 deg. C

Colour : White or yellow as per the Engineer's


instructions.

Composition : Proportions of constituents of road marking


Material shall comply with Table 1 of
BS 3262 Part-1

Ballotini Content : Reflectorised grade 12%

Spraying Temperature : 160 deg. C -180 deg. C

Adhesion : Good adhesion to asphalt, Concrete and


Other surfaces.

Laying Specifications

To be used on conventional spraying machines which are operated with a fine nozzle spray
gun to a thickness of 1,5mm. Hand marking should have a thickness not less than 2.0mm.
Immediate reflectance to be obtained by spraying additional ballotini on the top of the line
at the rate of 460 grammes per square meter.

Road marking Equipment

Spray plastic road markings shall be applied by the use of an efficient mechanical sprayer.

The spraying mechanism should be equipped with independent plastic tank and ballotini
tank with plastic spray gunds and ballotini spray gunds, and should also contain an
automatic spacing unit.

07-20 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

0709. CONCRETE BLOCKS WALKWAYS/PAVINGS

Description

Concrete block surfacing shall consist of precast concrete interlock/quadrant blocks on a


sand-laying course over compacted road base laid on subgrade. The blocks to be laid as
per approved pattern by Engineer.

Laving Course

The laying course shall consist of washed sand with a particle size of 0-5mm containing not
more than 3% silt plus clay by weight. The sand shall be obtained from a single source,
allowed to drain before use and shall be covered with suitable sheeting to minimize
moisture changes.

Permissible sulphate and chloride contents shall not exceed 0.3% and 0.5% respectively
(expressed as a % by weight).

The edge restraints to the paved area shall be laid in advance of the laying course.

The laying course shall be laid to a compacted depth of 50mm unless otherwise shown.
During laying, the sand shall be uniform in moisture content and shall be carefully screeded
to form a smooth compacted surface to receive the paving block.

The profile of the laying course before compaction shall be similar to that of the finished
surface.

Paving Blocks

The paving blocks shall be of approved pattern, size and colour. The type of block shall be
as indicated in drawings. The paving blocks shall be hydraulically pressed during their
manufacture.

Laying of Blocks

Laying of the paving blocks shall commence at right angles to the main pavement axis
starting alone end of the area. The paving blocks shall be laid to approved pattern.

The paving blocks shall be laid on the sand-laying course in such a manner as not to
disturb the blocks already laid. Each block shall be placed firmly against the other So that
they fit closely together. The joints between blocks shall not exceed 3mm.

Edge Laying

Where blocks do not fit at the edge restraints or other obstructions such as manholes or up
stands the gaps shall be filled using cut blocks.

Blocks shall preferably be cut using a mechanical block splitter but may be cut by hand
using a club hammer and bolster chisel after having scored the culling line on all faces of
the block.

07-21 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Dimensional accuracy, uniformity of joint gaps, alignment and square ness shall be
checked after laying the first three rows of blocks and thereafter at regular intervals. If joints
begin to open, the blocks shall be knocked together using a hide mailed.

Compaction

After each 20 sqm. or such area that has been agreed with Engineer has been laid the
blocks shall be compacted to the required levels using a plate vibrator.

The plate vibrator shall have a plate area of 0.2 lo 0.3 sqm. And have a compaction force of
9-16 KN. Two passes of the plate vibrator shall be made in each direction, i.e. at 90 deg to
each other.

Filing

Fine dry sand with a particle size of 0-3mm and maximum sulphate content of 0.4% be
weight shall then be brushed over the paving, filling the joints and a further pass of the
plate vibrator made in each direction.

The plate vibrator shall not pass closer than 1 m to a temporarily unrestrained edge during
laying.

No paving shall be left uncompacted overnight except for 1 m strip at the temporarily
unrestrained edge.

0710. RIPRAP

This work shall consist of the laying of loose or mortared riprap as slope or watercourse
channel protection.

Stone for loose or mortared riprap shall be broad, flat cobbles of hard, sound, durable,
erosion resistant rock of sizes 100 to 200mm.

Mortar for mortared riprap shall consist of 1:3 cement: sand by volume. Water added shall
be the least amount which will yield a workable mix. Sand and Cement shall confirm to the
relevant requirements. The compressive strength of the mortar shall be not less than
15N/mm2 measured in accordance with BS 1881, part 108.

