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DC CIRCUITS

,B.E$15I0R§
Passive components used to limit the flow of
electric current or provide a voltage drop in a
circuit.

Resistors Classifications
• Fixed and Variable Resistors
• Linear and Non-linear Resistors
• General purpose and_Precision Resistors

Fixed Resistors
• Carbon Composition
• Wire-wound
• Film-type

Variable Resistors
• Potentiometers
• Rheostats

Potentiometers
• Potentiometers always has 3 connections;
two fixed and one variable.
• Wide range of values but limited current
handling capabilities.
• Always connected as voltage dividers.

• Linear-Taper Potentiometer
• Audio-Taper Potentiometer
• fq vc\to..'?,e COM"p:>\ J

Rheostats
• Rheostats always have 2 connections, 1
fixed and 1 variable. .
• Rheostats have limited range of values
and high-current handling capabilities.
• for cvrre.n't cor)-\-ro,

POTENllOMETER
RHEOSTAT

· ~~
~
--- -- ~

8 e y OnrJ Tr' a d i t io 1

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RNS - DC Cir c ui ts an d l r d ns i ent s
2
Resistors Color Coding
--- - ~ - ·- - - __,

1
. Band A: Fi1st jg··,~~il~t t~·~:e hnd D: To'. n "IC~!fl ptllfft

Band 8: St:i:Jno -sg -:fic311t \ uie Band C: Dw 1·a' t,\Jttf-:

SIGNIHCANT OECll•d,L
COLOR FIGURE MULTIPLIER TOLERANCE
.. .,. .. - - ~---'~- ...... •· - -· - ····· ....... . ·-- ~- - _. ., .., . ·- ---- -- ~ . . ·- ··- . .. .. ·-
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Vio le:t 7 10 o:,.J !),JO 12,5 I 0
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G:>'L, 0 .1 5 ', )
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:,.; o Color
GMV ·· Gua ranteed ,.~,nim ~,'!1 Value

Fifth band tv\~+...,_cd A ..., 4 colors + re\,oibi\ity


Resistors that conform to military specification.
I
Indicates the RELIABILITY level per 1000 hrs
of operation. I
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Fifth banci Color Level

Brown 1.00/o
Red 0.10/o
Orange 0.010/o
Yellow 0.001%

CAPACITORS
• A device that stores electrical energy in an
electrostatic field .
• Capacitor consists of two conducting
plates called electrodes and separated by
a layer of an insulating material medium
called Dielectric.
capacitance . . .
• Capacitance is the electncal size of a
capacitor.
• Capacitance is the measure of how rn~ch
electric energy stored in an electrostatic
field.

Electrostatic Field
■ Characteristics of Electrostatic Lines of
Force.
• They are polarized from positive to
negative.
■ They radiate in a straight line and does
not form a closed loop.
• They have the ability to pass through any
known material.
• They have the ability to distort the orbits of
tightly bound electrons.

Storing of Energy by the Electrostatic Fleld


- -··- ------~--

1~ I t:df···1
A Simple Capacitor
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Unit of Capacitance (Farad)


• Farad is the SI unit of capacitance.
• One Farad capacitor stores one coulomb
of a charge when one volt is applied
across the terminals of the capacitor.

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1
RNS - DC- Circui· t· rJ and Transients
4

Factors Affecting Capacitance


• The Area of the Plates
• The Distance between the Plates .
• The Dielectric Constant of the Maten al
between the Plates

Value of the Capacitance

. -·-1w\\er1::: ( tt1µc1c-t~~Ke infarat!


tr f O A f, - <Jre..i uf ed1.:h µldl~ \:\ st;uc1re 111e1l:!r
C = m-·-- d Ui'> lillH..t! lll!l\\'~ll µIdles or
lh:::kn~s of J,elelll'ic l1ldlerid1.i1, 111el~r
.
d
I - · - ----·- -- ' - - -didalri( ~
o:.u:,stcml
- -- - - - - ----'
Working Voltage
• Working Voltage is the maximum voltage
that can be steadily applied without
breaking down the capacitor.
• The Working Voltage of Capacitors is
dependent on the dielectric materials used
and the operating frequency .

