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RNS DC Circuits

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You are on page 1of 15

,B.E$15I0R§

Passive components used to limit the flow of

electric current or provide a voltage drop in a

circuit.

Resistors Classifications

• Fixed and Variable Resistors

• Linear and Non-linear Resistors

• General purpose and_Precision Resistors

Fixed Resistors

• Carbon Composition

• Wire-wound

• Film-type

Variable Resistors

• Potentiometers

• Rheostats

Potentiometers

• Potentiometers always has 3 connections;

two fixed and one variable.

• Wide range of values but limited current

handling capabilities.

• Always connected as voltage dividers.

• Linear-Taper Potentiometer

• Audio-Taper Potentiometer

• fq vc\to..'?,e COM"p:>\ J

Rheostats

• Rheostats always have 2 connections, 1

fixed and 1 variable. .

• Rheostats have limited range of values

and high-current handling capabilities.

• for cvrre.n't cor)-\-ro,

POTENllOMETER

RHEOSTAT

· ~~

~

--- -- ~

8 e y OnrJ Tr' a d i t io 1

RNS - DC Cir c ui ts an d l r d ns i ent s

2

Resistors Color Coding

--- - ~ - ·- - - __,

1

. Band A: Fi1st jg··,~~il~t t~·~:e hnd D: To'. n "IC~!fl ptllfft

SIGNIHCANT OECll•d,L

COLOR FIGURE MULTIPLIER TOLERANCE

.. .,. .. - - ~---'~- ...... •· - -· - ····· ....... . ·-- ~- - _. ., .., . ·- ---- -- ~ . . ·- ··- . .. .. ·-

!:\lack 0 ' lO ' ) 2..0

~,own 1 10 · I ' , I

, :L ,-~, L

;~-:.

C :c, n ~;:.

-3 100

l GC O • J I '( 1 ~

Ye!-:·:, ~(; GOtl Ci MV

G1.::c r, 5 l W ~OU 5 ,. ,. 5

Blu .: 6 O:>~ GGO ' (> • . ,, t.

Vio le:t 7 10 o:,.J !),JO 12,5 I 0

G1 <:)' H U.U l 3:::, ' :,

\ V~1i•..c 9 0 .1 . l :) l )

G:>'L, 0 .1 5 ', )

Sdv ~. 0 .01 · 10 '. '.)

:,.; o Color

GMV ·· Gua ranteed ,.~,nim ~,'!1 Value

Resistors that conform to military specification.

I

Indicates the RELIABILITY level per 1000 hrs

of operation. I

I

• I

Brown 1.00/o

Red 0.10/o

Orange 0.010/o

Yellow 0.001%

CAPACITORS

• A device that stores electrical energy in an

electrostatic field .

• Capacitor consists of two conducting

plates called electrodes and separated by

a layer of an insulating material medium

called Dielectric.

capacitance . . .

• Capacitance is the electncal size of a

capacitor.

• Capacitance is the measure of how rn~ch

electric energy stored in an electrostatic

field.

Electrostatic Field

■ Characteristics of Electrostatic Lines of

Force.

• They are polarized from positive to

negative.

■ They radiate in a straight line and does

not form a closed loop.

• They have the ability to pass through any

known material.

• They have the ability to distort the orbits of

tightly bound electrons.

- -··- ------~--

1~ I t:df···1

A Simple Capacitor

,1..,tt •-

t)lll{tl"lt

8888~0

80908~

"'llTl I .J

• Farad is the SI unit of capacitance.

• One Farad capacitor stores one coulomb

of a charge when one volt is applied

across the terminals of the capacitor.

Q Q- did'.':Jf ;,lured :11 toJl~:rb, l

1

RNS - DC- Circui· t· rJ and Transients

4

• The Area of the Plates

• The Distance between the Plates .

• The Dielectric Constant of the Maten al

between the Plates

tr f O A f, - <Jre..i uf ed1.:h µldl~ \:\ st;uc1re 111e1l:!r

C = m-·-- d Ui'> lillH..t! lll!l\\'~ll µIdles or

lh:::kn~s of J,elelll'ic l1ldlerid1.i1, 111el~r

.

d

I - · - ----·- -- ' - - -didalri( ~

o:.u:,stcml

- -- - - - - ----'

Working Voltage

• Working Voltage is the maximum voltage

that can be steadily applied without

breaking down the capacitor.

