Penetrant Testing

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Introduction to Penetrant Testing
--Introduction History Improving Detection
—Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light

Methods & Techniques Preparation
—Cleaning Methods —Material Smear

Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants
—Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability

Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Part/Penetrant Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performace Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes

—Why things Fluoresce

Emulsifiers Developers

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History of PI

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Introduction and History of Penetrant Inspection
Liquid penetrant inspection is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleedout of a colored or fluorescent dye from the flaw. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action. After a period of time called the "dwell," excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. This acts as a blotter. It draws the penetrant from the flaw to reveal its presence. Colored (contrast) penetrants require good white light while fluorescent penetrants need to be used in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light".

Introduction to Penetrant Testing
Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers

A very early surface inspection technique involved the rubbing of carbon black on glazed pottery, whereby the carbon black would settle in surface cracks rendering them visible. Later, it became the practice in railway workshops to examine iron and steel components by the "oil and whiting" method. In this method, a heavy oil commonly available in railway workshops was diluted with kerosene in large tanks so that locomotive parts such Methods & Techniques as wheels could be submerged. After removal and careful cleaning, the surface was then Preparation coated with a fine suspension of chalk in alcohol so that a white surface layer was formed —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear once the alcohol had evaporated. The object was then vibrated by being struck with a Technique Selection Application Technique hammer, causing the residual oil in any surface cracks to seep out and stain the white Penetrant Removal coating. This method was in use from the latter part of the 19th century to approximately Selecting Developer 1940, when the magnetic particle method was introduced and found to be more sensitive Quality & Process Control for ferromagnetic iron and steels. A different (though related) method was introduced in the 1940's. The surface under examination was coated with a lacquer, and after drying, the sample was caused to vibrate by the tap of a hammer. The vibration causes the brittle lacquer layer to crack generally around surface defects. The brittle lacquer (stress coat) has been used primarily to show the distribution of stresses in a part and not for finding defects.
Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check

Many of these early developments were carried out by Magnaflux in Chicago, IL, USA inOther Considerations Defect Nature association with Switzer Bros., Cleveland, OH, USA. More effective penetrating oils Health & Safety containing highly visible (usually red) dyes were developed by Magnaflux to enhance References flaw detection capability. This method, known as the visible or color contrast dye penetrant method, is still used quite extensively today. In 1942, Magnaflux introduced the Quizzes Zyglo system of penetrant inspection where fluorescent dyes were added to the liquid penetrant. These dyes would then fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light (sometimes referred to as "black light") rendering indications from cracks and other surface flaws more readily visible to inspectors.

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Improving Detection

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Why a Penetrant Inspection Improves the Detectability of Flaws

Introduction to Penetrant Testing
Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes -

The advantage that a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) offers over an unaided visual inspection is that it makes defects easier to see for the inspector. There are basically two ways that a penetrant inspection process makes flaws more easily seen. First, LPI produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier for the eye to detect than the flaw itself. Many flaws are so small or narrow that they are undetectable by the unaided eye. Due to the physical features of the eye, there is a threshold below which objects cannot be resolved. This threshold of visual acuity is around 0.003 inch for a person with 20/20 vision. The second way that LPI improves the detectability of a flaw is that it produces a flaw indication with a high level of contrast between the indication and the background also helping to make the indication more easily seen. When a visible dye penetrant inspection is performed, the penetrant materials are formulated using a bright red dye that provides for a high level of contrast between the white developer. In other words, the developer serves as a high contrast background as well as a blotter to pull the trapped penetrant from the flaw. When a fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed, the penetrant materials are formulated to glow brightly and to give off light at a wavelength that the eye is most sensitive to under dim lighting conditions. Additional information on the human eye can be found by following the links below. Visual Acuity Contrast Sensitivity Color Sensitivity

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Visual Acuity

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Visual Acuity of the Human Eye

Introduction to Penetrant Testing
Introduction

History The eye has a visual acuity threshold below which an object will go undetected. This Improving Detection threshold varies from person to person, but as an example, the case of a person with —Visual Acuity normal 20/20 vision can be considered. As light enters the eye through the pupil, it passes —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light through the lens and is projected on the retina at the back of the eye. Muscles called extraocular muscles, move the eyeball in the orbits and allow the image to be focused on Principles the central retinal or fovea. Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes -

The retina is a mosaic of two basic types of photoreceptors: rods, and cones. Rods are sensitive to blue-green light with peak sensitivity at a wavelength of 498 nm, and are used for vision under dark or dim conditions. There are three types of cones that give us our basic color vision: L-cones (red) with a peak sensitivity of 564 nm, M-cones (green) with a peak sensitivity of 533 nm, and S-cones (blue) with a peak sensitivity of 437 nm.

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a visual angle of one minute of arc is 1/60 of a degree. they will appear as a single gray mass to the human eye. The maximum concentration of cones is roughly 180.000 per square mm in the fovea region and this density decreases rapidly outside of the fovea to a value of less than 5. Note the blind spot caused by the optic nerve which is void of any photoreceptors.Visual Acuity Page 2 of 3 Cones are highly concentrated in a region near the center of the retina called the fovea region. http://www.000 per square mm. The spatial resolution limit is derived from the fact that one degree of a scene is projected across 288µm of the retina by the eye's lens. there are 120 color sensing cone cells packed. With a little trigonometry. Thus. In this 288µm. The standard definition of normal visual acuity (20/20 vision) is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern separated by a visual angle of one minute of arc.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Introdu.. if more than 120 alternating white and black lines are crowded side-by-side in a single degree of viewing space. Since one degree contains sixty minutes.ndt-ed. 24/09/2009 .. it is possible to calculate the resolution of the eye at a specific distance away from the lens of the eye.

ndt-ed. Using this right triangle it is easy to calculate the distance X/2 for a given distance d. What this means is that if you had alternating black and white lines that were all 0.Visual Acuity Page 3 of 3 For the case of normal visual acuity the angle Theta is 1/60 of a degree.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Introdu. By bisecting this angle we have a right triangle with angle Theta/2 that is 1/120 of a degree.. This would be a comfortable viewing distance. 24/09/2009 . http://www. the normal visual acuity of the human eye is 0..00349 inch. X/2 = d (tan Theta/2) When visually inspecting an object for a defect such as a crack.00349 inch wide. the distance (d) might be around 12 inches. At 12 inches. it would appear to most people as a mass of solid gray.

The luminance of peaks and troughs remains constant along a given horizontal path through the image.ndt-ed. the bars seem to be taller in the middle of the image.NDT Course Material . The contrast also varies logarithmically from 100% at the bottom to about 0. the luminance of pixels is varied sinusoidally in the horizontal direction.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Introdu. It has been experimentally —Contrast Sensitivity determined that the minimum discernible difference in gray scale level that the eye can —Eye's Response to Light detect is about 2% of full brightness.D. Journal of Physiology (London) Image Courtesy of Izumi Ohzawa. and Robson.5% at the top. If the detection of contrast was dictated solely by image contrast.Contrast Sensitivity Page 1 of 1 Home . The spatial frequency increases exponentially from left to right. the contrast sensitivity of the eye is History Improving Detection important.edu/ http://www. 24/09/2009 . Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Utah. In the image below. University of California School of Optometry Ref: The Internet site of the John Moran Eye Center. http://webvision. F.med.. PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - Campbell. G. W. Contrast sensitivity is a function of the size or Principles spatial frequency of the features in the image..Education Resources . Ph.Penetrant Testing Contrast Sensitivity Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction When conducting a visible dye penetrant inspection. J. However. However.utah. (1968) Application of Fourier Analysis to the Visibility of Gratings. this is not a direct relationship as Steps for Liquid PI larger objects are not always easier to see than smaller objects (as demonstrated by the Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI image below). Contrast sensitivity is a measure of how faded or washed out an image can be —Visual Acuity before it becomes indistinguishable from a uniform field. the alternating bright and dark bars should appear to have equal height everywhere in the image.

24/09/2009 . the eye is most sensitive to a yellowish-green color. At this very low light level. sensitivity to blue. and ultraviolet is increased. Emulsifier Wash Drying As mentioned previously. This curve peaks at 555 nanometers. 1029-1034 http://www. which means that under Lighting normal lighting conditions. The heavier curve in the middle represents the eye's response at the ambient light level found in a typical inspection booth. violet. This curve peaks at 550 nanometers.ndt-ed. The cones respond to light under these conditions. T. The shift in sensitivity occurs because two types Quality & Process Control of photoreceptors called cones and rods are responsible for the eye's response to light.Education Resources . Fluorescent Penetrant Sensitivity and Removability What the Eye Can See. 42. References: Robinson.. When the System Performance Check light levels drop to near total darkness. J. Temperature The curve on the right shows the eye's response under normal lighting conditions and this Penetrant Dwell is called the photopic response. J. and less sensitive to the Health & Safety range of color. pp. but sensitivity to yellow Quizzes and red is reduced.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Introdu.Penetrant Testing The Human Eye's Response to Light Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer The three curves in the figure above shows the normalized response of an average human eye to various amounts of ambient light..NDT Course Material . 8.Eye's Response to Light Page 1 of 1 Home . which accounts for the loss in ability to discriminate color. Fluorescent penetrant inspection materials are designed to fluoresce at around 550 nanometers to produce optimal sensitivity under dim lighting conditions. cones are composed of three different photo pigments that Developer enable color perception. Materials Evaluation. Rods are highly sensitive to light but are comprised of a single photo References pigment. the response of the eye changes significantly as Other Considerations shown by the scotopic response curve on the left. No. which means the eye is most sensitive to yellowish-green color at this light level.. Vol. and Schmidt. At this level of light. S. a Fluorometer Can Measure. the rods are most Defect Nature active and the human eye is more sensitive to the light present. July 1984.

or —Eye's Response to Light grit blasting have been performed. Penetrant Application: Once the surface has been thoroughly cleaned and dried.Education Resources . penetrant materials used. Excess Penetrant Removal: This is the most delicate part of the inspection procedure because the excess penetrant must be removed from the surface of the sample while removing as little penetrant Other Considerations Defect Nature as possible from defects. direct rinsing with water. the penetrant material is applied by spraying. The sample —Contrast Sensitivity may also require etching if mechanical operations such as machining. Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers the Developers 3.. Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check http://www. The ideal Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer dwell time is often determined by experimentation and may be very specific to a particular application. or immersing the part in a penetrant bath. The times vary depending on the Preparation application.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Princip. this step may involve References cleaning with a solvent.Penetrant Testing Basic Processing Steps of a Liquid Penetrant Inspection Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History 1. The surface must be free of oil. Surface Preparation: One of the most critical steps of a liquid penetrant Improving Detection inspection is the surface preparation. Developer Application: A thin layer of developer is then applied to the sample to draw penetrant trapped in flaws back to the surface where it will be visible.NDT Course Material . Health & Safety Depending on the penetrant system used. —Visual Acuity or other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. Generally. and the type of defect being inspected for. 24/09/2009 . Minimum dwell times Technique Selection typically range from five to 60 minutes. Steps for Liquid PI 2. water. sanding. or spraying (wet developers)..ndt-ed. brushing. Developers come in a variety of forms that may be applied by dusting (dry powdered).Steps for Liquid PI Page 1 of 2 Home . Penetrant dwell time is the total time that the penetrant is in contact with part surface. Dwell times are usually recommended by the penetrant producers or Methods & Techniques required by the specification being followed. grease. These and other mechanical operations can Principles smear metal over the flaw opening and prevent the penetrant from entering. 5. or first treating the part with an emulsifier and then rinsing with Quizzes water. the material. Penetrant Dwell: The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow as much penetrant as possible to be drawn from or to seep into a defect. Quality & Process Control 4. the form of the material being —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear inspected. dipping. there is no harm in using a Application Technique longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant is not allowed to dry.

org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Princip.. 8.ndt-ed. 24/09/2009 . 7. Inspection: Inspection is then performed under appropriate lighting to detect indications from any flaws which may be present. This development time is usually a minimum of 10 minutes. Now you try it! http://www. Significantly longer times may be necessary for tight cracks. Indication Development: The developer is allowed to stand on the part surface for a period of time sufficient to permit the extraction of the trapped penetrant out of any surface flaws. Clean Surface: The final step in the process is to thoroughly clean the part surface to remove the developer from the parts that were found to be acceptable..Steps for Liquid PI Page 2 of 2 6.

org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Princip. California facility. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPI include the following: Metals (aluminum.Penetrant Testing Common Uses of Liquid Penetrant Inspection Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) is one of the most widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. In the image above. LPI can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or porous. one of the major limitations of a penetrant inspection is that flaws must be open to the surface.) Glass Many ceramic materials Rubber Plastics Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers LPI offers flexibility in performing inspections because it can be applied in a large variety of applications ranging from automotive spark plugs to critical aircraft components. visible dye penetrant is being Methods & Techniques locally applied to a highly loaded connecting point to check for fatigue cracking. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors: its relative ease of use and its flexibility. These large machined aluminum forgings are used to support the number two engine in the tail of a DC-10 aircraft. copper. Liquid penetrant inspection can only be used to inspect for flaws that break the surface of the sample.. Preparation Penetrant inspection systems have been developed to inspect some very large components. titanium.Common Uses of Liquid PI Page 1 of 1 Home . —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www.ndt-ed. etc.NDT Course Material .. steel.Education Resources . In the image shown right. Some of these flaws are listed below: Fatigue cracks Quench cracks Grinding cracks Overload and impact fractures Porosity Laps Seams Pin holes in welds Lack of fusion or braising along the edge of the bond line As mentioned above. proceed to the next page. DC10 banjo fittings are being moved into a penetrant inspection system at what used to be the Douglas Aircraft Company's Long Beach. To learn more about the advantages and disadvantages of LPI. 24/09/2009 . Penetrant materials can be applied with a spray can or a cotton swab to inspect for flaws known to occur in a specific area or it can be applied by dipping or spraying to quickly inspect large areas.

Precleaning is critical since contaminants can mask defects. Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost.Penetrant Testing Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing Like all nondestructive inspection methods. The method has few material limitations. metallic and nonmetallic. magnetic and nonmagnetic.e. and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior to LPI. Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected.Pros and Cons of PI Page 1 of 1 Home . Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. Metal smearing from machining..ndt-ed. Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. Only materials with a relatively nonporous surface can be inspected. Primary Disadvantages Only surface breaking defects can be detected. liquid penetrant inspection has both advantages and disadvantages. Chemical handling and proper disposal is required.NDT Course Material . Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required. 24/09/2009 . Primary Advantages The method has high sensitivity to small surface discontinuities. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Princip. and conductive and nonconductive materials may be inspected. Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDE methods are summarized below. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable.Education Resources . grinding. i.

is now the primary specification used in the USA to control penetrant materials. Penetrants. All penetrant materials do not perform the same and are not designed to perform the same. a penetrant must possess a number of important characteristics. be drawn into surface breaking defects by capillary action. the rejectable defect size may be larger and a penetrant formulated to find larger flaws can be used. Penetrant manufactures have developed different formulations to address a variety of inspection applications.Visible Penetrants Fluorescent penetrants contain a dye or several dyes that fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Penetrant materials come in two basic types.. A penetrant must: spread easily over the surface of the material being inspected to provide complete and even coverage. remain in the defect but remove easily from the surface of the part. These types are listed below: Type 1 . Today's penetrants are carefully formulated to produce the level of sensitivity desired by the inspector. remain fluid so it can be drawn back to the surface of the part through the drying and developing steps. Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examinations.Fluorescent Penetrants Type 2 . not be harmful to the material being tested or the inspector. Visible penetrants contain a red dye that provides high contrast against the white developer background. Military Standard 25135. Some applications call for the detection of the smallest defects possible and have smooth surfaces where the penetrant is easy to remove.ndt-ed.Penetrant Testing Materials Page 1 of 3 Home . Other specifications such as ASTM 1417. may also contain information on the classification of penetrant materials but they are generally referred back to MIL-I-25135 or AMS 2644. 24/09/2009 . Penetrant. be highly visible or fluoresce brightly to produce easy to see indications. Fluorescent penetrant Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. In other applications. Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) 2644. Penetrant materials are classified in the various industry and government specifications by their physical characteristics and their performance.. Historically. Inspection Materials.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat.NDT Course Material .Penetrant Testing Penetrant Testing Materials The penetrant materials used today are much more sophisticated than the kerosene and whiting first used by railroad inspectors near the turn of the 20th century. The penetrants that are used to detect the smallest defect will also produce the largest amount of irrelevant indications. has been the primary document for specifying penetrants but this document is slowly being phased out and replaced by AMS 2644.Education Resources . Inspection Material. To perform well.