The stones shall be wetted and hand-laid with the flattest face uppermost and parallel to the
prepared slope, starting from the toe and progressing upwards. Stones shall be arranged in
close contact, the largest being placed in the lower courses. Spaces between large stones
shall be filled with similar stones of suitable size.

The mortar bed shall be progressively spread ahead of stone placing. Stone faces in contact
with the mortar shall be clean and free from any defects that will impair the bond with the
mortar. Mortar shall be spaded and rodded between the stones until the voids are
completely filled.

The completed work shall be cured for at least 7 days by a curing method approved by the
Engineer. After the expiry of this period, the exposed surfaces shall be cleared of loose
mortar and broken stone fragments.

07-22 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

Loose riprap stone shall be placed in the same manner as for mortar riprap. The stones
shall be properly selected and placed so as to minimise voids which shall be filled with
pieces of the largest possible size.

0711. Erection of Road Signs

All signs shall be mounted approximately at right angles to the direction of, and facing the
traffic they are intended to serve.

To get the maximum effectiveness for reflecting sheeting, type sign must be properly
located and should be faced slightly towards the road, according to this procedure:

If the center of the sign is 30 m or less from the center line of the high way the sign should
be faced towards a point 160 m down the road. If more than 30 m the sign should be faced
250 m down.

To avoid specular glare the sign face should be tilted back two or three degrees (about 10
mm per 260 mm of the sign height).

Details about the mounting and the footing of the different types of signs are shown on the
drawings. Mild steel posts shall be treated with one of the following treatments as approved
by the Engineer.

a) Shot blasted, one coat primer (min thickness 50 microns), one coat micaceous iron
oxide (min thickness 50 microns), one undercoat and one coat finish of alkyd based oil
paint (min. total thickness of both coats 100 microns).

b) Shot blasted, rustproof with hot wire zinc spray and under coat and finish coat as (a).

c) Shot blasted, hot wire zinc spray rustproofing and wet applied PVC spray giving a
minimum plastic coating of 0.125 mm. The finish colour should be grey.

For both (a) and (b) the finish coat should be black and white hoops as directed by the
Engineer.

All bolts and other fittings should be non-ferrous or hot dipped galvanized. Connecting
surfaces of different metals should be separated by neoprene washers.

0712. Lettering

Sign lettering shall be in the English language in clear, open capital letters and in the Arabic
language as shall be directed by the Engineer.
To improve legibility a relatively wide spacing between letters should be 1 or 2 widths of the
letter stroke, depending on whether the side of the adjacent letters are vertical or round.

The space between lines of copy should be approximately equal to the height of upper case
letters used in that line of copy. Space between lines of copy should be approximately 3/4 of
the average height of the upper case letters in adjacent lines of copy.

Spacing to top and bottom borders should be approximately equal to the average letter
height of adjacent line of copy. Spacing to side borders from ends of longest line of copy
should be approximately equal to height or upper case letters in that line. Longest line

07-23 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

should be "Visually Centered" on the sign to account for slanted or open-sided letter on
either end.

A brilliant reflective border makes the sign more conspicuous. Border width should be
approximately 1/3 to 3/4 the stroke width of the largest letters of the sign.

0713. Guarantee By Contractor

All road signs shall be guaranteed by the Contractor against any defects in material and
workmanship for a period of five years from the date of completion of the Works under the
Contract. Any defects due to material or workmanship shall be rectified by the Contractor at
his own expense.

If such defect is rectified by other than the Contractor in accordance with the Employer's
instructions, the expenses of such rectification shall be deducted from any monies due on
Contract.

Asbestos cement pipe shall be manufactured in 3 metre lengths for diameters 225 (9") and
smaller and in 5 meter nominal lengths for larger sizes.

07-24 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

0714. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT PREAMBLES (I.M.M.)

A. Subject to the following provisions the works in this section have been measured in
accordance with "The Principles of Measurement (International) for Works of
Construction" - June 1979 as Published by the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors of U.K.

B. The preamble clause for other trades shall apply equally to work measured in this
section.

C. Rates for roads, parking areas, hardstandings, pavings, kerbs, fences and the like
shall include for the supply and installation of all materials as shown on the
drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

D. The general directions and descriptions of works given in the Specification are not
necessarily repeated in the Bills of Quantities. Reference must be made to the
Specification for this information.

E. The Contractor should note that the cost of all work carried out in the Construction
of junctions, access roads or access to properties shall be based on the tendered
rates under the appropriate items in the Bills of Quantities and no claim for addition
payment for this work shall be considered.