Capacitor Losses
Power Losses in a Capacitor is Attributed by:
• Dielectric Hysteresis
• Dielectric Leakage

Dielectric Hysteresis
• Dielectric Hysteresis is the effect in the
dielectric material similar to the hysteresis
found in the magnetic material.
• It is the result of changes in orientation of
electron orbits in the dielectric because of
the rapid reversals of the polarity of the
line voltage.

Dielectric Leakage 11.{l Lo'>':)


• Dielectric Leakage in a capacitor as a
result of leakage current through the
dielectric.
• If the leakage current through the
dielectric is abnormally high, there will be
~ rapid loss of charge and overheating will
occur.

Ur y cnd Tr-3 c1 '. iLI\ ,


--- ·- . . ... ,

r--

Charging of Capacitors
To charge a capacitor, the plates of the .
capacitor should be connected to an applied
voltage.

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Discharging a Capacitor
• To Discharge a capacitor, simply short out
the plates of the capacitor.
• The short plates will recombine the
negatively and positively charged particles
and will become neutral.

Capacitors in Series Ir

\ Q~ = Qi = Qi = Ql I
\ t.r = E1 "t t2 t t3 I
Capacitors in Parallel *
\ Ct = C1 ,._ C2 t C) I
1
IE, . c, t, c, t, c, \, \ QI ;: Q1 .. Q2 t Q) 'I
\ I:, :: Ct = Ei - E., I
6 RNS - DC Circuits and Transients

Fixed Capacitors

• Paper Capacitors
• Mica Capacitors
• Ceramic Capacitors
• Plastic-Film Capacitors
• Electrolytic Capacitors
• Tantalum Capacitors
• Semiconductor Capacitors

Variable Capacitors

• Air Variable
• Trimmer Capacitors
• Coaxial Capacitors

Capacitor Tolerance
• A specification of a capacitor that tells
how nearly their values can be expected
to match the rated capacitance.

INDUCTORS

Inductance
INt>UCTANCE ~,.05£5 ANV CMANOE
IN CIIIICUIT C~IIIENT
Inductance is the
characteristic of an
electrical circuit that
opposes the
change in value of
current.

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ITUP

Inductors
Inductors are simply a coil of wire that
introduces inductance in a circuit.

Unit of Inductance (Henry) I


An inductor has an inductance of 1 Henry if an
EMF of 1 Volt is induced in the inductor when
I
the current through the inductor is changing at
rate of 1 Ampere per second .
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= L- L induc.tance {Henry)
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:.-. t. . . . .

- s--iiF

Self-Inductance
The property of the material which determines
the amount of electromotive force induced in
the circuit whenever the current changes in the
circuit.

Self-Inductance

Factors Affecting Inductance


• Number of Turns of Coil
• The Diameter of the Coil
• The Coil Length
• The Type of Material Used in the Core
• The Number of Layers of the Winding

Power Loss in an Inductor


• Copper Loss
• Hysteresis Loss
• Eddy~Current Loss

Copper Loss tc.,. <..t>s.s


A considerable amount of power loss due to a
large amount of current flowing through a
small amount of resistance of the inductor coil.

Hysteresis Losa f Jfpw,dt~+ o< ~


Hysteresis loss is due to the power wasted in
reversing the magnetic field of the inductor
core each time the direction of current in the
inductor changes.

Eddy-Current Loss
Eddy-Current Loss is due to the heating of the
core by the circulating currents that are
induced in the iron core by the magnetic field
around the turns of the coil.

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8 RNS- DC Circuits and Transients
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j Mutual Inductance

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The common inductance of two coupled
electrical circuits which determines, for a given
rate of change of current in one of the circuits,

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the electromotive force that will be induced in
the other.
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Mutual Inductance
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k ::oeffide11l orcoup:ing
k = 1, if al: U;~nu-c prwlh.t'\i uy l 1 d t' L11k~d lu L1

Coupling Coefficient
The Coupling Coefficient between two coils is
equal to the ratio of the flux cutting one coil to
the flux originated in the other coil.

k = flux linking L1and L2


flux produced by L1

Series Inductors with Magnetic Coupling


• Series Aiding
• Series opposing

\LT= L1 +L2 ±2MI

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Air-Core Coils
, Used mostly in radio frequenc.y
equipments.
• Has a~most unlimited current-carrying
capacity
, Efficient.

ferromagnetic Cores .
• Used to increase inductance.
• Prone to saturation and losses
• Types of material:
o Powdered Iron
o Ferrite

Permeability Tuning
A method of varying the inductance of a coil by
changing the permeability of the core·by
sliding the core in and out the coil.