Hydrophilic Water washable (Method A) penetrants can be removed from the part by rinsing with water alone. 1380. The sensitivity levels and the test procedure used can be found in Military Specification MILI-25135 and Aerospace Material Specification 2644. However. These penetrants contain an emulsifying agent (detergent) that makes it possible to wash the penetrant from the part surface with water alone.Post-Emulsifiable. the penetrant is oil soluble and interacts with the oil-based emulsifier to make removal possible. Post-emulsifiable... The brightness of the indication produced is measured using a photometer. lipophilic systems (Method B). lipophilic and hydrophilic.Ultra Low Sensitivity Level 1 . An interesting note about the sensitivity levels is that only four levels were originally planned.. Vol. This procedure uses titanium and Inconel specimens with small surface cracks produced in low cycle fatigue bending to classify penetrant systems. Post-emulsifiable penetrants come in two varieties.High Sensitivity Level 4 . The five sensitivity levels are shown below: Level ½ . Lipophilic Method C . In post-emulsifiers. J.ndt-ed. An excellent historical summary of the development of test specimens for evaluating the performance of penetrant materials can be found in the following reference. hydrophilic systems (Method D).Penetrant Testing Materials Page 2 of 3 systems are more sensitive than visible penetrant systems because the eye is drawn to the glow of the fluorescing indication. Materials Evaluation. the ½ level was created. 44. Penetrants are then classified by the method used to remove the excess penetrant from the part. 12. Reference: Flaherty. Solvent removable penetrants require the use of a solvent to remove the penetrant from the part. No. J. 1376. 1382 http://www. Penetrants are then classified based on the strength or detectability of the indication that is produced for a number of very small and tight fatigue cracks. pp. November 1986.Low Sensitivity Level 2 .Ultra-High Sensitivity The major US government and industry specifications currently rely on the US Air Force Materials Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to classify penetrants into one of the five sensitivity levels. 1378. However. when some penetrants were judged to have sensitivities significantly less than most others in the level 1 category. visible penetrants do not require a darkened area and an ultraviolet light in order to make an inspection. 1371-1374.Solvent Removable Method D .Water Washable Method B . The four methods are listed below: Method A .Medium Sensitivity Level 3 .org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat.Post-Emulsifiable. Penetrant Inspection Materials. use an emulsifier that is a water soluble detergent which lifts the excess penetrant from the surface of the part with a water wash. 1941-61. 24/09/2009 . History of Penetrants: The First 20 Years. Visible penetrants are also less vulnerable to contamination from things such as cleaning fluid that can significantly reduce the strength of a fluorescent indication. Water washable penetrants are sometimes referred to as self-emulsifying systems.

Still others delineate properties that are thought to be primarily responsible for the performance or sensitivity of the penetrants. The properties of penetrant materials that are controlled by AMS 2644 and MIL-I-25135E include flash point.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. More information on how some of these properties can affect penetrant testing can be found by following these links. and corrosiveness. viscosity.Penetrants Page 1 of 1 Home . flash point. all stipulate certain physical properties of the penetrant materials that must be met. surface wetting capability.. brightness.Penetrant Testing Penetrants The industry and military specifications that control penetrant materials and their use. Surface Energy Density or Specific Gravity Viscosity Color and Fluorescence Brightness Dimensional Threshold of Fluorescence Ultraviolet and Thermal Stability Removability Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www.Education Resources . Some of these requirements address the safe use of the materials. 24/09/2009 . and removability.NDT Course Material . thermal stability.ndt-ed.. water tolerance. such as toxicity. ultraviolet stability. and other requirements address storage and contamination issues. color.

For a penetrant material to be effective. —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Wetting ability of a liquid is a function of the surface energies of the solid-gas interface. 24/09/2009 . the contact angle. wetting of the surface occurs.NDT Course Material . A penetrant's wetting characteristics are also largely responsible for its ability to fill a void.Surface Energy Page 1 of 3 Home . When the liquid encounters another substance.) Liquids wet surfaces when the contact angle is less —Viscosity than 90 degrees.—Visual Acuity solid surface interface. if the molecules of the liquid have a stronger attraction to the —Contrast Sensitivity molecules of the solid surface than to each other (the adhesive forces are stronger than —Eye's Response to Light the cohesive forces).Education Resources . the liquid beads-up and does not wet the Pros and Cons of PI surface of the part. The contact angle is the angle —Surface Energy formed by the solid/liquid interface and the liquid/vapor interface measured from the side —Specific Gravity of the liquid. Penetrant materials are often pulled into surface breaking defects by capillary action. the liquid-gas interface. For a liquid to spread over the surface of a part. Second.. and the solid-liquid interface. The adhesive forces between the liquid and the second substance will compete against the cohesive forces of the liquid.. Liquids with weak cohesive bonds and a strong attraction to Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety another material (or the desire to create adhesive bonds) will tend to spread over the material. the solid. PT Materials One way to quantify a liquid's surface wetting characteristics is to measure the contact Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants angle of a drop of liquid placed on the surface of an object.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. one of the important characteristics of a liquid penetrant Improving Detection material is its ability to freely wet the surface of the object being inspected. Alternately. the liquid-gas interface. the contact angle should be as —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce small as possible.ndt-ed. At the liquid. and the size of the defect opening. the surface energy of the solid-gas interface must exceed the surface energy of the solid-liquid interface. if the liquid molecules are Principles more strongly attracted to each other than the molecules of the solid surface (the cohesive Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI forces are stronger than the adhesive forces). First. The capillary force driving the penetrant into the crack is a function of the surface tension of the liquid-gas interface. there are usually three surface interfaces involved. the surface energy of the solid-gas interface must be greater than the combined surface energies of the liquid-gas and the solid-liquid interfaces. Liquids with strong cohesive bonds and weaker adhesive forces will tend to References bead-up or form a droplet when in contact with another material.gas interface. there is usually an attraction between the two materials. and the solid-liquid interface. two conditions must be met.Penetrant Testing Surface Energy (Surface Wetting Capability) Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History As previously mentioned. The driving force for the capillary action can be expressed as the following formula: Quizzes http://www. In fact. The intermolecular bonds or cohesive forces between the molecules of a liquid cause surface tension. The surface energy across an interface or the surface tension at the interface is a measure of the energy required to form a unit area of new surface at the interface. the contact angle for most liquid penetrants is very close to zero —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants degrees. In liquid penetrant testing. (See the figure below.

A liquid penetrant will continue to fill the void until an opposing force balances the capillary pressure. called the capillary pressure. r = the radius of the opening. In this case. the expression for pressure is Capillary Pressure = 2(σ SG . other methods have been devised to make relative comparisons of the wetting characteristics of these liquids.Surface Energy Page 2 of 3 Force = 2 πrσ LG cosθ Where: r = radius of the crack opening (2pr is the line of contact between the liquid and the solid tubular surface. References: http://www. However. Therefore. These methods include the density. Capillary pressure equations only apply when there is simultaneous contact of the penetrant along the entire length of the crack opening and a liquid front forms that is an equidistant from the surface.σ SL). the diameter. σ SL = the surface energy at the solid-liquid interface. Since the gas originally in a flaw volume cannot escape through the layer of penetrant. or the area of a spot formed when a drop of penetrant is placed on the test surface and allowed to stand undisturbed for a specific amount of time. it is the adhesion tension that is primarily responsible for a penetrant's movement into a flaw and not the surface energy of the liquid-gas interface. The wetting performance of the penetrant is degraded when adhesion tension is the primary driving force.. Σ = the adhesion tension (σSG . the gas is compressed near the closed end of a void. and volatility of the liquid. using this method. This force is usually the pressure of trapped gas in a void. is Capillary Pressure = (2 σ LG cosθ)/ r The above equations are for a cylindrical defect but the relationships of the variables are the same for a flaw with a noncircular cross section. However. it can be written that the pressure developed. but may have an effect on the inspection as discussed in the related pages. as most flaws are open only at the surface of the part.σs SL)/r = 2Σ /r Where: σ SG = the surface energy at the solid-gas interface. It can be seen from the equations in this section that the surface wetting characteristics (defined by the surface energies) are important in order for a penetrant to fill a void. 24/09/2009 . One method is to measure the height that a liquid reaches in a capillary tube. which do not enter into the capillarity equations. Adhesion tension is the force acting on a unit length of the wetting line from the direction of the solid. at times.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. other factors are also acting in the comparison.ndt-ed. the solid interface in this method is usually glass and may not accurately represent the surface that the penetrant inspection will be performed on. A liquid penetrant surface could take-on a complex shape as a consequence of the various deviations from flat parallel walls that an actual crack could have. viscosity. Another method of comparative evaluation is to measure the radius.) σ LG = liquid-gas surface tension θ = contact angle Since pressure is the force over a given area.. Since the contact angle for penetrants is very close to zero.

Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. A. ASM International. Volume 30 Number 1. February 1997. OH.ndt-ed. http://www. Oxford England. 24/09/2009 . Capillarity Effect Analysis for Alternative Liquid Penetrant Chemicals. Materials Park.. 19-23. 135-136. L. B. NDT & E International.. Tugrul. pp. pp.Surface Energy Page 3 of 3 Cartz. Nondestructive Testing... 1995..

the added force driving the penetrant into the flaw is given by the formula shown below: Force = hAp Where: h = height of penetrant above its free surface A = cross-sectional area of the opening P = density of the penetrant Increasing the specific gravity by decreasing the percent of solvent (by volume) in the solution will increase the penetration speed. A. February 1997.Specific Gravity Page 1 of 1 Home . Oxford England.Education Resources . Capillarity Effect Analysis for Alternative Liquid Penetrant Chemicals... pp.. Reference: Tugrul. NDT & E International. B. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. Volume 30 Number 1.Penetrant Testing Density or Specific Gravity The density or specific gravity of a penetrant material has a slight to negligible effect on the performance of a penetrant. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.ndt-ed. 24/09/2009 . When the gravitational pull is working against the capillary rise..NDT Course Material . the strength of the force is given by the following equation: Force = πr2hpg Where: r = radius of the crack opening h = height of penetrant above its free surface p = density of the penetrant g = acceleration due to gravity When the direction of capillary flow is in the same direction as the force of gravity. 19-23.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. The gravitational force acting on the penetrant liquid can be working either with or against the capillary force depending on the orientation of the flaw during the dwell cycle.

pp.Viscosity Page 1 of 1 Home . have a lower viscosity than do liquids such as ketchup.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. The equations for the fill times of a cylindrical void and an elliptical void are shown below: Cylindrical Void Fill time = (2l2µ)/ rcosθ σLG Elliptical Void Fill time = [(2l2µ) / σLGcosθ] * [a2+b2 / (a+b)ab] Where: l = defect depth µ = viscosity r = radius of the crack opening σ LG = liquid-gas surface tension θ = contact angle a = flaw width b = flaw length Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - From these equations. Reference: Deutsch.NDT Course Material . it should be noted that the two equations do not take into account entrapped gas that could be present in a closed end capillary. it can be seen that fill time is directly proportional to penetrant viscosity. July . 24/09/2009 . http://www.. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards.Penetrant Testing Viscosity Viscosity describes a fluid's resistance to flow. Viscosity has little effect on the ability of a penetrant material to enter a defect but it does have an effect on the speed at which the penetrant fills a defect.August 1979. No. While it has no real bearing on this discussion. S. 84.ndt-ed. 287-291. A. Liquids such as water that flow easily.Education Resources . Vol. Preliminary Study of the Fluid Mechanics of Liquid Penetrant Testing. 4..

24/09/2009 . The measurement of fluorescent brightness is detailed in ASTM E-1135. "Standard Test Method for Comparing the Brightness of Fluorescent Penetrants. LPI materials fluoresce because they contain one or more dyes that absorb electromagnetic radiation over a particular wavelength and the absorption of photons leads to changes in the electronic configuration of the molecules. Measurements have been made to evaluate the intrinsic brightness of virtually all commercially available penetrants and they all have about the same brightness. follow this link. Two different fluorescent colors can be mixed to interact by a mechanism Emulsifier called cascading. Mechanisms Contributing to Fluorescence and Visibility of Penetrants. most penetrants are designed to Lighting System Performance Check fluoresce as close as possible to the eyes' peak response..NDT Course Material .Penetrant Testing Color and Fluorescent Brightness Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Penetrant Color and Fluorescence The color of the penetrant material is of obvious importance in a visible dye penetrant inspection. References: Gram. Penetrant Brightness Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Fluorescent brightness was erroneously once thought to be the controlling factor with Quizzes respect to flaw detection sensitivity. Remember from the earlier discussion of contrast sensitivity that generally the higher the contrast. The radiation absorption and Temperature Penetrant emission could take place a number of times until the desired color and brightness is Dwell achieved. B.Education Resources . Since the Drying Developer human eye is the most commonly used sensing device. When fluorescent materials are involved. the easier objects are to see.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. the effect of color and fluorescence is not so straightforward. Since the molecules are not stable at this higher energy state. http://www. Intrinsic brightness values are determined for thick liquid films but the dimensional threshold of fluorescence (discussed on the next page) is a more important property.Color and Fluorescents Page 1 of 2 Home .ndt-ed.. The emission of visible light by this process involves one dye absorbing Wash ultraviolet radiation to emit a band of radiation that makes a second dye glow. The dye used in visible dye penetrant is usually vibrant red but other colors can be purchased for special applications. For more information on how the human eye responds to colored light.. as the dye must provide good contrast against the developer or part being inspected. There is some energy loss in the process and this causes photons to be re-emitted Quality & Process Control at a slightly longer wavelength that is in the visible range. they almost immediately re-emit the energy." Click here to learn why things fluoresce.

Paper No. 24/09/2009 .R. 23rd Annual Conference. Alburger. pp. Vol. Materials Evaluation. http://www.Color and Fluorescents Page 2 of 2 Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nondestructive Testing. J.. 564. September 1974. Proceedings..ndt-ed. pp 225-233. Instrument Society of America. Alburger. Signal-to-Noise Ratio in the Inspection Penetrant Process.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat..R. Dimensional Transition Effects in Visible Color and Fluorescent Dye Liquids. 193-200. 23. Part I.. May 1967. J.

