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;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk

b/ye
rzvk f;zx

gpbhe/FB fpT{o'
gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk
gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk

SARDAR SHAM SINGH ATTARIWALA (PUNJABI)


by
Ganda Singh

1990
gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh ;z;eoD L 1100
w[Zb L- 30 o[gJ/

;odko shoE f;zx n?w J/, n?b n?b n?w, ofi;Nqko, gzikph
:{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk tb'I gqekfFs ns/ :?;w?B fgqNz o}, gfNnkbk
d[nkok w[fdqs .
1

ykBdkB
j'o d{;o/ f;ZX{ ik f;ZX-{ pokV iZNK1 tKC nNkohtkb/ ;odko Gh nkgDk
fgZSk i?;bw/o d/ w'Yh i?;b GZNh-okig{s Bkb ik w/bd/ jB . ir wZb dk
g[Zsq Xok fJ; ]kBdkB dk gfjbk pzdk ;h i' okig{skfBUI T[Am e/ gzikp B{z
nkfJnk ns/ ;zB 1580 Jh;th d/ eohp wkbt/ ftZu c{b wfjoki nk e/
nkpkd j'fJnk . fJj nkgD/ ;w/I dk fJe uzrk okrh ;h ns/ okr-ftZfdnk
d/ ikd{ jkb sZe Gh T[; B{z pV/ ;fseko Bkb :kd eod/ jB .2
;zB 1735 d/ eohp fJ; ykBdkB ftZu fJe tkoh fjZb i[b j'Jh s/
fJBQK ftZu'I e[M c{b wfjoki fgzv s'I T[m e/ b[fXnkD/ d/ f}b/ nbkek
irokUI ftZu fJzdrVQ (ekUIe/) nk t;/ . fJ; ]kBdkb d/ fJ; t/b/ d/
fJfsjk; ;pzXh e[m gsk BjhI ubdk . f;oca fJsbk jh gsk bZrdk j? fe
ekUIe/ d/ u"Xoh ekBQ uzd d/ d' g[Zsq r"jo s/ e"o uzr/ okm fBeb/ s/ nkgDh
fe;ws niwkT[D bJh gzMh e[ ;tko b?e/ wkM/ tZb nkJ/ . fJZE/ fJBQK B/
nNkoh s'I uVQd/ tZb nZX e[ whb dh ftZX s/ nk w'VQh rZvh s/ Bt/I fgzv dk
BkUI nkgD/ fgSb/ fgzv d/ BkUI T[As/ ekUIe/ oZfynk . fJj fgzv jkb sZe T[E/
nkpkd j? .3

1. "Sidhu, with its branch the Barar, or Sidhu-Barar, is the largest and
most important of the Jat tribes of the Punjab, for from it have sprung
the great Phulkian families of Patiala, Nabha and Jind and the Brar
family of FAridkot. the Sidhu trace their origin to Jaisal, a Bhatti Rajput
and founder of Jaisalmer... The pure Bhatti Rajputs of Bhattiana still
admit their relationship with the Sidhu and Barar." Rose, H.A. - A
Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and N.W.F.P., iii 421
2. ;:Zd jkd j;B s/ ;:Zd oip nbh, oJh;kfB gzikp, 60-1l b?gb frqfcB,
gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd 1, 238
3. jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp, 61l gzikp uhca;, (1890), 238 .
gzE gqekF ftZu fbfynk j? fe r'o/ B/ ;zws 1794 B{z Xb/FNk d/ bkr/ fJe fgzv
t;kfJnk s/ T[; dk Bkw r'og[ok ofynk . gzE gqekF, d{ih n?vhFB, 835.
fJj fdB ]kb;/ bJh pV/ fpyV/ ;B . ;?c[Zd"bk Btkp npd[b
;wZd Bk fdb/fo-izr dk g[Zsq }eohnk ykB i' fJfsjk; ftZu ª]kB
pjkdo« eoe/ gqf;ZX j? bkj"o dk ;{p/dko ;h . f;zxK dh esb-nkw sK
fJ; d/ fgT[ d/ }wkB/ s'I jh fJe Fkjh caowkB Bkb ikoh j' u[Zeh j'Jh ;h
id fJj j[ew j' frnk ;h fe fiZE/ feXo/ Gh e'Jh f;Zy fwb/ fpBk g[ZS
gqshs d/ esb eo fdZsk ikt/ .1 fJ; wsbp bJh bkj"o s'I ]kB pjkdo
dhnK rFsh c"iK fBebdhnK s/ f;ZyK B{z N'b Gkb ftZu fgzv' fgzv
fcodhnK . fiZE/ feXo/ f;zxK B{z gsk brdk T[E/ ik Skgk wkodhnK s/
T[BQK B{z cV e/ bkj"o gj[zuk fdzdhnK . fJBQK rFsh d;fsnK B/ wkM/ s/
fonkVeh dk ;kok fJbkek rkj wkfonk . eJh tkoh dPkp/ s/ BZe/ d/
T[gob/ fjZf;nK sZe Gh fJj ik g[Zid/ . fJ; soQK j}koK dh frDsh ftZu
f;zx geVh: geVh: e/ bkj"o g[Zid/ ofjzd/ . fiZE/ T[jfdZbh dotki/ d/
uVQdh tZb pk}ko Byk; ftZu bzv/ pk}ko dh EK s/ Fjhd eo fdZs/ iKd/
. eJhnK B{z sbtko Bkb esb ehsk, eJhnk B{z uoyVhnK s/ ukVQe/
T[BKQ dhnK jZvhnK eVek fdZshnK, eJhnK B{z w{r z bhnK Bkb e[Ntk e/
wotk fdZsk ns/ eJhnK B{z j'o eJh gqeko d/ s;hj/ d/ e/ wko w[ekfJnk
. T[BQK d/ f;o d/ w[Bko/ u[D/ iKd/ ;B s/ p/-f;o XV esb-rkj ftZu
dptk fdZs/ ikd/ . fJ;/ n;EkB s/ jh fJBQK FjhdK dh :kd ftZu bkj"o
dk Fjhd-rzi j? .2 fJj i[bw e/tb f;zxK T[s/ jh BjhI ;B j[zd/ . who
wzB{ d/ t/b/ sK f;zxDhnK B{z gh n;fj s/ nefj eFN fdZs/ rJ/ id fe
T[BQK d/ d[ZX u[zxd/ pZfunK d/ N'N/ N'N/ eo e/ T[BQK dhnK M'bhnK ftZu gkJ/
rJ/, T[BQK B{z G[Zy/ GkD/ jo o'} ;tk ;tk wD dkD/ ghjD B{z fdZs/ iKd/ ;B
ns/ T[BQK B{z yzBh yzBh o'Nh s/ r[}kok eoBk g?Idk ;h, go FkpkF T[BQk r[o{
d/ bkbK s/ r[o{ dhnK pZuhnK d/, fiBQK B/ fJj ;ko/ eFN fyV/ wZE/ ;jko
bJ/ s/ j}koK ftZu'I fe;/ fJe B/ Gh nkgDh fizd pukT[D bJh Xow B{z
fsnkrDk gqtkD Bk ehsk .3 fJBQK w[;hpsK d/ ekoB f;zxK B{z xo xkN
4. w[BFh dkfBFto fbydk j? fe pzdk f;zx pjkd[o d/ esb d/ pkd j[ew j' frnk fe
fiE/ feXo/ Gh fJ; fcoe/ d/ b'e fwbD, MN esb eo fdZs/ ikD . fwcaskj-T[-
stkohy, ;ck 396 .
5. rD/Fdk; pv'jok, fo;kbk fJ-;kfjp B[wk, 198-9l eBQJhnk bkb, skohfy-bkj"o
219 nbh-T[-dhB, fJpqs Bkwkl bshc, fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp, 193 .
6. frnkB f;zx, gzE gqekF . fJj ;]shnK fJ; jZd se ehshnK iKdhnK ;B s/ f;zxK B/
fJBQK B{z fJ; soQK fyV/ wZE/ ;jkfonk fe jkb se fJj ]kb;/ dh nodk; dk fjZ;k pDhnK
ubhnK nk ojhnK jB .
SZv e/ izrbK ns/ gjkVK tZb B{z fBeb ikDk g? frnk . go fJj ;G e[M
Gh T[BQK dh ;fgfoN B{z Bk e[ub ;fenk, pbfe T[j d{D ;tkJ/ j[zd/ rJ/
. fJj r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx dh f;zxK ftZu c{eh j'Jh BthI o{j ;h fi; B/ T[BQK
B{z ;Zu-w[Zu fuVhnK s'I pk} ns/ frZdVK s'I F/o pDk fdZsk ;h . fJ; t/b/
]kb;/ ftZu jT[w? s/ ngDZs BjhI ;h . T[j r[o{ gzE dh ;/tk bJh ihT[Id/
ns/ r[o{ gzE B{z uVQdhnK ebK ftZu oZy tykT[D bJh e[opkB j' iKd/ ;B
. eJh fBZi dk bkG T[BQK B{z Gowk e/ GoktK Bkb'I s'V BjhI ;h ;edk ns/
fe;/ fBZih B[e;kB iK ikB dk vo T[BQK B{z nkgD/ gzE dh ;/tk s'I fgZS/ BjhI
;h jNk ;edk . gzE dh ;/tk T[BQK dk we;d ;h Gkt/I T[j fe;/ Gh jkbs
s/ g'}hFB ftZu ;B . Gkt/I e'Jh f;zx ;odko ;p/r f;zx dh g[}hFB ftZu
bkj"o dk e[stkb ;h s/ Gkt/ ;odko Fkw f;zx s/ eg{o f;zx tKC je{ws
dk eZNV fto'Xh . fdb ftZu fJZSk ;kfonK d/ fJe' ;h s/ T[j ;h fe ªijK
ijK ]kb;k ;kfjp, sjK sjK foZfXnk fonkfJs, d/H s/H casfj, fpod
eh g?i oj/, gzE eh ihs, ;qh ;kfjp ih ;jkfJ, ]kb;/ ih d/ p'b pkb/ .« fJj'
jh ;t/o/ ns/ Fkw r[o{ d/ j}{o T[BKQ dh nodk; ;h s/ fJ; B/ jh T[BKQ B{z fJe
ikB s/ fJe w[mZ eo oZfynk ;h . fJ;/ e[opkBh dh ;fgfoN s/ gzE bJh ikBK
x'b x[wkT[D dh feos B/ j}koK pzfdnK d/ wo fwN ikD go Gh e"w B{z fBZs
BtK fBo'nk, ihT[dI k ikrdk s/ uVQdhnK ebK ftZu ofynk . frDsh ftZu
]kb;k Gkt/I nkN/ ftZu b{D Gh BjhI ;h go r[o{ Go';/ T[BKQ T[j e[M eo
ftykfJnk i' eo'VK dh frDsh tkb/ j}koK d/ Nkeo/ s/ Bk eo ;e/ .
f;zxK dhnk nkgk-tko{ e[opkBhnK s/ gzE bJh xkbK s'I T[s;kjs j' e/
ekT[fI enK d/ r"jo s/ e"o Gh nzfwqs;o g[iZ / s/ gzv/ dh gkj[b SZe e/ f;zx ;Zi
rJ/ s/ fJBQK d/ Bkw r"jo f;zx s/ e"o f;zx j' rJ/ .1
fiZE/ j[D fgzv nNkoh nkpkd j? T[E/ T[; t/b/ fJe g[okDh E/j j[dz h ;h
fi; B{z fNZpk :k y/Vk2 nkyd/ ;B s/ fJ; d/ T[go p?okrh ;kX{nK dk v/ok ;h
1 oJh;kfB gzikp, 61l gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd gfjbh, 238 .
2. b?gb frqfcB B/ ?gzikp uhca;" ftZu fJ; n;EkB B{z, fiE/ fe pokrhnK dk v/ok j[zdk
;h s/ pktk w{b dk; B/ r'o f;zx B{z nk p;D bJh fejk, fNpbhnK ik eotk (Biblia
or Karewa) fbfynk j? . ;:Zd jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh B/ fNZpk T[oca yo/tk
(oJh;kfB-gzikp, gzikp, gzL 61) . mhe fNZpk :k y/Vk, j'Dk ukjhdk j? . pj[s ;kohnK
g[okDhnK E'jK ni/ sZe fNZp/ iK y/V/ jh nytkT[IdhnK jB .
. fJ; v/o/ d/ nkb/ d[nkb/ e[M eZu/ e'm/ ;B . fJ; fBZe/ fij/ fgzv s/ T[;
d/ fJod frod dh G"I d/ wkbe Gh p?okrh jh ;B . w[be ftZu npsoh
d/ ekoD u'ohnK s/ vke/ nkw ;B fiBQK s'I eJh tkoh ;kXK d/ e'm/ s/ v/ok
Gh ;[Ze/ BjhI ;B pud/ . ;kX{ ftuko/ pV/ szr ;B s/ j?okB ;B fe eh eoB .
p?okHhnK ftZuI' fJe pktk w{b dk; ;B fiBK Bkb fgzv t;kT[D d/ fdBk s'I jh
r"jo/ dk pVk gqw/ j' frnk j'fJnk ;h . id r"jo f;zx nzfwqs Se e/ f;zx ;i
frnk s/ T[j d/ Bkb j'o eJh ;zpXz h ns/ ;zrh ;kEh f;zx ;i rJ/ sK pktk
w{b dk; B{z fynkb nkfJnk fe i/ e'Jh T[BKQ dh fJ; npsoh d/ t/b/ ;jkfJsk
eo ;edk j? sK fJj r[o{ e/ f;zx jh jB . f;zx T[; t/b/ dhB d[yhnK d/ oky/
s/ rohpK d/ ;jkJh ;wM/ iKd/ ;B i' b'eK dh w[;hps nkgD/ rZb gk e/ Gh
T[BKQ d/ eFN fBtkoB B{z fsnko j' g?dI / ;B . fJj ;'u e/ pktk w{b dk; B/ r"o
f;zx B{z nkfynk fe s[;hI ;kv/ gk; jh ub p;' s/ nkgD/ ofjD bJh ;kv/ y/V/ s/
fJe T[uZ h nNkoh pDk bU, s/ fJod frod dh G"I dh wkbeh Gh s[;hI jh ;KG'I
. n;hI sK ;kX{ jK, nkokw Bkb f}zdrh r[}koBk ukj[dz / jK, d' wX{eVhnK
o[yZ hnK fwZ;hnK i' fwb ikD, ;kB{z T[j jh pj[s jB .
r"jo f;zx B/ pktk w{b dk; dh fJj rZb gqtkD eo bJh s/ E/j B{z nk
nkpkd ehsk s/ T[BKQ d/ nkyD w{ip fJE/ fJe T[uA h nNkoh nk pDkJh . r"jo
f;zx dh nNkoh T[uA / fNZp/ s/ j'D eoe/ d{oI' fd;dh ;h . fJ; d/ Bkw s/ j"bh
j"bh fgzv dk Bkw Gh nNkoh tZiD bZr fgnk .
id f;zx ;odko S'N/ S'N/ iZE/ pDk e/ wZbK wkoD bJh d/F ftZu fcoB
bZr/ sK r"jo f;zx nkgD/ ;zpXz hnK ;w/s ;odko r[op]F f;zx o'VKtkb/ d/
iZE/ ftZu Fkwb j' frnk . ;odko r[op]F f;zx ;odko Gzwk f;zx Gzrh s/
;zrhnK ftu'I fJe f;o-eZY ;odko ;h . T[; d/ d' j'o ;kEh ;odko ;B, fJe
T[; dk Gshik r[iZ o f;zx s/ d{;ok ;odko bfjDk f;zx ekjb'I . ;odko
r[op]F f;zx d/ ubkDk eo ikD fgZSI' T[; dh eK s/ r[iZ o f;zx ;odko
pfDnk . r[iZ o f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx d'BI' ;odko joh f;zx Gzrh d/ fw;bdko
;B .
fJ; t/b/ r"jo f;zx B/ j"bh j"bh nNkoh d/ fJod frod d/ fgzvK s/
ep}k eo fbnk fiBQK dh ;bkBk nkwdBh ;Zs j}ko o[gJ/ ;h .1
1. ;:Zd jkdh j;B (oJh;kfB-gzikp gzL 61, ns/ b?gb frqfcB (gzikp uhca;, gzBk
238) B/ r"jo f;zx d/ nNkoh d/ fJod frod d/ fgzvK s/ ep}k eoB dk ;zB 1737
Jh;th fdZsk j?, fi; t/b/ ykB pjkdo }eohnk ]kB bkj"o dk ;{p/dko ;h ns/ Bkdo
Fkj ni/ fjzd[;skB T[s/ jZbk, eoB BjhI ;h nkfJnk . fJ; t/b/ jkb sZe f;zx B/
nkw ep}/ eoB/ BjhI ;B nkozG/, fJ; bJh fJ; skohy T[s/ }ok FZe g?dk j?, go u{zfe
j'o e'Jh rtkjh fJ; d/ fto[ZX th BjhI, fJ; bJh fJ; B{z rbs Gh BjhI nkfynk ik
;edk.
;odko r[op]F f;zx o'VKtkb/ d/ ubkDk eo ikD fgZS'I r"jo
f;zx ;odko r[Zio f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx GzrhnK d/ Bkb jh fojk . T[;
dh pjkdoh s'I gq;zB j' e/ ;odko r[Zio f;zx B/ T[; B{z nmkoK j}ko S/
;' o[gJ/ wkwb/ dk fJbkek ikrho ftZu d/ fdZsk .1
~~~

1. oJh;kfB-gzikp ftZu nmkoK j}ko d" ;' o[gJ/ ikrho fbyh j'Jh j? i', f}nkdk
gqwkDhe j? . frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, fibd gfjbh, 238 .
2

;odko fBjkb f;zx

r"jo f;zx d/ fszB g[sZ o ;B db f;zx, fdnkb f;zx s/ fBjkb f;zx . ;odko
fBjkb f;zx dk g[Zso ;odko Fkw f;zx ih, fi; dk jkb t/ot/ Bkb nZr/ uZb e/
gkmeK dh G/Nk ehsk ikt/rk . d{;o/ gk;/ e"o f;zx d/ uko g[Zso ;B, N/e f;zx, i'X
f;zx, t}ho f;zx s/ uVQs f;zx . fJBK ftZuI' ;odko i'X f;zx dk g[sZ o irs-gqf;ZX
;odko iVs f;zx nNkohtkbk s/ T[BKQ dk g[sZ o okik F/o f;zx nNkohtkbk j'J/ jB
fiBQK B/ u/bhnKtkb/ nzrq/iK Bkb bVkJh ftZu BkwkDk yZfNnk s/ nzs r[ioks ftZu
gk;k gos ikD eoe/ gzikp d/ oki d/ Bkb jh d/F fBekbk b? rJ/ . ;zB 1858 B{z
;odko uso f;zx ebeZs/ d/ okik F/o f;zx pBko; ftZu uVkJh eo rJ/ .
id r"jo f;zx wihm/ d/ B}dhe d[okBhnK Bkb fJe izr ftZu Fjhd j'
frnk sK ;odko fBjkb f;zx nkgD/ fgsk dh EK s/ fB:s j'fJnk . ;zB 1764 ftZu
id ]kb;/ B/ bkj"o T[s/ ep}k ehsk sK ;odko fBjkb f;zx ;odko r[iZ o f;zx s/
;odko bfjDk f;zx Gzrh d/ Bkb ;h . fJ; t/b/ fJ; B{z g;o{o dk gorDk ikrho
ftZu fwfbnk fi; dh nkwdBh dk nzdk}k v/VQ bZy ;bkBk ehsk frnk j? .1 ;odko
r[Zio f;zx dh w"s fgZS'I fJj nkgfDnK GshfinK s/ ;zpzXhnK ;w/s ;odko r[Zio
f;zx d/ g[sZ o ;odko ;kfjp f;zx gk; oj/ s/ ;zB 1797 B{z nfjwd ykB FkjKuhpkFh
Bkb izr ftzu gzE dh tX uVQ e/ ;/tk ehsh .2

1. frnkB f;zx, gzE gqekF (d{ih n?vhFB), 836; nfjwd Fkj pNkbhnk, f}efo-
r[o{nK fJpsdkfJ f;zxK (sfswk T[wdko stkohy), gzL 15 . ;odko bfjDk
f;zx s/ ;odko r[Zio f;zx d/ t/ot/ ;fjs jkbK bJh t/y' p{N/ Fkj dh skohfy
gzikp, fibd gfjbh, gzL 517-20 s/ y[Ftes okfJ dh skohfy f;ZyK, 113-
117 .
2. jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh, okJh;kfB gzikp, 61-2l frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, fibd
gfjbh, 239 . nfjwd ]kB FkjKuhpkFh Bkb f;zx d/ izr d/ t/ot/ ;fjs jkbK
bJh t/y' T[wdks[ stkohy, dcaso d'w 34l y[Ftes okfJ, 116l frnkB f;zx,
gzE gqekF, d{;oh n?vhFB, 734-61l nbh-T[-dhB, fJpqs Bkwk, 308 .
wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ ;zB 1799 ftZu bkj"o s/ ep}k eo fbnk . fJ;
t/b/ fB}kw dhB e;{ohnk ns/ Gzrh s/ okwrVQhJ/ ;odko wjkokik dh fdB' fdB tZX
ojh skes B{z mZbQD bJh ftT[IsK eoB bZr/ . nrb/ ;kb ;zB 1800 ftZu G;hD
fgzv dh i{j ftZu c"iK dk fJe seVk fJeZm j'fJnk . T[Xo'I oDihs f;zx Gh w[ekpb/
bJh fsnko j' e/ s[o fgnk . go ;odko r[bkp f;zx Gzrh dh nkukBe w"s B/ fJeZm
fsZso fpZso eo fdZsk . fJBQhI fdBh wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ ;odko fBjkb f;zx
nNkohtkb/ B{z rj[ Bkb d/fynk s/ T[; dhnK nzdo{Bh y{phnK B{z GKg frnk . T[; dh
fJZSk ;h fe fe;/ soQK ;odko fBjkb f;zx T[; gk; nk ikJ/ . fJ; wsbp bJh
wjkokik B/ T[; B{z p[bk G/fink . go ;odko fBjkb f;zx B/ ;odko ;kfjp f;zx B{z
SZv e/ wjkokik gk; ub/ ikDk uzrk Bk ;wfMnk s/ BKj eo fdZsh . fJ; p/ro}
tcakdkoh dk gsk id ;kfjp f;zx B{z bZrk sK T[j pj[s jh gq;Bz j'fJnk s/ ;odko
fBjkb f;zx dh ikrho ns/ d{;o/ nbkT{;I tXk fdZs/ .3
;odko ;kfjp dh w/jopkBh ns/ ;odko fBjkb f;zx dh uVQdh ebk s/
soZeh B/ T[; d/ uu/o/ GoktK N/e f;zx, i'X f;zx s/ t}ho f;zx d/ fdbK ftZu Jhoyk
dh nZr pkb fdZsh . T[BKQ B/ ;odko ;kfjp f;zx d/ ezB GoB/ F[o{ eo fdZs/ . fJj }ok
ew}'o fdb nkdwh ;h . iK sK fJj T[BKQ dh rZb B{z ;wM Bk ;fenk iK T[BKQ B{z BKj
eo ;eD d/ n;woE ;h . Bshik fJj j'fJnk fe fJ; B/ T[BKQ d/ nky/ bZr e/ ;odko
fBjkb f;zx dh gzdoK e[ jk}ko dh ikrho }ps eo bJh . ;odko fBjkb f;zx
fJe nDyhbk s/ yok pzdk ;h . T[j fJ; BkikfJ} ;b{e Bz{ ed podkFs eo ;edk
;h s/ Bkb/ ikrho xZN j' ikD d/ ekoB T[; dk fJZ}s Bkb fNe/ ofjDk w[wfeB BjhI
;h fojk . fJ; bJh T[j ;odko ;kfjp f;zx dh skp/dkoh SZv e/ nkgD/ fgzv nNkoh
ubk nkfJnk .2
fJBQK fdBK ftZu wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ eJh T{m ;odko fBjkb f;zx dh
b[ZN ftZu nk rJ/ . fi; t/b/ wjkokik B{z fJ; rZb dk gsk bZrk sK T[BQK B/ nkgD/
e[M nkdwh ;odko fBjkb f;zx gk; G/i e/ efj ;[D e/ T{m w'V fbnkT[D . fJBQK
nkdwhnK d/ g[iZ D s'I gfjbK eJh T{m fpe u[eZ / ;B go i' pkeh ;B T[j ;odko fBjkb

1. gzikp uhca;, fibd d{;oh, 239l jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh, oJh;kfB gzikp, 62 .
2. jkdh jFB, oJh;kfB gzikp, 62l frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, fibd d{;oh, 239 .
f;zx B/ wjkokik B{z tkg; G/i fdZs/ .
fJ; rZb s'I wjkokik oDihs f;zx pj[s jh gq;zB j'fJnk s/ T[; B/ nkgD/
nkdwh ;odko fBjkb f;zx gk; G/i/ sK fe T[; B{z wjkokik ;kfjp dh B"eoh ftZu
nk ikD bJh gq/oD . pj[s e[M efjD ejkT[D go ;odko fBjkb f;zx ok}h j'
frnk . wjkokik B/ T[; B{z nkgDh c"i ftZu nca;o w[eoZ o eo fdZsk s/ uko ;' ;'bK
;tko, fJe tZvh s'g ns/ ;Zs F[soh }zpo{ / T[; d/ skfpnk ehs/ .1
gfjbK w[fjzw fiZE/ fe ;odko fBjkb f;zx B{z wjkokik oDihs f;zx tb'I G/
fink frnk ;h T[j SZS d/ fJbke/ B{z ;o eoB dh ;h .2 fJE/ ;odko fBjkb f;zx B/
S/sh jh nkgDh tckdkoh s/ pjkdoh d/ ekoD pj[s bkw g?dk eo fbnk . wjkokik
oDihs f;zx pjkdoK dk edodkB ;h . T[; B/ ;zB 1803 ftZu u[oiz k j}ko gzi ;"
o[gJ/ dh ;[Zy' dh ikrho ;odko fBjkb f;zx B{z fdZsh s/ fszB ;kb pkd fJe bZy
;kbkBk nkwdBh tkbk g;o{o dk fJbkek p]fFnk .3 ;zB 1807 ftZu id wjkokik
B/ e;{o T[s/ Xktk ehsk sK ;odko fBjkb f;zx B/ pVh pjkdoh fdykJh . wjkokik
oDihs f;zx id Gh fe;/ Bt/I fJbke/ B{z cafsj eodk ;h sK T[EI' d/ g[okD/ jkew B{z
edh Gh xo'I p/-xo BjhI ;h eodk, pbfe T[; d/ r[}ko/ bJh T[; T[; B{z fe;/ j'o EK
ikrho d/ fdnk eodk ;h sK fe T[j nkgD/ f}zdrh d/ fdB nkokw s/ fJZ}s Bkb
r[}ko ;e/ . e;{o casfj eo b?D go Btkp e[spdhB e;{ohJ/ B{z wjkokik B/ wwd'N
dk fJbkek ikrho ftZu d/ fdZsk s/ e;{o dk ;kok fJbkek ;odko fBjkb f;zx d/
skp/ eo fdZsk fi; dh nkwdBh fJe bZy ;Zs j}ko ;h .4
e;{o d/ fJbke/ d/ Bkb jh vZroK s/ ;odko XzBk f;zx wbtJh dk cho'}g[o

1 frnkBh f;zx gzE gqekF (d{ih n?vhFB, gzL 839) ftZu fbydk j? fe wjkokik
oDihs f;zx B/ fJ; t/b/ ;odko fBjkb f;zx B{z gzi ;" ;tko d' s'gK s/ ;Zso F[soh
}zp{o/ fdZs/ ;B. T[go fdZsh rJh frDsh jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh dh feskp oJh;kfB
gzikp, gzBk 63 s/ frqfcaB dh gzikp uhca;, gzBk 239 d/ w[skpe fdZsh rJh j? .
2. gzE gqekF, d{ih n?vhFB, 836
3. gzE gqekF, 836l oJh;kfB gzikp, 62l frqfcB gzikp uhca;, 240
4. e;{o wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ fto[ZX ;k}kFK dk fJe pVk tZvk nZvk ;h . fJE'I d/
jkew fB}kw dhB dh Ffj s/ ;jkfJsk Bkb jh Gzrh s/ okwrVQhJ/ ;odko G;hD ftZu
izr dh fsnkoh ehsh, i' f;o/ BjhI ;h uVQ ;eh . j[D fB}kw dhB d/ wo ikD fgZS'I T[;
d/ GkJh e[sp dhB B/ fto'Xsk F[o{ eo fdZsh ;h .
dk fJbkek brdk ;h . fJE/ jh ;zB 1808 d/ n]ho sZe ;odko fBjkb f;zx B/
nmkoK j}ko o[gJ/ ;bkBk dk j'o fJbkek nkgD/ ep}/ eo fbnk . S/sh jh fgZS'I
fJBQK B/ wjkokik gk;'I nNkoh d/ fJod frod d/ fgzvK dh fszB j}ko dh wkch gqkgs
ehsh . fJ; soQK ;odko fBjkb f;zx dh e[b ikrho fszB bZy S/ j}ko nZm ;" o[gJ/
dh j' rJh . fJ; ftZu v/Y bZy dh }ksh wkch dh ikrho ;h s/ fJe bZy, Sgzik j}ko
nZm ;" d/ pdb/ c"ih B"eoh bJh Bcoh d/Dh j[zdh ;h .1
;zXKtkbhJ/ ;odkoK s'I pknd, i' wjkokik d/ nkgD/ jh ykBdkB d/ ;B, j'o
e'jh Gh ;odko n?;k BjhI ;h fi; dh fJZiA s tfvnkJh wjkoki/ dh B}o ftZu ;odko
fBjkb f;zx dk Nkeok eo ;edh . fJj ;G wkB t[; B{z nkgD/ pkj{-pb s/ pjdkoh
Bkb gqkgs j'fJnk ;h . T[; B/ wjkoki/ dhnK nD-frDs s/ nw[b Z ;/tk ehshnK ;B
. ;zB 1801 s'I 1817 sZe FkfJd jh e'Jh n?;h w[fjzw j't/ fiZE/ ;odko fBjkb
f;zx B/ tZX uVQ e/ pjkdoh Bk fdykJh j't/ . eFwho, fgzv dkdB ykB, Bhbk,
uetkb, ;?dg[o, BokfJD rVQ, gke gNB, wfjw{d e'N, w[bskB nkfd jo tZvh izr
ftZu w'jo/ j' e/ ;{ofwnK dh soQK sbtko d/ i"jo ftykJ/ . 1810 ftZu w[bskB dh
bVkJh ftZu fJe ;[ozr d/ cN ikD Bkb p{oh soQK M[bf;nk frnk ;h . fJ; t/b/
;odko nso f;zx Xkoh, i' fJ; d/ B}dhe jh yVk ;h wkfonk frnk s/ j'o eJh
;odko }ywh j'J/ ;B . ;odko fBjkb f;zx B{z fJ; t/b/ fJbki bJh bkj"o G/fink
frnk ;h . fJ; soQK pjkd[okBk e[opkBhnK eod/ j'J/ ;odko fBjkb f;zx B/ nzs
nkgDh f}zdrh gh wjkoki/ T[go'I e[opkB eo fdZsh ns/ pkpo s/ jwk:{z tkbk tkfenk
fszB ;" ;kb pknd w[V sk}k eo fdZsk .2
1817 ftZu wjkokik oDihs f;zx tDhJ/e/ T[so/ j'J/ ;B fe nukBe jh
;]s phwko j' rJ/ s/ jkbs fJE/ sZe ]okp j' rJh fe T[BQK dh f}zdrh ;pzXh
fBok;sk j' rJh . fJj jkbs d/y e/ ;odko fBjkb f;zx n?;/ gqw/ -T[Skb/ ftZu nkJ/
fe nkg B/ fJe wb j' e/ ;fsr[o{ d/ j}{o nodk;k ;'fXnk, wjkokik d/ gbzx dhnK
fszB gqeowK ehshnK s/ fco jZE i'V e/ nodk; ehsh fe wjkoki ;kfjp ok}h j' ikD
s/ T[BQK dk o'r w?B{z bZr ikt/ . fJ; nodk;/ fgZS'I nkg S/sh jh nNkoh B{z ub/ nkJ/
. GkDk eosko dk n?;k tofsnk fe wjkokik ;kfjp ok}h j'D bZr gJ/ ns/ ;odko

1. frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, 240l oJh;kfB gzikp, 63


2. gzikp uhca;, fibd d{;oh, 240-241l oJh;kfB-gzikp, 63-4
fBjkb f;zx phwko j' rJ/ ns/ e[M wjhfBnK fgZsI' ubkDk eo rJ/ . nkg dh ;wkX
nNkoh dh uVQdh r[mZ tb'I i' ;Ve tZvh Fkjh ;Ve B{z iKdh j? T[; d/ Bkb jh pDh
j'Jh j? .1
;odko fBjkb f;zx d/ ihtB d/ jkbks s'I fJj Gbh gqeko f;ZX j[zdk j? fe
nkg fBoG?, fBoSZb, ;{opho s/ f;deh f;zx ;B ns/ fiZeI' sZe tkj brdh nkgDk
B[e;kB eo e/ Gh d{;o/ dh ;/tk eod/ ;B . id nkg Gzrh ;odkoK gk; ;B sK g{oh
soQK T[BKQ dh tcakdkoh ftZu oj/ ns/ T[BKQ dk ;kE SZv e/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx Bkb
obDk ;Pheko Bk ehsk . ;odko ;kfjp f;zx Gzrh rb'I p/-edoh fgZSI' id nNkoh w[VQ
nkJ/ ns/ fco wjkokik d/ pbkT[D go T[; Bkb Fkwb j'J/ sK g{oh soQK T[BQK d/
tcakdko oj/ s/ nzs sZe gh wjkokik T[go'I x'b x[wkJh . ;odko fBjkb f;zx d/
nekb ubkD/ dh skohy iBtoh ;zB 1818 j? .
~~~

1. jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp, 64l frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, d{;oh fibd,
241
3

w[bskB dh bVkJh

fJ; tke/ s'I E'Vk fuo jh gfjbK ;odko fBjkb f;zx B/ nkgD/ g[sZ o ;odko
Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk B{z wjkoki/ dh c"i ftZu Gosh eotk fdZsk ;h .1
;odko Fkw f;zx d/ iBw dh skoh] ns/ S'Nh ntZ;ek d/ jkbks dk e[M gsk
Bjh ubdk .2
T[BKQ d/ ihtB dk ;G s'I gfjbK gqf;ZX ekoBkwk i' fJfsjk; ftZu nkfJnk j?
T[j ;zB 1818 dh w[bskB dh nk]oh bVkJh ;h . fJ; s'I gfjbK w[bskB g[o fszB
tko uVQkJh ehsh rJh ;h go ep}k BjhI ;h ehsk frnk . gfjbh w[fjzw 1810 ftZu
w[bskB rJh id fe wjkokik YkJh bZy o[fgnk s/ thj x'V/ B}okBk ns/ bVkJh t/
b/ fJe c"ih d;s/ dh ;jkfJsk dk tfjdk b? e/ w[V nkfJnk ;h . d{;oh tkoh 1816
ftZu fJe bZy thj j}ko B}okBk w[eoZ o j'fJnk fi; ftZuI' nZ;h j}ko b? e/ wjkokik
wBe/o/ tZb B{z nk frnk . sh;oh tko 1817 ftZu w[bskB dh w[fjzw fwA;o dhtkB
uzd dh ewkB j/mK G/ih rJh go T[; B{z ;cabsk gqkgs Bk j'D eoe/ 1818 d/ nkozG
ftZu 25 j}ko c"i ezto yVe f;zx dh ;odkoh ftZu w[bskB B{z s'oh rJh s/ fwZ;o

1. vkeNo u'gVk B/ nkgDh feskp gzikp n?} J/ ;"to/B ;N/N (gzBk 163) ftZu fbfynk
j? fe ;odko Fkw f;zx gfjb/ gfjb ;B 1803 Jh;th ftZu wjkoki oDihs f;zx
dh ;/tk ftZu nkJ/ ;B, go gfjbh gqf;ZXh nkg B{z w[bskB d/ nk]oh x/o/ ftZu gqkgs
j'Jh fiZE/ fe nkg fJe pksoh dh ewkB eo oj/ ;B . fJj T[j ;wK ;h id fe fJBQK
d/ fgsk ;odko fBjkb f;zx B{z SZS ns/ g'm/jko d/ fJbke/ ftZu pjkdoh d/ ekoD ;[y'I
dh ikrho fwbh ;h . j' ;edk j? fe fJzBh fdBhI jh wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ gq;zB j'e/
;odko Fkw f;zx B{z Gh c"i ftZu b? fbnk j't/ .
2. i/ vkeNo u'gVk dh T[gq'es skohy ;zB 1803 Jh;th mhe j?, id fe ;odko Fkw
f;zx wjkokik ;kfjp dh c"i ftZu dk]b j'J/ dZ;/ iKd/ jB, sK T[; t/b/ fJBQK dh
T[wo xZN' xZN 18 e[ ;kb j'Dh ukjhdh j? . fJ; fj;kp Bkb nkg dk iBw ;zB
1785 d/ B}dhe ubk iKdk j? . go fJj f;oc fj;kph nB[wkB jh j? . e'Jh Go';/
:'r rtkjh fwbD sZe :ehBh s"o s/ e[M BjhI fejk ik ;edk .
dhtkB uzd T[; dk BkfJp w[eoZ o ehsk frnk . fJ; w[fjzw d/ Bkb ;odko Fkw f;zx
nNkohtkb/ Gh ;B . fi; t/b/ w[bskB d/ febQ/ B{z x/ok gkfJnk frnk sK dZyD dh
pksoh dh pkjh dh ewkB fJBQK d/ ;g[od ;h . d{;ohnK pksohnK ;odko db f;zx
Bj/oBk, ;odko nwho f;zx ;zXKtkbhnK ns/ ;odko d/;k f;zx wihmhnK dh ewkB
j/mK ;B . w[bskB d/ jkew Btkp w[}Zco yKB B/ Gh ekch fsnkoh ehsh j'Jh ;h .
nkgDh wZdd bJh T[; B/ f;ZyK fto[XZ ijkd d/ Bkw s/ p/-F[wko w[byZJhnk Gh fJeZmk
eo fbnk ;h s/ T[j w[ekpb/ s/ vfNnk j'fJnk c"i dh nkg ewkB eo fojk ;h . GKt/
I ][d wjkokik oDihs f;zx fJ; t/b/ w[bskB w"id { BjhI ;h, go T[j bkj"o o'}kBk
x/o/ ns/ izr ;zpXz h fjdkfJsK G/idk ;h . T[; dh wBFk ;h fe febQ/ s/ Xktk p'b e/
e'Jh ]sok Bk fbnk ikt/ pbfe x/o/ B{z w}p{s eo e/ w[}Z cZ o ]kB B{z febk ykbh eoB
bJh wip{o eo fdZsk ikt/ . go sK Gh eJh tkoh fJZe/ d[eZ / jbe/ jZb/ s/ MVck edh
edh j' jh iKdhnK ;B . r'bkpkoh brksko }koh ofjzdh ;h . fJ; w"e/ s/ GzrhnK
tkbh s'g }w}wk bkj"o'I wzrtk e/ uko tkoh fJZE/ ubkJh rJh fi; Bkb feb/ dh
dhtko ioioh j' rJh .
fJ; t/b/ dh fJe pVh nihp xNBk w[BFh r[bkp ihbkBh B/ nkgDh fbys
ªizfr wbskB« ftZu fdZsh j? . T[j fbydk j? fe fJ; izr ftzu w?I G/i pdbk e/ ;{jhJ/
dk ezw eo fojk ;K ns/ nkgD/ gN/ f;zxK d/ e/;K tKC T[go B{z bg/N/ j'J/ ;B . nk]ho
d/ fdB (2 i{B ;zB 1818) dh rZb j? fe id w?I ]poK ;{jK b?D bJh fJ; soQK
f;Zy c"iK ftZu fco fojk ;K sK s'gykB/ d/ fJe gkf;T[I w?Bz{ xpokjN ftZu ehshnK ik
ojhnK e[M rZbK ;[DkJh gJhnK . w?I ibdh Bkb UXo B{z j' frnk . eh t/ydk jK fe
pkoK s/oK f;zx nkg; ftZu MrV oj/ ;B s/ ªgfjb/ w?ª, gfjb/ w?I« efj oj/ ;B .
B}dhe ikD s'I gsk bZrk fe T[BKQ dh s'g dk gjhnk N[NZ k j'fJnk j? . fJBQK ftZuI' fJe
B/ sith} ehsh fe i/ fJ; N[N/ j'J/ gjhJ/ dh EK n;hI tkoh tkoh nkgDk w'Yk vkjhJ/
sK fJj s'g ezw eo ;edh j? s/ ;kv/ gkf;UI fYZbh g? ojh s'gK dh wko c/o s/} j' ikJ/
rh . fJj sith} ;[D e/ T[BKQ f;zx ftZuI' jo e'Jh ªgfjb/ w?«I , «gfjb/ w?«I efj fojk ;h
s/ F'o wfunk j'fJnk ;h . fJsB/ B{z fJe f;zx B/, i' nca;o wkb{w j[d z k ;h, fejk fe
w/oh rZb ;[D' . gfjbK w?I nkgDk w'Yk vkj[zdk jK, w/o/ fgZS'I dfjD/ tkbk f;gkjh s/
T[; fgZSI' T[; d/ pkJ/I tkbk . fJ; soQK tkoh tkoh nkgDk w'Yk vkj[dz / ub', c/o i' r[o{
B{z Gkt/ . T[BKQ B/ fJ; soQK eoBk F[o{ eo fdZs/ s/ tkoh tkoh w'Yk vkj e/ s'g d/ Xwke/
Bkb d; frnkoK nkdwh cBkj j' rJ/ go s'g ubkT[dI / rJ/ . fJsB/ B{z ioioh j'Jh
feZb/ dh ezX ftZu gkV g? frnk s/ f;zx dhtko T[sZ / uV rJ/ .
nzs ftZu r[bkw ihbkBh fbydk j? fe f;ZyK d/ fJ; ;ke/ B{z t/y e/ w?I j?okB j'
fojk ;K s/ eJh tkoh w/ok ih Gh T[Skb/ wkodk ;h fe w?I Gh nkgDk w'Yk fJ; gjhJ/
d/ j/mK d/ d/tK ns/ i/ w?I ihT{d I k fojk jK sK fJ; bJh fe f;ZyK dh fJ; ;{owrsh dh
ejkDh B{z d[BhnK ftZu ihT[d I k SZv iktK .
fJj fJ; t/b/ dh jh rZb wkb{w j[zdh j? id fe w"ek skV e/ nekbh c{bk
f;zx fBjzr1 B/ nukBe jh febQ/ s/ ik Xktk p'fbnk . Btkp w[icZ o ]kB nkgD/ g[sZ oK
;w/s w[ekpb/ bjh nkfJnk go ykb;k dh sbtko d/ ;kwQd/ g/F Bk rJh s/ f;zx
nekb nekb r{iz kT[d I / nzdo X;D/ F[o{ j' rJ/ . w[icZ o ]kB nkgD/ gzi g[soK ;w/
s bVdk j'fJnk wkfonk frnk . fJ; t/b/ i/jV/ ;{ow/ ;kfonK Bkb' w'jo/ ;B s/ i'
gkV okj/ feb/Q d/ nzdo dk]b j'J,/ T[BKQ ftZui' fJe ;odko Fkw f;zx Gh ;h . fejk
iKdk j? fe o;s/ ftZu w[ekpb/ bJh vfNnk j'fJnk Btkp w[}cZ o ]kB dk g[sZ o Fkj
fBtk} ]kB fJBQK d/ jZEI' jh wkfonk frnk ;h . fJ; izr ftZu ;odko Fkw f;zx i]wh
Gh j' rJ/ ;B s/ w'Y/ s/ sbtko dk xkU bZrk ;h . Btkp w[}cZ o ]kB dk tZvk g[sZ o
;ocaok} ykB s/ fJe S'Nk }[bfcaeko ]kB izrh e?dhnK dh j?;hns ftZu bkj"o
gj[uz kJ/ rJ/ s/ wjkokik B/ T[BKQ d/ r[}ko/ bJh g?BFB s/ ikrho d/ fdZsh . fi; t/b/
;{pk w[bskB dh je{ws bJh gqpzX j'Dk F[o{ j'fJnk ns/ wjkokik B/ EkUI EKJh
nkgD/ jkew w[eoZo ehs/ sK ozrg[o dk fJbkek ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ ;g[od ehsk
frnk .2
nfjwd ftZu ;odko d/;k f;zx wihmhJ/ s/ sbzp/ ftZu ]kb;k casfj f;zx
nkjb{tkbhJ/ d/ mkD/ Bh:s j'J/ .

1. eJh fJe fbykohnK B/ fJ; t/b/ jZbk eoe/ nZr/ tXD tkb/ fBjzr f;zx dk Bkw ;kX{
f;zx fbfynk j?, go mhe Bkw c{bk f;zx jh gqshs j[zdk j? . pkpk gq/w f;zx B/ fJ;
;pzXh nkgdh g[;se ihtB fpqsKs c{bk f;zx nekbh" ftZu ekch pfj; ehs j? d/y'
d{ih n?vhFB, gzBk 98-102 .
2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkoh], dcaso d'w, 210-21l bshca, fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp,
410-13l jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp 64l frqfcB, gzikp uhca;,
241l r[bkw ihbkBh, izfr w[bskB, 27 .
4

d';s wj[zwd ]kB d/ fto[ZX uVQkJh

fJBQK fdBK ftZu jh ncaHkfB;skB ftZu yZg g? rJh . Fkj}kdk


ekwokB tb'I X'y/ Bkb t}ho casfj ykB d/ esb B/ soEZbh wuk fdZsh .
casfj ykB pkoe}Jh ephb/ dk fJe f;o-eZY ;odko ;h s/ T[; d/ gzikj
e[ Gok ;B i' ;ko/ jh fJbkfenK d/ jkew iK tZv/ tZv/ nca;o ;B . T[BQK d/
nzdo pdb/ dh nZr GVe T[Amh s/ EkT[I EkJhI prkts j' rJh . eFwho d/
jkew w[jzwd n}hw ykB B/ ekwokB B{z GKi d/ e/ dZyD tZb B{z XZe fdZsk s/
T[; d/ fgsk Fkj wfjw{d dh EK x?w{o Fkj d[ZokBh d/ g[Zso Fkj n:{p B{z
ekpb dk pkdFkj pDk fdZsk .
fJ; oki-o"b/ t/b/ yNeK B/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ fto[ZX pHkts
eo fdZsh s/ nNe d/ fJbke/ ftZu fJe f;Zy c"ih d;s/ s/ nukBe jZbk p'b
fdZsk fi; Bkb T[j fgZS/ jND go wip{o j' rJ/ . nkgDh ;ojZd s/ g?dk
j' oj/ ]so/ B{z nB[Gt eo e/ ][d wjkokik B/ c"ih fsnkoh dk j[ew fdZsk
s/ nkg fJe seVh c"i Bkb nNe'I gko bzx e/ B"Ffjo/ ftZu dh 20 Btzpo
;zB 1818 B{z fgFkto ik g[Zik . nZr/ e'Jh nV Bk ;fenk ns/ :ko
w[jzwd]kB GZi e/ :{;ca}Jh gjkVhnK ftZu ik tfVnk . wjkokik fszB fdB
fgFkto mfjfonk s/ fgFkto dk fJbkek nsk w[jwz d ]kB d/ Gok ijkBdkd
]kB t}hoy/b d/ ;g[od eo e/ nNe B{z w[V fgnk .
id wjkoki/ B{z jo'I gk; ]po g[Zih fe d';s w[jzwd ]kB s/ :ko
w[jzwd ]kB B/ fgFkto nk dZfpnk j? s/ ijkBdkd ]kB B{z jFsBro B{z
Gik fdZsk j? sK T[; B/ ;odko db f;zx, ;odko XzBk f;zx wbtJh,
;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko irs f;zx nNkohtkb/ s/ ;odko
joh f;zx B{z c"i d/ e/ fgFkto B{z ;'XD dk j[ew ehs/ s/ fgZS/ fwZ;o dhtkB
uzd B{z T[BQK dh wZdd bJh G/fink ns/ ;odko nwo f;zx wihmhJ/ B{z
]?okpkd dh jcak}s bJh w[eZoo ehsk . ]kb;Jh c"iK B/ w[V fgFkto s/
ep}k eo fbnk . j'o e'Jh ukok Bk d/y e/ d';s w[jzwd ykB B/ nkgD/
tehb G/i e/ gzikj j}ko o[gJ/ dhnK j[zvhnK, e[M x'V/ cbK dh vkbh s/
j'o s'jc/ B}okB/ tb'I G/i/ s/ ]kb;/ dh JhD wzB bJh fi; go ]kb;k c"iK
tkg; bkj"o tZb B{z w[V gJhnK . fJj rZb d;zpo 1818 dh j? .1

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcaso d'w, 227-40l bshca fj;Noh n"c dh


gzikp 414-16
5

eFwho dh w[fjzw

w[bskB s/ fgFkto B{z fBtk e/ wjkoki/ dh B}o eFwho tZb j'Jh . eFwho d/
jkew iZpko ]kB dk t}ho gzvs pho Xo gmkB dh fBrkj e[tZbh d/y e/ d/;'I GZi
fBefbnk s/ gbkj bJh wjkoki/ dh ;/tk ftZu jk}o j'fJnk . wjkoki/ B/ T[; dh
pVh nkU Grs ehsh ns/ T[; gk;'I eFwho d/F ;zpXz h g{oh g{oh tkechns jk;b
eo e/ w[fjzw dh fsnkoh bJh j[ew ikoh eo fdZsk1 s/ o;sk ;kc eoB bJh nkgD/
tehb bkbk feFB fdnkb B{z oki"oh tZb G/fink . T[j okik nro ]kB oki"oh tkb/
s/ nkb/ d[nkb/ d/ f}whIdkoK Bkb rZb pks gZeh eoe/ cZrD ;zws 1874 (cotoh
1819) B{z bkj"o tkg; nkfJnk s/ fwZ;o dhtkB uzd okjhI ;kok jkb wjkoki/ B{z
dZf;nk ns/ okik nZro ]kB dk e/;o d/ gzi/ tkbk fJeoko Bkwk g/F ehsk fi; ftZu
;[rXz yk e/ gqD ehsk j'fJnk ;h fe fi; t/b/ ]kb;k c"iK fJZXo oki"oh tZb nkT[DrhnK
sK eFwho d/ fJ; gk;/ d/ ezw eki ftzu e'Jh caoe BjhI nkt/rk ns/ jo gqeko
fwZskq Bk ;jkfJsk eoB ftZu n?B y[Fh ;wMh ikt/rh .2
u/s 1876 (;zB 1819) B{z bkj"o dh fjck}s f;zx ;kfjp ]kb;k casfj
f;zx nkjb{tkbhJ/ d/ ;g[od eoe/ eFwho dh w[fjzw tkbh c"i d/ fszB fjZ;/ pDkJ/
rJ/ . fJe fjZ;k fwZ;o dhtkB uzd dh ewkB j/mK fdZsk frnk . fJ; fjZ;/ ftZu ;odko
Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/ ;B i' w[fjzw d/ ioB?b d/ ]k; wZddrko ;B . ;odko irs
f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko itkbk f;zx, ;odko joh f;zx Bb{nk s/ ;odko osB
f;zx Gh fJBQK d/ Bkbj jh ;B . d{;ok fjZ;k eztb ]kb;k yVe f;zx dh ewkB j/mK
gfjb/ fvthiB dh e[we bJh fB:s j'fJnk . sh;ok fjZ;k ][d wjkokik dh nkgDh
ewkB j/mK t}hokpkd ik T[sfonk sK fe t/b/ f;o fiZE/ b'V j't/ wZdd gj[zuk ;e/
ns/ okFB s/ j'o ;kwkB gj[uz kT[d I k oj/ .