Toroids
The coil is wound over a core having a totoidal
shape, which resembles a donut.

Pot Cores
A way of confining the magnetic flux in a coil
so that unwanted mutual inductance will not
occur.
• Advantages:
o Prevents magnetic flux from
extending outside. ·
o Increases the inductance.
· • Disadvantage:
o Tuning is impossible.

OHM'S LAW
The current flowing in an electrical circuit is
directly proportional to the applied voltage (V)
and inversely proportional to the equivalent
resistance (R).

E R

rn.
.

Beyond '!'r adi tio


10 RSS - DC Circuits and Transients

Electrical Power
• The rate at which electrical energy is used
or consumed.
• Watt is the unit of power.
• Watt is equivalent to 1 Joule of energy

,~
used in 1 Second.

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Electrical and Heat Energy


EltttTi<al Energy (W):

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t
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t>lt'f:trk:1I pJw;,or :watt)
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Heat Energy filuiYalent {Q):

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Series Circuit
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, ,., = l '1 I I', ,,', I
Voltage Divider Rule
,_ Two -...ton in Serie$;

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Current Divider Rule


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1'81~·
. For Two Resistors in Parallel:

\ 1 R, Rl , ~ tJ
I_______
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Ey + + RI R2

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R, rt.:
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Delta and Wye Circuits

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oa
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WY l to OILlA ttanllounatiMI:

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NETWQRK THEOBEMS
Klo;hoffs Law
Kirchotfs Current Law (KCL):
• The Algebraic Sum of the currents
entering and leaving any node or junction
is equal to zero.
Kirchoff's Voltage Law (KVL)
• The Algebraic Sum of the voltage drops
and the supply voltage in a closed patb or
loop ts zero.

Kirchoff's Current and Voltage Law:


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SuperP9!ition Theorem
In a network with two or more sources, the
current or voltage for any component is the
algebraic sum of the effects produced by each
source acting separately. -

Thevenin's Theorem
The entire network connected to the load can
be replaced by a single voltage source Vth in
series with a single resistance Rth connected
to the same terminal.
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rtacoc
,-tiUman's The-orem
-- ---- . - -- -
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~~~ s__
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ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS
• The tempcrary phenomenon occurring i n a
circuit netv.ork prior to reac~ir:g a stead\·
state condition.
• It is the .period required for the \-O ttages and
currents to adjust themse-lves to the stead,
state condition after it is tum on.

R,L and C Characteristks

Element DC Steady-State 1
I

·IResistor
I
i
l I
V=I R
l '
Capacit.or I=O~open
~

!Inductor V-0~ short

- - . -
I . . - .. 't
l

14 RNS - ~C Circuits a nd Transients

TIME CONSTANT
• Is the time for a change of 63.2% in
the current through inductor or the

I I
I
voltage across the cpacitor.

' Inductive
Reactance (XL)
Capacitive
Reactance (XC)

L
r=- r=RC
R
LONG AND SHORT TIME CONSTANT

i Long RC Time Constant


• At least five times longer than the
pulse width, in time, for the applied
voltage .
Short RC Time Constant
• No more than one-fifth the pulse
width, in time, for the applied
voltage .

L and C Initial Response to a Voltage


Source

R1
: t=O
•✓2

u ,l
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Inductor is
- open
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- -c::_i-
R2 t=O
l V1
' _j___ .....L c 1. l Capacitor
1 is short

~ ,--"f ·; ; ~- f ~ - : } 1) ·; ;
-· -·-------~~ --..po-..-
' ., .

RL series Circuit

V=z.R ·+ L -di
dt

RC Charging Circuit

--J .. ··-. J--


R2 ·
__ __\_ __ V1
___ L__ C1

I v =V
C
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