McMaster conducted an experiment that led to the —Contrast Sensitivity understanding of this condition.. Therefore. This equation does not hold Developers true when very thin layers are involved but works well to establish general relationships Methods & Techniques between variables. However.Dimensional Threshold Page 1 of 2 Home . the degree of fluorescence response.R. 24/09/2009 .NDT Course Material . Preparation I = Io Where: x e-λCt Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear I = Transmitted light intensity Io = Incident light intensity e = Base of natural log (2. The —Dimensional Threshold performance of penetrants based on the physical constraints of the dyes can be predicted —Stability of Penetrants —Removability using Beer's Law equation. Therefore.Education Resources . New Orleans. Nations Spring Conference. Steps for Liquid PI no fluorescence was seen. LA. Notes on the History of Testing Panels for Inspection Penetrants. which in turn —Viscosity depends on dye concentration and film thickness. 257-270. —Surface Energy Alternately stated. Published by ASNT. C. pp.71828) λ = Absorption coefficient per unit of concentration C = Dye concentration t = Thickness of the absorbing layer trolled to a certain degree by the concentration of the fluorescent tracer dye in the penetrant. the dye concentration can only be increased so much before it starts to have a negative effect on brightness.Penetrant Testing Dimensional Threshold of Fluorescence Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction The dimensional threshold of fluorescence is a property that is not currently controlled by History Improving Detection the specifications but appears to largely determine the sensitivity of a fluorescent —Visual Acuity penetrant. PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's The dimensional magnitudes of typical crack defects correspond to the dimensional Penetrants thresholds of fluorescence response which are characteristic of the available penetrant. L. http://www. the ability of a penetrant to —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce yield an indication depends primarily on its ability to fluoresce as a very thin film. when the dye concentration is increased. A drop of fluorescent penetrant was placed at the interface of the plates. Two optically flat plates of glass were clamped tightly —Eye's Response to Light together. under a given intensity of —Specific Gravity ultraviolet radiation. Paper Summaries. J. This law states that the absorption of light by a solution Emulsifiers changes exponentially with the concentration of the solution. Walters and R. This equation states that the intensity of the transmitted energy is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident light and varies exponentially with the thickness of the penetrant layer and its dye concentration. The Principles penetrant could be seen migrating in between the plates but when exposed to black light. the brightness of the thin layer of penetrant generally increases.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. A Meniscus-Method Apparatus can be used to measure the dimensional threshold of fluorescence. is dependent on the absorption of ultraviolet radiation.ndt-ed. April 1978. The phenomenon was not fully understood until 1960 when Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI Alburger introduced the concept of thin-film transition of fluorescent response.. References: Alburger. A..

R. Mechanisms Contributing to Fluorescence and Visibility of Penetrants. 23. 564. Vol.Dimensional Threshold Page 2 of 2 Alburger. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nondestructive Testing.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. Gram. B.. Paper No. pp 225-233. Part I. Instrument Society of America... Dimensional Transition Effects in Visible Color and Fluorescent Dye Liquids. May 1967..ndt-ed. 23rd Annual Conference. http://www. 24/09/2009 . J. Proceedings.

Stability of Penetrants

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Ultraviolet and Thermal Stability of Penetrant Indications

Introduction to Penetrant Testing
Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light

Exposure to intense ultraviolet light and elevated temperatures can have a negative effect on fluorescent penetrant indications. Fluorescent materials can lose their brightness after a period of exposure to high intensity UV light. One study measured the intensity of fluorescent penetrant indications on a sample that was subjected to multiple UV exposure Principles Steps for Liquid PI cycles. Each cycle consisted of 15 minutes of 800 microwatt/cm² UV light and 2.5 Common Uses for PI minutes of 1500 microwatt/cm² UV light. Two penetrants were tested in the study, water Pros and Cons of PI washable, level 3 and a post emulsifiable, level 4. The results from the study showed that the indications from both penetrants faded with increased UV exposure. After eight PT Materials exposure cycles, the brightnesses of the indications were less than one half their original Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants values. —Surface Energy At an elevated temperature, penetrants can experience heat degradation or "heat fade." Excessive heat: 1. evaporates the more volatile constituents which increases viscosity and adversely affects the rate of penetration. 2. alters wash characteristics. 3. "boils off" chemicals that prevent separation and gelling of water soluble penetrants. 4. kills the fluorescence of tracer dyes. This fourth degradation mechanism involves the molecules of the penetrant materials. The phenomenon of fluorescence involves electrons that are delocalized in a molecule. These electrons are not specifically associated with a given bond between two atoms. When a molecule takes up sufficient energy for the excitation source, the delocalized bonding electrons rise to a higher electronic state. After excitation, the electrons will normally lose energy and return to the lowest energy state. This loss of energy can involve a "radiative" process such as fluorescence or "non-radiative" processes. Nonradiative processes include relaxation by molecular collisions, thermal relaxation, and chemical reaction. Heat causes the number of molecular collisions to increase, which results in more collision relaxation and less fluorescence.

—Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability

—Why things Fluoresce

Emulsifiers Developers

Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check

Other Considerations This explanation is only valid when the part and the penetrant are at an elevated Defect Nature temperature. When the materials cool, the fluorescence will return. However, while Health & Safety exposed to elevated temperatures, penetrant solutions dry faster. As the molecules References become more closely packed in the dehydrated solution, collision relaxation increases and fluorescence decreases. This effect has been called "concentration quenching" and experimental data shows that as the dye concentration is increased, fluorescent brightness Quizzes initially increases but reaches a peak and then begins to decrease. Airflow over the surface on the part will also speed evaporation of the liquid carrier, so it should be kept to a minimum to prevent a loss of brightness.

Generally, thermal damage occurs when fluorescent penetrant materials are heated above 71oC (160oF). It should be noted that the sensitivity of an FPI inspection can be improved if a part is heated prior to applying the penetrant material, but the temperature should be kept below 71oC (160oF). Some high temperature penetrants in use today are formulated with dyes with high melting points, greatly reducing heat related problems. The penetrants also have high boiling points and the heat related problems are greatly reduced. However, a loss of brightness can still take place when the penetrant is exposed

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Stability of Penetrants

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to elevated temperatures over an extended period of time. When one heat resistant formulation was tested, a 20 % reduction was measured after the material was subjected to 163oC (325oF) for 273 hours. The various types of fluorescent dyes commonly employed in today's penetrant materials begin decomposition at 71oC (160oF). When the temperature approaches 94oC (200oF), there is almost total attenuation of fluorescent brightness of the composition and sublimation of the fluorescent dyestuffs. References: Brittain, P.I., Assessment of Penetrant Systems by Fluorescent Intensity, Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 4, Published by Perganon Press, 1988, pp. 2814-2823. Muller, F.A. and Fantozzi, F.F., Advances in Improving the Heat-Fade Resistance of Fluorescent Penetrants, Materials Evaluation, July 1987, pp. 848-850. Sherwin, A. G. and Holden, W. O., Heat Assisted Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection, Materials Evaluation, Sept. 1979, pp. 52-56, 61. Robertson, A.J., Heat Stable Fluorescent Penetrants, Paper S2, 4th Pan Pacific Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 1, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing, November 1983. Lovejoy, D.J., The Importance of the Physical Nature of Fluorescence in Penetrant Testing, Reliability in Non-Destructive Testing: Proceedings of the 27th Annual British Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, London, UK, Pergamon Press, 1989, pp. 483491.

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Emulsifiers

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Emulsifiers
When removal of the penetrant from a defect due to over-washing of the part is a concern, a post-emulsifiable penetrant system can be used. Post-emulsifiable penetrants require a separate emulsifier to break the penetrant down and make it water-washable. Most penetrant inspection specifications classify penetrant systems into four methods of excess penetrant removal. These are listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. Method A: Water-Washable Method B: Post-Emulsifiable, Lipophilic Method C: Solvent Removable Method D: Post-Emulsifiable, Hydrophilic

Introduction to Penetrant Testing
Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control

Method C relies on a solvent cleaner to remove the penetrant from the part being inspected. Method A has emulsifiers built into the penetrant liquid that makes it possible to remove the excess penetrant with a simple water wash. Method B and D penetrants require an additional processing step where a separate emulsification agent is applied to make the excess penetrant more removable with a water wash. Lipophilic emulsification systems are oil-based materials that are supplied in ready-to-use form. Hydrophilic systems are water-based and supplied as a concentrate that must be diluted with water prior to use . Lipophilic emulsifiers (Method B) were introduced in the late 1950's and work with both a chemical and mechanical action. After the emulsifier has coated the surface of the object, mechanical action starts to remove some of the excess penetrant as the mixture drains from the part. During the emulsification time, the emulsifier diffuses into the remaining penetrant and the resulting mixture is easily removed with a water spray.

Hydrophilic emulsifiers (Method D) also remove the excess penetrant with mechanical Temperature Penetrant and chemical action but the action is different because no diffusion takes place. Dwell Hydrophilic emulsifiers are basically detergents that contain solvents and surfactants. The Emulsifier Wash hydrophilic emulsifier breaks up the penetrant into small quantities and prevents these Drying pieces from recombining or reattaching to the surface of the part. The mechanical action Developer of the rinse water removes the displaced penetrant from the part and causes fresh remover Lighting Performance Check System to contact and lift newly exposed penetrant from the surface. The hydrophilic post-emulsifiable method (Method D) was introduced in the mid 1970's. Since it is more sensitive than the lipophilic post emulsifiable method it has made the later method virtually obsolete. The major advantage of hydrophilic emulsifiers is that they are less sensitive to variation in the contact and removal time. While emulsification time should be controlled as closely as possible, a variation of one minute or more in the contact time will have little effect on flaw detectability when a hydrophilic emulsifier is used. However, a variation of as little as 15 to 30 seconds can have a significant effect when a lipophilic system is used. References: -- Boisvert, B.W., Hardy, G., Dorgan, J.F., and Selner, R.H., The Fluorescent Penetrant
Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes -

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Emulsifiers

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Hydrophilic Remover Process, Materials Evaluation, February 1983, pp. 134-137. -- Sherwin, A. G., Overremoval Propensities of the Prewash Hydrophilic Emulsifier Fluorescent Penetrant Process, Materials Evaluation, March 1993, pp. 294-299.

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However.ndt-ed. The penetrant must be removed from the sample surface as completely as possible to limit background fluorescence.Education Resources . Proper formulation of the penetrant materials provides the correct balancing of these forces. In order for this to happen. the adhesive forces of the penetrant must be weak enough that they can be broken by the removal methods used. —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants Another consideration in the formulation of the penetrant liquid is that it should not easily—Surface Energy —Specific Gravity commingle and become diluted by the cleaning solution.. Dilution of the penetrant liquid —Viscosity will affect the concentration of the dye and reduce the dimensional threshold of —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce fluorescence.Removability Page 1 of 1 Home . 24/09/2009 ..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. in order for the penetrant to have good surface wetting characteristics. is one of the most critical operations of the penetrant inspection process.NDT Course Material .Penetrant Testing Removability Removing the penetrant from the surface of the sample. without removing it from the flaw. the adhesive forces (forces of attraction between the penetrant and the solid surface being inspected) must be stronger than the cohesive forces (forces holding the liquid together).

Dry Powder Dry powder developer is generally considered to be the least sensitive but it is inexpensive to use and easy to apply. Unless the part is electrostatically charged.. or by using a puffer to dust parts with the References developer. The penetrant will try to wet the surface of the penetrant particle and fill the voids between the particles.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat.Water Soluble Form c . These are listed below: 1..NDT Course Material . 2. This is why indications are Principles brighter than the penetrant itself under UV light. 3. Each of the developer forms has advantages and disadvantages.Nonaqueous Type 2 Visible Dye (Solvent Based) Form f . the dry developer does not provide a uniform white background as the other forms of developers do. 5. The developer can be Defect Nature applied by dipping parts in a Health & Safety container of developer. Having a uniform light background is very important for a visible inspection to be effective and since dry http://www. fluffy powders that can be applied to a thoroughly dry surface in a number Other Considerations of ways. allowing more of —Contrast Sensitivity it to interact with the penetrant. 6. Developer Forms The AMS 2644 and Mil-I-25135 classify developers into six standard forms. The developer can be applied as a dry powder. Form a . which brings more penetrant to the surface of the part where it can be seen. causing more efficient fluorescence.Nonaqueous Type 1 Fluorescent (Solvent Based) Form e .Water Suspendable Form d .Dry Powder Form b . Parts can also be placed in Quizzes a dust cabinet where the developer is blown around and allowed to settle on the part. Dry developers are white.Education Resources . The goal is to allow the developer to come in contact with the whole inspection area. or dissolved or suspended in a liquid carrier. Since dry powder developers only stick to the area where penetrant is present.Special Applications PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy forms —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check The developer classifications are based on the method that the developer is applied. 4. 24/09/2009 . Another function that some developers Steps for Liquid PI perform is to create a white background so there is a greater degree of contrast between Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI the indication and the surrounding background.ndt-ed. Electrostatic powder spray guns are also available to apply the developer.Developers Page 1 of 2 Home .Penetrant Testing Developers Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History The role of the developer is to pull the trapped penetrant material out of defects and Improving Detection spread it out on the surface of the part so it can be seen by an inspector. The developer also —Eye's Response to Light allows more light to be emitted through the same mechanism. The fine —Visual Acuity developer particles both reflect and refract the incident ultraviolet light. the powder will only adhere to areas where trapped penetrant has wet the surface of the part.

Nonaqueous Nonaqueous developers suspend the developer in a volatile solvent and are typically applied with a spray gun. The best method for applying water soluble developers is by spraying it on the part. water soluble developers consist of a group of chemicals that are dissolved in water and form a developer layer when the water is evaporated away. When a dry developer is used.Developers Page 2 of 2 developers do not provide one. The surface of a part coated with a water suspendable developer will have a slightly translucent white coating. Water suspendable developers are applied to parts in the same manner as water soluble developers. 24/09/2009 . warm air dryer with the temperature held between 70 and 75°F. forced drying is not required. Parts coated with a water suspendable developer must be forced dried just as parts coated with a water soluble developer are forced dried.. Water Suspendable Water suspendable developers consist of insoluble developer particles suspended in water. indications tend to stay bright and sharp since the penetrant has a limited amount of room to spread. the indications will will be blurred and indistinct. http://www.. they are seldom used for visible inspections. Water suspendable developers require frequent stirring or agitation to keep the particles from settling out of suspension. or brushing the solution on to the surface is sometimes used but these methods are less desirable. pale white coating over the entire surface.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMat. Nonaqueous developers are commonly distributed in aerosol spray cans for portability. Special Applications Plastic or lacquer developers are special developers that are primarily used when a permanent record of the inspection is required. Drying is achieved by placing the wet but well drained part in a recirculating. Water Soluble As the name implies. Properly developed parts will have an even. Dipping. Aqueous developers contain wetting agents that cause the solution to function much like dilute hydrophilic emulsifier and can lead to additional removal of entrapped penetrant. The solvent tends to pull penetrant from the indications by solvent action. The part can be wet or dry. If the parts are not dried quickly. pouring. Since the solvent is highly volatile.ndt-ed. A nonaqueous developer should be applied to a thoroughly dried part to form a slightly translucent white coating.

Preparation of Part Page 1 of 2 Home . plating. it is possible that a thin layer of metal may have smeared across the surface and closed off defects. and Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Some of these contaminants would obviously prevent penetrant from entering defects. Conrad and Caudill found that media from plastic media blasting was partially responsible for loss of LPI indication Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. sanded. 24/09/2009 . Application Technique Penetrant Removal wax.Penetrant Testing Preparation of Part One of the most critical steps in the penetrant inspection process is preparing the part for inspection. Researchers in Russia have also found that some domestic soaps and commercial detergents can clog flaw cavities and reduce the wettability of the metal surface. so Temperature Penetrant it is clear they must be removed. scale. rust. and heavy oxides must be removed to ensure that defects are open to the surface of the part. residue from previous penetrant inspections. machining fluid. Sodium metasilicate. oil. Surface contaminants can also lead to a higher level of background noise since the excess penetrant may be more difficult to remove. If the parts have been machined..ndt-ed. varnishes. and related compounds can adhere to the surface of parts and form a coating that prevents penetrant entry into cracks. It is even possible for metal smearing to occur as a result of cleaning operations such as grit or vapor blasting.5 percent. Click here to learn more about possible problems with Cleaning Practices. or blasted prior to the penetrant inspection.NDT Course Material . such as paint. plating. sodium silicate. dirt.Education Resources . flux. grease. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection removed include: paint. but they can have a disastrous Emulsifier Wash effect on the inspection. However. oxide. A good cleaning procedure will remove all contamination from the part and not leave any residue that may interfere with the inspection process. The part must be thoroughly cleaned as surface contaminates can prevent the penetrant from entering a defect. All coatings. It has been found that some alkaline cleaners can be detrimental to the penetrant inspection process if they have silicates in concentrations above 0.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. This layer of metal smearing must be removed before inspection. etchant. such as paints. thus reducing the sensitivity of the penetrant. decals. Common coatings and contaminates that must be varnish. Take the link below to review some of the research that has been Drying Developer done to evaluate the effects of contaminants on LPI sensitivity. Contaminants Coatings. the impact of other contaminants such as the Dwell residue from previous penetrant inspections is less clear. are much more elastic than metal and will not fracture even though a large defect may be present just below the coating.. smut.