1. bshc, fj;Nh n"c dh gzikp, 417


2. ;'jB bkb, T[wkdks{-stkoh], fjZ;k d'w, 246
fwZ;o dhtkB uzd d/ fvthiB B/, fi; ftZu fe ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/
;B, oki"oh tZb B{z XkJh ehsh . okik ]po ;[Dd/ ;ko jh GZi fBefbnk, go T[; dk
g[sZ q ojhw[b
Z k ]kB fwZ;o dhtkB uzd B{z nk fwfbnk s/ T[; B/ ojhw[bZ k ]kB B{z wjkoki/
gk; r[ioks G/i fdZsk . wjkoki/ B/ ][F j' e/ T[; B{z oki/ dk fyskp d/ e/ T[; d/ fgsk
dh EK w[eoZ o eo fdZsk . i{B d/ wjhB/ dhtkB uzd oki"oh B{z casfj eo e/ pfjokw-
rb/ ftZu dk]b j' frnk . g[SD d/ okik }pod;s ]kB gk;'I JhD wBk e/ nZX i{B
1819 B{z ]kb;k c"iK ;[ghB B{z ikD tkbh ;Ve d/ ;okJ/ nbh ik T[sohnK . T[Xo'I
;odko iZpko ykB gh c"iI b? e/ w[ekpb/ bJh nk vfNnk . 4 i[bkJh B{z pV/ xw;kB
dh bVkJh j'Jh, go f;zxK nZr/ gmkD fNe Bk ;e/ s/ w?dkB SZv rJ/ . iZpko ]kB
}]wh j' e/ fGzpo B{z GZi frnk s/ T[EI' fgFkto ik g[iZ k . ]kb;/ dk ep}k eFwho go
j' frnk s/ wjkoki/ B/ pVh ][Fh ehsh s/ bkj"o ns/ nzfwqs;o ftZu dhgwkbk ehsh
rJh .1
eFwho ;zpzXh e[M rZbK dk gqpzX eoB bJh caeho n}h}[dhB B{z G/fink
frnk, go phwko j' ikD d/ ekoB T[; B{z oki"oh s'I tkg; p[bk fbnk frnk ns/
bkj"oI' wjkokik ;kfjp tb'I eFwho dk e'Jh gZek jkew w[eoZ o j' e/ nkT[D sZe T[E/
c"i gqpXz fojk . wjkokik ;kfjp B/ j[ew G/fink fe dhtkB okw fdnkb nkgDh c"ia
;D/ fGzpo'I B"Ffjo/ s/ n}hw rVQ ikt/, dhtkB w'sh okw gjkVh okfinK B{z c"i Bkb
oki"oh s/ g[DS dk gqpXz eo/, GJhnk okw f;zx EzB/ ftZu fojkfJF oy e/ feZbkQ wko
ns/ nkb/ d[nkb/ d/ fJbke/ B{z ;o eo/, ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk, ;odko
i[nkbk f;zx GVQkDhnk s/ ;odko db f;zx f;ohBro s/ pkokw{b/ ofjD ns/ fwZ;o
dhtB uzd dh ;jkfJsk eoB . dhtkB d/th dk; B{,z i' fj;kp feskp dk uzrk ikD{
;h, eFwho dh nkwdBh s/ ]ou ;zpzXh fog'oN eoB bJh G/fink frnk . fwZ;o
dhtkB uzd B{z gZeh skrhd ehsh rJh fe eFwho d/ t;BheK dk g{ok soQK fynkb
oZfynk ikt/ ns/ fe;/ B{z Gh fe;/ fe;w dh e'Jh sebhca Bk gj[uz kJh ikt/ .2
3. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[ stkohy, dcaso d'w, 246-60l bshc, fj;Nh n"c dh gzikp, 417-
18l pkpk gqw/ f;zx, joh f;zx Bb{nk, 72-86 .
4. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w 259
fJ; w[fjzw ftZu ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko i[nkbk f;zx GVQkDhJ/
s/ ;odko db f;zx dh pjkdoh dh wjkoki/ B/ pVh gqF;z k ehsh s/ T[BKQ d/ tehbK
B{z pVhnK ehwsh g'FKeK p]FhnK .
eFwho dk gfjbk jkew dhtkB w'sh okw w[eoZ o ehsk frnk, go u{fz e T[E/
dhnk r[Mz bk B{z T[j uzrh soQK ;[bMk Bk ;fenk fJ; bJh T[; dh irQk ;odko joh
f;zx Bb{J/ B{z G/fink frnk .1

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, 259-611; pkpk gq/w f;zx, joh f;zx
Bb{nk, 91
6

wkJh ;dk e"o dk wkwbk

;zws 1878 w[skpe ;zB 1821 Jh;th ftZu wjkoki oDihs f;zx s/ T[BKQ
dh ;Z; wkJh ;dk e"o eBQJhnk ftZu e[M Bkok}rh j' rJh . ekoB fJj ;h fe
wjkoki/ d/ d' Fkj}kd/ ezto F/o f;zx ns/ ezto skok f;zx wkJh ;dk e"o dh bVeh
wjkokDh wfjskp e"o dh e[Zy'I ;B . fJj w[ZY s'I jh f}nkdk nkgDh BkBh gk; fojk
eod/ ;B . T[BQK B/ e;pk pNkbk wkJh ;kfjp gk;'I wzfrnk . wkJh ;dk e"o fJj d/
Dk BjhI ukj[zdh ;h . fJ; eoe/ j"bh j"bh nkg; ftZu Bkok}rh tXdh rJh . wkJh
;dk e"o eJh tkoh wjkoki/ B{z tZX xZN Gh p'b fdnk eodh ;h . nr;s d/ nk]ho
ftZu id wjkokik ;kfjp soB skoB s'I fJFbkB eo e/ nzfwqs;o nkJ/ s/ fJE'I 9
;szpo B{z tkg; bkj"o g[iZ / sK T[BKQ fdBK ftZu rkw'I ]kB d'jK gkf;nK s'I rZb pks eo
fojk ;h, go e'Jh c?;bk j[d z k B}o BjhI ;h nkT[d I k . 5 nes{po B{z d[;fjok eo e/
d{;o/ fdB id wjkokik ;kfjp Fkjdo/ ijKrho pkdFkj d/ wepo/ wBe/o/ dh
w[fjzw bJh cai" dk w[nkfJBk eoB bJh g[iZ / sK ]po gj[uz h fe wkJh ;dk e"o Bkok}
j' e/ fpBK o[];s d/ jh nkgD/ w[be B{z s[o rJh j? . wjkoki/ B/ ;odko d/;k f;zx
wihmhJ/ B{z G/fink fe fit/I j't/ wkJh B{z w'V e/ b? nkt? . ;odko d/;k f;zx B/ XkJh
eoe/ bkj"o'I pkoK e'j s/ fgzv g[b g[Zi e/ wkJh ;dk e"o B{z w"V fbnKdk s/ Fkjdo/
Bkb b? nkfJnk . wkJh ;dk e"o B/ fJE/ nk e/ pVh ]crh }kjo ehsh s/ eJh e[M
T[uk BhtK Gh p'b rJh s/ fJj Gh Xweh fdZsh fe T[j gzikp SZv e/ nzr}/q h fJbke/ B{z
s[o ikJ/rh s/ tZXDh dk febQk s/ fJbkek nzr}q/ K dh fjcak}s ftZu eo d/tr / h . fJj
rZb e/tb Xweh sZe jh Bk ojh pbfe wkJh B/ nzr}/q K B{z fuZmh Gh fby fdZsh s/ T[BKQ
tZXDh ftZu nkgDk mkDk th fpmk fdZsk, i' nzrq/}K B{z B/ ;Zs ;kb fgZS'I ;zws 1885
fpeqwh, ;zB 1828 Jh;th, ftZu wjkoki/ d/ jtkb/ ehsk . fJ; t/b/ vo ;h fe d/F
ftZu n?tI/ e'Jh npsoh Bk c?b ikt/ feT[fI e fJ; t/b/ wkJh B{z r[;Z k nkfJnk j'fJnk ;h
s/ r[;Z / ftZu pzdk eJh tkoh jkBh bkG BjhI ;'u ;edk . wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;odko
d/;k f;zx whihmhJ/, ;odko eow f;zx ukjb s/ w[BFh fFt fdnkb B{z G/fink fe
wkJh d/ Bkb ik e/ febQk ]kbh eotk bt'I . wkJh B/ nzsorsh b[et/I s"o s/ nkgD/
mkD/dkoK B{z fuZmhnK fby fdZshnK fe vZN e/ w[ekpbk eoB . ;odkoK B/ fJ; rZb dh
]po wjkoki/ B{z gj[zuk fdZsh s/ j'o ca"i wzr xZbh . fJ; go wjkoki/ B/ ;odko
irs f;zx nNkohtkb/ ns/ ;odko i? f;zx ns/ gqskg f;zx B{z e[we bJh G/fink .
fJ; s'I fpBQK i/jbw'I f;Z;o dhtkB uzd s/ j'o ;odkoK B{z Gh fJ;/ ezw bJh fB:s
ehsk . u[Bkfu fw;Z;o dhtB nkfd B/ rkw' ]kB Bkb fwb e/ pNkbk s/ nNZb rVQ
nkfd fefbQnK s/ ep}k eo fbnk . fJ; s'I pknd wjkoki/ B/ fJ; fJbke/ dk gqpXz
;odko d/;k f;zx wihmhJ/ d/ ;g[od ehsk .1

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, 290-92, 377; p{N/ Fkj, stkohfy
gzikp, dcso gziw, 190-1 .
7

nNe T[s/ uVQkJh

fJ; t/b/ e[d


z hnK, GeZo s/ wBe/o/ tZb dk d"ok eo e/ wjkokik ;kfjp gfjbh
iwkdh-T[b-nZtb ;zB 1237 fjioh w[skpe 26 iBtoh 1822 Jh;th B{z bkj"o
gj[uz rJ/ ;B . S/sh jh pknd ]poK g[iZ DhnK F[o{ j' rJhnK fe w[jwz d n}hw ]kB
pkoe}Jh nzdo'i nzdo fsnkoh eo e/ e'Jh T[gZdo yVk eoB tkbk j? fi; dk
ibdh jh gqpzX j' ikDk }o{oh j? .
12 iwkdh-T[-;kBh, 7 wkou 1822, B{z id fe j'bh d/ fdBK d/ dopko ftZu
pkjo d/ tehbK B{z p]FhFk fwb ojhnK ;B, wjkokik ;kfjp B/ fwZ;o dhtkB uzd
B{z fJeZb tKM/ fbik e/ j[ew fdZsk fe fJbkjh p]F, fFt gqFkd s/ w}jo nbh B{z
;D/ s'g]kB/ d/ nNe tZb B{z s'o fdZsk frnk j? s/ T[j eZeV frZb s/ gsD'I dfonk
gko j' rJ/ jB, s/ S/sh jh nNe g[iZ ikDr/ s/ s[jkB{z th cai" ;w/s ;odkoK d/ Bkb
ibdh jh g[iZ ikDk ukjhdk j? . dhtkB feogk okw B{z th j[ew G/i fdZsk frnk j? s/
T[j ekb/ pkr'I uZb e/ S/sh jh nNe T[BQK d/ Bkb nk ob/rk ns/ sh;o/ fdB 14
iwkdh-T[-;kBh B{z fwZ;o dhtkB uzd B{z fJZe jkEh s/ ]k; f]bns d/ e/ dfonkUII gko
s'o fdZsk ns/ ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko irs f;zx s/ ;odko db
f;zx B{z th gZeh ehsh rJh fe T[j th S/sh jh nNe d/ febQ/ B{z e{u eo ikD .
fwZ;o dhtkB uzd, ;odko Fkw f;zx s/ d{;o/ ;oeod/ XkJh eo e/ nNe
gj[uz rJ/ . T[EI' fwZ;o dhtkB uzd B/ wjkokik B{z ;kok jkb fby G/fink . fJj no}h
;zws 1879 d/ t;kyh tkb/ fdB 11 ngqb ? ;zB 1822 B{z wjkokik gk; nzfwqs;o
g[iZ h . fJ; ftZu fbfynk j'fJnk ;h fe w[jwz d n}hw ]kB pkoe}Jh fgFkto nkfJnk
j'fJnk j? s/ T[; B{z :{;ca}Jh e"w d/ e[M f;oeZYK B/ e;wK s/ e"b fJeoko eo e/
nkgD/ gk; p[bkfJnk j? . T[; B/ nkgD/ e[m w'jspo o'e oewK d/ e/ pby s/ ezXko
tZb G/i/ jB fe fisBh th ca"i fwb ikJ/ fJeZmh eo fbnktD . T[; dh Bh:s e[M
]okph g?dk eoB dh j? . fJ; bJh e'Jh tkfenk j' ikD s'I gfjbK gfjbK jh i'
fJbki eo fbnk ikt/ sK uzrk j? . gfjbK }o{oh rZb fJj j? fe b[eF fSgD
tkbhnK gjkVh yZvK ;kc eo fdZshnK ikD . u{Bz Kfu wjkokik ;kfjp B/ fJ; }o{oh s/
ibdh dh b'V B{z nB[Gt eo e/ ekcah frDsh ftZu T[E/ p/bdko G/iD dh skrhdh
j[ew ikoh eo fdZs/ .
wjkokik ;kfjp tb'I fwZ;o dhtkB uzd ;odko Fkw f;zx s/ j'o ;odkok d/
;D/ s'g]kfBnK s/ c"iK d/ nNe nk g[iZ D ns/ c"ih fsnkohnK s/ gjkVK dhnK yZvK
B{z ;kca eotkJ/ ikD dhnK ]poK id w[jwz d n}hw ]kB s/ fgFkto ;[DhnK sK T[;
B/ nkgdhnK }kjok fsnkohnK fYZbhnK eo fdZshnK s/ ekpb B{z w[V frnk . fJ; d/
w[V ikD Bkb nNe d/ rtKY ftZu ;[yZ FKsh j' rJh s/ fwZ;o dhtkB uzd, ;odko
Fkw f;zx s/ j'o ;odko c"iK ;w/s bkj"o B{z w[V rJ/ .1
ªoJh;kfB gzikp« ftZu fbfynk j? fe ;odko Fkw f;zx rzYrVQ, m/oh, Boh
Bkoh, d[mo/ h, ijKrhoK ns/ :{;ca}Jh dhnK bVkJhnK ftZu bfVnk ;h .2

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, 295-96


2. jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh, oJh;kfB gzikp 65. j'o d/y' frqfcB, gzikp uhca; (1890),
fibd 1, 241
8

;:Zd nfjwd po/bth d/ fto[ZX w[fjzw

;zB 1826 ftZu po/bh dk fJe ;Z:d nfjwd pzrkb, fpjko ns/ :{ gh d/
nzrq/}h fJbke/ s'I o[gfJnk s/ nkdwh fJeZm/ eo e/ f;ZyK fto[ZX ijkd dh fsnkoh
Bkb ;ojZd s/ nk g[iZ k s/ gmkDK B{z nkgD/ Bkb obk fbnk .1 ;zB 1827 d/ nkozG
ftZu :{;c}Jh gjkVhnK ftzu gzisko d/ w[ekw s/ nk frnk .
wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ ;odko p[X f;zx ;zXktkbhJ/ B{z ca"i d/ e/ ;Z:d d/
fto[XZ w[fjzw s/ G/fink . ijKrhok d/ w[ekw s/ ;Z:d d/ ;kEh gmkDK Bkb fJZe bVkJh
j' gJh fi; ftzu gmkDK B{z jko j'Jh . go u{fz e ;ojZd s/ ;kok w[byZJhnk w}jph i'F
tZu nkfJnk j'fJnk ftrV fojk ;h fJ; bJh wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;odko Fkw f;zx
s/ ;odko irs f;zx nNkohtkfbnK B{z eJh j}ko o[gfJnk fJBkw d/ e/ ijkdhnK
d/ fto[XZ ;odko p[X f;zx dh ;jkfJsk eoB bJh Bh:s ehsk . fJBQK s'I fpBQK okik
;[u/s f;zx, r[bkp f;zx s/ iwkdko y[Fkb f;zx B{z th wZdd bJh s'fonk . ]kb;k
c"iK otK othI g[iZ gJhnK s/ 8 cZrD 1883, 23 cotoh ;zB 1827, B{z ne'Vk dh
izr ftZu ;:Zd B{z jko d/ e/ Gik fdZsk .
wjkoki/ B/ id fJ; fiZs dh ]po g[iZ h sK T[; B/ ][Fh ftZu ehwsh f]bnsK,
x'V/ nkfd ;odko p[X f;zx ;zXktkbhnk, ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/ s/ j'o
;odkoK bJh fw;Zo p/bh okw d/ jZE nNe G/i/ .2
go ;:Zd d/ Gi fBebD Bkb T[; dk ;kok }'o g{oh soQK N[NZ BjhI ;h ;fenk
. T[; B/ f;ZXk ;kwQD/ Nkeok eoB dh EK fJe okshI nukBe jh j}o'I s/ ik jZbk
wkfonk s/ e[M b[N wko ik ehsh . go S/sh jh fgZS'I f;zx th g[Zi rJ/ s/ ijkdh GZi
fBeb/ . fJ; rZb B/ ;okdo p[ZX f;zx B{z :ehB d[nk fdZsk fe fJj g{ophJ/ ijkdh
1. fwo}k j?os d/jbth, j:kfs sZJh:pk 299 .
2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, 338-341; fwo}k j?os, j:ks sZJh:pk,
161-162 .
f;oca b[N/o/g[Dk jh ikDd/ jB, w?dkB ftZu ;kjwD/ yb' e/ ;{ophoK tKC bVB dh
fJBQK dh fjzws BjhI j? . fwo}k j?os fbydk j? fe ªj}o' T[s/ oks d/ jZb/ B/
ijkdhnK dh db/oh T[s/ ekfJosk dk XZpk bk fdZsk ;h .« u{Bz kfu ;odko p[X f;zx B/
;Z:d nfjwd B{z fJe fiZmh fby fe ¿oks B{z XkV/ wkoBk s/ p/]pfonK T[s/ jfEnko
ubkT[Dk pjkdoK dk sohek BjhI, eh ekoB j? fe s{z nkg w?dkB ftZu BjhI nkT[dI k s/
jZEI' jZEh bVkJh ftzu nkg'I nkgDh fe;ws dk c?;a bk BjhI eo b?dI k .À go ;:Zd b/
fJ; dk e'Jh f;ZXk T[so d/D dh EK n?t/I Nkb-wN'b eo fdZsk .1
;Z:d nfjwd s/ T[; d/ ;kEhnK B/ w[V w[V jZb/ eoB s/ b[N wko wukT[D d/
:sB ehs/ go e'Jh g/F Bk rJh ns/ jo EK B[e;kB T[mk e/ jko ykDh gJh . j[D fJBQK
B/ fgFkto d/ gmkDK Bkb :kokBk rzfYnk s/ gZybh nkfd d/ w[;bwkB ;odkoK B{z
Bkb fwbk fbnk .
go fJj :kokB/ pj[s d/o sZe fBG Bk ;e/ . ;zB 1829 ftZu ijkdhnK B/
fgFkto T[s/ ep}k eoB dk :sB ehsk . bVkJh ftZu ;odko :ko w[jzwd ]kB
pkoe}Jh, i' wjkokik oDihs f;zx tb'I T[E/ dk jkew ;h, }]wh j' frnk s/ T[; dh
c"i d/ g?o T[yV rJ/ . go fJscke Bkb fJ; t/b/ ezto F/o f;zx s/ iBob t?sI o{ k,
i' b?bk x'Vk b?D bJh rJ/ j'J/ ;B fJZE/ w"i{d ;B . fJ; eoe/ ;Z:d nfjwd B{z
fgZS/ jN ikDk fgnk . S/sh jh fgZSI' :ko w[jwz d ]kB r[io frnk s/ wjkokik ;kfjp
d/ j[ew nB[;ko ezto F/o f;zx B/ :ko w[jwz d ]kB d/ Gok ;[bskB w[jwz d ]kB B{z
fgFkto dk jkew w[eoZ o eo fdZsk s/ nkg w[V nkfJnk .
fJXo ;cabsk Bk j'D go ;:Zd nfjwd B/ i{B 1830 ftZu eFwho tZb B[z
tZXD dk :sB ehsk, go nzp d/ jkew gkfJzdk ]kB B/ o;sk o'e fdZsk s/ ;odko
joh f;zx Bb{nk s/ iBob nbkod B/ fJBQK dhnK nk;K T[s/ gkDh c/o fdZsk . fJ;
bJh ;:Zd B{z wip{o j' e/ f;zX dfonk s'I gko NZg ikDk fgnk .2
e[M wjhfBnK dh fsnkoh fgZS'I ;Z:d nfjwd B/ w[V fgFkto s/ jZbk p'b
fdZsk . ;[bskB w[jwz d ijkdhnK dk Nkeok Bk eo ;eD eo e/ fgFkto SZv e/ GZi
frnk, go f;zx dh c"i g[i g?D s/ ;:Zd c/o gjkVk B{z d"V frnk . gF"ok f;zx d/ w[V

1. fwoik j?os, j:kfs sZJh:pk, 165-6 .