• The Working Voltage of Capacitors is

dependent on the dielectric materials used

and the operating frequency .

Capacitor Losses

Power Losses in a Capacitor is Attributed by:

• Dielectric Hysteresis

• Dielectric Leakage

Dielectric Hysteresis

• Dielectric Hysteresis is the effect in the

dielectric material similar to the hysteresis

found in the magnetic material.

• It is the result of changes in orientation of

electron orbits in the dielectric because of

the rapid reversals of the polarity of the

line voltage.

• Dielectric Leakage in a capacitor as a

result of leakage current through the

dielectric.

• If the leakage current through the

dielectric is abnormally high, there will be

~ rapid loss of charge and overheating will

occur.

--- ·- . . ... ,

r--

Charging of Capacitors

To charge a capacitor, the plates of the .

capacitor should be connected to an applied

voltage.

l l: ::-i

~

t"' -r 'J

111•

lOV

L-n,c11110N now--

CkARGINO

Discharging a Capacitor

• To Discharge a capacitor, simply short out

the plates of the capacitor.

• The short plates will recombine the

negatively and positively charged particles

and will become neutral.

Capacitors in Series Ir

\ Q~ = Qi = Qi = Ql I

\ t.r = E1 "t t2 t t3 I

Capacitors in Parallel *

\ Ct = C1 ,._ C2 t C) I

1

IE, . c, t, c, t, c, \, \ QI ;: Q1 .. Q2 t Q) 'I

\ I:, :: Ct = Ei - E., I

6 RNS - DC Circuits and Transients

Fixed Capacitors

• Paper Capacitors

• Mica Capacitors

• Ceramic Capacitors

• Plastic-Film Capacitors

• Electrolytic Capacitors

• Tantalum Capacitors

• Semiconductor Capacitors

Variable Capacitors

• Air Variable

• Trimmer Capacitors

• Coaxial Capacitors

Capacitor Tolerance

• A specification of a capacitor that tells

how nearly their values can be expected

to match the rated capacitance.

INDUCTORS

Inductance

INt>UCTANCE ~,.05£5 ANV CMANOE

IN CIIIICUIT C~IIIENT

Inductance is the

characteristic of an

electrical circuit that

opposes the

change in value of

current.

WM~NTHF

ClMIIEH~

~CIIIIC.AHa.

lltDV<: TAtfC!r

lllllliS l"Ol"t<M.U

ITUP

Inductors

Inductors are simply a coil of wire that

introduces inductance in a circuit.

An inductor has an inductance of 1 Henry if an

EMF of 1 Volt is induced in the inductor when

I

the current through the inductor is changing at

rate of 1 Ampere per second .

- ·· •--'- di- l \'here·:· ~~ - ~If ·induced vo1~;·,·v~ft)-·

L

.- .-

= L- L induc.tance {Henry)

.--- _ _dt _____<l1/ul rdle of_cJ1dny~o~curr1'1~nph,ec01'.d)

j ·... ~~ : ~ · ~ - -

. . ,-~'t 'f,,. ~ :. !

:.-. t. . . . .

- s--iiF

Self-Inductance

The property of the material which determines

the amount of electromotive force induced in

the circuit whenever the current changes in the

circuit.

Self-Inductance

• Number of Turns of Coil

• The Diameter of the Coil

• The Coil Length

• The Type of Material Used in the Core

• The Number of Layers of the Winding

• Copper Loss

• Hysteresis Loss

• Eddy~Current Loss

A considerable amount of power loss due to a

large amount of current flowing through a

small amount of resistance of the inductor coil.

Hysteresis loss is due to the power wasted in

reversing the magnetic field of the inductor

core each time the direction of current in the

inductor changes.

Eddy-Current Loss

Eddy-Current Loss is due to the heating of the

core by the circulating currents that are

induced in the iron core by the magnetic field

around the turns of the coil.