Gone Tomorrow! Replacing Methyl Chloroform in the Penetrant Process. 8. pp. pp.. grit blasting. Y.. A. Vol.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. August 1992. and Samokhin. 5. Materials Evaluation. NY Plenum/Consultants Bureau. No. honing. pp. Glazkov. No. translation from Defektoskopiya . 26. Materials Evaluation. References: Robinson. 50. Vol. can also cause metal smearing in the softer materials. Take the link below to learn more about metal smearing and its affects on LPI Click here to learn more about metal smearing.The Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 361-367. Cautions on the Use of Commercial Aqueous Precleaners for Penetrant Inspection. hand scraping. Bruevich.P. 19. New York. No. It is well recognized that machining. January 1990. Sam J. Defektoskopiya . N. E... It is very important that the material being inspected has not been smeared across its own surface during machining or cleaning operations. pp. Vol. and peening operations can cause some materials to smear. tumble deburring. Some Technological Mistakes in the Application of Capillary Inspection to Repairs of Gas Turbin Engines. Glazkov. Vol. Yu .Preparation of Part Page 2 of 2 strength. lapping. Rummel. 83-87. No. Special Features of Application of Aqueous Solutions of Commercial Detergents in Capillary Flaw Inspection. http://www. 950-952.L. 24/09/2009 . W. 936-946. such as steam cleaning. It is perhaps less recognized that some cleaning operations. 16. August 1982..A.The Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing. Here Today. August 1998. 3...ndt-ed. hand sanding. Microphotographs of cracks after plastic media blasting showed media entrapment in addition to metal smearing. 8.

. 845-847. pp. although proper pre. Vol.October. 12. Defect Nature Health & Safety References Researchers from the Canadian Armed Forces studied the effects of residual entrapped Quizzes penetrants. This was the case when the Wash previous inspection was performed with a different fluorescent penetrant or a visible dye Drying penetrant. and Thompson.and post. The specimens used for this study were quenched cracked 2024 aluminum blocks.NDT Course Material . Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity Etchants —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce Klein warns that acid entrapment from a prepenetrant etch can have disastrous effects on —Dimensional Threshold the penetrant inspection. C.Dwell Emulsifier cleaning (degreasing) operations had been performed. Other Considerations -. The focus of this article is on the effect of a previous visible penetrant inspection on a fluorescent penetrant inspection. 1958. Materials Evaluation. -..ndt-ed.Research on Cleaning Page 1 of 3 Home . G. Evaluation of Liquid Penetrant Systems. 45.. R. pp.and postSystem Performance Check cleaning. Deception by Penetrants. 7. 421-429. Sherwin suggests a simple experiment. E. The researchers concluded that repetitive inspections produce greatly reduced indications when pre. Careful cleaning of both acid and caustic etches before penetrant inspection is highly recommended. Materials Evaluation.Education Resources . December 1975. Vol.Nielson. Klein's study also showed that even the most careful post-cleaning operations leave some penetrant in the defects. The reduction in sensitivity was believed to be the result of incomplete removal of the cutting oil from the defects. E. September. July 1987. Nondestructive Testing. Experts in the penetrant field warn that caustics can in fact Developers reduce penetrant brightness. When the same penetrant system was used for both inspections. 33.Penetrant Testing Summary of Research on Cleaning Prior to LPI The following is a summary of some of the articles that have been published on the effects that some contaminants can have on penetrant inspection and also what effects improper cleaning methods and materials can have on the inspection. -. pp. He instructs to mix one percent visible and 99 percent fluorescent penetrant together and note the almost http://www. To illustrate the degrading effect of type II penetrant on type I penetrant. 284292. No. R. Oils Klein showed that when a test specimen was contaminated with cutting oil.Klein. H.and post-cleaning operations are not performed properly. The article states that the sodium hydroxide caustic often used to—Stability of Penetrants —Removability etch aluminum parts does not affect penetrants but that acids used to etch parts of other Emulsifiers materials do have an effect.Kleint..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. there was no Developer Lighting extensive loss in sensitivity when the specimens received the required pre. 24/09/2009 . D. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Penetrants. No. 850.. Residue from Previous Penetrant Inspections Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Klein also found that the effectiveness of a penetrant was significantly reduced if the part Temperature Penetrant had been previously inspected with a different penetrant. J. Amos Sherwin revisits the issue in a 1990 “Back to Basics” article in Materials Evaluation. there was a reduction in sensitivity even when the specimen was vapor degreased before inspection.

E. The solvents tested were acetone.1-Trichloroethane Here Today. Freon. 1457-1458. September 1980. "silicates in concentrations above 0. Southwest Research Institute. August 1992. by using a very accurate pipette.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. The article also notes that soaking the test piece in isopropanol for 10 minutes between the two inspections did provide some improvement but did not result in acceptable performance.Robinson. and even steam cleaning. -. they added drops of penetrant to fresh toluene until the colorimeter value matched that of the toluene used to degrease the sample. For all solvents. Cleaning Chemicals Sam Robinson of Sherwin Inc. and related compounds can adhere to the surface of parts and form a coating that prevents penetrant entry into cracks.1. Materials Evaluation. E. The procedure they used involved applying penetrant to the sample and letting it dwell for a set time. The specimens were considered cleaned of the penetrant when no bleedout was detectable when the specimens were evaluated 12 hours after the cleaning operation. Apparently. With this very accurate method of measuring the amount of penetrant absorbed.. such as grit... They then degreased the specimen using toluene in a closed flask and used a colorimeter to measure the fluorescence of the used toluene. 12.. December 1990. 48. sanding. R. Tanner. April 1981. have been shown to cause metal smearing in some alloys. Ustruck. Materials Evaluation. A. P.. TX. These mechanical cleaning methods. and Packman. chemical cleaning alone does not adequately prepare the surface of a part for inspection and mechanical cleaning methods must be employed. TX. can have a drastic effect on the performance of a penetrant. Gone Tomorrow! Replacing Methyl Chloroform in the Penetrant Process.Research on Cleaning Page 2 of 3 complete lack of fluorescence under black light. P. discusses an important cleaning consideration in a paper titled "1.. Some chemical cleaning processes have been found to plug defects. Sam J. No. Ward Rummel states that. Ustruck. Then. San Antonio. Sodium metasilicate. Vol. -.F. based on his conversations with industry experts. Adsorption and Hysteresis Behavior of Crack-Detecting Liquid Penetrants on Steel Plates. and MEK. R.1Trichloroethane in the Penetrant Process.1.Tanner. five organic solvents were tested. In many cases." http://www. the red dye acts as an UV filter and stops nearly all fluorescence. pp.ndt-ed.. -.Sherwin. Gone Tomorrow! Replacing 1. Vol. San Antonio. if left trapped in a flaw.De Graaf. 8. In terms of cleaning penetrant system performance check specimens and nonproduction parts. at least two hours of processing was required to properly clean the specimens. and De Rijk. pp. 13th Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation Proceedings. Comparison Between Reliability. 24/09/2009 . Sensitivity. published by NTIAC. sodium silicate. -. and Accuracy of Nondestructive Inspection Methods. 41-46. pp. they showed that a small amount of solvent from the precleaning operation.5 percent may be detrimental to subsequent penetrant inspection.D. Here Today. Chlorotene NU. or other media blasting. 50. Using specimens with fatigue cracks. No. Materials Evaluation. It is also important that the cleaning process itself does not cause a reduction in penetrant sensitivity. Still a Good Rule: Visible Penetrant Inspection Not to Precede Fluorescent. pp." He cautions that some mild alkaline cleaners include sodium metasilicate as an ingredient.. Toluol. researchers in the Netherlands evaluated the length of time required to clean test specimens using an organic solvent bath with ultrasonic agitation. 936-946. and Packman developed a procedure to accurately measure the amount of penetrant absorbed into the cracks of a chrome plated panel specimen. 311-322.

pp. Y. 83-87. 5. August 1998.Rummel.. N. August 1982. In another article. or at 140-170C (283-337F) for other alloys. January 1990. New York. Bruevich. No. -. 26. 8. they recommended that components be thoroughly rinsed in water with the aid of ultrasound and. Yu . To ensure efficient capillary inspection of fatigue cracks in the vanes of gas turbine engines. W. http://www. Vol.. 950-952.. -..Glazkov. E.L. the Russian researchers further investigated the effects of cleaning and rinsing components with aqueous solutions of commercial detergents (CDs) on the detectability of cracks. dried at 350-400C (661-751F) for components made of creep-resistant nickel alloys. and Samokhin. 3. Vol. NY Plenum/Consultants Bureau. Some of the cleaning solutions formed deposits in the cracks that were difficult to remove and could prevent the formation of penetrant indications. Special Features of Application of Aqueous Solutions of Commercial Detergents in Capillary Flaw Inspection. They report that after parts have been washed with cleaning liquids containing a solution of domestic soap or oleic potash soap.A. pp.P. Russian researchers have also found that the cleaning solution can have an effect on the inspection results.ndt-ed. No. 24/09/2009 .org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho.The Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing. Several photographs are offered that supports these claims. some cracks are no longer detectable. pp. They reported that some CD solutions improved crack detectability while others impaired detectability. 16. 19. translation from Defektoskopiya . if possible. Cautions on the Use of Commercial Aqueous Precleaners for Penetrant Inspection. Materials Evaluation. They attribute this reduction in sensitivity to a clogging of the cavities and a reduction in wettability of the metal surface by the penetrant.. Defektoskopiya . Some Technological Mistakes in the Application of Capillary Inspection to Repairs of Gas Turbine Engines. A..Glazkov. Vol.The Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing. No. 361-367.Research on Cleaning Page 3 of 3 -.

Defect Nature If material smearing is a problem. are most prone to smearing but many other materials. grit blasting. such as steel. Softer materials. processes that can cause material to smear include machining.NDT Course Material . tumble de burring. such as vapor and steam cleaning.. lapping. It must be noted that under carefully controlled conditions. material smear can be avoided.Penetrant Testing Material Smear and Its Removal Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection defects that Application Technique Some of the Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Material smearing can have a very detrimental effect on an LPI inspection as are normally open to the surface can be partially or completely covered over. and preening operations. Quizzes - http://www. an Other Considerations evaluation should be performed to determine if flaw detectability has been compromised. cracked specimens are typically inspected before and after Developer Lighting performing the potential smearing operation and a comparison between the inspection System Performance Check results are made. To evaluate the effect of a process on Drying liquid penetrant inspection. can also cause Penetrant material to smear in the softer materials.Material Smear Page 1 of 3 Home .ndt-ed. The curves below illustrate the effect that metal smearing canReferences have on the probability of detection for a defect and how etching the sample surface improves detectability.. an etching process can be used to remove the smeared Health & Safety material prior to inspection. have also been shown to smear. 24/09/2009 . honing. titanium and Emulsifier Wash Inconel alloys.Education Resources . Whenever parts have been mechanically processed prior to LPI. such as plastics and aluminum Dwell alloys. sanding. When high pressure is Quality & Process Control Temperature used.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. scraping. some cleaning operations.

. The amount of material that must be removed by the etching process depends on the amount of material that has been smeared and should be determined experimentally. the crack length would need to be 0. 24/09/2009 .10 inch can be detected with a 90 % probability. cracks under 0. Comparing the crack lengths where the curves reach a POD level of 90%. However. The bottom curve shows the POD for the same aluminum specimens after their surfaces had been etched.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho.. Volume two of the Nondestructive Testing Handbook provides a great http://www. Removal of Material Smearing Etching of the specimens can return the flaw to the pre-mechanical processing level of detectability. it can be seen that in the as-machined condition.Material Smear Page 2 of 3 The top curve shows the probability of detecting a crack versus crack length for asmachined aluminum specimens.4 inches long.ndt-ed. when the surface is etched.

it must be properly removed from the part before applying penetrant. Experts in the penetrant field warn that acid and caustic entrapment from a prepenetrant etch can have disastrous effects on the penetrant inspection. Vol.. et al. 2. Left Image: Original fluorescent penetrant inspection pattern in a quench cracked aluminum sample. Published by the Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center (NTIAC). G. First.D.. The chemical etchant used should uniformly remove material from the surface and should not etch microstructural features (such as grain boundaries) preferentially. Additional Material Smearing Information References: Rummel. There are several other risks to the parts being processed when an etchant is used.Material Smear Page 3 of 3 deal of information on material smearing and the amount of etching required to remove a smeared metal. Center Image: Fluorescent penetrant inspection pattern after sanding with 240 grit paper. When an etchant is used. Nondestructive Testing Handbook. Ideally..ndt-ed. since the etching process is removing metal from the surface of the part. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. a study should be conducted to evaluate the effects of the etching process (or other chemical process) on the mechanical properties and performance of the component. NTIAC #DB-95-02. A second possible risk is that the etching process could have an effect on the material properties of the part.0003 inch of metal. A. Robert McMaster. the minimum dimensional tolerances of the part must be considered. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book. 1982. Careful cleaning of both acid and caustic etches before penetrant inspection is highly recommended. 24/09/2009 ..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. Right Image: Fluorescent penetrant inspection pattern after etching to remove 0. The handbook includes a number of photographs such as the set below that graphically show the effects of metal smearing. Liquid Penetrant Tests. W. May 1996. and Matzkanin. http://www.

Comparison Between Reliability.ndt-ed. with a light indication on a dark background. San Antonio. P.Education Resources . the human eye is more sensitive to a light indication Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods on a dark background and the eye is naturally drawn to a fluorescent indication. it is no longer detectable even though contrast is increased. E. the spot is brighter than the background (representative of fluorescent penetrant inspection). Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes From this data. http://www. Sensitivity.0001 inch) were detectable when the contrast between the flaw and the background was high. San Antonio. They inspected "identical" fatigue cracked specimens using a red dye penetrant and a fluorescent dye penetrant.076 mm (0.Technique Selection Page 1 of 2 Home . TX. Many factors must be considered when selecting the penetrant materials for a particular application. Also. and Accuracy of Nondestructive Inspection Methods. To the left of the contrast ratio of one. 311-322. The curves show that for indication larger than 0. indications down to 0. 24/09/2009 .Penetrant Testing Selection of a Penetrant Technique The selection of a liquid penetrant system is not a straightforward task.. and De Rijk. which was viewed Selecting Developer from one foot. materials cost. Furthermore. published by NTIAC. and portability. and to the right of one.. 13th Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation Proceedings. the first decision that must be made is whether to use fluorescent penetrant or visible dye penetrant. Southwest Research Institute. but simply consider the general trend of each group of curves right or left of the contrast ratio of one.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. Each of the three curves right or left of the contrast ratio of one are for different background brightness (in foot-Lamberts). size of area requiring inspection. The ordinate is the spot diameter. However. it does not really matter if it is a dark spot on a light background or a light spot on a dark background. The abscissa is the contrast ratio between the spot brightness and the background brightness. Fluorescent penetrants are generally more capable of producing a detectable indication from a small defect. it can be seen why a fluorescent penetrant offers an advantage over a visible penetrant for finding very small defects.. TX. The fluorescent penetrant found 60 defects while the visible dye was only able to find 39 of the defects. Ref: De Graaf. These factors include the sensitivity required. pp.003 mm (0. There are a variety of penetrant systems and developer types that are available for use. Data presented by De Graaf and De Rijk supports this statement.003 inch) in diameter. number of parts. and one set of penetrant materials will not work for all applications. —Metal Smear Technique Selection The graph below presents a series of curves that show the contrast ratio required for a Application Technique Penetrant Removal spot of a certain diameter to be seen. when a dark indication on a light background is further reduced in size. April 1981.NDT Course Material . the spot is darker than the background (representative of visible dye penetrant testing). Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers When sensitivity is the primary consideration for choosing a penetrant system.