2. bshca, fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp, 441-2; j:kfs s'Jhpk 167-188; ;'jB bkb
T[wdks[ stkohfy, dcso d'w .
ikD s/ ;[bskB w[jwz d B/ ;Z:d nfjwd dh JhB wzB bJh s/ T[; d/ j[ew nB[;ko
je{ws eoB bZrk .5 j[D ;?eI fVnK dh frDsh ftZu ijkdh Hk}h ;odkoh nj[fdnK
T[s/ w[eoZ o j' rJ/ . skes jZE ftZu nkT[dI / jh fJBQK B/ nZs u[eZ bJh . f;ZyK s/ fjzdn{ k
dk sK nkyDk jh eh j'fJnk, w[;bwkBK T[s/ th nefj s/ n;fj }[bw F[o{ j' rJ/ .
fJ; Hk}h-rdoh dk BeFk fwo}k j?os B/ nkgDh feskp ªj:kfs sJh:pk« ftZu
fJ; soQK fyfunk j? L
¿fJe fJe S'N/ S'N/ f}b/, Ffjo s/ fgzv ftZu fJe fJe nwkb ;:Zd ;kfjp
tb'I fB:s j'fJnk j'fJnk ;h . T[j fpjiok gqpXz eh ;[nkj eo ;edk ;h . Fohns
dh nkV ftZu g[mZ / f;ZX/ Bt/I Bt/I j[ew fpuko/ Hohp jbtkjK T[s/ ikoh eodk ;h ns/
T[j T[ca se BjhI ;B eo ;ed/ . ykDk, ghDk, p?mDK, T[mDk, ftnkj eoBk T[BQK
tk;s/ ;G jokw j' frnk ;h . Bk e'Jh gqpzXe s/ Bk e'Jh g[ZSD tkbk ;h . wkw{bh
wkw{bh rZbK T[s/ e[co dk castk j' ikDk e'Jh rZb jh BjhI ;h . ekF fe w"bkBk
(Fkj w[zjwd fJ;wkJhb) Fjhd fgFkto dk jkew j[zdk sK fgF"ohnK T[s/ fJj
}[bw Bk j[d z k . fe;/ dhnk tXhnK j'JhnK bpK (w[SZ K) t/yd/ sK T[; d/ p[b Z Q jh tYtk
fdzd/ . frZfNnK s'I j/mK fe;/ dk sfjws (sfjpzd =szpk) BiohI g?d I k, sK T[; dk frZN/
jh T[Vtk fdZs/ iKd/ . ;ko/ fgFkto d/ w[be ftZu nkcs Sk ojh ;h . je{w dk
fJzs}kw w;hsK d/ T[BKQ w[bkfDnK d/ jZE ;h fiBQK B{z w;hs d/ v'b s/ bZi s'i fpBK
j'o fe;/ uh} Bkb edh tkj jh BjhI ;h fgnk . j[D fJBQK B{z ;bsBs d/ ezwK d/
gqpzXe pDk fdZsk . j'o nBQ/o fJj ;h fe fJBQK d/ T[go e'Jh jkew w[eZoo BjhI ;h
fi; gk; gpfbe nghb eo/ . fJBQK jh ikjbK d/ ca?;b/ nk]oh ;wM/ ikd/ ;B,,,,,
fej' fijk r[Mz bdko w[ed Z wk th feT[I Bk j[d z k T[; dh xVh go th y'i gVskb Bk
ehsh iKdh s/ Bk e[M ;'funk iKdk . p; w[b Z K ihd/ e'b w[ed Z wk nkfJnk s/ T[BKQ B/
MZN c?a;bk d/ fdZsk . e"D Me Me eo/ s/ gVskb dh sebhca T[mkt/ .À6
fJZE/ jh pZ; BjhI ;h . fJBQK wB-wZfsnK s/ ekw-tkFBk Bkb nzBQ/ j'fJnk

5. bshc fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp, j: fs-s'Jh:pk 182 .


6. j:kfs sZJh:pk, 193 .
j'fJnk B/ b'eK dhnK B{jz K XhnK dh fJZ}s nkpo{ dk th e'Jh gk; Bk oZfynk s/ i'ohI
T[BKQ Bkb fBekj eoB/ F[o{ eo fdZs/ . j:kfssZJh:pk, ftZu fbfynk j? fe L-
ªrk}hnK dhnK tXhehnK jZd s'I f}nkdk tZX rJhnK ;B . T[j eJh tko
B"itkB fJ;sqhnK B{z wip{o eod/ ;B fe T[BKQ Bkb fBekj eo b?D, ns/ eJh tkoh
fJj d/fynk frnk fe d' fszB eztkohnK bVehnK ik ojhnK jB, ijkdhnK ftZuI' fe;/
fJe nkdwh B/ T[BQK B{z cV fbnk s/ i'ohI w;hs ftZu fbik e/ fBekj gVQk fbnk .
(gzBk 192)
ªfJe B" itkB fJ;sqh BjhI ukj[zdh fe T[; dk d{;ok fBekj j't/, go ijkdh
}'o d/ fojk j? fe BjhI, j'Dk ukjhdk j? . nk]ho wk fgT[ nkgDh B"itkB bVeh B{z
ijkdh d/ jtkb/ eo fdzd/ . fJ; s'I fpBQK T[BQK bJh j'o e'Jh ukok BjhI ;h .« (gzBk
193)
ªfJe castk ;:Zd nfjwd dh w'jo j/mK fJ; soQK dk ikoh j'fJnk fe
fgFkto d/ w[be ftZu fisBhnK ftXtk jB T[BQK dk fszBK fdBK d/ nzdo nzdo
fBekj j' ikD/ io{oh jB, BjhI sK fi; d/ xo p/-fBekjh ftXtk ofj rJh, T[; d/ xo
B{z nZr bk fdZsh ikt/rh .« (gzBk 194)
ªu{fz e nkg (;:Zd nfjwd) d/ ;kEh tsB'I d{o ;B ns/ T[BKQ B{z }BkBhnK dh
b'V ;h, fJ; bJh nkg B/ fJe caowkB ikoh ehsk fe fisBhnK eztkohnK bVehnK
jB, i/ pkoK fdBK d/ nzdo T[BQK d/ ftnkj Bk eo fdZs/ rJ/ sK T[BQK B{z ijkdhnK
tk;s/ ;kv/ BkfJp dh f]dws ftZu jk}o ehsk ikJ/rk .« (gzBk 197)
fJ; gqeko dhnK tXhehnK s'I j'o }[bwK B/ fJe nZX/ wjhB/ ftZu fgF"oh
w[;bwkBK dk th BZe ftZu dw b? nKdk s/ ijkdhnK dk ;kok n;o fJe dw jh XzJz{ /
I d/ pdbK tkr T[V frnk . fJj rZb ;zB 1831 d/ nkozG dh j? . j[D wjkokik
oDihs f;zx B/ ezto F/o f;zx B{z skehdh j[ew fdZs/ fe fgFkto gj[zu e/ ;:Zd
nfjwd s/ T[; d/ ;kEh ijkdhnK dh F'oF dk ;dk bJh gZeh soQK ]kswk eo/ . 5-
6 u/s ;zws 1888, 16-17 wkou ;zB 1831, B{z ezto F/o f;zx dh fuZmh g{ih fe
]bhck ;:Zd nfjwd B/ w[}cZ o d/ febQ/ B{z nkeh ehsk j'fJnk jh? . fJ; d/ T[so ftZu
wjkokik ;kfjp B/ fby G/fink fe S/sh jh T[E/ c"ia K G/ihnK ikDrhnK ns/ eFwho'I
th j'o cai" ibdh jh ;jkfJsk bJh gj[uz ikt/rh, uzrk j't/ fe u/s ftZu fJ; w[fjzw
B{z ]sw eoe/ T[j ft;kyh B{z dopko ;kfjp d/ doFB s/ fJFBkB bJh ;qh nzfwqs;o
ih gj[zu ikt/ . fJ; t/b/ ;odko Fkw f;zx Gh ezto ;kfjp d/ Bkb jh ;h .1
;zws 1888 dh ft;kyh (11 ngqb ? 1831) tkb/ fdB wjkokik ;kfjp B/ okw
pkr ;qh nzfwqs;o s'I ezto F/o f;zx d/ Bkw gotkBk G/fink fe ;odko wjK f;zx EkB/dko
j}kok ns/ ;odko csfj f;zx wkB B{z T[BKQ dh c"i ;D/ w[icZ okpkd SZv e/ nkg ;odko
Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko nso f;zx ekfbnKtkb/, ;odko i? f;zx nNkohtkb/,
;odko csfj f;zx wkB d/ g[sZ o irs f;zx, ;kX{ f;zx, oD f;zx, r[ow[y f;zx ukjb s/
r[ow[y f;zx bzC/ dhnK c"iK ;w/s w[icZ opkd s'I e[u eo e/ eFwho d/ gqpXz bJh pkokw{b/
gj[uz ikD .2
go fJj w[fjzw g"Dk e[ wjhBk }ok f}nkdk bwe rJh, fJ; bJh ezto ;kfjp d/
eFwho B{z ikD ftZu fYZb g? rJh . ;:Zd B/ pVhnK x[;kJhnK wkoB d/ :sB ehs/ go nzs
pkbke'N d/ w[ekw s/ ;:Zd nfjwd, T[; dk BkfJp w[jwz d fJ;wkfJb s/ T[BKQ d/ ;kEh
ijkdhnK s/ jwkfJshnK B{z x/o fbnk frnk ns/ 6 wJh ;zB 1837 (24 }h« edk 1246
fjioh) fdB F[eotko dh bVkJh ftZu fJj d'BI ' wko/ rJ/ s/ ijkdh fsZso fpZso j' e/ GZi
fBeb/ .3 fJ; soQK gzi ;kb dh gZy d/ pknd ;ojZd T[s/ w[v nwB nwkB j' frnk .
3 i/m, 14 wJh 1831, B{z casfj dh ]po wjkokik ;kfjp B{z r[odk;g[o gj[uz h s/
T[BKQ B/ pVh y[Fh wBkJh . 12 i/m B{z dhtkB t;kyk f;zx dh no}h s'I gsk bZrk fe ;:Zd
nfjwd dh b'E dk jo gqeko ;fseko ehsk frnk s/ fJe pj[wb Z[ k d'Fkbk T[go gk e/
dcaBk fdZsk frnk j? .
wjkokik ;kfjp d/ j[ew Bkb ezto F/o f;zx, ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkb/ s/ j'o
;odko bkj"o B{z w[V nkJ/ . 24 i/m B{z wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;odko joh f;zx B{z ezto ;kfjp
s/ ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ ;Pkrs bJh j[ew fdZsk s/ T[j ;t/o/ jh ;tko j' e/ gj[uz rJ/ . ezto

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, fjZ;k ntZb, 22


2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, fjZ;k ntZb, 22
3. j:kfs-sZJh:pk, 199-205, 309 .
;kfjp B/ 51 ;[Bfjoh p[sehnK s/ fJe x'Vk B}o g/F ehsk s/ w[fjzw dk ;kok jkb p/Bsh
ehsk . d{;o/ fdB 25 i/m w[skpe 5 i{B 1831 B{z ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk, i? f;zx
s/ gqskp f;zx ;w/s ezto F/o f;zx Bkb wjkokik ;kfjp dh ;/tk ftZu jk}o j'J/ ns/ 15
p[sehnK, 9 pzde{ K, ekophbk s/ swKu/, 3 Mzv/ s/ fJe ]bhck ;:Zd nfjwd dh nkgDh
;tkoh dk jkEh g/F ehs/ . wjkokik ;kfjp B/ pj[s gq;Bz sk gqrN ehsh s/ pj[wb
Z / gFwhB/
dhnK f]bnsK fJBkw p]FhnK . jkV dh ;zrKq d tkb/ fdB wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;odko
Fkw f;zx dh pjkdoh dh edo eod/ j'J,/ i' T[BKQ B/ ;:Zd nfjwd d/ fto[X w[fjzw ftZu
fdykJh ;h, fJe FwF/o T[BKQ B{z pyFh .1

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso d'w, fjZ;k ntZb, 32, 35, 45-7, 50
9

bcafNB?N nb?ria?Ivo poBia dh nkU-Grs

fJBQK fdBK ftZu b?cafNB?IN nb?ria?Ivo poBia fJzrfb;skB d/ pkd;akj


tZbI' wjkokik oDihs f;zx bJh gzi x'V,/ tiaho bkov n?bBpo', gqi? ha v?NI fJzvhnk
p'ov, tZbI' fJZe fwsokBk fuZmh s/ Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh dh fjzd;[ skB dh je{ws tZbI'
fJZE pZXh s'jca/ d/ s"o s/ b? e/ ;sb[i dfonk d/ o;s/ bkj"o B{z nk fojk ;h.
fJzrfb;skB s'I x'V/ s/ fuZmh ;zB 1830 ftZu pzpJh gj[zu rJ/ ;B. ;o
i"B w?bew rtoBo pzpJh dh f;cako;a T[Zs/ ezgBh dh fjzd[;skB dh rtoBw?IN B/
eZS d/ fJZe g'bhNheb nca;o b?cfa NB?NI nb?riav? o poBia B{z u[fDnk fe T[j fJBQK
s'jfcanK d/ Bkb dfonk f;zX s/ ;sb[i d/ o;s/ f;Zy okiXkBh B{z ikt/. dfonk d/
o;s/ fJBQK uhiK B{z G/iD ftZu fJZe yak; g'bhNheb G/d ;h s/ T[j fJj ;h fe Jh;N
fJzvhnk ezgBh f;zX ftZu ijkia-okBh B{z g'bhNheb s/ siakosh Biao s'I pVk iao{oh
;wMdh ;h, go u{fz e T[BKQ B{z j?dokpkd s'H T[gZ o dfonk ns/ w[be ;pzXh g{oh-g{oh
tkecah BjhI ;h fJ; bJh T[BKQ B/ fJ; wsbp B{z g{ok eoB bJh fJj ftT{sI pDkJh
;h. go c/o fJj fyankb g?dk j'fJnk fe feXo/ f;zX ;oeko B{z e'Jh ;aeZ s/ vo jh Bk
g? ikD, fJ; bJh b?cfa NB?NI eoBb j?Boh g"fNzio B/ fJj ;bkj fdZsh fe fJZe tZvh
;koh pZXh th x'fVnK d/ Bkb G/i fdZsh ikt/ sK fe T[; dk fts s/ nkekko t/y e/
dfonk d/ o;s/ ikD pkps s;Zbh j' ikt/. fJ; fBt/eb/ o;s/ s/ ikD ;pzXh ;aeZ dh
r[zikfJ;a B{z j'o th xZN eoB bJh f;zx d/ nwhoK bJh th e[M s'jca/ poBia gk;
xZb fdZs./ T[BKQ Bkb e[M oki;h rZb-pks bJh fuZmh-gZso th T[; B{z d/ fdZs./ poBia
dh fJcakias bJh Bkb e'Jh cai" G/iD dh EK T[; B{z nkfrnk d/ fdZsh fe T[j fiZEI' dh
r[iao/, T[E'I d/ b'eK ftu'I jh u"ehdko oZy bt/. go fJj ;kohnK u"e;hnK poBia d/
nzdo{Bh we;d B{z fSgkT[D bJh ;B, fijVk fe dfonk f;zX s/ ;sb[i ns/ fJBQK
d/ nkb/-d[nkb/ d/ w[be B{z g'bhNheb s/ sikosh wsbp bJh eZSDk, wkgDk s/ T[EI'
d/ jkewK s/ b'eK pkps g{oh-g{oh tkecah jk;b eoBk ;h. fJBQK rZbK dk fiaeo
;oeko pzpJh d/ uhca ;?efoNoh dh piBia d/ Bkw y[cahnk fuZmh ftZu j?. fJ; ftZu
fJj th fbfynk j'fJnk j? fe f;zX dfonk ftZu T[Zgo B{z ikD t/b/ p/VhnK dh wZmh
ukb T[; B{z nkgDh y'i gVskb bJh ekcah w"e/ pDk d/tr / h. eZSD-wkgD dk ;kok
;kwkB th poBia B{z J/;/ wsbp bJh d/ fdZsk frnk s/ fJZe ;ot/no i"B vh L b?eZ h
T[; d/ Bkb G/fink frnk .1
w/;B fbydk J/ fe f;zX B{z sikos bJh y'fbQnk nkyDk fJZe Ye";I bk jh ;h.
fJ; dh sfj ftZu b[eh j'Jh g"fb;h dk Bshik fJBQK w[beK ftZu ca"iK fbnkT[Dk s/
cai" h wsbp bJh nZXh e[ doiB p/VhnK dk ubkT[Dk ;h.2 ;o ukob; w?NZ ekca fJ;
b[et/I Yzr kb f;zX dfonk ns/ nkb/ d[nkb/ d/ d/;aK d/ BkgD-eZSD B{z fJZe pVh
e'Mh s/ fBzdBh: ukbkeh dZ;dk j? s/ fJ; dh iao' dko fBy/Xh eodk j'fJnk efjzdk j?
fe nzro/iah je{ws dh ;akb d/ fto[ZX ;h .3
nb?riavI? o poBia eZS dh pzdorkj wKvth s'I 21 iBtoh 1831 B{z
ufbnk ns/ pVhnK w[;fa ebK Bkb f;zX ftZu jh j[dz k j'fJnk ;tk uko wjhfBnK fgZSI'

1. poB}, No?tb} fJzN{ p[ykok, fibd sh;oh, 1-5l fgqz;?g, wjkokik oDihs f;zx, 153-54 .
j'o d/y' w/;B, B?o/fNt n"c tohn; BoBh}, fibd sh;oh, 432 .
2. The Government of India and of England, as well as the public at
large, were never amused and deceived by a greater fallacy than that of
opening the Indus as regards the commercial object. The results of the
policy concealed under this pretext have been the introduction of troops in
the countries on and beyond the river, and of some half a dozen steamers
on the Stream itself, employed for warlike, objects, not for those Masson,
Narrative of Various Journies, iii, 432.
3. The Scheme of surveying the Indus, under the pretence of sending a
Present to Rajas Runjeet Singh, seems to me highly objectionable.
It is a trick in my opinion, unworthy of our Government, which cannot
fail when detected, as most probably it will be, to excite the jealousy and
indignation of the powers on whom we play it.
It is just such a trick as we are often falsely suspected and accused of by the
the native powers of India, and this confirmation of their suspicions,
generally unjust, will do more injury by furnishing the ground of merited
reproach, than any advantage to be gained by the measure can compensate....
To demand a passage for our officers under a fictitious pretence, and then
to take advantage of the civility of the rulers of Sind to do that which we are
concious would not be allowed, appears to me to be ungenerous and
unfair," – Kaye, Selections from the Papers of Lord Metcalf, 211-12.
27 wJh B{z pjktbg[o dh ;ojZd s/ gj[fz unk fiZE/ fe Btkp pjktb yakB dkT{dg's/q
tb'I G/i/ rJ/ w?jwkBdko r[bkw edko yakB B/ T[; dk ;[nkrs ehsk. 5 i{B B{z yad [
Btkp Bkb w[bkeks j'Jh s/ 8 i{B B{z poBia s/ T[; dh gkoNh gzikp dh ;ojZd s/
gj[zu/ fiZE/ fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx tb'I ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/ B/ T[; dh
nkU-Grs ehsh .1
poBIa fbydk j? fe f;Zy fJbke/ ftu'I r[ioa B bJh fJzsiakw fpbe[b w[ewz b
;B ns/ w?jwkBdkoh dk gqpzX fJsBk T[dkosk Gfonk ;h fe gkoNh s'H fJbktk
fgzvK d/ fszB ;" j'o raohp nkdwh jo o'ia gq;ka d/ s/ fxU Bkb oZi iKd/ ;B. ;odko
bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/ B/ T[; B{z fJ; rZb dk th :ehB fdbkfJnk fe fJ; ;cao ftZu
fi; fe;/ d/ th y/s dk e'Jh B[e;kB j'tr / k, ;oeko tb'I T[; B{z T[sBh S'N eo fdZsh
2
ikt/rh .
os;/ ftZu sbtko Bkb izrbh ;{o s/ ;ao/ d/ f;aeko ftZu f;ZyK dh db/oh
s/ pjkdo B/ piBia d/ fdb s/ nkgDk f;Zek fpmk fdZsk . okth d/ ezY/ MkT{ d/ MZb
ftu'I fJZe ;ao/ fBeb fgnk s/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx B/ piBia s/ b?eZ h B{z f;aeko d/yD
bJh ;Zdk fdZsk. jkEhI fsnko Bk j'D eoe/ piBia sK Bk frnk go b?eZ h f;zxK Bkb
ob fgnk. MN jh fJZe f;zx B/ ;a/o B{z iaywh eo fdZsk, go u{zfe eJhnK d/ x'V/ ;a/o
s'H vo rJ/ ;B fJ; bJh f;zx x'fVnK s'H T[so e/ g?db j' gJ/ s/ sbtkoK jZE
ftZU b? e/ ;ao/ B{z tzrkoD bJh nZr/ tX/. M[iz bkfJnk j'fJnk ;ao/ pV/ r[;Z / Bkb fJZe
f;zx T[Zs/ e[d fgnk. ni/ T[j T[; f;zx d/ yZp/ w'Y/ s/ fNfenk jh ;h fe f;zx ih B/
sbtko dk fJZe uzrk fNetK tko T[; d/ f;o s/ iV fdZsk. go i'V u{fz e pokpo dk
BjhI ;h, fJ; bJh f;zx j'ohI MzMV' / rJ/ s/ fvZr gJ/. fJsB/ B{z j'o ;kEh Gh g[iZ gJ/ s/
;ao/ B{z wko frokfJnk. fJj ;ao/ fJZe pV/ tZv/ nkeko dk ;h s/ d; c[NZ bzpk ;h s/ T[;
dk gZN fJZe uzr/ i[nkB nkdwh d/ gZN tork ;h .
poBia fbydk j? fe f;ZyK d/ wB dh ;aKsh s/ db/oh :ehB dh jZd'I bzxh
j'Jh j? s/ T[BKQ B{z nkgD/ ;odkoK tb'I pVk T[s;akj fwbdk j?. iaywh j' u[eZ / nGkr/
nkdwh ;pzXh ;tkbK d/ itkp ftZu T[BKQ B/ p/gotkjh Bkb nkfynk fe j'fJnk eh,
nkyao T[j f;Zy j?, T[; B{z uzrk fJBkw fwb/rk . nZr/ T[; B{z fJZe x'Vk s/ ;" o[gJ/

1. poB} No?tb}, fibd sh;oh, 100-1l ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkoh], dcso ;'w,
fjZ;k ntZb, 55
2. poB} No?tb}, fibd sh;oh, 122-23
;kbkBk soZeh fwb u[eZ h j?. ;ao/ dh yZb, f;o s/ gzi/ MN gN jh wjkoki/ gk; G/i fdZs/
rJ/ ;B ns/ T[BKQ tb'H iaywh Bkb j'o th fiankdk T[dkosk Goh feogk dk toskU
j'tr I k j? .1
/ k. fJj T[s;akj fJBQK b'eK B{z fjzd;[ skBhnK ftu'I ;G s'I pjkd[o pDkT[d
wjkokik oDihs f;zx dk fJj d;s{o ;h fe id th e'Jh tZvk gqd;/ h, yak;
eoe/ :o'ghnB, gzikp ftZu nkT[Idk sK T[j pVk y[ZbQ fdbh Bkb T[; dk ;[nkrs
eodk ns/ fJZe yak; tZv/ ;odko iK nfjbeko B{z T[; dk w?jwkBdko fB:s eodk
. ekcah frDsh ftZu B"eo ukeo T[; B{z fdZs/ iKd/ s/ T[; d/ ykD/ dkD/ ns/ xkj -gZm/
dk ;kok gqpXz w?jwkBdko dh d/y Gkb Bkb ;oeko d/ B"eo eod/. fJ; dk ;G s'I
tZvk cakfJdk ;oeko B{z fJj ;h fe fJ; soQK T[; gqd;/ h dh jo fJZe fBZeh w'Nh rZb
dk gsk brdk ofjzdk s/ d/;a ftZu T[; B{z e'Jh b[ethI rZb eo ;eD dk w"ek Bk
fwbdk . w?jwkBdko iK Bkb G/i/ rJ/ w[B;ah iK nyapko-Bth; o'ia d/ o'ia jkbks
fby e/ wjkokik ;kfjp B{z G/id/ ofjzd,/ fiBQK s'H T[BKQ B{z g{oh-g{oh tkecahns g[iZ
iKdh s/ T[j Bkb'I Bkb :'r gqpXz th eoh iKd/ ns/ T[; Bkb w[bkeks bJh g{oh soQK
fsnko j' iKd/.
fi; t/b/ b?cfa BNB?NI piBia d/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/ w?jwkBdko
tZbI' j'J/ ;[nkrs ;pzXh XzBtkd dh fuZmh ns/ ;odko tb'I t/ot/ dh noiah g[iZ h sK
jkVQ ;zws 1888 d/ nkyaoh jcas/ (i[bkJh 1831 d/ d{;o/ jcas/ d/ nkozG ftZu)
wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ s/ yabhck B{odZ[ hB B{z nkfrnk ehsh
fe SKr/ wKr/ d/ w[ekw T[sZ / ik e/ T[; dh nkU-Grs eoB ns/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx
B{z fJBkw ti'I ;'B/ d/ iVkT{ efVnK dh i'Vh G/ih. ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z fJZe jiako gzi