C"

· T' r D t_l

~ i t ,~ n r1

.::i

.A. - · ,_J I '

8 RNS- DC Circuits and Transients

\

j Mutual Inductance

l

The common inductance of two coupled

electrical circuits which determines, for a given

rate of change of current in one of the circuits,

~

the electromotive force that will be induced in

the other.

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1(1''\ 1' .i

\I

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// I / !

\I

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\

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.I

L~ l '

~ '!

Mutual Inductance

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,

' \\ \

. \I

· ,

. I

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:

\

;

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,'

L1 - seif i::~;:~"tc:i;~~ ~,r ,_ 1_1 I J (~my)

L2· ~If i11JJltc1Ke 1..1f cuI l ;:il?nry)

k ::oeffide11l orcoup:ing

k = 1, if al: U;~nu-c prwlh.t'\i uy l 1 d t' L11k~d lu L1

Coupling Coefficient

The Coupling Coefficient between two coils is

equal to the ratio of the flux cutting one coil to

the flux originated in the other coil.

flux produced by L1

• Series Aiding

• Series opposing

~l (:\ ) l 1 • :: I ·, -~ , J ,

Air-Core Coils

, Used mostly in radio frequenc.y

equipments.

• Has a~most unlimited current-carrying

capacity

, Efficient.

ferromagnetic Cores .

• Used to increase inductance.

• Prone to saturation and losses

• Types of material:

o Powdered Iron

o Ferrite

Permeability Tuning

A method of varying the inductance of a coil by

changing the permeability of the core·by

sliding the core in and out the coil.

Toroids

The coil is wound over a core having a totoidal

shape, which resembles a donut.

Pot Cores

A way of confining the magnetic flux in a coil

so that unwanted mutual inductance will not

occur.

• Advantages:

o Prevents magnetic flux from

extending outside. ·

o Increases the inductance.

· • Disadvantage:

o Tuning is impossible.

OHM'S LAW

The current flowing in an electrical circuit is

directly proportional to the applied voltage (V)

and inversely proportional to the equivalent

resistance (R).

E R

rn.

.

10 RSS - DC Circuits and Transients

Electrical Power

• The rate at which electrical energy is used

or consumed.

• Watt is the unit of power.

• Watt is equivalent to 1 Joule of energy

,~

used in 1 Second.

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l

1

I

wt-.~re: I' ~le::: ical 1-'<-'Wcr (\Vc1ll:

t Vi)lld~t> ( Vvll)

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l · CUn!r ~ (l\111µ~ri:!)

I ~ ~ :.:dn<.~ ;:Jinn)

EltttTi<al Energy (W):

I'

t

••l'dr ,Ldl l'fll'' !JY (Jou :l')

t>lt'f:trk:1I pJw;,or :watt)

· ll ~ >! :~econd)

e I

Heat Energy filuiYalent {Q):

, 1 Q ,. ll.l.Y.J W I

•

\'.',l'''!': Q

W

lc!:dl l'fll'r~1y (cdk>n'!' l

s,l;;~ln'-<ll e111er9, Uolil.- )

Series Circuit

, I{ ._ . R: ,{, - I{., I

J t 1 = ~I · t~ I t) I

I ! , • i1 & (~" Ii I

, ,., = l '1 I I', ,,', I

Voltage Divider Rule

,_ Two -...ton in Serie$;

C

□~. t,

r-----

J

1 ' I

I pI •

)

li

i ·;,fo;'( ~-

t, ·1,.. 'i¥f. ~. 11)')~ :Jl'I t'I i"il: 'f:"N11, nUI-:' ,1r( u

1

i tf ,,l<l'. \,.4d'J. !¥.fl.I';'., u~ ([,,\Ml

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I Hi , ": '!41)'!1.,_':l•i'l'('J

Parallel Circuit

,.--- ____ _ _R

_e

_s_i-sto

- rs

--.,.ln parallel

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+ +- +

+ -l !R: ' C

-}

':

l

I b :::: ti = b :: ;:_3 l

1~ ·1-T- -1-

7 R~ U. ! I 11 - l 1 ~ 11 ~ i _, l

1

!...---------- _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ ___.J

1

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lI

1

wti~rc:" :