Solvent removable penetrants. Another consideration in the selection of a penetrant system is whether water washable.E.-Dec. http://www. This procedure uses titanium and Inconel specimens with small surface cracks produced in low cycle fatigue bending to classify penetrant systems. visible systems are more easy to use in the field. Vol.Technique Selection Page 2 of 2 Ref: Thomas. Post-emulsifiable systems are designed to reduce the possibility of over-washing. to the inspection process. 24/09/2009 . 354-368. and thus cost. A procedure for producing and evaluating the penetrant qualification specimens was reported on by Moore and Larson at the 1997 ASNT Fall Conference. the visible penetrant may be a better choice. No. they are usually not practical for large area inspection or in high-volume production settings. method and sensitivity level.. Visible dye and dual-purpose penetrants are not classified into sensitivity levels as fluorescent penetrants are. 21. Nov. Since visible dye penetrants do not require a darkened area for the use of an ultraviolet light. Visible dye penetrants have also been found to give better results when surface roughness is high or when flaws are located in areas such as weldments. Penetrants are evaluated by the US Air Force according to the requirements in MIL-I25135 and each penetrant system is classified into one of five sensitivity levels. 1963. Most commercially available penetrant materials are listed in the Qualified Products List of MIL-I-25135 according to their type. pp. When fairly large defects are the subject of the inspection. when properly applied.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. post-emulsifiable or solvent removable penetrants will be used. these systems add another step.. An Analytic Approach to Penetrant Performance. can have the highest sensitivity and are very convenient to use.ndt-ed. Under certain conditions. W. 1963 Lester Honor Lecture. The sensitivity of a visible dye penetrant is regarded as level 1 and largely dependent on obtaining good contrast between the indication and the background. However. Nondestructive Testing. However. 6. The brightness of the indications produced after processing a set of specimens with a particular penetrant system is measured using a photometer. a high sensitivity system may not be warranted and may result in a large number of irrelevant indications. which is one of the factors known to reduce sensitivity..

pp. Establishing Liquid Penetrant Dwell Modes.. Materials Evaluation.. immersion-dwell (keeping the part immersed in the penetrant during the dwell period) and drain-dwell (letting the part drain during the dwell period). Prior to a study by Sherwin. Maxwell House. Volume 4. Sherwin also cautions that the samples being inspected should be placed outside the penetrant tank wall so that vapors from the tank do not accumulate and dilute the dyestuff concentration of the penetrant on the specimen. Fairview Park. including spraying. No. New York. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References -.Application and Dwell Time Page 1 of 5 Home . 3. pp. There are basically two dwell mode options. Once the part is covered in penetrant it must be allowed to dwell so the penetrant has time to enter any defect present. The time required to fill a flaw depends http://www. 24/09/2009 . The dwell time is important because it allows the penetrant the time necessary to seep or be drawn into a defect..Education Resources . However. March 1974. J. Sherwin showed that if the specimens are allowed to drain-dwell. As pointed-out in the section on penetrant materials. sensitivity increases as the dyestuff concentration increases.G. Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Nondestructive Testing.NDT Course Material . The reasoning for thinking this method was more sensitive was that the penetrant was more migratory and more likely to fill flaws when kept completely fluid and not allowed to lose volatile constituents by evaporation.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. or immersing the parts in a penetrant bath. Pergamon Press. Penetrant Dwell Time Penetrant dwell time is the total time that the penetrant is in contact with the part surface. September 1987. The method of penetrant application has little effect on the inspection sensitivity but an electrostatic spraying method is reported to produce slightly better results than other methods. Dwell times are usually recommended by the penetrant producers or required by the specification being followed.Penetrant Testing Penetrant Application and Dwell Time The penetrant material can be applied in a number of different ways. Elmsford.Vaerman. A. 32..ndt-ed. -. the immersion-dwell mode was generally considered to be more sensitive but recognized to be less economical because more penetrant was washed away and emulsifiers were contaminated more rapidly. 63-67. Quantified Evolution of the Sensitivity Quizzes Versus Process Deviations.Sherwin. the sensitivity is higher because the evaporation increases the dyestuff concentration of the penetrant on the specimen. 2814-2823. Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection. Vol. brushing.

The pressure of the gas trapped in the flaw by the penetrant.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho.. The contact angle of the penetrant. The atmospheric pressure at the flaw opening. which can vary with the diameter of the capillary. For example. which slows the infiltration of the tight flaws. Microstructural properties of the penetrant. The viscosity of a penetrant in microcapillary flaws is higher than its viscosity in bulk. http://www. The following tables summarize the dwell time requirements of several commonly used specifications. 24/09/2009 .ndt-ed. The ideal dwell time is often determined by experimentation and is often very specific to a particular application.. Generally. The dynamic shear viscosity of the penetrant. AMS 2647A requires that the dwell time for all aircraft and engine parts be at least 20 minutes. there is no harm in using a longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant is not allowed to dry. while ASTM E1209 only requires a five minute dwell time for parts made of titanium and other heat resistant alloys. The density or specific gravity of the penetrant.Application and Dwell Time Page 2 of 5 on a number of variables which include the following: The surface tension of the penetrant. The information provided below is intended for general reference and no guarantee is made about its correctness. Please consult the specifications for the actual dwell time requirements. The radius of the flaw or the distance between the flaw walls. The capillary pressure at the flaw opening.

ndt-ed.Application and Dwell Time Page 3 of 5 http://www. 24/09/2009 ..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho..

4. No.ndt-ed. 84. 287-291. pp.Deutsch. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards.. S.Application and Dwell Time Page 4 of 5 Some Research Results on Dwell Time An interesting point that Deutsch makes about dwell time is that if the elliptical flaw has a length to width ratio of 100. 24/09/2009 . -. Preliminary Study of the Fluid Mechanics of Liquid Penetrant Testing. July-August 1979.. it will take the penetrant nearly ten times longer to fill than it will a cylindrical flaw with the same volume. A.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. http://www. Vol.

ndt-ed. J. and dry developers were included.. Specimens were also processed using no developer. As expected. and Holloway. R. A.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. The following table summarizes some of the findings. 24/09/2009 . fatigue cracks and porosity. http://www. The effect of the developer was a variable in the study and nonaqueous wet.Application and Dwell Time Page 5 of 5 Lord and Holloway looked for the optimum penetrant dwell time required for detecting several types of defects in titanium.Lord. -. Choice of Penetrant Parameters for Inspecting Titanium.. The specimen defects included stress corrosion cracks. Materials Evaluation. October 1975.. the researchers found that the optimal dwell time varied with the type of defect and developer used. pp. aqueous wet. J. 249-256. Both a level 2 post-emulsifiable fluorescent penetrant (Magnaflux ZL-2A penetrant and ZE-3 emulsifier) and a level 2 water washable penetrant (Tracer-Tech P-133A penetrant) were included in the study.

..Penetrant Testing Penetrant Removal Process The penetrant removal procedure must effectively remove the penetrant from the surface of the part without removing an appreciable amount of entrapped penetrant from the defect. Spray application is not recommended for lipophilic emulsifiers because it can result in non-uniform emulsification if not properly applied. As discussed in the Contrast Sensitivity Section. This method requires hand wiping the surface with a cloth moistened with the solvent Quality & Process Control remover. These materials have the property of Developer forming relatively viscous gels upon contact with water. given enough contact time.ndt-ed. an excessive amount of penetrant will be left on the surface. the contrast between the indication and the background will be reduced. Removal Method Penetrant systems are classified into four methods of excess penetrant removal. Brushing the emulsifier on to the part is not recommended either because the bristles of the brush may force emulsifier into discontinuities. Controlling the reaction time is of essential importance when using a post-emulsifiable system.Education Resources . Thus.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. Lipophilic Method C: Solvent Removable Method D: Post-Emulsifiable. the plugs offer a brief period of protection against rapid wash Other Considerations Defect removal. Method A: Water-Washable Method B: Post-Emulsifiable. leading to high background levels.NDT Course Material . Post-emulsifiable penetrants Quizzes require a separate emulsifier to breakdown the penetrant and make it water washable. If the penetrant is not effectively removed from the part surface. The excess penetrant may be removed Drying from the object surface with a simple water rinse. If the emulsification time is too short. as the contrast increases. the http://www. and is. These include the following: 1. If the emulsification time is too long. Water-washable or self-emulsifiable penetrants contain an Wash emulsifier as an integral part of the formulation. 3. The emulsifier is allowed sufficient time to react with the penetrant on the surface of the part but not given time to make its way into defects to react with the trapped penetrant. causing the entrapped penetrant to be removed. the flaw indication will be reduced by a proportional amount. The part is usually immersed in the emulsifier but hydrophilic emulsifiers may also be sprayed on the object.Penetrant Removal Process Page 1 of 3 Home . is the most Dwell Emulsifier economical to apply. so does visibility of the indication. 2. water-washable penetrant systems provide ease of use and a high level of Health Nature & Safety sensitivity. too labor intensive for most production situations. If the removal process extracts penetrant from the flaw. The penetrant that has reacted with the emulsifier is easily cleaned away. 4. 24/09/2009 . Method A. Water-Washable. which results in the formation of Lighting Performance Check System gel-like plugs in surface openings. Of the three Temperature Penetrant production penetrant inspection methods. a post-emulsifiable penetrant system can be used. While they are completely soluble in water. is used primarily for inspecting small localized areas. Solvent Removable. therefore. References When removal of the penetrant from the defect due to over-washing of the part is a concern. Hydrophilic Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Method C.

M. a variation of as little as 15 to 30 seconds can have a significant effect when a lipophilic system is used. When using an emulsifier. some of the entrapped penetrant will be removed and inspection sensitivity will be reduced. Using an emulsifier involves adding a couple of steps to the penetrant process. 24/09/2009 . It is generally recommended that a coarse spray rinse or an air-agitated. Additional wiping may sometimes be necessary. N. apply penetrant and allow to dwell. The major advantage of hydrophilic emulsifiers is that they are less sensitive to variation in the contact and removal time. apply developer and allow part to develop. The clearance between the plates varied from 15 microns (0. lint-free. Since these methods are generally only used when very high sensitivity is needed. preclean part.Penetrant Removal Process Page 2 of 3 emulsifier will react with the penetrant entrapped in discontinuities. and 8. penetrant is lost from the defect. penetrant moved horizontally from the center area to the ends of the simulated crack where capillary forces are stronger. Next. Maeda. They found that when the surface of the specimen was wiped with a dry cloth. 4.. On the contrary. the surface should be wiped with one pass in one direction with a rag moistened with cleaner. The hydrophilic post-emulsifiable method (Method D) is more sensitive than the lipophilic post-emulsifiable method (Method B).. 3. penetrant was blotted and removed from the flaw at the corner areas where the clearance between the plate was the least. While emulsification time should be controlled as closely as possible. cotton rag. This also explains why the bleedout of an indication is often largest at the corners of cracks. Ebata.18 inch)... the penetrant surface has a parabola-like shape where the liquid is at the surface in the corners but depressed in the center.059 inch) at the clamping points to 30 microns (0. it should be directed at a 45° angle to the part surface so as to not force water directly into any discontinuities that may be present. apply hydrophilic emulsifier and allow contact for specified time. When a spray is being used.Senda. K. S. the penetrant process includes the following steps (extra steps in bold): 1. 2.. dry part. and Miyoshi. Therefore. an interesting observation was made. T. The unsealed edge acted as the flaw. 7. across the crack length.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. pre-rinse to remove first layer of penetrant. This shows that each time the cleaning cloth touches the edge of a crack. Ooka. rinse to remove excess penetrant. -. making it possible to deplete the amount needed to form an indication. The sample consisted of two pieces of acrylic with two thin sheets of vinyl clamped between as spaces. The first step in this cleaning procedure is to dry wipe the surface of the part in one direction using a white. a variation of one minute or more in the contact time will have little effect on flaw detectability when a hydrophilic emulsifier is used.118 inch) at the midpoint between the clamps. 6. 5. inspect. slightly increases the cost of an inspection. Although the size of the flaw represented by this specimen is large. care must also be taken to carefully remove the penetrant from the part surface while removing as little as possible from the flaw.. M. The plates were clamped in the corners and all but one of the edges sealed.ndt-ed. To study the effects of the wiping process. but keep in mind that with every additional wipe. One dry pass followed by one damp pass is all that is recommended.. The spray or immersion time should be kept to a minimum through frequent inspections of the remaining background level. Factors http://www. Japanese researchers manufactured a test specimen out of acrylic plates that allowed them to view the movement of the penetrant in a narrow cavity. The distance between the clamping points was believed to be 30 mm (1. immersion wash tank be used. One dry pass in one direction is all that should be used to remove as much penetrant as possible. Hand Wiping of Solvent Removable Penetrants When a solvent removable penetrant is used.. Kato. Rinse Method and Time for Water-Washable Penetrants The method used to rinse the excess penetrant from the object surface and the time of the rinse should be controlled so as to prevent over-washing. the hydrophilic method renders the lipophilic method virtually obsolete. When the penetrant at the side areas was removed.

Switzerland.ndt-ed. Zurich. 24/09/2009 .Penetrant Removal Process Page 3 of 3 Involved in Formation of Penetrant Testing Indications. November December 1984.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. NDE in the Nuclear Industry: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference. http://www. 807-810.. pp..

but some industry experts feel that water suspendable developers are more sensitive than water-soluble developers..Penetrant Testing Use and Selection of a Developer The use of developer is almost always recommended. if the thickness of the coating becomes too great. Sensitivity ranking of developers per the Nondestructive Testing Handbook. However. When a Haynes Alloy 188. The operator detected only 86 of 284 cracks and had 70 false-calls. Developer Dry Advantages Indications tend to remain brighter and more distinct over time Disadvantages Does not form contrast background so cannot be used with visible systems http://www. When a developer was used. Also.NDT Course Material . Type of Developer Used and Method of Application Nonaqueous developers are generally recognized as the most sensitive when properly applied. 24/09/2009 . One study reported that the output from a fluorescent penetrant could be multiplied by up to seven times when a suitable powder developer was used. Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Developer Form Nonaqueous. with the inspector identifying 277 of 311 cracks with no false-calls. There is less agreement on the performance of dry and aqueous wet developers.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho.. well defined defects are being inspected on a surface that contains many nonrelevant indications that cause excessive bleedout.ndt-ed. Sensitivity Ranking (highest to lowest) Developer Form Application Technique. The relative sensitivities of developers and application techniques as ranked in Volume II of the Nondestructive Testing Handbook are shown in the table below. Wet Solvent Plastic Film Water-Soluble Water-Suspendable Water-Soluble Water-Suspendable Dry Dry Dry Dry Method of Application Spray Spray Spray Spray Immersion Immersion Dust Cloud (Electrostatic) Fluidized Bed Dust Cloud (Air Agitation) Immersion (Dip) Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - The following table lists the main advantages and disadvantages of the various developer types. a 90 % POD was reached at 2 mm (0. There is general industry agreement with this table. These situations primarily occur when large. defects can be masked. However. a 90 % POD was never reached with crack lengths as long as 19 mm (0. aqueous wet developers can cause leaching and blurring of indications when used with water-washable penetrants.Use and Selection of Developer Page 1 of 2 Home .Education Resources . flat panel specimen with a low-cycle fatigue crack was inspected without a developer. some authors have reported that in special situations. Another study showed that the use of developer can have a dramatic effect on the probability of detection (POD) of an inspection. Aqueous wet developers form a finer matrix of particles that is more in contact with the part surface.077 inch). the use of a developer may actually reduce sensitivity. but the aqueous developers are usually considered more sensitive.75 inch).