1 The bravery of our Seik friends had been already exhibited to us by their
attacking the wild hog with a sword, on foot; but a nobler specimen of
their couarge was displayed in the death of a tiger...
"The coolness and courage of the Seiks surpass belief; they have great
encouragement from their chiefs. To al my enquiries regarding the
unfortunate man that had been wounded, they replied, with an
ostentation of indifference, that he was but a Seik, would be well
rewarded, and had already received a horse and his annual pay had been
increased an hundred rupees. The skin, head and paws of the tiger were
immediately despatched to the Maharaja, whose bounty will be further
extended to the wounded. This encouragement makes these people the
bravest of the Indians." Burnes - Travels into Bokhara, Vol. iii, 138-140.
;" o[gJhnk gqkj[D/ d/ gq;kd gkDh bJh s/ YkJh ;" f;otkoB/ ti'I fdZsk s/ gzi ;"
o[gJhnK yabhcak B{odZ hB d/ ;g[od j'fJnk. gzMh ;{ow/ x'V-uVQ,/ ;'dkkro e[o;htkbk
ns/ ;kJ/pkB s/ u'pKtkb/ caok;a yabhcak B{od Z[ hB d/ Bkb G/i./ d' ;" oo[gJhnK ;tkoK
d/ yaou bJh, shj o[gJhJ/ ;[dkro bJh s/ ;" o[gJhnK caok;aK bJh fdZsk frnk .
15 i[bkJh 1831 dh ;akw B{z nb?riavI? o poBia dh gkoNh SKr/ wKr/ g[iZ h.
;odko ;akw f;zx nZr/ jh ;[nkrs bJh T[EZ / w"id{ ;h. gfjbh w[bkeks jkEhnK T[sZ /
j'Jh. fwbBh t/b/ ;odko ;akw f;zx s/ T[BKQ d/ ;kEhnK tZbI' ;'B/ dhnK w'joK s/ uKdh
d/ o[gJhnK dhnK E?bhnK f;otkoB/ ti'I g/;a ehshnK rJhnK. ;odko ;akw f;zx B/
fJZe ewkB g/;a ehsh s/ ;[y-;aKs Bkb nk g[iZ D go poBia B{z tXkJh fdZsh s/ pkd;akj
fJzrfb;skB dh ok}h ya[Fh g[ZSh. f;Zy ;odko B// Bkb fJ; t/b/ B/}/dkok dk fJZe
d;sk s/ fJZe f;Zy fo;kbk ;h . f;Zy fo;kb/ B? p;zsh ozr dh todh ;ikJh j'Jh ;h.
fJj T[jh fo;kbk ;h i' ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ Bkb jh ;:Zd nfjwd po/bhtkb/ B{z
fNekD/ bk e/ w[fVnk ;h .
18 i[bkJh B{z fJj gkoNh ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ Bkb bkj"o gjzu[ h id fe
caeho niahiaZ[dhB s/ okik r[bkp f;zx B/ wjkokik ;kfjp tb'I fJBQK dk ;tkrs
ehsk. s/ iBob nbkod d/ pzrb/ fJBQK B{z T[skok fdZsk frnk. 20 i[bkJh dk fdB
poBIa dh wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb w[bkeks bJh fB:s j'fJnk s/ T[; fdB Skj e[ t/b/
fJbQK B{z p[bk fbnk frnk. fwbBh s/ yao? yaohns g[SZ D s'I pknd x'fVnK dk w[bkjiak
j'fJnk s/ bkov n?bBpo' dh fuZmh gVQh rJh. wjkokik ;kfjp B/ pVh y[;ah gqrN
ehsh s/ T[BKQ B{z e[M e[ nkgD/ x'V/ ftykJ/. poBIa wjhBk e[ bkj"o mfjfonk s/ nkb/
d[nkb/ dh ;?o ehsh ns/ 16 nr;s B{z bkj"o'I ftdk j' e/ f;awb/ B{z s[o frnk .
wjkokik ;kfjp ;pzXh poBia fbydk j? fe T[j mkm-pkm ns/ fdykt/ s'I
fpbe[b ofjs j? go sK th T[; d/ dopko dk gZek j'fJnk ;fseko fXnkB :'r j?
. dopko ftZu wjkoki/ dk gfjoktk ;G s'H ;kdk ;h. oDihs f;zx jo rZb ftZu

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k ntZb, 55 .


2. poBia, No?tbia, fibd sh;oh, 144-46 .
3. poBia, No?tbia, fibd sh;oh, 148-68 .
fJZe fBokbk pzdk j?. w?I T[; d/ caoK;h;h nca;oK gk;'I ;[fDnk j? fe e;sBs[Bhnk
s'H b? e/ fjzd[;skB sZe e'Jh nkdwh T[; d/ pokpo dk BjhI j?. fJBQK ;kfonk
coK;h;hnK B/ ftuekob/ oki t/y/ j'J? ;B. oDihs f;zx d/ ;[Gkt ftZu ;G s'I
fiankdk gq;z;k eoB tkbh y{ph T[; dk wB[Zy bJh ofjw Gfonk fgnko j?. id s'I
T[; B? skes jk;b ehsh j? T[; B? edh th fe;/ d';ah B{z w"s dh ;iak BjhI fdZsh.
f;zX'I gkko rkiahnK d/ fto[ZX w[fjzwK dk fiaeo eod/ j'J/ wjkoki/ B/ fejk
*fe T[; dhnK ;kohnK fiZsK T[; dh nkgDh e"w f;zxK dh pjkdoh eoe/ j'JhnK jB
fijV/ fe GowK s'I nkiakd jB, i' nZmK fdBK dk ykDk Bkb fgZm s/ b? iKd/ jB, i/
gkDh dk xkNk j't/ sK y{j g[N b?d I / jB ns/ i/ b'V Gkk;/ sK febQk pDk b?d
I / jB, go
T[j g{ophnK B{z fJj' fij/ ezw eoB bJh BjhI wBk ;edk, T[; B/ fejk s[jkB{z gsk jh
j? fe w/ohnK cai" K dh pjkd[oh B? w/o/ bJh e;awho casfj ehsh ;h, eh s[jkB{z gsk j?
w?I tgko d/ fJ; nkco/ j'J/ t/b/ T[; d/;a d/ g;awhB/ s/ j'o g?dktko B{z fet/I fBp/Vdk
jK. w?I nkgD/ ;odkoK s/ ca"iK B{z fJj uhiaK sByakjK ftu fdzdk jK. fi; t/b/ fe;/
;odko B{z, fi; dh pkeh fszB ;" o[gJhnk pDdh j't/, gzi ;" o[gJ/ dk g;awhBk d/
fdzdk jK sK T[j th pj[s ya[;a j' iKdk j? s/ oki B{z th cakfJdk j' iKdk j? .

1. poBia, No?tbia, fibd sh;oh 154, 161, 167, 163-64 .


2 He is entirely free from pomp and show, yet the studied respect of his
Court is remarkable (p.154.)
Maharaja was the plainest dressed man at his Durbar, (P.161) Ranjit
Singh is, in every respect, an extraordinary character. I have heard his
French Officers observe that he has no equal from Constantinople to
India; and all of them have seen the intermediate powers...... The most
creditable trait in Ranjeet's character is his humanity; he has never been
known to punish a criminal with death since his accession to power (P.167)
He said that he owed all his success to the bravery of his nation, who
were free from prejudice, would carry eight day's provision on their backs;
dig a well if water were scarce, and build a fort if circumstances required
it; a kind of service which he could not prevail on the natives of
Hindustan to perform. "The bravery of my troops, as you are aware,
conquered Kashmir for me; and how do you think," said he, "I dispose
of the shawls and productions of that country in the present glut of
trade? I pay my officers and troops with them; and as I give a Chief, who
may be entitled to a balance of 300 rupees, shawls to the value of 500, he
is well pleased, and the state is benefitted." (P.163-64)
10

o'gV dh w[bkeks

wjkokik oDihs f;zx tZb'I b?cafNB?IN nb?ria?Ivo poBia dh y[ZbQ/ fdb


Bkb nkU-Grs B/ Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh d/ rtoBo iBob bkov ftbhnw p?fI Nze
B{z nk; fdbk fdZsh fe wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb yad[ T[; dh nkgDh w[bkeks dh sithia
th g{oh soQK f;o/ uVQ ;e/rh. fJ; bJh rtoBo iBob B/ b[fXnkD/ d/ g'bhNheb J/
izN e?gNB t/v B{z, id fe T[j pBoia d/ bkj"o nkT[D t/b/ T[ZE/ frnk j'fJnk ;h,
fbfynk fe T[j fJ; ;pzXh wjkokik ;kfjp d/ yak; ;bkjekoK B{z N'j./ fit/I fe bkov
p?fI Nze dk fyankb ;h wjkokik ;kfjp B? oiakwzdh gqrN eo fdZsh. fJ; wsbp bJh
e?gNB t/v fJZe d' tkoh T[uu/ k bkj"o nkfJnk s/ w[bkeks dk gqpXz eo frnk, s/ 26
nes{po 1831 dk fdB fB:s ehsk frnk .1
bkov p?IfNze dk wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb w[bkeks bJh ayak; :sB eoe/
gqpXz eokT[D dk n;b nzdo{Bh wsbp eh ;h gZeh soQK e[M BjhI fejk ik ;edk .
Gkt/I pkjo'H e/tb d';skBk ;pzX gZek eoBk jh dZf;nk frnk go eJhnK dk
fyankb j? fe rtoBo iBob, i' yad [ jh cai" K dk ewKvo-fJB-uhca th ;h, wjkoki/
dh ca"ih skes s/ fBg[zBsk B{z nkgDh nZyhI t/yDk ukj[zdk ;h . :kew'I fbydk j? fe
;akfJd bkov ftbhnw, oDihs f;zx B{z nkgDh cai" h skes fdyk e/ vokT[Dk ukj[dz k
j? s/ dZ;Dk ukj[dz k j? fe T[; B{z spkj eoBk fezBk nk;kB j'tr / k . fJZe fyankb fJj
j? fe u{zfe fJ; t/b/ o{; d/ JhokB tZb tXD d/ fyankb T[V oj/ ;B, fJ; bJh
rtoBo iBob d[BhnK ftZu fJj w;ajo{ eoBk ukj[d z k ;h fe f;ZyK s/ nzro/iKa ftZu
;akj ;ai[ kj d/ ncarkfB;skB T[sZ / jZbk eoB d/ ;tkb ;pzXh ca;? bk ehsk frnk ;h
s/ fJ;/ nB[;ko iBtoh 1833 ftZu ;akj ;ai[ kj B/ ncarkfB;skB T[sZ / uVQkJh ehsh
;h. e[M th j't/, fJ; w[bkeks s'I S/sh jh fgZS'I wjkokik oDihs f;zx B{z f;zX ;pzXh

1. fgqz;?g, oDihs f;zx (1834), 159L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 454 .
ezgBh dh fB:s ;kca Bk ofjD dk fyankb g?dk j' frnk ;h ns/ nkg; d/ snZbe[ ks
gfjb/ fisB/ fBZx/ BjhI ;B oj/ .2
bkov p?fI Nze e[M fdB gfjbK jh 22 nes{po B{z o'gV nk g[iZ k. u"E/ fdB
fgZSI' 25 dh ;t/o B{z wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ dfonk d/ d{;o/ gk;/ g[iZ D sI' MZpd/ jh
fgZSI' bkvo p?fI Nze tZbI' fJZe v?gN{ ;/ Ba T[BKQ gk; ;bkw bJh g[iZ k. wjkoki/ B/ T[BKQ dk
gzdoK s'gK dh ;bkwh Bkb ;[nkrs ehsk s/ fgZS'I ezto yVe f;zx wjkokik tZb'I
w'VthI w[bkeks dh o;w bJh rtoBo iBob B{z fwb/. fJ; t/b/ ;odko ;akw f;zx
nNkohtkb/ ezto ;kfjp d/ Bkb ;B s/ ;odko joh f;zx Bbtk, okik r[bkp f;zx,
okik ;zrs f;zx BkG/tkbk s/ ;odko nso f;zx ;zXktkbhnk th T[BKQ d/ Bkb rJ/
. 26 s'I 31 nes{po sZe d'jK gkf;nK s'I w[bkeksK s/ ca"ih d/y-fdykt/ j[zd/ oj/.
fJBQK ftZu th jo w"e/ s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx ih w"i{d ;B. wjkokik oDihs f;zx B{z
u{zfe ezgBh dh fB:s ;pzXh ;aZe ;B, fJ; bJh 31 nes{po B{z rtoBo iBob
tb'I wjkokik ;kfjp B{z fJZE d';sh-gZso fdZsk frnk s/ 1 Btzpo B{z fSV'-fSVh j'
rJh .3
fJZE/ wjkokik ;kfjp B/ nzro/iKa gk;'I f;zX ;pzXh T[BKQ dh Bhns s/ fJokfdnK
dk gsk eoB dk :sB ehsk. go T[BKQ B/ e'Jh f;o g?o Bk dZf;nk jkbKfe fi; fdB
wjkokik o'gV g[Zik ;h, T[;/ fdB jh eoBb g"fNzio B{z j[ew fdZsk frnk ;h fe
j?dokpkd ik e/ who w[okd nbh Bkb sikosh fJeoko-Bkwk eo/. fgq;z g fbydk j?
fe j' ;edk j? fe rtoBo iBob B{z o{; d/ JhokB ftZu nkgDk o;{y iwkT[D ftZu
ekw:kp j' ikD dh jkbs ftZu T[; d/ wB'oEK fto[XZ fsnko ofjD dh b'V wfj;{;
j'Jh j't./ fJ; bJh f;zXhnK Bkb rZb-pks ;akfJd fe;h jZd se oki;h jh j't,/ go
rtoBo iBob fJj rZb wzB b?D iK fJj' fij/ wB'oEK B{z iakjo eoB bJh fsnkko
BjhI ;h. fJ; bJh f;zx dfonk d/ ezfYnK T[gZ obhnK je{wsK s/ jkewK Bkb ;pzX

1. pk;{, okJhia n"ca dh efo;uhnB gkto fJB fJzvhnk, fibd 4, gzBk 480, :kew'I,
b?Noia cao'w fJzvhnk (1834), fibd d{;oh, 112, 255L bshca, gzikp, 454
b[vb', fpqfN;a fJzvhnk, fibd d{;oh, 90.
2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k nZtb 84-103L fgqz;?g, oDihs
f;zx, 162-67L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 451-55, i/ aph a co/iao B/ nkgDh
feskp *fwfbNoh w?w'fJo n"c b?cafNB?IN-eoBb i/wia ;feZBo* ftZu fJ; w[bkeks dk
uzrk jkb fdZsk j? . ;feZBo nkg fJZE/ w"ia{d ;h . d/y' fibd 2, gzBk 207-18 .
g?dk eoB dk uzrk sohek dfonk dh ijkiaokBh bJh y[ZbQ dhnK ;aosK tkbk
nfjdBkwk jh fdf;nk .1
nzro/iKa tb'I wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb f;zX d/ wkwb/ ftZu tosh rJh p/oy[ h
s/ b[ethI ukb B/ T[; d/ fdb B{z e[M yZNk eo fdZsk . 11 iBtoh 1832 dh fuZmh ftZu
:kew'I fbydk j? fe *oDihs f;zx s/ rtoBw?NI nzro/ia h d/ snZbe[ ks o[yZ / fij/ jB.
nzro/ia nkgDh tgko T[; gk;/ tXkT[D bJh j/mb/ f;zX T[s/ epiak eoBk ukj[dz / jB
s/ fJ; dh okyh eoB bJh T[BQK B{z fJ; d/ ezfYnk T[Zs/ ca"ih u"IehnK iao{o ekfJw
eoBhnK g?DrhnK. oDihs f;zx fJ; B{z pzd BjhII eo ;edk ns/ fi; rZb B{z T[j
o'e BjhI ;edk, T[j T[; B{z ;fjDh g? ojh j?, fJ; bJh T[; B{z o'j j? .2
;:Z d nfjwd po/ b th d/ fto[ Z X w[ f jz w K ftZ u ;oeko dh i'
;/tk ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ ehsh ;h, wjkokik ;kfjp T[; Bkb pj[s jh gq;Bz ;B. j[D
o'gV dh w[bkeks ftZu th T[BKQ dk ezw pVk ;bkfjnk frnk. fJ; bJh wZxo ;zws
1888 fpeqwh d/ nyaho, d;zpo 1831 d/ d{;o/ jcas/, wjkokik ;kfjp B/ u'Nkjb/
dk snZbe[ k nZm jiako oo[gJ/ ;kbkBk m/e/ s/ ns/ y/w-eoB gzi jiako ;kbkBk m/e/
s/ f;Ze/ ns/ ;ao' / (;[op tk pko{s) bJh ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z fdZs/ s/ Bkb jh skehdh
j[ew ehsk fe m'e/ dk o[gfJnk pokpo toQ/ d/ toQ/ ;oekoh yaika B/ ftZu g[iZ dk oj/ .3

1. fgqz;?g, oDihs f;zx, 167-68 .


2. ftes'o :kew'I (Victor Jacquemont), b?Noia cao"w fJzvhnk (1834), fibd
d{;oh, 255-56 .
3. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[ -stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k ntZb, 112 .
11

nb?ria?Ivo poBia dk w[V ;[nkrs

d;zpo 1831 d/ nyaho ftZu b?cafNB?IN nb?ria?Ivo poBia B{z bkov


ftbhnw p?fI Nze tZbI' wZX-J/;ha nk B{z ikD dh nkfrnk fwb rJh ns/ T[j 23 d;zpo
B{z fdZbh s'I b[fXnkB/ B{z s[o fgnk, fiZE/ fe T[; B{z T[; dk ;kEh-w[;kcao i/wia i?rov
fwb fgnk. 2 iBtoh 1832 B{z poBia b[fXnkB/ s'H joh e/ gZsD B{z s[fonk, fiZEI' fe
fJ; B/ gzikp ftZu dkyab j'Dk ;h.
poBia B/ gzikp ftZu dh bzxD dh nkfrnk bJh wjkokik ;kfjp B{z
noiah G/ih. wjkokik ;kfjp B/ nkfrnk d/ fdZsh ns/ ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/
B{z T[; dh nkU-Grs bJH joh e/ gZsD G/i fdZsk . 11 iBtoh B{z poBia xkN
dhnK p/VhnK okjhI joh e/ gZsD s'I dfonk gko j'fJnk. ;odko ;akw f;zx ;[nkrs
bJh nZr/ w"id{ ;B. T[BKQ B/ d/;a d/ fotkia nB[;ko fJZe ewkB s/ d' E?bhnK o[gJhnK dhnK
g/;a ehshnK, go poBia B/ XzBtkd eo e/ w'V fdZshnK. ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ dZf;nk fe fJZE/
u{fz e fBjzr f;zxK s'H vo j?, fJ; bJh wjkokik ;kfjp B/ w?Bz{ G/fink j?.
w[B;ah ;'jB bkb fbydk j? fe wkx dh ;zroKd 12 iBtoh B{z bkj"o
wjkokik ;kfjp dh ;/tk ftZu p/Bsh j'Jh fe joh e/ gZsD T[Zs/ nekbh f;zx ekcah
frDsh ftZu fJeZm/ j'J/ j'J/ jB, fiZE'I dh ;kfjp b'e bzxD tkb/ jB. fJ; T[Zs/
wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;odko s/i f;zx B{z j[ew fdZsk fe fJZe oipD x'V-ufVQnK dh s/
e[M ezgBhnK d{;ohnK b? e/ T[Xo ikt/.
go poBia sK 11 iBtoh B{z gZsD'I bzx e/ ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z fwb fgnk
;h s/ T[BQK d/ Bkb jh gZNh d/ o;s/ 14 iBtoh B{z GVkD/ g[Zi frnk. T[ZE/ ;odko
i[nkbk f;zx GVkDhJ/ B/ T[BKQ dh pVh yakso stkfiank ehsh.
17 iBtoh B{z fJj gkoNh bkj"o g[jzuh, s/ 25 fdB wjkokik d/ gokj[D/
ofj e/ poBia s/ T[; d/ ;kEh 11 caotoh 1832 B{z bkj"oI' nZr/ B{z s[o rJ/. poBia
dh nkU-Grs s'I t/jb/ j[zd/ ;ko jh ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z ezto yVe f;zx dh
;jkfJsk bJh v/ok rakiah yakB tZb ikD dk j[ew j'fJnk .1

1. poBia, No?tbi fJzN{ p[yakok, fibd 1, 1-33L w'jB bkb, No?tbia 9-19L ;'jB
bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'wL fjZ;k ntZb, 118.
12

;zrV (v/ok rkiah yakB) dh w[fjzw

g'j 1888 dh ;zrKq d, 14 d;zpo 1831, d/ fdB wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ezto


yVe f;zx B{z ;[Bfjoh ekmh ;D/ fJZe x'V,/ fJZe ;aw;ao/ s/ d[;ka bk py;a e/ pjktbg[o s/
w[bskB tZb T[rkq jh bJh ikD tk;s/ j[ew ehsk ;h ns/ ;odkko rzvk f;zx p;soh B{z
nkfrnk j'Jh fe T[j e[M wiabK ezto ;kfjp d/ Bkb ikt/ s/ T[BKQ B{z nZr/ B{z s'o e/ w[V
nkt/ .
d;zpo 1839 d/ nyahob/ fdB iK iBtoh 1832 d/ gfjb// fdBhI (18
g'j s'I 22 g'j, 1888 fpeqwh) wjkokik B/ ;odko ;akw f;zx ns/ ;odko uVQs
f;zx s/ bywho f;zx B{z th nkfrnk ehsh ;h fe ibdh ezto yVe f;zx Bkb ;akwb
j' e/ T[BKQ d/ j[ew dh gkbDk eoB. go poBia d/ ;Pkrs bJh joh e/ gZsD ikDk g?
ikD eoe/ e[M fdB dk nNek g? frnk. T[EI' w[VB go S/sh jh ;oeko ih ezto ;kfjp
dh ;jkfJsk bJh otkBk j' rJ/. 3 cZrD 1888 (12 caotoh 1832) B{z wjkokik
;kfjp B{z ezto yVe f;zx tb'I fJsbkj g[iZ h fe T[j ;zrV (fiabk v/ok rakiah yakB)
dh jZd ftZu gj[zu rJ/ jB s/ n;d yakB ;zrVtkbk fJbkek SZv e/ GZi frnk j?.
itkp ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp tZbI' fbfynk frnk fe ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ s/
dhtkB feogk okw B{z T[BKQ dh wdd bJh G/fink ik u[fZ enk j? s/ dhtkB ;ktB wZb
rtoBo w[bskB d/ Bkw skehdh j[ew ikoh eo fdZs/ rJ/ jB fe ;" e[ nkdwh
w[bskB dh fjcakias bJh oZy e/ pkeh ;koh cai" ezto ;kfjp dh ;jkfJsk bJh G/i
fdZsh ikt/, ns/ fijVk n;d yakB B{z jkiao eo/rk ;zrV T[;/ B{z pya;a fdZsk ikt/rk.
10 cZrD 26 caotoh ;zB 1832, B{z ezto ;kfjp tZb'I yapo nkJh fe
t?Is{ok ;kfjp s/ ;odko nso f;zx ;zXKtkbhJ/ B{z n;d yakB B{z cVB bJh Bh:s
ehsk frnk j? . ;zrV dh b[NZ ftZu jZE bZrk wkb n;pkp ns/ ;zrV t?sI o{ / B{z pya;a
fdZsk j? s/ T[; dh d/y Gkb ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ ;g[od eo fdZsh rJh j?. Bkb jh
fJj th yapo ;h fe rzrk f;zx B{z pjktbg[ohJ/ Btkp gk; G/fink ;h s/ T[Xo'I uwB
bkb ns/ yad [ ezto ;kfjp v/ok fJ;wkJhb yakB dh T[rkq jh bJh ik oj/ jB. T[sZ o
ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp B/ j[ew fdZsk fe v/o/ s'I BiaokBk b? e/ bkj"o B{z w[V nkU .1 7 u/sq
;zws 1888 fpeqwh, 17 wkou ;zB 1832 Jh;th, B{z wjkokik ;kfjp B/ dhtkB feogk
okw d/ Bkw gotkBk ikoh ehsk fe ibdh ibdh wiabK wko e/ t?sI o{ k ;kfjp gk; g[iZ D s/
;bkj w;atok d/ e/ fJbke/ d/ gqpXz ftZu ;jkfJsk eoB. fJ; soQK ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z
j[ew j'fJnk fe To[j sB-d/jh Bkb dhtkB feogk okw dh ;jkfJsk eoB fi; d/ pdb/
;zrVQtkb/ s'I g[okDk pkeh s/ j[D dk BiaokBk t;{b eo e/ ;zrVQ T[BKQ d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsk
ikt/rk .
14 n;{ 1889, 27 ;sz p o 1832 B{ z wjkokik ;kfjp B/
v/ok fJ;wkJhb yakB d/ Btkp ;akj Btkia yakB wBe/o/ tkb/ d/ tehb ;ezdo yakB B{z
g[fZ Snk fe Btkp fJ; t/b/ feZE/ j?. T[sZ o ftZu ;ezdo yakB B/ jiao{ dh ;/tk ftZu p/Bsh
ehsh fe Btkp ;kfjp fJ; t/b/ v/ok fJ;wkJhb yakB jB ns/ d[;fjo/ s'I pknd
n;d yakB ;zrVQtkb/ B{z Bkb b? e/ jia{o dh fyadws ftZu jkaio j'Dr/. 27 wZxo,
9 d;zpo B{z Btkp ;akj Btkia yakB wBe/ot/ kb/ jkew vok rkiahyakB d/ Bkw gotkBk
G/fink frnk fe n;d yakB B{z S/sh s'I S/sh jkiao eoBk ukjhdk j? ns/ t?sI o{ k ;kfjp
B{z fbfynk frnk fe ;odko d"o/ s'I bkj"o w[V nkJ/ jB ns/ ;odko ;akw f;zx ih
bkj"o w[V nkJ/. 12 jkV 1890, 23 i{B 1833 B{z id wjkokik ;kfjp d"o/ s'I
bkj"o g[iZ / sK t?sI o{ / B/ Biao g/;a ehsh s/ ;odko rzvk f;zx p;soh s/ frnkB f;zx
n;d yakB B{z Bkb b? e/ jkiao j'J/. wjkoki/ B? n;d yakB B{z ;akjh w;id ftZu
T[skok fdZsk .2