F. The Contractor shall note that there are no haulage items given in these Bill of
Quantities, and that allowance must be made in the tendered rates for any haulage
in the appropriate items.

G. It should be noted that the contractor shall carry out all location, protection,
relocation and providing suitable ducts as shall be deemed necessary by the
Engineer and/or the relevant authority.

H. Payment for the location of existing services and all related protection, co-
ordination, etc. shall be via the lump sum item in the preliminaries. It should be
noted that the Contractor shall carry out all location and protection work as shall be
deemed necessary by the Engineer and/or the relevant authority. However
lowering and diversion of existing services will be measured and paid by cubic
metre through the item for excavation for services where such diversion work is
instructed by the Engineer. Ducts will be measured and paid via, relevant items in
the Roadworks Bills and the rate shall include necessary co-ordination in respect
of their exact locations (both horizontal and vertical offsets) as shall be required by
the Service Authorities and/or the Engineer.

I. Temporary works and diversions lump sums and all other items related lump sum
items such as maintenance items in the preliminaries not otherwise covered in this
preamble or otherwise detailed in this Bill of Quantities will be paid at a monthly
rate equal to the total lump sum for the item divided by the contract period in
months.

J. For service ducts, the end of ducts should be closed with a flexible stopper holed
to take the draw cord where applicable.

K. Items for the preparation of formation to receive subsequent embankment layers


shall include for all shaping, watering and compaction.

07-25 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

L. Items for signs shall include for excavation, backfilling, disposal of surplus material,
supply of all necessary materials, fabrication and painting both on and off-site and
erection. Where applicable rates shall include for secondary legend plates.

Surface Water Drainage System

M. Flood protection channels and surface water drainage ditches including


earthworks, ditch inlets and outlets and mortared stone Riprap ditch lining shall be
measured inclusive by linear metre of completed channel/ditch, constructed and
accepted as specified and shown in the contract documents .

N. Surface water drainage pipe culverts including excavation, backfilling, 20cm


concrete surround, mortared Riprap slope protection at inlets and outlets and all
other items that constitute the completed and accepted structure, shall be
measured by linear metre of completed and accepted pipework inclusive as
specified and shown in the contract documents .

P. Sidewalk inlets shall be measured and paid for at unit price per inlet including
earthworks, concrete, reinforcing steel, precast concrete covers, masonry, and all
other items that constitute the completed and accepted structure, as specified and
shown in the contract documents .

Q. Cast-in-situ concrete chutes shall be measured and paid for by linear metre of
completed chute including earthworks, inlets, outlets, mortared stone Riprap chute
lining and all other items that constitute the completed and accepted structure as
specified and shown in the contract documents.

End of Section 07

07-26 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

SECTION 08

POST TENSIONED SLAB

0801. General

The floor plate shall be post-tensioned flat slab all over except at the areas viz.
stairs, shafts, voids, ramps etc. The slabs shall be supported by columns with
capitols / drop caps generally. In case false ceiling is not foreseen the slab is
required to be completely flat. No sinking of slab shall be considered.
0802 Post Tensioned Contractors Scope of Work
 Providing detailed design and methodology of post-tensioned slabs and/or
beams based on design basis as attached.
 The designer with previous experience in the country with Municipality shall be
preferred.
 Liaison and coordination with main contractor.
 Providing shop drawings to engineer’s approval and to main contractor for
information. Both hard and soft copies are required.
 Supply and install tendons (Strands). The strands shall be Uncoated, 7-wire Low
Relax 12.7mm dia of tensile strength 1860 MPa as per ASTM A416, if not
otherwise stated. The strands must be manufactured & supplied by and from
Muscat Municipality approved facilities / manufacturers.
 Supply of G.I. sheathing (ducts) & supervise main contractor’s installation of
sheathing as per the design profile as in approved drawing. The sheathing
(ducts) shall be made from galvanized steel tape of not less than 0.4 mm
thickness and the stitching shall be 4-ply to ensure proper durability. The ducts
may be of various sizes as required by the design & post-tensioning contractor.
 Supply and supervision of fixing of anchorages. The anchorage system must be
tested as per ETAG 13 (except for the fatigue test).
 The anchorages shall be made of Cast Iron grade EN GS 250 or ASTM A48
(250 MPa minimum Tensile strength & Hardness 100 ~ 150 HRD) or equivalent.
The stressing blocks / wedge plates shall be EN GS 500 or ASTM A536 (500
MPa minimum Tensile strength & Hardness 100 ~ 150 HRD) or equivalent. The
wedges shall be three piece as per the post-tensioning system and shall be
made from special steel of grade SCM415LM 16NiCR4 or AS 1443. Proper
Heat hardening & quenching chart / report shall be provided.
 Supply & fixing of supports for sheathing (chairs), under supervision of post-
tensioning contractor’s representative. The chairs shall be made of 6 ~ 8 mm
mild steel round bars bent in the form as required by the post-tensioning
designer, and equipped with approved corrosion resistance system.
 Design & drawing for the slab mesh reinforcement & additional reinforcement for
punching shear, creep, shrinkage & negative moment at column junction.
 Supervise all post-tensioned works including work carried out by main contractor
on post-tensioned items.