Nondestructive Testing Handbook. 35. Research on Developer Use References: . D. Cincinnati OH. Liquid Penetrant Tests. W. Oct 1984.Rummel. Probability of Detection as a Quantitative Measure of Nondestructive Testing End-To-End Process Capabilities. http://www. et al.Brittain. take this link. I.. Robert McMaster.Use and Selection of Developer Page 2 of 2 Easily to apply Ease of coating entire part Soluble White coating for good contrast can be produced which work well for both visible and fluorescent systems Ease of coating entire part Indications are bright and sharp Suspendable White coating for good contrast can be produced which work well for both visible and fluorescent systems Very portable Easy to apply to readily accessible surfaces White coating for good contrast can be produced which work well for both visible and fluorescent systems Indications show-up rapidly and are well defined Provides highest sensitivity Difficult to assure entire part surface has been coated Coating is translucent and provides poor contrast (not recommended for visual systems) Indications for water washable systems are dim and blurred Indications weaken and become diffused after time Difficult to apply evenly to all surfaces More difficult to clean part after inspection Nonaqueous To review a summary of some of the research that has been done on developer usage and performance. pp.. 1982. . P. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. QUALTEST 3 Conference.... .org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Metho. Materials Evaluation. 283-319. The Amplifying Action of Developer Powders. 24/09/2009 . pp. Vol. January 1998.ndt-ed. 2.

the converse is also true. which can have a positive or negative effect on sensitivity.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality. The impact will be positive if the evaporation serves to increase the dye concentration of the penetrant trapped in a flaw up to the concentration quenching point and not beyond. However. Raising the temperature will also raise the speed of evaporation of penetrants.ndt-ed. so lowering the temperature will have a negative effect on the flow characteristics.NDT Course Material .. Temperatures from 27 to 49oC (80 to 120oF) are reported in the literature to produce optimal results. this served to increase inspection sensitivity by increasing the viscosity of the penetrant.Penetrant Testing Process Control of Temperature The temperature of the penetrant materials and the part being inspected can have an effect on the results. Higher temperatures and more rapid evaporation will have a negative effect if the dye concentration exceeds the concentration quenching point. Many specifications allow testing in the range of 4 to 52oC (40 to 125oF). Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer The method of processing a hot part was once commonly employed. A tip to remember is that surfaces that can be touched for an extended period of time without burning the skin are generally below 52oC (125oF). Of course. the penetrant materials used today have 1/2 to 1/3 the viscosity of the penetrants on the market in the Quality & Process Control 1960's and 1970's.. Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www.Education Resources .QC of Temperature Page 1 of 1 Home . raising the temperature of the penetrant will increase the wetting of the surface and the capillary forces. Heating the part prior to inspection is no longer necessary and no Temperature longer recommended. Parts were either heated or processed hot off the production line. Since the surface tension of most materials decrease as the temperature increases. or the flow characteristics are changed to the point where the penetrant does not readily flow. 24/09/2009 . In its day.

Of course. caustics. open tank systems are much Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants more susceptible to contamination than are spray systems. Water does not readily mix with the oily solution of lipophilic post—Metal Smear emulsifiable systems and it generally settles to the bottom of the tank. In self-emulsifiable penetrants.. Non-water-based. Water-based. Only products meeting the requirements of an industry specification. and above this limit they do not function properly. odor and consistency. a sample of the fresh solution should be collected and stored as a standard for future comparison. Deterioration of new penetrants primarily results from —Contrast Sensitivity aging and contamination. Freezing can cause separation to occur and exposure Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI to high temperature for a long period of time can affect the brightness of the dyes. Acids..Penetrant Testing Quality Control of Penetrant Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction The quality of a penetrant inspection is highly dependent on the quality of the penetrant History Improving Detection materials used. keep the materials in a closed container and protect from Steps for Liquid PI freezing and exposure to high heat. Data Developers indicates that the water contamination must be significant (greater than 10%) for gel Methods & Techniques formation to occur. The Other Considerations Defect Nature standard specimen should be stored in a sealed.NDT Course Material . The rejection criteria is different for different penetrants. Contamination by another —Surface Energy liquid will change the surface tension and contact angle of the solution. When the penetrant is first received from the manufacturer. but deterioration can be slowed with proper Principles storage. and chromates cause the loss of fluorescence in water-soluble penetrants. Health & Safety Penetrants that are in-use should be compared regularly to the standard specimen to detect changes in color. must be present in significant quantities to affect the performance of the penetrant.Education Resources . This Quizzes check involves placing a drop of the standard and the in-use penetrants on a piece of Whatman #4 filter paper and making a side by side comparison of the brightness of the two spots under UV light. a References brightness comparison per the requirements of ASTM E 1417 is also often required. oils. the Technique Selection inspection of parts that travel to the bottom of the tank and encounter the water could be Application Technique Penetrant Removal adversely affected. water washable penetrants are checked using the procedure specified in ASTM D95 or ASTM E 1417. should be used. Water is the —Specific Gravity most common contaminant. so the requirements of the qualifying specification or the manufacturer's instructions must be consulted. When possible. the water content of water washable penetrants must be checked regularly. Most specifications limit water contamination to around 5% to be Preparation —Cleaning Methods conservative. Application of the Penetrant Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check http://www. water washable penetrants are checked with a refractometer. PT Materials Contamination can occur during storage and use. Additionally. Cloudiness and viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold both increase with increasing water content. When using fluorescent penetrants. Water-washable penetrants have a definite tolerance limit —Viscosity for water. acids.ndt-ed.QC of Penetrants Page 1 of 2 Home . water —Stability of Penetrants contamination can produce a gel break or emulsion inversion when the water —Removability concentration becomes high enough. but must be avoided until that stage in the process. However. such —Visual Acuity as AMS 2644. Organic contaminants can dilute the dye and absorb the ultraviolet radiation before it reaches the dye. Regular checks must be performed to ensure that the material performance has not degraded. resulting in a —Eye's Response to Light loss of color or fluorescent response. opaque glass or metal container. and also change the viscosity. Selecting Developer Most other common contaminates. caustics and chromates. Virtually all organic dyes deteriorate over time. The formation of the gel is an important feature Emulsifiers during the washing processes. such as cleaning solvents. 24/09/2009 .org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality.

. the application method is an economic or convenience decision. As long as the surface being inspected receives a generous coating of penetrant. http://www. It is important that the part be thoroughly cleaned and dried.. Generally.QC of Penetrants Page 2 of 2 The application of the penetrant is the step of the process that requires the least amount of control. The part should also be cool to the touch. it really doesn't matter how the penetrant is applied. The recommended range of temperature is 4 to 52oC (39 to 125oF). 24/09/2009 . Any contaminates or moisture on the surface of the part or within a flaw can prevent the penetrant material from entering the defect.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality.

J. Robinson and Schmidt used a Turner fluorometer to evaluate the variability that some of Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. -.QC of Wash Page 1 of 2 Home .Vaerman.Hyam. Elmsford. pp. Vol. although much reduced from the loss Technique Selection Technique seen with the water-washable system. Published by Perganon Press.. No.Education Resources . Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection. 30. pressure and time are three parameters that are typically Improving Detection controlled in penetrant inspection process specification. Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer In a 1972 paper by N. A coarse spray or an immersion —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity wash tank with air agitation is often used. The temperature range of the water is —Eye's Response to Light usually specified as a wide range (e. Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Nondestructive Testing. It was reported that sensitivity decreased as System Performance Check -. A 38% decrease in sensitivity for the waterMethods & Techniques washable penetrant was seen when the rinse time was increased from 25 to 60 seconds. Brittian concluded that wash time for waterwashable systems should be kept to a minimum.. spray-rinse time increased and that one of the penetrants was more affected by rinse time than the others. Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing. Materials Evaluation.H. Maxwell House..) A low. H.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality. When the spray method is used. Pergamon Press. —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Summary of Research on Wash Method Variables —Why things Fluoresce Vaerman evaluated the effect that rinse time had on one high sensitivity water-washable penetrant and two post-emulsifiable penetrants (one medium and one high sensitivity). level 4 penetrant (Ardrox 970P25) and found that indication brightness decreases rapidly in the first minute of wash and then slows. 24/09/2009 . September 1987. P. a loss in sensitivity was seen in both cases. Assessment of Penetrant Systems by Fluorescent Intensity. 10 to 38oC (50 to 100oF) in AMS 2647A.Penetrant Testing Quality Control of Wash Temperature and Pressure Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History The wash temperature. 2814-2823. pp.g.I. N. New York. Volume 4. pp.Brittain. Vol. 1988.. 4. Warmer water temperatures may also make emulsifiers and detergent more effective. The wash time should only be as long as necessary to decrease the background Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants to an acceptable level. Alburger. Fairview Park. coarse water spray will force less water into flaws to dilute and/or remove Common Uses for PI trapped penetrant and weaken the indication. February 1972.ndt-ed. Preparation When the rinse times of two post-emulsifiable penetrants were increased from 20 to 60 —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear seconds.Principles Steps for Liquid PI pressure. The relative sensitivity loss over the range of crack ApplicationRemoval Penetrant depths was 13% for the penetrant with medium sensitivity.. Brittian evaluated the effect of wash time on a water-washable. Hyam. 31-38. the water pressure is usually limited to 276 kN/m2 (40 psi).. The temperature will have an effect on the Pros and Cons of PI surface tension of the water and warmer water will have more wetting action than cold PT Materials water. Quantitative Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Penetrant Systems. 2814-2823. The brightness value dropped from a relative value of 1100 to approximately 500 in the first minute and then continued to decrease nearly linearly to a value of 200 after five minutes of wash. 2. the effects of the rinse time on the sensitivity of two level Lighting 4 water-washable penetrants were examined. Quantified Evolution of the Sensitivity Versus Process Deviations.NDT Course Material . Frequent visual checks of the part should be made to determine —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity when the part has be adequately rinsed. -. Emulsifiers Developers The evaluation was conducted using TESCO panels with numerous cracks ranging in depth from five to 100 microns deep. points out that some conventional fluorescent dyes are slightly soluble in water and can be leached out during the washing processes.

temperature.What the Eye Can See. 8.. http://www. and using a washing machine that controlled the water pressure. were processed a number of times using the same materials but three different wash methods. 14% for the handheld spray nozzle and 4... J. holding the specimens under a running tap. To find out how much effect the wash procedure had on sensitivity.5% for the machine wash. S. -. spray pattern and wash time. and Schmidt. Materials Evaluation.Robinson. Tesco cracked. The washing methods included spraying the specimens with a handheld nozzle. July 1984.ndt-ed. T. The variation was 16% for the running tap water. chrome-plated panels. 1029-1034. J.QC of Wash Page 2 of 2 the processing steps can produce in the brightness of indications. a Fluorometer Can Measure. 24/09/2009 . No. Fluorescent Penetrant Sensitivity and Removability . Vol. 42. The variation in indication brightness readings between five trials was reported. pp.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality.

.. some penetrants can fade at high temperatures due to dye vaporization or sublimation. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www.Education Resources .NDT Course Material . 24/09/2009 .ndt-ed.Penetrant Testing Quality Control of Drying Process The temperature used to dry parts after the application of an aqueous wet developer or prior to the application of a dry powder or a nonaqueous wet developer.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality. High drying temperature can affect penetrants in a couple of ways. high temperatures can cause the penetrant to dry in the the flaw. must be controlled to prevent "cooking" of the penetrant in the defect.QC of Penetrants Page 1 of 1 Home . preventing it from migrating to the surface to produce an indication. Second. The drying should be limited to the minimum length of time necessary to thoroughly dry the component being inspected. To prevent harming the penetrant material. First. drying temperature should be kept to under 71oC.

It must draw History Improving Detection out of the discontinuity a sufficient amount of penetrant to form an indication. Principles Additionally. Apply a light coat of the developer by immersing the test component or dusting the surface. a developer must adhere to the part surface and result in a uniform. the batch should be discarded.Penetrant Testing Quality Control of Developer Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction The function of the developer is very important in a penetrant inspection. - Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check These developers are applied immediately after the final wash. excessive powder can be removed by gently blowing on the surface with air not exceeding 35 kPa or 5 psi. highly porous layer with many paths for the penetrant to be moved due to capillary action. but the desired end result is always a uniform. highly porous. The concentration of powder in the carrier solution must be controlled in these developers. it should be replaced. and it must —Visual Acuity spread the penetrant out on the surface to produce a visible indication. Developers are either applied wet or dry.ndt-ed. This check is performed by spreading a sample of the developer out and —Metal Smear examining it under UV light. they will be covered individually. It Methods & Techniques should also be relatively free from specks of fluorescent penetrant material from previous Preparation —Cleaning Methods inspection... Care should be taken to avoid a heavy accumulation of the developer solution in crevices and recesses. surface layer. They should never be applied with a brush. The concentration should be Other Considerations checked at least weekly using a hydrometer to make sure it meets the manufacturer's Defect specification. Dry Powder Developer A dry powder developer should be checked daily to ensure that it is fluffy and not caked.Education Resources . the amount of penetrant brought to the surface must exceed the dye's thin film threshold of fluorescence. It should be similar to fresh powdered sugar and not granulated like powdered soap. To check for contamination. 24/09/2009 . flowing or immersing the component.QC of Developer Page 1 of 2 Home . Wet Soluble/Suspendable Developer Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Wet soluble developer must be completely dissolved in the water and wet suspendable developer must be thoroughly mixed prior to application. direct check of the solution is not http://www. After the development time. or the indication will not fluoresce.NDT Course Material . If a scum is present or the solution fluoresces. the solution should be examined weekly using Health Nature & Safety both white light and UV light. Since the quality control requirements for each of the developer types is slightly different. Some specifications require that a clean aluminum panel be dipped in the References developer. Prolonged contact of the component with the developer solution should be avoided in order to minimize dilution or removal of the penetrant from discontinuities. A uniform coating should be applied by spraying. Since the developer solution is in a sealed vessel. and examined for indications of contamination by fluorescent penetrant Quizzes materials. Pros and Cons of PI In order to accomplish these functions. If there are ten or more fluorescent specks in a 10 cm Technique Selection Application Technique diameter area. dried. Solvent Suspendable (AKA Nonaqueous Wet) Solvent suspendable developers are typically supplied in an sealed aerosol spray can.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality. In a fluorescent —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light penetrant inspection. the developer makes fluorescent indications appear brighter than Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI indications produced with the same amount of dye but without the developer.