;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k ntZb, 113, 116, 128, 130-31 .
;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k d'w, 134, 150, 159, 172-73 .
13

wjkoki/ dh Bkokiarh

gsk BjhI feT[I, go wkb{w j[zdk j? fe fJBQhI fdBhI fe;/ ekoD


eoe/ wjkkokik ;kfjp ;odko ;akw f;zx Bkb Bkokia ;B s/ T[BQK B/
;odko s/i f;zx B{z j[ew fdZsk j'fJnk ;h fe g;o{o d/ Biadhe ebkbtkb/
fJbke/ ftZu ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ Bt/I pDkJ/ febQ/ B{z Yk d/t/. uVQd/ jkVQ
;odko s/i f;zx S/ gbNDK ns/ frnkoK s'gK s/ iazp{o/ b? fe febQk
YkT[D bJh T[EZ / g[iZ k j'fJnk ;h. T[; d/ Bkw 213 jkVQ, 23-24 i{B ;zB
1833, d/ bkr/ gqtkBk ikoh j'fJnk fe ;odko ;akw f;zx gk;'I ;'bK
jiako o[gfJnk BiaokBk t;{b eo bt/ s/ p[oi Yk d/t/ .
18 jkVQ 29 i{B, d/ bkr/ iwKdko ya[;akb f;zx dh noiah
wjkokik ;kfjp d/ jia{o g/;a j'Jh fi; ftZu T[; B/ ;odko ;akw f;zx
wkcah d/D bJh p/Bsh ehsh j'Jh ;h. fJ; d/ fgZS'I ya[d ;odko ;akw f;zx
th jkiao j'J/ s/ fJZe x'Vk ;[Bfjoh ekmh tkbk s/ fJZeh ;[Bfjoh p[sehnK
Biao r[iakoh s/ wjkokik ;kfjp B/ T[BQK dh se;ho w[nkca eo fdZsh.1

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k d'w, 173-174 .


14

pzB{ dh w[fjzw

uVQd/ wkx ;zws 1890 (nZX iBtoh ;zB 1834 Jh;th) ftZu wjkokik
;kfjp B/ dhtkB skok uzd B{z pzB{ NKe tZb T[rkq jh bJh ikD dk j[ew fdZsk. cZrD
d/ nkyaho iK uVQd/ u/s ;zws 1891 (wkou 1834 d/ d{;o/ sh;o/ jcas/) dhtkB
skok uzd dh noiah nkJh fe v/ok fJ;wkJhb yakB s'I pkok jiako o[gfJnk t;{b j'
frnk j? fi; d T[sZ o ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp B/ j[ew G/fink fe pkeh dh oew s/ x'V/
s/ T{mK dh t;{bh ehsh ikJ/, NKe ftZu nkgDk mkDk fpmk fdZsk ikJ/ ns/ dfonk
nNe d/ gko'I d' wjhfBnK dh pNkJh ns/ o'e oew dh t;{bh bJh x'V-ufVQnK dh
fJZe oipD G/ih ikt/.
;odko ;akw f;zx iK sK dhtkB skok uzd d/ BKb jh pzB{z B{z rJ/ ;B iK
fgZSI' g[iZ / ;B, fJ; dk gZek Ej[ BjhI brdk, go nkg t;ky wjhB/ pzB{ ftZu fJZe rVQh
T[sZ / jZbk eoB t/b/ T[EZ / w"id
{ ;B. dhtkB skok uzd B/ s/iha Bkb fJZE/ d'jK gkf;nK
s'I jZbk eotk fdZsk. fi; dk Bshik fJj j'fJnk fe fJ; jZb/ ftZu nkgDh cai" d/ eJh
nkdwh iaywa h j'D Bkb pj[s B[e;kB j'fJnk s/ ;odko i? f;zx nNkohtkbk wkfonk
frnk. id t;ky d/ sh;o/ jcas/ (ngqb ? 1834 d/ nkyaoh jcas)/ fJ; rZb dh yapo
dh noiah wjkokik ;kfjp B{z g[iZ h sK iktp ftZu T[BKQ B/ c[owkfJnk fe fe;/ ezw ftZu
ekbh s/ s/iah eoBh uzrh BjhI j[zdh, nZr/ B{z Xhoi s/ Yzr Bkb ezw ehsk ikt/ ns/
d'jK gkf;nK s'H jZbk BjhI eoBk ukjhdk, fJZE gk;/ dk jZbk jh uzrk j?. fJ;/ ;pzX
ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp B/ tiaho fXnkB f;zx B{z fejk fe dhtkB skok uzd nbQV (Bk-
siaopkeko) nkdwh j? ns/ fi; soQK ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ B/ w?dkfB-izr
ftZu fjzws ftykJh j? pjkdoK d/ ezw fJ; soQK jh j'D/ ukjhd/ jB. fJ; izr ftZu
;odko ;akw f;zx B/ tXd/ nk oj/ t?oh dk pV/ j";b/ s/ db/oh Bkb vZN e/ Nkeok
ehsk s/ T[BKQ d/ w{jz w'V fdZs./ Gkt/I T[BKQ d/ j/mbk x'Vk th wkfonk frnk go T[j sK
th fgSKj Bk jN/ s/ ;{ofwnK tKC nZr/ tZX e/ T[BQK B/ t?oh B{z g?o'I eZY fdZsk.
wjkokik ;kfjp B{z dhtkB skok uzd dh :'rsk T[Zs/ u{zfe fiankdk Go';k
BjhI ;h fojk fJ; bJh T[BQK B/ iwkdko ya[;akb f;zx s/ okik r[bkp f;zx B{z j[ew
ehsk fe ik e/ Btkp ;akj fBtkia yakB wBe/o/ tkb/ dk pzB{ nNe s/ nNe dfonk s'I
gkob/ fJbke/ T[sZ / dyab eok fdZsk ikt/ ns/ dfonkUI fJ; gk;/ d/ v/ok fJ;wkJhb
d/ fJbke/ T[sZ / nkgDk dyab eo fbnk ikt/.1

1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 3, fjZ;k 2, 193, 199, 207-8L frqfcB, gzikp uhca;


(1890), fibd gfjbh, 241L bshc, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp L 467 .
15

fg;akto dh w[fjzw

wkb{w j[zdk j? fe pzB{z s'I ;odko ;akw f;zx fg;akto dh w[fjzw s/ G/i/ rJ/
fiZE/ fe ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B/ uVQkJh eoe/ fJ; fJbke/ B{z (wJh 1834 ftZu) gZe/
s"o s/ f;Zy oki Bkb fwbk fbnk ;h. fJ; t/b/ nwho d';s w[jwz d yakB B/ fg;akto
jwbk eoB bJh nzri/q Ka gk;'I ;jkfJsk wzrh. go T[j wjkokik oDihs f;zx Bkb
ftrkV gkT[Dk BjhI ukj[d z / ;B fJ; bJh T[BKQ B? dyab d/DI' BKj eo fdZsh.
2 n;{ 1891 (17 ;zspo 1834) B{z fg;akto'I wjkokik ;kfjp gk; yapo
g[Zih fe nwho d';s w[jzwd yakB B/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B{z fuZmh fbyh j? fe i/ w/
jopkBh eoe/ fg;akto T[; B{z d/ fdZsk ikt/ sK T[j pVk XzBtkdh j't/rk ns/ skp/
dkoh ti'I pVh nXhBrh Bkb wjkokik ;kfjpo dh ;/tk ftZu bkj"o x'V,/ s'jca/ s/ j'o
n;pkp G/Nk eo/rk, BjhI sK e'jkN, ncaohdh s/ ;{;caiaJh dhnK gjkVhnK ns/
yao[ k;kB, pzBz{ s/ NKe s'I bVke/ rkiahnK dhnK cai" K iwK eoe/ fg;akto s/ jZbk eo d/
t/rk. 4 nZ;{ B{z wjkokik ;kfjp B/ w[B;ah eow uzd B[z ezto B"fBjkb f;zx s/ T[BKQ d/
;kEh ;oeod/ ;odkoK bJh ehwsh fyabnsK d/ e/ fg;akto G/fink s/ jj[ew ehsk
fe fJj fyabnsK ezto ;kfjp B{z gj[zuk fdZshnK ikD ns/ T[j ya[d nkgd/ jZEhI
;odkoK B{z pya;D.
fJ; t/b/ ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx d/ Bkb ;B s/
j'o tZv/ ;odkoK dh soQK T[BKQ B{z th B" egfVnK dh fyabns G/ih rJh .1
e[M fuo fgZSI' yad[ th wjkokik ;kfjp B/ fg;akto tZb B{z e{u eo fdZsk fiZE/
fe T[j 26 t;ky 1892 (6 wJh 1835) B{z g[iZ / s/ tiaho yakB d/ pkra ftZu T[skok
ehsk. fJZE/ ;[bskB w[jzwd yakB T[BQK B{z nk fwfbnk s/ JhB wzB bJh. wjkokik
;kfjp B/ pVk :sB ehsk fe d';s w[jwz d th skp/dkoh gqtkB eo bt/ s/ yaB{ yaokpk
Bk j't/. d';s w[jzwd yakB B{z nkgDhnK rkiah ca"iK go pVk wkD ;h fJ; bJh T[j
bVkJh bJh fsnko j' e/ nk frnk, go id 31 t?;ky, 11 wJh ;zB 1835 B{z d{;o/
gk;/ yakb;/ B{z fsnko po fsnko izr bJh vfNnk t/fynk sK sbtko fwnkB ftZu jh
ofj rJh ns/ fg;akto b?D dk fyankb SZv e/ fpBK e[M pj[sk w[ekpbk ehs/ jh
w?dkB'I fBeb GZik. wjkokik ;kfjp fg;akto dk gZek gqpzX eoe/ bkj"o B{z w[V
nkJ/ .2

1. efBzxw, fj;Noh n"ca dh f;y; (1849), 222L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp,
467-8L ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjz;k d'w, 216 .
2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k d'w, 245-51, efBzxw, fj;Noh
n"ca dh f;y; (1849); 222-23L pkpk gq/w f;zx, ;odko joh f;zx BbtkL 234-
37 .
16

phph BkBeh dh wzrDh

fg;a"o'I bkj"o B{z tkg; w[VB t/b/ iK sK ;odko ;akw f;zx th


wjkokik ;kfjp d/ Bkb jh iK S/sh jh fgZS'I T[ZE'I tkg; nk rJ/ ns/
nkgDh bVeh phph BkBeh dk fo;ask wjkokik ;kfjp d/ g'sq/ s/ ezto
yVe f;zx d/ g[Zso ezto B'fBjkb f;zx Bkb eo fdZsk. phph BkBeh dh
wzrDh dh mhe skohya dk gsk BjhI ub ;fenk. w[B;ah ;'jB bkb B/
nkgDh skohya *T[wdks[-stkohya_ ftZu fbfynk j? fe 29 ;ktB 1892
(11 nr;s 1835) B{z wjkokik ;kfjp B/ dhtkB jkfew okfJ B{z j[ew
fdZsk fe ezto ih dh ;akdh bJh j/m fby/ t/ot/ nB[;ko iat/ o nkgdh
wkocas pDtk e/ jkaio eo/.
w[eN 2500
u"eI 1400
wkbk S'Nh, tZvh 1500
j'o iVkT{ rfjD/ 2000
fJ; s'I nB[wkB bkfJnk ik ;edk j? fe ezto ;kfjp dh
wzrDh phph BkBeh Bkb fJBQK fdBK ftZu jh j'Jh j?.
gqshs j[zdk j? fe fg;a"o'I w[VB fgZS'I ;odko ;akw f;zx nkyaho g'j
sZe wjkkoki/ d/ Bkb jh ;B. 28 g'j, 10 iBtoh 1836, B{z wjkokik
;kfjp B/ T[BQK B{z S[ZNh fdZsh s/ fJZe i'Vk d';akb/ s/ ;'B/ d/ eV/ o[y;skB/
tZi'I pya;a/. fJ; t/b/ ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ noia ehsh fe ;odko irs
1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k d'w, 261 .
2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso ;'w, fjz;k d'w, 289-90 .
f;zx
z nNkohtkb/ dh sZbek ;zGfVnkb dh ikrho d/ fdZsh ikt/. wjkokik
;kfjp B/ T[sZ o fdZsk fe ;zGfVnkb dk sZbek tiahopkd d/ fJbke/ Bkb
fwbk fdZsk frnk j? fJ; bJh wBe/o/ iK pb'uK d/ fJbke/ ftZu ikrho
fdZsh ikt/rh.
i/m 1893 ftZu bkbb fe;aB uzd tehb b[fXnkB? tZb'I fJZe
fuZmh nkJh fe egskB (t/v);kfjp, i' b[fXnkB? ftZu Jh;N fJzvhnk
ezgBh d/ J/izN jB, e[M uzrh B;b d/ x'V/ yaohdDk ukj[zd/ jB. T[; s/
wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx, ezto ;a/o f;zx, okik r[bkp
f;zx, okik ;[us/ f;zx, okik jhok f;zx, ;odkokB ;zXKtkbhnK, ;odko
casfj f;zx wkB, dhtkB ;ktB wZb rtoBo w[bskB nkfd B{z gqtkB/
fby/ fe fJZe fJZe uzrh B;b dk x'Vk egskB ;kfjp B{z b[fXnkB? G/i
d/D. fJBQK d/ Bkb jh fJZe gqtkBk ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z th G/fink frnk.

;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso ;'w, fjZ;k d'w, 310 .


17

y/w eoBhnK dh f;aekfJs

fit/I fe T[Zgo fbfynk ik u[Zek j?/ y/w eoB dk fJbkek ;odko


;akw f;zx dh skp/dkoh ftZu ;h s/ e;{o dk fJbkek th T[BQK e'b jh ;h. t/
ot/ ;fjs jkb Bk fwb ;eD eoe/ fJj BjhI fejk ik ;edk fe nzdo{Bh
ekoD eh ;B, go gqshs fJT[I j[zdk j? fe ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ pkjo w[fjzwK
T[Zs/ ofjD iK d{;o/ gk;/ d/ fJbkfenK d/ gqpzX ftZu o[M/ j'D t/b/ y/w eoB
d/ fJbke/ d/ fiawhIdkoK Bkb fJZE/ d/;odkoK B/ e'Jh uzrk toskU BjhI ;h
oZfynk j'fJnk. fJ; bJH uVQd/ ;ktB 1893 (i[bkJh 1836) B{z
y/weoB dh fiawhIdkoK B/ fJBQK ;odkoK fto[ZX wjkkokik gk; f;aekfJs
ehsh s/ p/Bsh ehsh fe T[BQK dh pKj ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/ B{z
cVk fdZsh ikt/. j'o T[BQK fejk fe j[D ;" e[ d[ekBdko ;afjo e;{o'I s/
gzikj e[ fgzv y/w eoB'I T[ZiV e/ fto'iag[o ik nkpkd j'J/ jB. id s'I fJj
fJbkek wjkokik ;kfjop dh je{ws ftZu nkfJnk j? fJZe th fiawhIdko
fJbke/ B{z SZv e/ dfonkUI gko BjhI frnk ;h feT[Ife ;oeko d/ ;kJ/
ftZu jo gqeko dk nwB nwkB j?. fJ; s/ wjkokik ;kfjp B/ j[ew fdZsk
fe fJBQK fiawhIdkoK dk fJbkek ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/ Bkb i'V
fdZsk ikJ/ s/ Bkb jh T[BQK B{z jdkfJs ikoh eo fdZsh fe fJbke/ dh
nkpkdh j'D s/ ns/ oZJhns dh oiakwzdh Bkb w[nkwb/ dh T[rqkjh ehsh
ikt/ s/ fiawhIdkoK dh GbkJh dk jo gqeko dk fyankb oZfynk ikt/ .

;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcaso 3, fjZ;k 2, ;cak 376 .


18

r[odPkok pkpk nNZb ;kfjp dh ;/tk

fJ; t/b/ ;qh nzfwqs;o ftZu r[odPkok pkpk nNZb ;kfjp dhnK SZsK dh
;/tk j' ojh ;h. fJ; r[odPko/ dh fJwkos dh ;/tk ;zrs d/ T[s;akj Bkb ;zB 1822
JhL ftZu wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ ;ao[ { ehsh ;h. do;aBh dotkia/ dh SZs wkJh ;dk
e"o B/ ;zB 1823 ftZu pDtkJh ;h ns/ r[zpd dh ;/tk ;zB 1830 ftZu ;odko d/
;k f;zx wihmhJ/ B/ ehsh ;h. nzdob/ ;wkX tkb/ yak; pzrb a / d/ pkjobh gqeowk dh
SZs dh whBkekoh ns/ ;[Bfjoh ezw wjkokDh fizd e"o B/ 1835 ftZu eotkfJnk.
fJ; r[odPkok ;kfjp dh ;/tk ftZu ;odko ;akw f;zx ih B? th jZE tNkfJnk ns/
gqeowK dh T[s-q uVQdh SZs dk rZuekoh gb;so eotkfJnk. rZu dk gb;so g[okD/
iawkB/ ftZU fJZe yak; uhai j[d
z h ;h fi; ftZu ;zrwowo dk u{oB, pj[s pkohe o/sk,
fJZe yak; soQK dk u{Bk, fi; B{z fig;w nkfynk iKdk j?, tkb n/s j'o eJh uhiaK
obkJhnK iKdhnK ;B. fJBQK B{z orVD s/ x'ND T[sZ / eJh tkoh eJh eJh toQ/ bkJ/
iKd/ ;B ns/ gzdoK thj srkohnK T[Zs/ jiakoK o[gJ/ yaou nk iKd/ ;B. fJ; Bkb
pDh ns/ fbzph j'Jh fJwkos pj[s ;h wiap{s ns/ eJh eJh ;" ;kb pknd th E'VQ/
fuo dh pDh j'Jh BthI Be'o gqshs j[zdh ;h .
gzi ;kb pknd ;zB 1842 ftZu fco ;odko ih B/ fJ; r[odPko/ dh j'o
;/tk ehsh ns/ nkgD/ g[Zso ;odko mkeo f;zx dh fBrokBh j/mK r[odPtkko/ dk
pkjobk fjZ;k pDtkfJnk .

T{Xw f;zx, skohya dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o, 64-5 .


19

phph BkBeh s/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dk ftnkj

fi; X{w-Xkw s/ ;akB ;ae" s Bkb wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ g'so/ s/ ;akjiakdk
yVe f;zx d/ g[sZ o ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dk ftnkj ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ dh
bVeh phph BkBeh Bkb j'fJnk, d[BhnK dh skohya ftZu T[; dh e'Jh fw;kb fwb
;eDh efmB j?.
wjkokik ;kfjp dh w[Y Z s'I jh fJj fJZSk ;h e ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh izR
bkj"o dh pikJ/ r[o{ eh Broh ;qh nzfwqs;o s'I uVQ/. fJ; wsbp bJh T[BQK nkGd/
Go';-/ :'r ;odkoK B{z fJZE/ G/i fdZsk sK fe iaoo{ h gqpXz eoB. gzikp ftZu e'Jh okik,
wjkokik s/ ;odko BjhI ;h fi; B{z fJ; ftnkj ftZu ;akwb j'D dk ;Zdk Bk fdZsk
frnk j't./ gstzs/ wfjwkBK ftZu wjkokik gfNnkbk, BkGk, eg{oEbk, ihId, caohde'N,
Btkp wb/o e'Nbk, okik eb;hnk wzvh s/ ;[e/s, uzpk, B{og[oo ns/ j'o wkbtk,
wkMk s/ d{;o/ fJbkfenK d/ ;odko ;akwb ;B. nzri/q Ka tZbI' bkov n"eb?vI , rtoBo
iBob fJzvhnk, ;o ukob; w?NZ ekc rtoBo nkrok s/ iBob ;o j?Boh c/B nzr/q
iah ewKvo-fJB-uhca B{z ;Zdk fdZsk frnk ;h, go fJBQK ftu'I ;akwb e/tb ;o j?Boh ca/
B s/ T[; dk ;Nkca jh j'fJnk.
JhN; fJzvhnk ezgBh tZbI' yak; ewKvo-fJB-uhca s/ T[; d/ cai" h ;Nkca d/
;a kwb j'D ftZu fJZe oki;h G/d th ;h s/ T[j fJj fe cai" h ;ftfrnkB d/ fJj fBg[D
f;nkD/ fJ; gokj[D-ukoh d/ w"e/ dk cakfJdk T[mk e/ ca"ih B[esk fBrkj s'I gzikp
;pzXh w[ezwb tkecahns jk;b eo ;eDr/. efBzxw fbydk j? fe **T[j :'r
;?Bkgsh cai" h T[gkU s/ ;?fBe r[DK B{z GKgD ftZu ;dk jh pVk ske ;h, T[; B/ T[;
;?Bk-db dk nzdkiak bkfJnk fi; dh fe gzikp B{z w[ezwb s"o s/ nXhB eoB bJh
b'V gt/rh go oT[; B/ fJ;/ t/b/ n;{b d/ s"o s/ fJj dZf;nk fe ;sb[i dfonk ns/
okig{skB/ s/ f;zX d/ phnkpkB nzrq/iaK bJh uVQdh tZb ;G s'H tXhnk jZdK jB.
f;ZyK Bkb bVkJh dh ;zGktBk pj[s d{o j'D eoe/ fJZe gokj[D/ bJh bVkJh d/ yV
:zsoK dh ftT[sI pBkT[Dh ;aG' Bhe BjhI ;h. a a a a a ;a o j?Boh caB/ d/ fJj fyankb fbys
ftZu Gkt/I Bk fbnKd/ rJ/ j'D, go i' b'e T[; d/ nkb/-d[nkb/ ;B T[BKQ B{z fJBQK dk
uzrh soQK gsk ;h. fit/H w?Bz{ e?gNB t/v gk;'I ;[fDnk j'fJnk :kd j? T[; dk (;o
j?boh caB/ dk gzikp B{z g{oh soQK casfj eoB bJh )nzdkiak ;skjN jkiako nkdwhnK
dk ;h ns/ T[; dk fyankb ;h fe ;akfJd d' ;kb i'oa dh bVkJh bZrh oj/. fJj bkj"o
ikDk ;akfJd fJ; rZb ftZu fiankdk cakfJd/wd z ;kps j'fJnk fe pzrkb dh cai" dk
nDEZe e[nkNo-wk;No-iBob b?cfa NB?NI -eoBb rkovB wbe d/ fJ; fjZ;/ dk t/
ot/ ;fjs Be;ak pDk ;eD d/ :'r j' frnk ;h ns/ fJj Be;ak T[BQK ;kfonK
Bef;anK dk nkXko pfDnk fijV/ fe nzs f;ZyK Bkb bVkJh bZr ikD t/b/ tos/
rJ/.1
izR uVQB s'I gfjbK gzi e[ bZy nkdwhnK dk fJeZm ftnkj ftZu ;akwb
j'D bJh j' frnk. fJZe/ ftnkj d/ ;ko/ jkbK dk ft;Eko Bkb fiaeo BjhI j' ;e/rk,
fJ; bJh e/tb iaoo{ h rZbK dk jh fiaeo ehsk ikJ/rk. 25 cZrD 1893, 6 wkou
1837, B{z b"Y/ t/b/ s'jca/ s/ szpb
' g/;a j'J./ 26 cZrD, 7 wkou, dh ;t/o/ ;qh dopko
;kfjp jkiao j' e/ wjkokik ;kfjp B/ ;D/ ;akjiakfdnK s/ gstzs/ gqkj[fDnK d/ wZEk N/
fenk, nodk;k ;'fXnk ns/ G/Nk uVQkJhnK ns/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B{z ;/jok pzBD Q
dh o;w ndk ehsh. b"Y/ t/b/ izR B/ nNkoh B{z uVQkJh ehsh. nzfwqs;o s'I nNkoh se
bZyK dh frDsh ftZu b'ehI ;Ve d/ d'jhI gk;hI yV/ ;B. wjkokik ;kfjp B/ gqkj[fDnK
d/ jkEhnK T[sZ / o[gJhnK dhnK E?bhnK oytkJhnK j'JhnK ;B sK fe T[j o;s/ ftZu