07-27 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

 Supervision of all PT works shall be done by specialized personnel with


thorough knowledge & first hand experience in the works especially in Oman.
The CVs of the team shall be reviewed and approved by the engineer.
 Utilising Monostrand / multistrand jacks & Hyd. pumps as per post-tensioning
system. All equipments shall be accompanied with Technical Data Sheets
Calibration certificates (as applicable) & details to be submitted to engineer /
client for approval. The responsibility of the proper functioning of the equipments
& required service shall be solely on the post – tensioning contractor. Under the
instruction of the engineer, the PT sub-contractor shall re-calibrate the
equipments in the presence of the engineer’s representative.
 Stressing of tendons and grouting using approved jacks, stressing pumps &
grouting pumps.
 Enough equipments with proper backup support & equipments must be
available in the country.
 Provide technical support to main contractor.
0803 Main Contractors Scope of Work
 Liaison and coordination with post-tensioning contractor.
 Supply & fix mesh and required reinforcement to post-tensioned items as per
the post-tensioning design & drawing. Hence all reinforcements to be supplied,
scheduled & fixed by the main contractor.
 Provide cement, admixture, grouting water, ice, grout testing apparatus,
expertise and labours during grouting of tendons.
 Supervise concreting in order to ensure no post-tensioning element viz. strands
or ducts or grout vents or anchorages are disturbed / damaged. Once inspected
and permission for concreting is awarded, the entire responsibility for any
damages thereafter, shall be on the main contractor.
 Provide all shuttering, scaffolding and supports. Note that shuttering for slabs
and beams is to be perfectly level. Supports for post-tensioned items to be
provided until after grouting of strands is completed.
 Remove above shuttering and supports once post-tension works have been
completed.
 Provide sufficient semi skilled and skilled labourers to the post-tensioning
contractor for fixing of supporting steel & sheathing, threading of strands, fixing
of anchor blocks & wedges, stressing, cutting of excess strands & grouting.
 Provide sufficient secure and covered storage for PT hardwares &
consumables. The area shall be as per the requirement of the construction
program & PT contractor’s requirement.
 Provide site office with all facilities as per requirement of the post-tensioned
contractors use.
 Provide loading, unloading, site transport and movement of equipments,
materials and labour during the post-tensioned contractors scope of work at all
levels, including handling, cranes, trucks. All unloading of materials at site and
storing them in secure & covered area shall be main contractor’s responsibility.
 Provide power and water for post-tensioned contractor upto work area to enable
him to complete his works.

07-28 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall

 Provide equipment and labour for concrete testing. 3 cubes required per 6m3 of
concrete.
 Supply and erect necessary and safe working platform for post-tensioning
around periphery of building as required. Approximate width of platform shall be
1.50m and to include approved handrail. Platform will be required at all levels.
 Shift cement bags (maxm. 50kg each), Admixture (for grouting) all hardware for
post tensioning, ducts, strands, all equipments to all floor levels and back to
store, for all PT operations.

0804 Design Brief


Design of the Post Tensioned Flat Slab shall be based on ACI: 318 and / or BS:
8110 with a design life of 50 years & a fire rating of two (02) hours

The design responsibilities shall be shared as follows:


Framing Plan, Column Spacing & Global Analysis - Main Consultant
Slab Analysis (for Vertical Loads only) - PT Designer
Slab Dimensions, Cable Layout & Elevation & Reinforcement Details – PT Designer
Columns, footings, Other RCC areas, Additions in slab for Global Effects
Main Consultant
0805 Design Loads
As per the project requirement - Main Consultant

07-29 Section 07-External Works


Salalah Grand Mall