.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality. the can should be discarded. When using a fluorescent penetrant system. However. 24/09/2009 . the developer coating must be thick enough to provide a white contrasting background but not heavy enough to mask indications. even coating on the surface of the part. http://www. If the spray produces spatters or an uneven coating. Make sure the can is well shaken and apply a thin coating to a test article. When applying a solvent suspendable developer.QC of Developer Page 2 of 2 possible. with a visible penetrant system. The spray developer should produce a fine. The developer should be applied under white light and should appear evenly transparent.. the way that the developer is dispensed must be monitored. a very light coating should be used.ndt-ed. it is up to the inspector to control the thickness of the coating. Development Time Parts should be allowed to develop for a minimum of 10 minutes and no more than 2 hours before inspecting.

ndt-ed. Visible light of wavelengths above 410nm interferes with contrast. the lighting requirements are different for an inspection conducted using a visible dye penetrant than they are for an inspection conducted using a fluorescent dye penetrant. but avoid excessive reflected light Quality & Process Control Temperature that could distract from the inspection. the focus here will be on inspections performed visually by a human inspector. the normally accepted intensity is 1000 microwatt per square centimeter when measured at 15 inches from the filter face Quizzes - http://www. The light intensity is Selecting Developer required to be 100 foot-candles at the surface being inspected. Since fluorescent brightness is linear with respect to ultraviolet excitation. When using Methods & Techniques natural lighting.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality.QC of Lighting Page 1 of 2 Home . the use Technique Selection of artificial lighting is recommended.. 24/09/2009 . To improve uniformity in lighting from one inspection to the next.. Proper lighting is of great importance when visually inspecting a surface for a penetrant indication. as this is the dominant method. it is ready for inspection.NDT Course Material . While automated vision inspection systems are sometimes used. it is important to keep in mind that daylight varies from hour to hour.Education Resources . The lamps emit many wavelengths and a filter is used to remove all but the Health Nature & Safety UV and a small amount of visible light between 310 and 410nm. Obviously. Inspections can be conducted using natural lighting or artificial lighting. the ultraviolet (UV) illumination and the visible light inside the inspection booth is important. It is advisable to choose a white light wattage that will provide sufficient light. The cleanliness of the filter should also be checked as a coating of solvent carrier. and UV emissions below 310nm References include some hazardous wavelengths. Standards and procedures require verification of lens condition and light intensity. so Preparation inspectors must stay constantly aware of the lighting conditions and make adjustments —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear when needed. Black lights should never be used with a cracked filter as output of white light and harmful black light will be increased. oils. a change in the intensity of the light (from age or damage) and a change in the distance of the light source from the surface being inspected will have a direct impact on the inspection. Lighting for Visible Dye Penetrant Inspections Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers When using a visible penetrant. Penetrant dyes are excited by UV light of 365nm wavelength and emit visible light somewhere in the green-yellow range between 520 and 580nm. Artificial lighting should be white whenever Application Technique Penetrant Removal possible and white flood or halogen lamps are most commonly used. The lighting requirements for each of these techniques.Penetrant Testing Quality Control of Lighting After a component has been properly processed. the intensity of the white light is of principal importance. Lighting for Fluorescent Penetrant Inspections Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check When a fluorescent penetrant is being employed. or other foreign materials can reduce the intensity by up to as much as 50%. are discussed below. The filter should be checked visually and cleaned as necessary before warm-up of the light. The source of ultraviolet light is often a mercury arc lamp Other Considerations Defect with a filter. as well as how light measurements are made. For UV lights used in component evaluations.

while others require a separate sensor for each measurement. Ultraviolet light measurements should be taken using a fixture to maintain a minimum distance of 15 inches from the filter face to the sensor. http://www. In fact. When performing a fluorescent penetrant inspection. if a change in intensity is noticed.. most UV light must be warmed up prior to use and should be on for at least 15 minutes before beginning an inspection. Black light intensity will also be affected by voltage variations. When checking black light intensity at 15 inches a reading of the white light produced by the black light may be required to verify white light is being removed by the filter. or every eight hours of continuous use. The required check should be performed when a new bulb is installed.5 fc at the inspection surface. For this reason it is important to provide constant voltage to the light. This current is linear with respect to incident light. When an external circuit is connected to the cell. Light striking a silicon photodiode detector causes a charge to build up between internal layers. The sensor should be centered in the light field to obtain and record the highest reading.ndt-ed. Also. Some radiometers have the ability to measure both black and white light. Therefore. A bulb that produces acceptable intensity at 120 volts will produce significantly less at 110 volts. A radiometer is an instrument that translate light energy into an electrical current. they should be calibrated at least every six months. a bulb that is near the end of its operating life will often have an intensity of only 25% of its original output. the sensing area should be clean and free of any materials that could reduce or obstruct light reaching the sensor. Procedures require a check and documentation of ambient white light in the inspection area.. Light levels of less than 2 fc are required by most procedures with some procedures requiring less than 0. 24/09/2009 . will often produce in excess of the 100 fc at 15 inches. an electrical current is produced. Whichever type is used. White lights are seldom focused and depending on the wattage. Many specifications do not require the white light intensity check to be conducted at a specific distance. Light Measurement Light intensity measurements are made using a radiometer. Regularly checking the intensity of UV lights is very important because bulbs lose intensity over time. UV spot lights are often focused. it is important to keep white light to a minimum as it will significantly reduce the inspectors ability to detect fluorescent indications. so intensity readings will vary considerable over a small area. Radiometers are relatively unstable instruments and readings often change considerable over time.QC of Lighting Page 2 of 2 (requirements can vary from 800 to 1200 µW/cm2). at startup of the inspection cycle.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality.

The most commonly used test specimen is the TAM or PSM panel. The chrome plated section is impacted from the back side to produce a starburst set of cracks in the chrome. therefore. Some specification delineate the type and size of the defects that must be present in the specimen and detected. These panel are usually made of stainless steel that has been chrome plated on one half and surfaced finished on the other half to produced the desired roughness.System Performance Check Page 1 of 1 Home ..NDT Course Material . As with penetrant inspections in general. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers The ideal specimen is a production item that has natural defects of the minimum acceptable size.. Care of system performance check specimens is critical. Before processing a specimen. The specimen must be processed following the same procedure used to process production parts. Specimens should be handled carefully to avoid damage. Application Technique There are some universal test specimens that can be used if a standard part is not available. each operator should process a panel. Surface finish is will affect Methods & Techniques washability so the check specimen should have Preparation the same surface finish as the production parts being processed. A system performance check is typically required daily. or any time the system is suspected of being out of control.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quality. Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. Panel patterns as well as brightness are indicators of process consistency or variance. 24/09/2009 .Education Resources . results are directly dependent on the skill of the operator and. it should be inspected under UV light to make sure that it is clean and not already producing an indication. They should be cleaned thoroughly between uses and storage in a solvent is generally recommended. there should be a separate specimen for each Technique Selection system.Penetrant Testing System Performance Check System performance checks involve processing a test specimen with known defects to determine if the process will reveal discontinuities of the size required.ndt-ed. at the reactivation of a system after maintenance or repairs. There are five impacted areas to produce range of crack sizes. If penetrant systems with —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear different sensitivity levels are being used. Each panel has a characteristic “signature” and variances in that signature are indications of process variance.

NDT Course Material . The flaw must be of sufficient volume so that enough penetrant will bleed back Pros and Cons of PI out to a size that is detectable by the eye or that will satisfy the dimensional thresholds of PT Materials fluorescence..Education Resources . One research effort found that elliptical flaw with length to width ratio of 100. - In general.Penetrant Testing Nature of the Defect Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History The nature of the defect can have a large affect on sensitivity of a liquid penetrant Improving Detection inspection.ndt-ed. the crack length alone does not determine whether a flaw will be Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI seen or go undetected. flaws with a narrow opening at the surface than wide open flaws. round defects fill with penetrant faster than linear defects. However. A survey of any probability-of-detection curve for penetrant inspection —Eye's Response to Light will quickly lead one to the conclusion that crack length has a definite affect on Principles sensitivity. Please note References that this curve is specific to one set of inspection conditions and should not be interpreted Quizzes to apply to other inspection situations. they are typically volumetric defects that can trap significant amounts of penetrant. and they are less prone to over washing. Sensitivity is defined as the smallest defect that can be detected with a high —Visual Acuity degree of reliability. Second. Deeper flaws will trap more penetrant than shallow flaws. The volume of the defect is likely to be the more important feature.Nature of the Defect Page 1 of 2 Home . First. will take the penetrant nearly 10 times longer to fill than a cylindrical flaw with the same volume. 24/09/2009 . Small round defects are generally easier to detect for several reasons. penetrant inspections are more effective at finding small round defects than small linear defects.. Flaws with http://www. Typically. Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability —Why things Fluoresce Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety Above is an example of fluorescent penetrant inspection probability of detection (POD) curve from the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book. the crack length at the sample surface is used to define —Contrast Sensitivity size of the defect.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Inspect. deeper flaws than shallow flaws.

W. No. http://www. November 1985. 4. and Bond.. the penetrant spreads faster over a surface as the surface roughness increases. The surface roughness that the fracture faces is a factor in the speed at which a penetrant enters a defect. Deutsch. The surface roughness of the part primarily affects the removability of a penetrant. flaws with rough fracture surfaces than smooth fracture surfaces. 1963 Lester Honor Lecture. Butterworth Scientific Limited. The Effect of Crack Closure on the Reliability of NDT Predictions of Crack Size. flaws on smooth surfaces than on rough surfaces. pp. No. Elsevier Science Publishing. pp. In general. Vaerman. Amsterdam. and Sillanpaa. 5. Amsterdam. A. the crack length steadily decreased as load increased until a load was reached when the crack was no longer detectable. Part I. pp. pp. Clark. Volume III. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing. 21. United Kingdom.E. Kauppinen. May 1996. 287-291. Nov. Removing the penetrant from the surface of the part is more difficult and a higher level of background fluorescence or over washing may occur. 23. Proceedings of 11th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing.. pp. the effect of crack closure on detectability was evaluated. P. and Matzkanin. Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Process. 1723-1728. as compressive loads were placed on the parts. J. J. R.ndt-ed.. 84. scratches. Published by the Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center (NTIAC). July-August 1979. Rough surfaces tend to trap more penetrant in the various tool marks. Reliability of Surface Inspection Methods. No. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book. Guildford. Instrument Society of America. Netherlands. 20. Dover. 24/09/2009 . Alburger. Automatic Method for Sensitivity Quantification. Vol. Vol. L. F. Dimensional Transition Effects in Visible Color and Fluorescent Dye Liquids. 269-275. 23rd Annual Conference. NV.D.D. 564. 6. Thomas. References: Rummel. NTIAC #DB-95-02.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Inspect. G. Paper No.-Dec.. W. 2. 1920-1927. J. All cracks were detected with no load and with tensile loads placed on the parts.R. Preliminary Study of the Fluid Mechanics of Liquid Penetrant Testing. A. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards. Vol. Vol. Vol... Proceedings. However.. Las Vegas.Nature of the Defect Page 2 of 2 narrow surface openings are less prone to over washing. flaws under tensile or no loading than flaws under compression loading..J. In a 1987 study at the University College London. NDT International. 1989. October 1987. Researchers used a four-point bend fixture to place tension and compression loads on specimens that were fabricated to contain fatigue cracks.. W.. 1963. S. An Analytic Approach to Penetrant Performance. It should be noted that a particular penetrant may spread slower than others on a smooth surface but faster than the rest on a rougher surface. and pits that make up the surface. Nondestructive Testing. 354-368.

org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Inspect.. laboratory devices. The greatest threat with UV light exposure is that the individual is generally unaware that the damage is occurring.Penetrant Testing Health and Safety Precautions in Liquid Penetrant Inspection When proper health and safety precautions are followed. 24/09/2009 . However.Education Resources . Excessive UV light exposure can cause painful sunburn. Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Because of their close proximity. therefore. only a few of the most common concerns will be discussed here. Ultraviolet Light Safety Ultraviolet (UV) light or "black light" as it is sometimes called. too much exposure can be harmful to the skin and eyes. certain precautions must be taken as directed by the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for the chemicals.Health & Safety Page 1 of 1 Home .NDT Course Material . there are a number of health and safety related issues that must be addressed. Eye protection should always be worn to prevent contact of the chemicals with the eyes. These wavelengths place UV light in the invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. Some of the penetrant materials are flammable and.ndt-ed. However. cataracts. therefore. can cause injury much more quickly. The most familiar source of UV radiation is the the sun and is necessary in small doses for certain chemical processes to occur in the body. should be used and stored in small quantities. The lamps produce radiation at the harmful wavelengths so it is essential that they be used with the proper filter in place and in good Quizzes condition.. UV lamps sold for use in LPI application are almost always filtered References to remove the harmful UV wavelengths. Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer a Lighting System Performance Check http://www. They should only be used in a well ventilated area and ignition sources avoided. deliver UV light at much higher intensity than the sun and. Therefore. Gloves and other protective clothing should be worn to limit contact with the chemicals. UV light can cause eye inflammation. where penetrants are designed to fluoresce. Since each inspection operation will have its own unique set of health and safety concerns that must be addressed. like UV lamps. There is usually no pain associated with the injury until several Other Considerations Defect Nature hours after the exposure. liquid penetrant inspection operations can be completed without harm to inspection personnel. Before working with a chemical of any kind. Many of the chemicals used contain detergents and solvents that can dermatitis. and retinal damage. Skin and eye damage occurs at wavelengths around 320 nm and Health & Safety shorter which is well below the 365 nm wavelength. accelerate wrinkling and increase the risk of skin cancer. it is highly recommended that the MSDS be reviewed so that proper chemical safety and hygiene practices can be followed. Chemical Safety Whenever chemicals must be handled. has wavelengths ranging from 180 to 400 nanometers.

Penetrant Testing References and Resources Cartz. A. OH. Metals Park. DC. ISBN 1-57117-028-6 Larson. Moore.NDT Course Material . Nondestructive Testing Handbook. Nauka i Tekhnika Publishing. Louis. 1988 Liquid Penetrant Testing.References Page 1 of 1 Home .0 meg) Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. Nondestructive Testing.. Jan 2002 (pdf 1.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Inspect..Education Resources .. Study of the Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Liquid Penetrant Inspections: Review of Literature Published from 1970 to 1998. Volume 2.ndt-ed. Patrick (Ed. Columbus. Borovikov. 1999. FAA Technical Report Number DOT/FAA/AR-01/95. Minsk. Washington. Noel (Tech. 24/09/2009 . Tracy. ISBN: 0871705176 Introduction to Capillary Testing Theory.S.F. OH. Ed. (Ed.).). B. ASM Intl. Office of Aviation Research.) American Society for Nondestructive Testing. 1995.

a new set of random questions will be produced from the database.. The Collaboration for NDE Education does not record the names of individuals taking a quiz or the results of a quiz. 20 Question PT Quiz 35 Question PT Quiz 50 Question PT Quiz Introduction to Penetrant Testing Introduction History Improving Detection —Visual Acuity —Contrast Sensitivity —Eye's Response to Light Principles Steps for Liquid PI Common Uses for PI Pros and Cons of PI PT Materials Penetrant Testing Matl's Penetrants —Surface Energy —Specific Gravity —Viscosity —Color and Fluorescence —Why things Fluoresce —Dimensional Threshold —Stability of Penetrants —Removability Emulsifiers Developers Methods & Techniques Preparation —Cleaning Methods —Metal Smear Technique Selection Application Technique Penetrant Removal Selecting Developer Quality & Process Control Temperature Penetrant Dwell Emulsifier Wash Drying Developer Lighting System Performance Check Other Considerations Defect Nature Health & Safety References Quizzes - http://www. 24/09/2009 ..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/P.Education Resources .NDT Course Material .Penetrant Quizzes Page 1 of 1 Home . Each time a quiz is opened.ndt-ed.Penetrant Testing Penetrant Inspection Quizzes These quizzes draw from the same database of questions and differ only in the number of questions presented.

ndt-ed.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 20 Question Quiz Page 1 of 4 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 20 Question Quiz ~ First name ~ ~ Last name ~ 1 Which level of penetrant is the most sensitive? Level I Level II Level III Level IV Developer times are usually in the range of: 10 minutes 10 seconds 20-30 minutes 5-60 minutes The pentrants that are used to detect the smallest defects: Should only be used on aerospace parts Will also produce the largest amount of irrelevant indications Can only be used on small parts less than 10 inches in surface area Should not be used in the field Which type of penetrant is less vulnerable to contamination from cleaning fluid? Type I Type II Type III Type IV 2 3 4 5 Generally. there is no harm in using a longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant: Is not allowed to dry Stays viscous Does not form clumps on the surface of the part Is mixed with emulsifier Which method of penetrant removal is solvent removable? http://www..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.. 24/09/2009 .