1 That able Commander was ever a careful observer of military means and of
soldierly qualities: he formed an estimate of the force which would be required
for the complete subjugation of the Punjab, but at the same time he laid it
down as a principle, that the Sutlej and the wastes of Rajputana and Sindh
were the best boundaries which the English could have in the East. The
prospect of a war with the Sikhs was then remote, and hostile designs could
not with honour be entertained by a guest .
These views of Sir Henry Fane's may not be on record but they were well
known to those about his Excellency. His extimate was, as I remember to
have heard from Capt. Wade, 67,000 men and he thought there might be a
two years' active warfare.
. This visit to Lahore was perhaps mainly useful in enabling Lieut. Col.
Garden, the Indefatigable quartermaster-general of the Bengal Army to
complete a detailed map of that part of the country, and which formed the
ground work of all the maps used when the hostilites did at last break out
with the Sikhs." - Cunningham, History of the Sikhs (1849), 227-28, and
footnote on p.227.
;'N eod/ ikD. ya[d wjkokik ;kfjp nNkoh sZe ;ko/ o;s/ y[bhI jZEhI o[gJhnK,
p[sehnK nfkd dk whIj toQkT[d I / rJ/ fi; Bkb eJh bZy o[gJhnk raohp rao[ p/ ftZu
tzfvnk frnk.
nNkoh gj[uz D s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ pV/ ;akjkBk Yzr Bkb nkU-Grs
ehsh s/ izR d/ T[sko/ dk gqpXz ehsk. T[;/ okshI ftnkj j' frnk s/ oks nks;apkiah,
ya;[ ha nK s/ i;aBK ftZu r[ioa h.
d{;o/ fdB wjkoki/ B/ pV/ y[b/Q fdb Bkb yao? -yao? ks fdZsh. dkB tzvD bJh
gzi whbK ftZu fJZe dkfJok pDkfJnk frnk fi; d/ fJod frod cai" K yVhnK ;B.
fJ: dkfJo/ d/ nZ;h dotkia/ ;B s/ jo dotkia/ T[Zs/ yaiakBuh E?bhnK bJh p?m/ ;B
i' ih gosh, eh nkdwh s/ eh ikBto, fJZe fJZe o[gJhnk d/Jh iKd/ ;B s/ fe;/ B{z
yakbh BjhI ;h ikD fdzd/. efjzd/ jB fe fJ; t/b/ fJZe nihp Biakok g/;a nkfJnk.
fJZe wzrsk wjkokik ;kfjp d/ jai{o jkiao j' e/ efjD bZrk fe ;oeko d/ j[ew
Bkb ;G B{z ih gosh fJZe fJZe o[gJhnk fwb fojk j?, w?B{z th w/ok jZe fdbkfJnk
ikt/. wjkokik ;kfjp B/ fJZe yaika Buh B{z j[ew fdZsk fe fJ; dk fjZ;k fJ; B{z d/ fdU.
T[; B/ ehVhnK ekfYnK dh Goh j'Jh fJZe fNzv g/;a ehsh s/ noia ehsh fe jiao{ w?Bz{
w/o/ ih frD e/ jZe fwb/. fJ; wzrs/ dh ukbkeh s/ wjkoki pV/ jZ;/ s/ fek fe iK sK
s{z frD e/ dZ; fe s/o/ fJj ih fesB/ jB iK fJj fNzv o[gJhnK dh Gotk b?. T[; B/
fejk w?B{z wBia{o j? fe w/oh fNzv Go fdZsh ikt/, fi; Bkb T[; d/ fuoK d/ dfbZdo
N[NZ rJ/ .2 fJfsjk;ekoK dk nzdkiak j? fe fJ; soQK yao? ks ftZu e'Jh 20 bZy s'I T[gZ o
o[gJhnk yaou nkfJnk. fJ; s'I jh nzdkiak bZr ;edk j? fe ;ko/ ftnkj s/ eh yaou
nkfJnk j'tr / k.
;odko ;akw f;zx B/ nkgDh ;g[Zsqh B{z i' dki fdZsk T[; ftZu w'NhnK
w'NhnK uhiaK fJj ;B L-
11 jkEh
101 T{m
101 x'V/

4. gzE gqek;a, 836, pkpk gq/w f;zx, wjkokik oDihs f;zx, 265-73L B"fBjkb f;zx,
61-64 .
101 rT{nK
101 wZMhnK
500 i'V/ e;awhoh d[;ka b/
pj[wb
Z[ / jho/, itkjo s/ iat/ o, p/nsz ;'B/ uKdh d/ GKv/, ehwyakp d/ EkB s/
j'o T{Bh, o/;awh, s/ ;{sq d/ eZgV/ fiBQK dk w[Zb frDBk w[;aeb j?. fJ; s'I fJbktk
wjkokik ;kfjp, ;akjiakdk yVe f;zx, ezto B"fBjkb f;zx, ezto ;ao/ f;zx s/ d{;o/
;akjiakfdnK, ;o j?Boh ca/B s/ T[; d/ ;Nkca s/ d{;o/ gstzfsnK B{z pj[-w[ZbhnK
g[;akeK fdZshnK. fJ; ;akdh T[Zs/ ;odko ;akw f;zx dk gzdoK bZy o[gJhnk yaou
nkfJnk.1

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso, fjZ;k 3, 358-78L c/B, ckJht :hnoia fJB
fJzvhnk, 119-183L p{N' ;akj skohfya gzikp L nbh-T[-dhB, fJpqsBkwk .
20
fg;akto B{z e{u

12 u/s ;zws 1895, 24 wkou 1838, B{z ;odko joh f;zx Bbt/ dh
noiah g[Zih fe iwo{d ftZu j'Jh bVkJh ftZu jkih ekeV s/ ;nkdsyakB d/ v/o/ d/
ekcah ncarkB iayawh j'J/ s/ wko/ rJ/ jB ns/ e[M f;zx th j[ew ;Zs eo rJ/ jB.
itkp ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp B/ cao[ wkfJnk fe okik r[bkkp f;zx s/ ;odko bfjDk
f;zx wihmhnk ibdh jh fg;akto B{z e{u eoBr/ s/ nkg wjkokik ;kfjp th gstzs/
gqkj[fDnK B{z ftfdnk eoe/ fg;akto tZb B{z tkrK w'VBr/ .1
19 u/s B{z ;o j?Boh ca/B s/ T[BQK d/ nzrq/ia ;kEhnK B{z ftfdnk ehsk s/
ezto ;ao/ f;zx T[BKQ B{z SZvD bJh fcaoi' ga o[ tZb rJ/. e;{o dk fJbkek u{fz e ;odko
;akw f;zx dh ikrho ftZu ;h fJ; bJh e;{o ftZu fJBQK dh nkU-Grs s/ o'Nh gkDh
dk ;kok gqpXz ;odko ;akw f;zx tb'I ehsk frnkk. XhowbhJ/ r[o{ ;kX{ f;zx eoskog[ohJ/
(;D/ nkfd ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp) ns/ d{;o/ gstzfsnK d/ ftfdnk j'D ikD fgZS'I
wjkokik ;kfjp th bfjzd/ B{z uVQ gJ/ s/ 27 u/s, 8 ngqb ? 1838, B"oks/ tkb/ fdB
;a/y{g[o/ g[Zi/. ;a/y{g[o/ g[ZiD s/ gsk BjhI eh rZb j'Jh iK okik fXnkB f;zx dk eh G/d
y[fbQnk fe wjkokik ;kfjp T[; Bkb pV/ ;yas Bkokia j' rJ/. fJZE/ fXnkB f;zx B/ p/
Bsh ehsh fe ;ay/ g{ o[ / ftZu T{bK (:orawkbK) dh frDsh pj[s fiankdk j' rJh j? ns/
nZi B"oks/ dk ;aG[ fdB j?. fJ; bJh Xow eow eoBk iaoo{ h j?. nZrI' wjkokik ;kfjp
B/ cao[ wkfJnk fe *sK c/o izwt{ kb/ T{bK B{z SZv d/j, Xow J/jh j?. b'eK B{z B;hjs s/
nkg whnK ca;hjs < e[M fuo fgZSI' id p/Bsh j'Jh fe wBe/o/ s'I T{b ;D/ d' ezgBhnK
d/ jkiao jB sK wjkokik ;kfjp B/ itkp fdZsk fe T{bK B{z y{j ftZu s/ ezgBhnK B{z
dfonk ftZu ;[NZ fdU . fgZSI' id g[fZ Snk fe ;oeko dk v/ok feZE/ ehsk ikJ? sK efjD
bZr/ *;oeko dh ihG T[sZ _/ .2
1 t;ky 1895 B{z, v/ok fgzv T[X'tkbh j'fJnk s/ 2 nekbrVQ s/ 3 B{z
nekbrVQI' okw Bro g[iZ / s/ 20 skohy sZe fJZE/ jh fenkw ehsk . fJZE/ jh okwBro
1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 3, fjZ;k 4, gz a 386 .
2. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 3, fjZ;k 4, 388-9 .
d/ w[ekw s/ 11 t;ky, 21 ngqb ? ;zB 1838, B{z ;odko joh f;zx Bbt/ dh noiah
g[iZ h fe d';s w[jwz d yakB d/ GshfinK, w[jwz d ncaib a , nepo ;ahohB yakB, j?do
s/ neow B/ iwo{d d/ febQ/ bkr/ nk w'ou/ bkJ/ jB s/ s'g s/ s'g gJh ub ojh j?.
wjkokik ;kfjp B/ fJj yapo ;[Dd/ ;ko ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B{z fg;akto ikD bJh
fsnkoh dk j[ew fdZsk s/ Bkb jh nthskfpb/ ;kfjp, ;[bskB w[jzwd yakB, gho
w[jwz d yakB nkfd B{z th j[ew j'fJnk . 17 t;ky B{z ;odko s/i f;zx, ;odko ;akw
f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko bfjDk f;x wihmhJ/, nbkod, t?Is{ok, e'oN, iwkdko
ya[;akb f;zx s/ okik r[bkp f;zx nkfd B{z j[ew j'fJnk fe ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh
;jkfJsk bJh ft;akto B{z e{u eoB .1
go cai" K g[iZ D s'I gfjbK jh iwo{d dh nkyaoh bVkJh 19 t;ky ;fBuotko
tkb/ fdB j' rJh fi; ftZu ;odko joh f;zx Bbtk iaywa h j'e/ j[ew-;Zs eo rJ/
. fJj dodBke yapo wjkokik ;kfjp B{z 26 t;ky B{z o'jsk; d/ wekw s/ g[Zih.
nekb ubkDk eoB s'I gfjbK ;odko joh f;zx B/ iwo{d d/ febQd / ko ;odko wjK
f;zx B{z B;hjs ehsh ;h fe id sZe wjkokik ;kfjp tZbI' j'o cai" Bk nk g[iZ / T[BKQ d/
ubkD/ dh yapo pkjo Bk eZYh ikt/. u[BKfu ;odko wjK f;zx B/ fJ; dh X[;e se
Bk fBebD fdZsh sK fe fdb-YZm/ gmkD j'o w[byZJhnk Bkb b? e/ feXo/ febQ/ T[sZ /
Bk nk g?D.
wjkokik ;kfjp tZbI' G/ih rJh e[weh cai" d/ fi; Bkb ;odko ;akw f;zx
nNkohtkb/ nkJ/ ;B, iwo{d d/ w[ekw s/ g[ZiD dh d/o ;h fe 28 t;ky B{z gmkDh
db iwo{d dk w?dkB SZv e/ nbh w;fid tZb B{z fsZso j' frnk. ;odko ;akw f;zx
ns/ e'oN ;kfjp B/ fJBQK dk fgZSk ehsk sKfe T[j fJod frod dhnK gjkVhnK ftZu
b[eD dk :sB Bk eoB . fgZS/ nk oj/ f;zxK B{z o'eD bJh T[BKQ B/ w[ekpbk eoB dk
fJZe :sB ehsk, go f;zxK d/ Nkeo/ s/ T[j fiankdk d/o yV/ Bk ofj ;e/ s/ id E'V/Q
fij/ pzd/ w[ekkpb/ ftZu wo/ s/ iaywh j'J/ sK w?dkB'I GZi fBeb/ s/ nbh w;id d"V
e/ nZr/ B{z s[o rJ/ .
gmkDK tZbI' iwo{d s/ fg;akto B{z e'Jh yasok Bk ofjD s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx
ih e[weh ca"iK d/ Bkb jh bkj"o B{z w[V nkJ/ .2

3. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso, fjZ;k 4, 393-94 .


4. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 3, fjZ;k 4, 395-401 .
21

jiako/ B{z

nyaho i/m 1895 (i{B 1838 d/ d{;o/ jcas/) wjkokik ;kfjp B/ jiako/
d/ fJbke/ dk w[nkwbk t;{b eoB bJh ;odko bfjDk f;zx ;zXKtkbhJ/ B{z w[eoZo
ehsk s/ j[ew fdZsk fe oZJhns dh jkbs dk fyankb oZy e/ w[nkwbk T[rkq fjnk ikt/
. fJ; t/b/ ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ Bkt th gqtkBk ikoh j'fJnk fe ;zXKtkbhJ/ ;odko
d/ Bkb ;akwb j' e/ jiako/ tZb B{z e{u eoB s/ d't/I ob fwb e/ w[nkwb/ dh T[rqkjh
dk fJzsiakw eoB .1

;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkoh], dcso 3, fjZ;k 4, 536 .


22
ezto dbhg f;zx dk iBw

efjzd/ jB fe nzfwqs;o d/ i's;ah gzvs okw dZs B/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx


B{z fJj dZf;nk ;h fe T[BKQ d/ xo i' pkbe iBw b?D tkbk j? T[j je{ws tk;s/ uzr/
;rD tkbk gqshs BjhI j[zdk ns/ T[; B{z ;w[zdo'I gko ikDk gJ/rk. fJBQK fdBK ftZu
wjkokik ;kfjp dh ;G s'I S'Nh wjkokDh fizd e"o, i' fJfjsk; ftZu wjkokDh wkJh
fizdK eoe/ gqf;ZX j? ns/ fi; B{z wjkokik ;kfjp *wfjp{pk_ efj e/ p[bkfJnk eod/
;B, roGtsh ;h, fJ; bJh wjkokik ;kfjp ;qh dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o nodk;
eoB bJh 17 Gkd'I ;zws 1865, 31 nr;s ;zB 1838, B{z bkj"oI s[o./ nNkoh s'I
;odko ;akw f;zx th wjkokik ;kfjp d/ Bkb ob gJ/ ns/ T[BQK d/ Bkb jh ;qh
nzfwqs;o nk rJ/.
;qh nzfwqs;o gj[uz e/ nkg f;ZX/ ;qh dopko ;kfjp jkiao j'J/ . frnkoK ;"
o[gJhnk ;qh dopko ;kfjp ns/ gzi ;" o[gJhnk ;qh nekb syas uVQkfJnk s/ nodk;
eokJh. fco gqeowK ftZu jo pzr [ / o[gJhnk uVQktk uVQkT[dI / j'J/ d[y GziDh ;kfjp d/
o;s/ rJ/. okwpkra ftZu T[sko/ pknd Biao fBnkia fgZSI' febk r'fpzd rVQ d/ EkB/
dkoK s/ w[s;dhnK B{z j[ew ehsk fe yaika B/ ftZu i' wkb w"id { j? T[; dk t/otk ns/
i' i' ;a? b'VhIdh j? T[; dh caod fby e/ jkiao eoB.
jcas/ nzdo jh fJZE'I bkj"o'I yapo g[ZIh fe 23 Gkd',I w[skpe 6 ;szpo ;zB
1838 B{z bkj"o wjkokDh fizd e"o dh e[yZ I' ;kfjpiakd/ B/ iBw fbnk j?. wjkokDh
;kfjpk B/ fJj yapo w[B;ah r'fpzd okw ;jkJ/ d/ jZEhI jia{o dh ;/tk ftZu G/ih ns/
T[; B? wjkokik ;kfjp B{z okw pkra ftZu fJj yapo gj[uz kJh. wjkokik ;kfjp fJj
yapo ;[D e/ pV/ gq;Bz j'J./ tihao fXnkB f;zx B/ fi; t/b/ fJj yapoo ;[Dh sK gjkV
dh o;w nB[;ko f;otkoBk ehsk. e[M fdBK fgZSI' ;'B/ d/ rfjD/, jZ;h, eV/ s/ Bedh
nkfd w[B;ah r'fpzd okw ;jkJ/ B{z d/ e/ bkj"o B{z s'fonk.1
1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso ;'w, fjZ;k gziw, 1
ezto yVe f;zx dh soQK fJ; G[izrh dh ;aeb th wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb
fJsBh fiankdk fwbdh ;h fe T[j wjkokik ;kfjp dh fJZe fBZeh fijh w{os jh
ikgdk ;h . fJ; G[ir z h dk Bkw dbhg f;zx oZfynk frnk .
Gkt/I T[go i' e[M fbfynk frnk j? fe;/ ;aeZ dh r[iz kfJ;a BjhI SZvdk, go
pknd ftZu ehs/ rJ/ v'rfonK d/ gq'g'rzv/ d/ n;o j/mK eJH fJZe fbykohnK B/
wjkokDh fizd e"o dh wjkokik oDihs f;zx Bkb ;akdh ns/ T[BKQ d/ ;g[sZ o wjkokik
dbhg f;zx dh g?dkfJ;a ;pzXh i' eJh gqeko dhnK rabs fpnkBhnK ehshnK jB
T[BQK B{z ;kca eoBK th iao{oh ikgdk j?. wjkokDh fizd e"o dh ;akdh ;pzXh Grs
be;awD f;zx, fijV/ fe ;kY/ fpnk;h ;kb dh nk:{ G'r e/ 27 d;zpo 1845 B{z
nekb ubkDk eo rJ/ jB, nkgDh nyapko *dh yakb;k_ d/ 5 nes{po 1930 d/
gou/ ftZu fbfynk ;h fe okJ/ pjkdo e[zi fpjkoh Ekgo B{z caeho B{oZ[dhB (i'
wjkokDh d/ wjb d/ fBrkjpkB ;B) d/ g[sZ o yakB pjkd[o caeho ewo[d Z hB B/
dZf;nk ;h fe T[j yad[ wjkokDh dh wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb ;akdh t/b/ Bkb ;B s/ T[BKQ
dh T[wo T[; t/b/ 18 ;kb dh ;h. wjkokik dbhg f;zx dh g?dkfJ;a t/b/ caeho
B{od
Z[ hB s/ caeho ewo[d Z hB wjb ftZu w"id
{ ;B. u/jo/ s/ fujB uZeo fe;/ d/ wksk
fgsk ;pzXh ;G s'I tZvk ;p{s ;wM/ iKd/ jB. p?oB n?foe t'B ;aBI' por (Baron
Erick Von Schonberg) Bkw iowB ;zB 1844 ftZu bkj"o nkfJnk ;h ns/
wjkokik dbhg f;zx B{z fwfbnk ;h. fJj nkgDh feskp *No?tbia fJB fJvhnk n?vI
e;awho (bzvB 1853 fibd 2, gzBk 194) ftZu fbydk j? fe fJ; pZu/ (wjkokik
dbhg f;zx) dh g?dkfJ;a fJsBh nk;-fto[XZ ;h (feT[fI e fJj wjkokik oDihs f;zx

1. ;a'Bpor, p?oB n?foe t'B-No?tbia fJB fJzvhnk n?Iv e?;awho (bzvB 1853),
fibd 2, 194 .
2. Rai Bahadur K.B. Thapar, a distinguished citizen of Lahor, tells me
that when he asked from Khan Bahadur Faqir Qamar-ud-Din, who
was incharge of Maharani Jindan's palace, what truth there was in the
report given credence to by Sir Lepel Griffin that Maharaja Dalip Singh
was not a legitimate son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and that Jindan was
not a wedded wife of the Maharaja, he cried 'Astaghffar-Allah, such a lie!
CAn calumny go further ? I attended the Maharaja's marriage myself.
Maharani Jindan was the daughter of a highly respectable zemindar and
a duly wedded wife. My father was present at the time of Dalipo Singh's
birth and I was my father's attendantat that time. Evidently some evil
gossip must have told the base lie to the Sahib. The Faqir was 18 years
old at time." -The Khalsa, Lahor. October 5, 1930 .
ih dh nkyaoh T[wo ftZu T[BQK d/ 58t/I ;kb ftZu iBfwn ;h) fe eJh fJ; d/ mhe
wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ g[sZ o j'D s/ ;aeZ eod/ ;B go pj[s ;ko/ fJZE/ d/ ofjD
tkb/, fiBQK Bkb fe w?I fJ; ;pzXh rZb-pks ehsh j?, efjzd/ jB fe T[j n?B tZv/
(wjkokik) oDihs f;zx dh jh fJZe fBZeh fijh s;tho j? noEks T[; dh ;aeb
wjkokik oDihs f;zx Bkb fJsBh fiankdk fwbdh j? fe T[j S'N/ g?wkB/ s/ oDihs
f;zx jh gqshs j[d
z k j? .