Ix CU'r~nl \q cny :..i( the re~:Hi.'~ ,11 th~ i.in: ll L

l1 :.ottl: c.t:rre nt or cun~nt suurce o: ~!1e urc.t,il

Rx '..i ,e ~ Sisl er COlK eflletl

R, the ~ uivc!lenl r~is·..c1m.e cf the pdrdlld ci.1:1..il

1'81~·

. For Two Resistors in Parallel:

\ 1 R, Rl , ~ tJ

I_______

I

Ey + + RI R2

I l{. .

II 1, 1T-

R, rt.:

L

\ I\

e

J.Y •

oa

x:

WY l to OILlA ttanllounatiMI:

' u,,.,, pruJ, d 11, \ 11't

R. , . . 01,, 111; ~ l it~ 1, •:-;r t

NETWQRK THEOBEMS

Klo;hoffs Law

Kirchotfs Current Law (KCL):

• The Algebraic Sum of the currents

entering and leaving any node or junction

is equal to zero.

Kirchoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

• The Algebraic Sum of the voltage drops

and the supply voltage in a closed patb or

loop ts zero.

----\- 7 r - - --;:=~.---- - ,

Ji_:~. I I ~ v, Q

:~i~===:!__!.

-,

_ 9 ,_( ♦

,,

\_ 1'1 ..~ . -·. '".,

1\

n ,1-. 1: l

N

\')

·~ "

\h<l\ \\l'.ld'-J~ ind

. .J

loo;i

~ U:t l:IJ~~'._l~ ,'u\.dljt~ ill d loo;.1

SuperP9!ition Theorem

In a network with two or more sources, the

current or voltage for any component is the

algebraic sum of the effects produced by each

source acting separately. -

Thevenin's Theorem

The entire network connected to the load can

be replaced by a single voltage source Vth in

series with a single resistance Rth connected

to the same terminal.

- -- - -------- --------

' ~YING

) NUW04tll

I :c;.1\:-!~Cr lOAD

•.tSFTOfo,

-.ct -,-cr/f,._ ~ ,. l'

I ~ Ct'S

~

'.C"'\'Jl.>RI(

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1

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l fl lrT WOIII•

r ~o •,• ,_.,Utr, Q.- l .U AQ

._ ,:-.•.-..~

\ '. ' I• ' • \.,/{ , if~..;f'T

L__ :.:~-~ ~

rtacoc

,-tiUman's The-orem

-- ---- . - -- -

- --

~~~ s__

"'- 1' ., R -: ' "'

ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS

• The tempcrary phenomenon occurring i n a

circuit netv.ork prior to reac~ir:g a stead\·

state condition.

• It is the .period required for the \-O ttages and

currents to adjust themse-lves to the stead,

state condition after it is tum on.

Element DC Steady-State 1

I

·IResistor

I

i

l I

V=I R

l '

Capacit.or I=O~open

~

- - . -

I . . - .. 't

l

•

14 RNS - ~C Circuits a nd Transients

TIME CONSTANT

• Is the time for a change of 63.2% in

the current through inductor or the

I I

I

voltage across the cpacitor.

' Inductive

Reactance (XL)

Capacitive

Reactance (XC)

L

r=- r=RC

R

LONG AND SHORT TIME CONSTANT

• At least five times longer than the

pulse width, in time, for the applied

voltage .

Short RC Time Constant

• No more than one-fifth the pulse

width, in time, for the applied

voltage .

Source

R1

: t=O

•✓2

•

u ,l

~ I

Inductor is

- open

• I

- -c::_i-

R2 t=O

l V1

' _j___ .....L c 1. l Capacitor

1 is short

~ ,--"f ·; ; ~- f ~ - : } 1) ·; ;

-· -·-------~~ --..po-..-

' ., .

RL series Circuit

V=z.R ·+ L -di

dt

RC Charging Circuit

R2 ·

__ __\_ __ V1

___ L__ C1

I v =V

C

J--;fc)

82,Jond Tradition

J

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