24/09/2009 .ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt..Liquid Penetrant Inspection 20 Question Quiz Page 2 of 4 6 Method A Method B Method C Method D Dye vaporization or sublimation can result in: Penetrant fading Developer fading Emulsifier sensitivity Emulsifier fading Which emulsifier system is oil based? Hydrophilic emulsifier Lipophilic emulsifier Solvent removable emulsifier All of the above have an oil base Which of the following should be removed in order to obtain a good penetrant test? Varnish Oxides Plating All of the above 7 8 9 10 Which developer form is used for water soluble developer? Form a Form b Form c Form d Which type of penetrant is a fluorescent penetrant? Type I Type II Type III Type IV Which type of penetrant is most sensitive? Type I Type II Type III Type IV 11 12 http://www..

.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.. 24/09/2009 .Liquid Penetrant Inspection 20 Question Quiz Page 3 of 4 13 When solvent removable penetant is used: Care must be taken when removing the penetrant from the surface of the part It should be washed off the surface of the part at an angle of 45 degrees A low impact emulsifier should always be used A solvent removable emulsifier should also be used The performance of a penetrant: Will remain consistent as long is it is stored in a temperature range of 50 to 100o F Will only degrade of the temperature exceeds 120o F Can be affected by contamination and aging Can be adjusted with the dwell time Most specifications limit water contamination to around: 1 percent 2 percent 5 percent 10 percent White light intensity at the surface of the part when using fluorescent penetrant should be: A minimum of 100 foot-candles A maximum of 100 foot-candles A minimum of 50 foot-candles A maximum of 2 foot-candles 14 15 16 17 Wet developers are applied: After the part has been dryed Immediately after the excess penetrant has been removed from the parts surface After the emulsifer dwell time After the part has been dipped in cleaner/remover Minimum penetrant dwell times are usually: 1-5 minutes 1-30 minutes 5-60 minutes 60-100 minutes Which method of penetrant removal is water washable? 18 http://www.

.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.ndt-ed.. http://www..Liquid Penetrant Inspection 20 Question Quiz Page 4 of 4 19 Method A Method B Method C Method D When a permanent record is required which type of developer can be used: Lacquer developer Nonaqueous developer Layered developer Peeling developer 20 Copyright The Collaboration for NDT Education. 24/09/2009 .

org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt. there is no harm in using a longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant: Is not allowed to dry Stays viscous Does not form clumps on the surface of the part Is mixed with emulsifier 2 Once the surface of the part has been cleaned properly.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz Page 1 of 6 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz ~ First name ~ ~ Last name ~ 1 Generally..ndt-ed. water and other contaminants All of the above 5 What is the optimal temperature of penetrant materials and the part under inspection in order to obtain the best results? 50 to 80o F 80 to 120o F 35 to 100o F http://www. 24/09/2009 .03 inches 0.003 inches 0. penetrant can be applied by: Spraying Brushing Dipping All of the above 3 The threshold of visual acuity for a person with 20/20 vision is about: 0.3cm 4 When performing a liquid penetrant test.03 mm 0.. grease. the surface of the part under inspection should be: Slightly damp Clean and smooth to the touch Free of oil.

. 24/09/2009 ..ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz Page 2 of 6 80 to 100o F 6 A good cleaning procedure will: Remove all contamination from the part and not leave any reside that may interfere with the inspection process Remove a small amount of metal from the surface of the part Should leave the part slightly flourescent in order to identify any discontinuities Should etch the part slightly only if it is made from 4041 aluminum Most specifications limit water contamination to around: 1 percent 2 percent 5 percent 10 percent LPI can be used to test most materials provided the surface of the part is: Heated to a temperature above 100o F Is not extremely rough or porous Smooth and uniform Cleaned with number 005 grit 7 8 9 The source of ultraviolet light (UV) if often a: Mercury arc lamp with filter Wave shift arc lamp UV lamp with filter Filter over a minimum 100 watt light bulb The total time the penetrant is in contact with the part surface is called the: Penetrant dwell time Developer time Emulsifier time Penetrant evaporation time 10 11 Which method is used to primarily to inspect small localized areas? Method A Method B Method C Method D http://www.

24/09/2009 . a course water spray should be directed at an angle of: 20 degrees 45 degrees 90 degrees It does not matter what angle the spray is applied 13 14 The water content of water washable penetrant:s: Should be performed daily Should be performed weekly Should be performed monthly Must be checked regularly The pentrants that are used to detect the smallest defects: Should only be used on aerospace parts Will also produce the largest amount of irrelevant indications Can only be used on small parts less than 10 inches in surface area Should not be used in the field Wet developers are applied: After the part has been dryed Immediately after the excess penetrant has been removed from the parts surface After the emulsifer dwell time After the part has been dipped in cleaner/remover Which type of penetrant is a fluorescent penetrant? Type I Type II Type III Type IV Which method of penetrant removal is water washable? Method A Method B Method C 15 16 17 18 http://www.ndt-ed.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz Page 3 of 6 12 Which level of penetrant is the most sensitive? Level I Level II Level III Level IV When the excess penetrant is removed from the surface of the part..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt..

org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz Page 4 of 6 Method D 19 Which type of penetrant is most sensitive? Type I Type II Type III Type IV Which type of penetrant is less vulnerable to contamination from cleaning fluid? Type I Type II Type III Type IV 20 21 Which emulsifier system is water based? Hydrophilic emulsifier Lipophilic emulsifier Type I emulsifier Form A emulsifier Nonaqeous developer is typically applied: By dusting the surface of the part By dipping the part is a mixed batch of developer By splashing the surface with a brush By aerosol spraying Which method of penetrant removal is solvent removable? Method A Method B Method C Method D A penetrant must: Change viscosity in order to spread over the surface of the part Spread easily over the surface of the material Have a low flash point Be able to change color in order to fluoresce Which emulsifier system is oil based? Hydrophilic emulsifier Lipophilic emulsifier 22 23 24 25 http://www. 24/09/2009 .ndt-ed...

Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz Page 5 of 6 Solvent removable emulsifier All of the above have an oil base 26 Application of the emulsifier should not be performed with a: Spray Brush Dip Both A and B Which of the following is a disadvantage of LPI? Only surface breaking flaws can be detected Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity Post cleaning is required All of the above Which developer form is used for dry powder developer? Form a Form b Form c Form d When fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt. the brighness comparison is performed to: ASTM 410 API 410 ASNT TC-1A ASTM E 1417 31 http://www..ndt-ed. 24/09/2009 . the penetrant materials are formulated to glow brightly and to give off light at a wavelength: Close to infrared light Close to the wavelength of x-rays That the eye is most sensitive to under dim lighting conditions In the red spectrum 27 28 29 30 Developer times are usually in the range of: 10 minutes 10 seconds 20-30 minutes 5-60 minutes When using a fluorescent penetrant..

. 24/09/2009 .Liquid Penetrant Inspection 35 Question Quiz Page 6 of 6 32 Water based.. water washable penetrant are checked with a: Centrifuge Refractometer Centrifuge scope Crack block When removing excess penetrant with water.ndt-ed. the wash time should be: As long as the specifications allow Based on the temperature of the part As long as necessary to decrease the background to an acceptable level Longer if the water temperature increases 33 34 Which method of penetrant removal is post emulsified. http://www..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt. lipophilic? Method A Method B Method C Method D Which developer form is used for nonaqueous Type I developer? Form a Form b Form c Form d 35 Copyright The Collaboration for NDT Education.

. sanded or grit blasted: The part may also require etching It can be immersed in penetrant for its entire dwell time It will require a shorter dwell time It will need to be heated in order to open any cracks that have been 5 http://www.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 1 of 9 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz ~ First name ~ ~ Last name ~ 1 Generally. the penetrant materials are formulated to glow brightly and to give off light at a wavelength: Close to infrared light Close to the wavelength of x-rays That the eye is most sensitive to under dim lighting conditions In the red spectrum 3 White light intensity at the surface of the part when using a visible dye penetrant should be: A minimum of 50 foot-candles A maximum of 50 foot-candles A maximum of 100 foot-candles A minimum of 100 foot-candles 4 Which developer form is used for water suspendible developer? Form a Form b Form c Form d If the surface of the part has been machined.ndt-ed. 24/09/2009 ..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt. there is no harm in using a longer penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant: Is not allowed to dry Stays viscous Does not form clumps on the surface of the part Is mixed with emulsifier 2 When fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed.

.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.ndt-ed.. 24/09/2009 .Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 2 of 9 peened over 6 Raising the temperature will: Raise the speed of evaporation of penetrants Reduce the emulsifier time Increase the developer time Require the need of a post emulsified penetrant Penetrant can be applied by: Dipping Brushing Spraying All of the above Wet developers are applied: After the part has been dryed Immediately after the excess penetrant has been removed from the parts surface After the emulsifer dwell time After the part has been dipped in cleaner/remover LPI can be used to test most materials provided the surface of the part is: Heated to a temperature above 100o F Is not extremely rough or porous Smooth and uniform Cleaned with number 005 grit 7 8 9 10 Large defects can be hidden under a paint surface because: The paint will fill in the cracks and change the fluorescence of the penetrant Paint is more elastic than metal and will not fracture The penetrant will adhere to the paint resulting in maximum fluorescence All of the above apply Dry developer can be applied: To a wet part To a partially wet part but needs to be placed in a dryer immediately To a dry part All of the above 11 http://www.

org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.ndt-ed.. lipophilic? Method A Method B Method C Method D The source of ultraviolet light (UV) if often a: Mercury arc lamp with filter 16 17 18 http://www.3cm 14 When removing excess penetrant with water. the wash time should be: As long as the specifications allow Based on the temperature of the part As long as necessary to decrease the background to an acceptable level Longer if the water temperature increases 15 Minimum penetrant dwell times are usually: 1-5 minutes 1-30 minutes 5-60 minutes 60-100 minutes Which developer form is used for water soluble developer? Form a Form b Form c Form d Which method of penetrant removal is post emulsified.03 mm 0.003 inches 0.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 3 of 9 12 When a permanent record is required which type of developer can be used: Lacquer developer Nonaqueous developer Layered developer Peeling developer 13 The threshold of visual acuity for a person with 20/20 vision is about: 0..03 inches 0. 24/09/2009 .

24/09/2009 ...ndt-ed.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 4 of 9 Wave shift arc lamp UV lamp with filter Filter over a minimum 100 watt light bulb 19 How often should the UV light intensity be performed? When a new bulb is installed At startup of inspection cycle Every 8 hours All of the above Contamination of the penetrant: Will only take place if the part has not been cleaned Will occur because of the crossover between the penetrant and developer Will occur if the tank is not covered during the dwell time Will change the surface tension and contact angle Which developer form is used for dry powder developer? Form a Form b Form c Form d Which level of penetrant is the most sensitive? Level I Level II Level III Level IV Which of the following will produce higher sensitivity of a penetrant test? Leaving the part immersed in the penetrant for the entire dwell time Leaving the part immersed in the wet developer for the entire developer time Using a nonaqueous wet developer Allowing the specimen to drain-dwell during its dwell time 20 21 22 23 24 A penetrant must: Change viscosity in order to spread over the surface of the part Spread easily over the surface of the material Have a low flash point Be able to change color in order to fluoresce http://www.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.

. the brighness comparison is performed to: ASTM 410 API 410 ASNT TC-1A 29 30 31 http://www.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 5 of 9 25 Surface contaminants can lead to: A shift in the fluorescent wavelength to a lower angstrom level The part needing to be redipped in order to produce good results Higher background fluorescence All of the above Application of the emulsifier should not be performed with a: Spray Brush Dip Both A and B When the excess penetrant is removed from the surface of the part. water washable penetrant are checked with a: Centrifuge Refractometer Centrifuge scope Crack block When using a fluorescent penetrant. 24/09/2009 .ndt-ed. a course water spray should be directed at an angle of: 20 degrees 45 degrees 90 degrees It does not matter what angle the spray is applied 26 27 28 POD stands for: Product of discontinuities Probability of defects Probability of detection Personnel over distributor Which emulsifier system is water based? Hydrophilic emulsifier Lipophilic emulsifier Type I emulsifier Form A emulsifier Water based.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt..

24/09/2009 . honing..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 6 of 9 ASTM E 1417 32 A good cleaning procedure will: Remove all contamination from the part and not leave any reside that may interfere with the inspection process Remove a small amount of metal from the surface of the part Should leave the part slightly flourescent in order to identify any discontinuities Should etch the part slightly only if it is made from 4041 aluminum Post emulsified penetrants: Are most often used in the field Should never be used in the field Require a separate emulsifier to break the penetrant down and make it water washable Require a separate emulsifier to break down the cleaner and make it solvent removable Dye vaporization or sublimation can result in: Penetrant fading Developer fading Emulsifier sensitivity Emulsifier fading Which of the following should be removed in order to obtain a good penetrant test? Varnish Oxides Plating All of the above 33 34 35 36 The advantage that liquid penetrant testing has over an unaided visual inspection is that: The actual size of the discontinuity can be measured The depth of the defect can be measured The cause of the impact can be seen It makes defects easier to see for the inspector 37 It is well recognized that machining.ndt-ed. lapping and hand sanding will result: In a better penetrant inspection In a longer dwell time in order to produce adequate penetration of the penetrant http://www..

24/09/2009 .org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 7 of 9 Longer dwell times Metal smearing 38 Developers come in a variety of forms and can be applied by: Dusting Dipping Spraying All of the above Which method is used to primarily to inspect small localized areas? Method A Method B Method C Method D Water suspendible developers consist of a group of chemicals that are: Saturated in water and experience a chemical shift allowing it to fluoresce on the parts surface Only used on rough porous surfaces Dissolved in water Insoluble in water but can be suspended in the water after mixing or agitation 39 40 41 Light intensity measurements are made using a: Refractometer Radiometer Pie gauge UV meter The total time that the penetrant is in contact with the part surface is called the: Soak time Baking time Dwell time Immersion time 42 43 Which developer is commonly considered as the least sensitive? Dry developer Non-aqueous wet developer Hydrophilic developer Lipophilic developer http://www..ndt-ed..

ndt-ed.Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 8 of 9 44 Which method of penetrant removal is water washable? Method A Method B Method C Method D White light intensity at the surface of the part when using fluorescent penetrant should be: A minimum of 100 foot-candles A maximum of 100 foot-candles A minimum of 50 foot-candles A maximum of 2 foot-candles 45 46 Once the surface of the part has been cleaned properly.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt... solvent removable Fluorescent. penetrant can be applied by: Spraying Brushing Dipping All of the above 47 Which penetrant method is easiest to use in the field? Fluorescent. hydrophilic? Method A Method B Method C Method D 48 49 50 The total time the penetrant is in contact with the part surface is called the: Penetrant dwell time http://www. post-emulsifiable Visible dye. water washable Which method of penetrant removal is solvent removable? Method A Method B Method C Method D Which method of penetrant removal is post emulsified. water washable Visible dye. 24/09/2009 .

Liquid Penetrant Inspection 50 Question Quiz Page 9 of 9 Developer time Emulsifier time Penetrant evaporation time Copyright The Collaboration for NDT Education.ndt-ed..org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/Quiz/pt.. http://www. 24/09/2009 ..

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