1. He [Scheer Singh] was succeeded by Dalip Singh, Ranjeet's youngest


son. The child's birth was so unexpected that doubts of his legitimacy
were entertained by many; but several of the natives with whom I have
spoken on the subject, declare him to be miniature likeness of the great
Ranjit's,-The Baron Erich Von Schonberg, Travels in India and Kashmir,
London, 1853, Vol. ii, 193-94.
24
ekpb tZb uVQkJh

wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ ;akj ;ai[ kj B{z Bkb b? e/ ekpb ikD tkbh ;koh
nzri/q ha cai" B{z gzikp ftu dh bzxD d/Dk gqtkB BjhI ;h ehsk, fJ; bJh ca;? bk fJj
j'fJnk fe ;akj ;ai[ kj d/ Bkb ikD tkbh nzri/q ha cai" sK j/mI' dh pjktbg[o d/ o;s/
f;zx d/ T[Zso tb dh ezXko d/ o;s/ j' e/ ekpb B{z ikt/ s/ ;akj ;a[ikj d/ g[Zso
;akjiakdk s?w{o B{z wjkokik oDihs f;zx nkgDh ca"i Bkb fg;akto d/ o;s/ ekpb
gj[uz k d/D ns/ T[; d/ Bkb eoBb ebkv t/v s/ E'VhQ i/jh Bkw-wksq ezgBh dh cai"
j't./
;akjiakdk s?wo{ s/ eoBb t/v d/ Bkb ikD tkbh wjkkokik ;kfjp dh cai"
dh ewkB ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B{z fdZsh rJh s/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk,
;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk s/ e[M j'o cai" h nca;o T[BKQ dh ;jkfJsk bJh Bkb
G/i/ rJ/. ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dk v/ok fg;akto jh ;h fe 2 io[bkJh 1838 B{z yapo
g[iZ h fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx 15 jkV 1896, w[skpe 27 i{B 1839, B{z bkj"o
j[ew-;s eo rJ/ jB s/ T[BKQ dh irQk yakb;k yVe f;zx ih syas T[sZ / p?m/ jB.
fg;akto gj[uz e/ ;akjiakdk s?wo{ B/ 29 wkou 1839 B{z fJZe tZvk dopko
ehsk fi; ftZu fe d[oZ kBh ;odko ns/ fJod frod s/ yap? o d/ gmkD ephfbnK d/
yakB s/ j'o eJh gstzs/ nkJ/. iBob nthskfpb/ B/ f;Zy nca;oK dh, fiBQK ftZu fe
;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ ;G s'I w'jo/ ;B, ;akjiakd/ Bkb w[bkeks eokJh ns/
jo fJZe } T[; d/ n"jd/ nB[;ko fybns fdZsh rJh. fJ; dopko ftZu ;afjiakdk
;odko w[jwz d jk;aw yakB ;zdi' Ja h fJZe T[x Z k wfjwkB ;h i' fe eJh fuo s'I f;ZyK d/
feogk-gksq dh j?;hns ftZu fg;akto ofj fojk ;h. fJj ;akj ;ai[ kj dk wsqn / k-Gok s/
;akjiakdk s?wo{ dk ukuk ;h. fJ; d/ Bkb fJ; d/ fszB g[sZ o s/ fJZe Gshik ;afjiakdk
1.T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 3, fjZ;k 5, gzBk 114, 121 .
iwj{o th ;h.1
fpBK fe;/ yak; w[;ea b d/ ;akjiakdk s?wo{ f;ZyK dh ;jkfJsk Bkb fg;akto'H
nZr/ iwo{d s'I dZok yap? o ftZu dkyab j' frnk.nbh w;fid d/ Biadhe g[iZ D s/ gsk
bZrk fe d';s w[jwz d yakB d/ g[sZ o nepo yakB d/ fjwkfJsh gmkDK B/ o;sk o'fenk
j'fJnk j? s/ nbh w;fid d/ febQ/ ftZu nkeh j'J/ p?m/ jB. 25 i[bkJh B{z o[ektN
g?dk eoB tkfbnK BKb MVg j' gJh s/ e[M B[e;kB th j'fJnk. gmkD T[ZuhnK
gjkVhnK s/ ;B, fJ; bJh T[j T[EZ I' fiankdk nk;kBh Bkb j/mfbnK B{z fB;akBk pDk
;ed/ ;B go T[j fiankdk d/o nV BK ;e/ s/ 29 dh ;t/o B{z gsk bZrk fe T[j nbh
w;fid yakbh eo rJ/ jB s/ w?dkB ;kca j' frnk j?.
fJ; MVg ftZu yakb;k ih dh ca"i B/ tX uVQ e/ fjZ;k fbnk s/ gmkDK B{z
GikT[D s/ nbh w;fid dk febQk ykbh eotkT[D ftZu T[BKQ dk pVk jZ; ;h s/ yak;
eoe/ ;a/y t;ktD B? ekcah pjkdoh ftykJh fi; eoe/ T[; B{z 11 egfVnK dh
fyabns s/ ;'B/ d/ efVnK dh i'Vh s/ d{;o/ ew/dkBK B{z ;Zs ;Zs egfVnK dhnK
fyabnsK s/ efVnK dhnK i'VhnK fJBkw ti'I fwbhnk.2
fJ; fdB eoBb t/v tb'I ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/, ;odko ;akw
f;zx nNkohtkb/, ;odko nwo f;zx s/ wZbk f;zx Bkb pVk o[Zyk fijk toskT[
j'fJnk s/ T[; B? eVe dh X[g ftZu d[gfjo/ jh T[BQK B{z fgZS/ w[V ikD bJh fejk.
;odko bfjDk f;zx s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ fJ; rZb dh f;aekfJs ezto B"fBjkb
f;zx gk; ehsh go okik r[bkp f;zx B/ fJj efj e/ rZb ocak dcak eo fdZsh fe T[;
t/b/ rowh fiankdk ;h s/ j' oj/ joi woi d/ ekoD t/v dh sphns fuV-fuVh j'Jh
j'Jh ;h, fJ; bJh nkg; ftZu r[Z;k eoB s/ szr j'D dh b'V BjhI.3
eoBb t/v dh fJZSk nB[;ko Bihp s/ okwr'b gbNDk nbh w;fid d/
febQ/ B{z ;zGkbh oZyD bJh Bh:s ehshnK rJhnK s/ pkeh ekpb B{z s[o gJhnK s/ 3
;szpo 1839 B{z ;akjiakdk s?w{o d/ Bkb ekpb gj[zu rJhnK. ;akj ;a[ikj fJ; s'I
gfjbK jh ekpb gj[uz e/ syas T[sZ / p?m u[eZ k j'fJnk ;h. j[D u{fz e f;Zy cai" nkgDk
1. ;ajkws nbh, dh f;ya; n?Iv ncarkBia, 231-32 . dopko ;pzXh fiankdk tkecahns
bJh d/y' ftbhnw pko dk *ioBb n"ca J/ wkou a a a a a agz a 229-242* .
2. pko, ioBb n"ca J/ wkou 336-44L ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k
1, gz a 14, 17-18 .
3. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 1, gz a 14, 17-18 .
ezw w[ek u[eZ h ;h, fJ; bJh 5-6 nes{po B{z eoBb t/v d/ Bkb T[j bkj"o B{z w[V
gJh. b'V nB[;ko ;akj ;ai[ kj s/ nzri/q a nc;oK dh ;jkfJsk bJh E'VhQ fijh nzri/q ha
cai" ekpb SZv fdZsh rJh s/ pkeh nzri/q ha cai" th 16-16 nes{po B{z tkg; w[V
gJh s/ 31 d;zpo B{z fco'iga o[ nk g[iZ h.
;aodko ;akw f;zx d/ bkj"o tkg; w[VB dh skohya dk gsk BjhI bZr
;fenk, go i/ T[j ezto B"fBjkb f;zx d/ Bkb bkj"o B{z w[V nkJ? ;B sK 26 Gkd'I
w[skpe 10 ;szpo B{z fJZE/ g[Zi rJ/ ;B .

` 1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 1, gz a 18-30 . j'o d/y' pko dk *ioBb* s/


;ajkws nbh dh *f;y; n?Iv ncarkBia .*
25

;o i"B ehB dh nkU-Grs

ekpb s'I w[Vdh j'Jh nzrq/iah ca"i B{z fvZfrnk s'I okwBor d/ o;s/ f;ZXh
e;{o B{z eo fdZsk ;h sKfe r[ioks, tiahopkd d/ o;s/ bkj"o ftZU dh bzxD dk w"ek
jh Bk pD/. ;o i"B ehB u{fz e wjkokik yVe f;zx B{z fwbDk ukj[dz k ;h fJ; bJh T[j
okw Bro'I bkj"o B{z j' fgnk s/ 12 g'j w[skpe 26 d;zpo 1940 B{z ;akjdo/ gj[uz k
.
id 14 g'j B{z ;o i"B ehB B/ wjkokik ;kfjp dh w[bkeks bJh nkT[Dk
;h sK wjkokik ;kfjp tb'I ;odko ;akw f;zx, ;odko XzBk f;zx wbtJh, ;odko
nso f;zx ekfbnKtkbk s/ caeho niahiad [ hB T[; dh g/;ta kJh bJh Bh:s ehs/ rJ/
. s'gK dh ;bkwh s'I pknd pkd;akjh w;fid d/ pV/ T[Zs/ dopko bZrk fiZE/ fe
wjkokik ;kfjp ehB B{z fwb/. ya?o ya?ohns g[ZSD s'I pknd ;o i"B ehB tZb'I gzik
jiako o[gfJnk f;otkoBk j'fJnk s/ fJZe nzriq/ ha pzde{ , fJZe x'Vk ;D/ ;[Bfjoh iahB
d/, fJZe nzri/q ha xVh s/ fJZe feou Biao ti'I r[ioa hnK. fJ; s'I pknd d';skBk rZb-
pks s/ ekpb dh uVQkJh ;pzXh g[SZ -frZS j[d z h ojh .
nzs ftZu wjkokik yVe f;zx tZb'I ;o i"B ehB s/ T[BQK d/ ;kEhnK B{z
doik-p-doik s'jca fdZs/ rJ/. o[y;a s j'D s'I gfjbK ;o i"B B/ r[og[otk;h wjkokik
oDihs f;zx dh ;wkX dh fiankos ehsh s/ Biao G/N ehsh .

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohy, dcso 4, fjZ;k 1, gzBk 49-51 .


26

ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh phwkoh

23 g'j 1896 w[skpe 6 iBtoh 1840 B{z ;t/o/ id ezto B"fBjkb


f;zx n;aBkB eoB bJh jwkw ftZurJ/ sK nzdo iKd/ jh ra;a yk e/ p/j';a j' rJ/.
jwkw BtK jh fsnko j'fJnk ;h. fJ; dh rzdh j[nkVQ fdb s'I fdwkra B{z uVQ rJh.
ezto ;kfjp d/ e[M B"eo th p/j;' a j' rJ/. fJZe B"eo d/ sK g/N ftZu dod T[mZ g?D
d/ ekoD jkbs pj[s Bkiae[ j' rJh.
ezto ;kfjp d/ p/j;' a j' ikD dh yapo ;[Dd/ ;ko jh B"eo nzdo rJ/ s/
T[BKQ B/ fJj jkbs d/y e/ GkJh okw f;zx s/ GkJh r'ftzd okw B{z yapo fdZsh. d'BI' GkJh
MN-gN jt/bh ftZu gj[uz rJ/ s/ nk e/ d/fynk fe ezto ;kfjp fpBK fjZbD i[b Z D s'I
p/j;' a gJ/ jB s/ dzd pzd j'J/ gJ/ jB. T[BKQ B/ ezto ;kfjp dh dzdB y'bhQ s/ skes
dhnK dtkJhnK s/ r[bkp T[BQK d/ w{zj ftZu gkfJnk s/ fgZS'I p/-dw[;ae s/ r[bkp d/
fSZN/ fdZs/ fi; Bkb ncakek j'fJnk s/ j';a nkJh. fJsBh d/o B{z ezto ;kfjp d/ fgsk
wjkokik yVe f;zx th nk gj[uz / s/ frnkok ;" o[gfJnk f;otkoBk ehsk s/ wksk uzd
e"o B/ ;tk gzi ;" o[gfJnk tkfonk. fJ; d/ fgZSI' GkJh okw f;zx s/ GkJh r'ftzd okw
B// wjkokik ;kfjp dh ;/tk ftZu p/Bsh ehsh fe ezto ;kfjp B{z j[D nokw j? s/ fcaeo
dh rZb e'Jh BjhI ns/ T[j feb/Q B{z w[V rJ/ . fgZS'I dopko d/ tZv/ tZv/ ;odkoK B/
f;otkoBk ehsk s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkfbnK B/ YkJh ;" o[gJhnk tkfonk .

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkoh], dcso 4, fjZ;k 1 gzBk 56-7 .


27

gkfJzdk yakB dh ;a'o;a

17-18 g'j ;zws 1896 w[skpe 30-31 d;zpo ;zB 1839 B[z fg;akto
d/ nyapko-Bth; dh noiah s'I gsk bZrk fe casfj yakB gzisko-tkbk sK, fi; B/ T[;
fJbke/ ftZu c;kd wukfJnk j'fJnk, uVQkJh eo frnk j? go gkfJzdk yakB B/ jiako/
tkb/ gk;/ ;a'o;a wukJh j'Jh j?. ioB?b nthskfpb/ d/ Bkw wjkokik yVe f;zx ih
tZbI' j[ew ikoh j'fJnk fe fJ; w[be d/ fJzsiakw bJh x'V-ufVQnK dh cai" G/ih ikt/
, Bkb jh j[ew j'fJnk fe ioB?b wfjskp f;zx d' gbNDK X"Ieb f;zx tkbhnK,
ns/ uko s'gK b? e/ ca;kdhnK B{z f;ZXk eoB bJh MN-gN e{u eo d/t. 4-5 wkx,
15-16 iBtoh ;zB 1840, B{z jikfoUI yapo g[iZ h fe gkfJzdk yakB dh ;ao' ;a jkb sZe
wZmh BjhI j'Jh s/ T[; B/ ;oeko d/ eJh fgzv T[ikV fdZs/ jB. u[BKfu e;awho d/
Bkfiaw d/ BKw gotkBk ikoh j'fJnk fe w[iacaokpkd d/ o;s/ jiako B{z gbND G/ih
ikt/ ns/ 6 wkx B{z ;odko uso f;zx nNkohtkb/ B{z j[ew j'fJnk fe fJZe dw
jiako/ B{z G/ihnK rJhnK gbNDK ftZu ;akfwb j' e/ gkfJzdk yakB B{z ;'X./
fJBQK fdBK ftZu jh wb{w j[d z k j? ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkfbnK B{z th
jiako/ ikD dk j[ew j'fJnk fe gkfJzdk yakB B{z ;'XD ns/ wkwb/ dh T[rkq jh eoB.
u[BKfu ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z fJ; w[fjzw ftZu g{oh ekw:kph j'Jh s/ gkfJzdk yakB B{z
JhB wzB b?D go wiapo{ j'Dk fgnk s/ nZr/ B{z nkgDh B/e ubDh bJh nkgDk bVek
iawkBs d/ s"o s/ T{b d/Dk fgnk fi; B{z fe ;odko ;akw f;zx nkgD/ Bkb bkj"o b?
nkJ/. fgZSI' bkj"oI' fJ; B{z S/sh jh fJZisa Bkb ftfdnk eo fdZsk frnk .

1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 1, 55-56, 61L jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh,


oJh;kfB gzikp, 65L frqfcaB , gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd 1, 242 . j'o d/y'
skohfya w[bfe jikok, 714-15 .
28

wjkokik yVe f;zx s/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh w"s

21 s/ 22 eZse ;zws 1897, 5 Btzpo ;zB 1840, B{z ;odko ;akw f;zx
nNkohtkfbnK B[z d' poVhnK ;yas ;ZNK tZihnK. fJ; fdB wjkokik yVe f;zx ih
je[w-;fs eo rJ/ fi; Bkb d/;a gzikp dk ;[jkr Gkr b[fZ Nnk frnk, v'rok rodh
nkozG j' rJh s/ esbK s/ rZdkohnK dk w[Y Z pZfMnk s/ T[;/ fdB b"Y/ t/b/ wjkokik
yVe f;zx d/ B"itkB g[sZ o s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ dkwkd ezto B"fBjkb f;zx
v'rfonK dh ;kia; dh G/N uVQ/ rJ/ fi; Bkb fJZe gk;/ sK phph BkBeh ftXtk j'
rJh s/ d{;o/ gk;/ wjkokik yVe f;zx s'I pknd d/;a dh ojh ;jh Yko; th N[NZ rJh
s/ d{;o/ gk;/ d't/I w"sK wjkokik yVe f;zx d/ v'rok tiaho fXnkB f;zx dh frDh
fwEh j'Jh ;kia;a dk Bshik ;B fijVh fe f;Zy oki dhnK T[Zu nNkohnK B{z Yk e/
nkgD/ yakBdkB dh je{ws dk wjZb T[;koB bJh e[M fuo s'I r[d z h ik ojh ;h.
wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ ihT{d I / jh T[BKQ d/ ft;atk; dk BikfJia cakfJdk
T[mk e/ gjkV ftZu nkgDh skes pDkT[Dh s/ tXkT[Dh v'rfonK B/ ;ao[ { eo fdZsh ;h,
fi; B{z nkgD/ nzsb/ fdBhI T[j GKg th frk ;h, ns/ fJ;/ eoe/ T[; B/ tihao fXnkB
f;zx d/ Gok r[bkp f;zx B{z izw{ s'I jiako/ tZb G/i fdZsk ;h. go T[; d/ nZyK whND dh
d/o ;h v'ro/ GoktK B/ fco nkgDhnK ukbK ubDhnK ;ao[ { eo fdZshnK. fit/H T[gZ o
fbfynk ik u[eZ k j? wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ nekb ubkD/ ;w/I ezto B"fBjkb f;zx
fg;akto ;h ns/ fJ; t/b/ r[bkp f;zx th T[EZ / jh ;h. v'rfonK dh wB;ak fJj ;h fe
fit/I j' ;e/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ yakBdkB B{z w[ek fdZsk ikt/ sK fe fXnkB f;zx
d/ g[sZ o jhok f;zx B{z f;Zy oki dh rZdh T[sZ / fpmkT[D bJh o;sk ;kca j[d z k ikJ/.
fJ; t/b/ wjkokik yVe f;zx B/ v'rfonK dh skes B{z ewiao' eoB bJh
oki-gqpXz dk pj[s ;kok ezw nkgD/ fwqs ;odko u/us/ f;zx d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsk s/
fXnkB f;zx dh wfjbK ftZu y[bQh nktk ikJh iaok pzd eo fdZsh. fXnkB f;zx B/
;odko u/s f;zx B{z pdBkw eoB bJh gfjbK dopko s/ ;afjo bkj"o ftZu ns/
fJod frod fJj jtkJh T[Vk fdZsh fe wjkokik yVe f;zx ;odko u/s f;zx B{z pVk
tiaho pDk e/ T[; dh ;bkj Bkb gzikp B{z cozrhnK d/ nXhB eoB dhnK r'd I K r[d
z
fojk j? s/ cozrhnK dh ;jkfJsk d/ fJtia ftZu T[BQK B{z nkwdBh ftu'I S/ nkB/ cah
o[gfJnk d/D dh ;bkj eodk j? fi; Bkb yakb;k cai" s/;odkoK dh EK nzri/q ha cai"
oZyh ikJ/rh. fJ; rZb B{z eJh ;odko s/ cai" h nca;o th ;Zu wzB p?m./ wfjbK ftZu
wjkokik ;kfjp s/ ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dhnK okDhnK B{z th fJj rZb gj[zuk fdZsh
rJh fi; eoe/ T[j pj[s vo rJhnK. fXnkB f;zx B/ fJj ukb ub rJh skV e/
eJh tZv/ ;odkoK B{z fJj Ngbk fdZsk fe fJ; t/b/ gzikp B{z cozrhnK s'I fJZe' soQK
pukfJnk ik ;edk j? fe ;kok oki eki wjkokik yVe f;zx dh EK ezto B"fBjkb
f;zx d/ ;g[od eo fdZsk ikt/.
T[Xo'I ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B{z fg;akto'I S/sh p[bk G/fink. r[bkp f;zx B/
fg;akto ns/ o;s/ ftZu ezto B{z wB-xVs rZbK ;[Dk e/ fJ; soQK uZeok fdZsk fe T[j
M{m ;Zu ftZu goy Bk eo ;fenk s/ r[bkop f;zx dh gZNh ftZu nk e/ nkgD/ fgsk
wjkokik yVe f;zx d/ fto[XZ j' frnk. bkj"o g[iZ d/ ;ko jh ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B{z
fXnkB f;zx s/ T[; d/ ;kEhnK gk;'I r[bkp f;zx dhnK rZbKdh rtkjh fwb rJh s/
T[; B{z ;G rZbK dk g{ok :ehB j' frnk.
S/sh jh fgZS'I wjkokik yVe f;zx dh wjkokDh s/ ezto ;kfjp dh wksk
wkJh uzd e"o s/ ;zXktkbhJ/ ;odkoK B{z th cakj fbnk frnk s/ fJBQK dh ;bkj Bkb
8-9 nes{po 1839 dh oks B{z ;odko u/s f;zx xkprkj ftu gko p[bkfJnk s/
fgZSI' oki dk pj[s;kok ezw ezto B"fBjkb f;zx B/ nkgD/ jZE b? fbnk. fJ; s'I S/sh
jh pknd wjkokik yVe f;zx phwko j' rJ/, go fXnkB f;zx B? ezto ;kfjp B{z
fejk fe n;b ftZu T[j fpwko BjhI jB pbfe pjkBk eo ojj/ jB sK fe fe;/ soQK
fJZE'I fBeb e/ nzrq/iaK gk; ub/ ikD. Bshik fJj j'fJnk fe gfjok j'o ;yas eo
fdZsk frnk. fJj jh BjhI pbfe fejk iKdk j? fe ;kia;ha nK B/ jehwK dh okjhI ;cad ?
e;eoh s/ o;eg{o nkfde iafjo E'VhQ E'VhQ d/Dh ;ao[ { eo fdZsh fi; Bkb T[j j"bh
j"Bh x[bd/ x[bd/ x[b rJ/ s/ B" d; wjhB/ phwkoh Bkb oVehId/ 5 Btpzo 1840
B{z ubkDk eo rJ/.
fXnkB f;zx wjkokik yVe f;zx d/ Bkb jh ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh th
nby w[ekT[Dk ukj[dz k ;h feT[fI e fJ; no;/ ftZU ezto th v'ro/ GoktK dhnK ukbK
B{z skV frnk j'fJnk ;h s/ T[; B? fJBQK dhnK ekotkJhnK B{z d/yD GkbD s/ t/b/ f;o
o'e ;eD tkbh iBob t?sI o{ k s/ ;odko nish f;zx ;zxKtkbhJ/ s/ bfjDk f;zx
wihmhnk dh ewkB j/mK fJZe seVh cai" gjkV tZb G/i fdZsh ;h, Gkt/I iakjok s"o s/
fJ; cai" dk we;d wzvh s/ d{;ohnK gjkVh fonk;sK gk;'I g[okDh T[rkq jh eoBk ;h.
fJ; bJh fi; t/b/ wjkokik yVe f;zx d/ dkj-;;eko dk gqpXz j' fojk ;h, fXnkB
f;zx ezto B"fBjkb f;zx bJh th fsnkohnK w[ewz b eoh ik fojk ;h. ezto B"fBjkb
f;zx B{z th T[;/ fdB wotk d/D dk nzdo{Bh wsbp fJj ;h fe ezto ;kfjp dh w"s
B{z d{;o/ ;akjiakfdnK d/ wZE/ w[VQ e/ iK fe;/ j'o pjkB/ T[BKQ B{z th S/jh jh fNekD/ brk
;e/r / k s/ fJ; soQK jhok f;zx bJh ibdh jh okj ;kc j' ikt/rk. T[;/ fdB b'Y/ t/
b/ fi; t/b/ wjkokik yVe f;zx dk ;z;eko j' fojk ;h, fXnkB f;zx B/ jiao{ h pkra
dh fvUVQh T[sZ o gnkD/ nkdwh w[eoZo eo fdZs/ sKfe fi; t/b/ ezto ;kfjp fJZEI' dh
bzxD sK fvUVQh dk SZik T[BQK go m/bQ fdZsk ikt/. fvUVQh d/ Biadhe b'V t/b/
tosD bJh fJe gkbeh th wzrtk e/ oZy SZvh. wjkokik ;kfp dh fusk B{z bKp{
bkT[D s'I E'Vh d/o fgZSI' jh fXnkB f;zx B/ eoBb nb?ria vI?a o rkovBo B{z nkgD/
s'yyakB/ d/ ukbh nkdwh wkw{bh caNhe dh tosh ftZu fbnkT[D bJh fejk ns/ fi;
t/b/ rkovBo w[V e/ nkfJnk T[; t/b/ GkDk tos u[eZ k ;h.
wjkokik ;kfjp dh fusk jkb/ ib jh ojh ;h fe ezto B"fBjkb f;zx
sbkU tZb n;aBkB eoB bJh s[o gJ/. ;akfJd T[BKQ B{z fXnkB f;zx dh x[;o-w[;o
s/ GZi-d"V s'I e[MZ ;aeZ g? frnk ;h. Gkt/I fXnkB f;zx B/ o'eDk th ukfjnk go T[j Bk
wzB./ id w[Vd/ j'J/ nkJ/ sK T[BKQ B/ fXnkB f;zx d/ Gok r[bkp f;zx d/ g[sZ o whnK
T{Xw f;zx dk jZE cV e/ T[; B{z th Bkb jh j? fbnk. fJj d'tI/ fvUVQh ftZu tV/ jh
;B fe X?-X? eodk SZik T[BKQ T[sZ / nk fvfrnk. T{Xw f;zx sK T[EZ / jh fuZs j' frnk.
ezto ;kfjp B{z pj[s fiankdk ;ZN BjhI ;h bZrh, go T[j j/m fvZr gJ/ ;B. T[j
T[ZmD jh bZr/ ;B fe fXnkB f;zx MN T[BQK B{z uko gzi v'bh-pfjfonK dh wdd
Bkb, i' T[EZ / nZr/ jh w"id { oy/ j'J/ ;B, gkbeh ftZu gk e/ febQ/ d/ nzod b? frnk s/
dotkia/ pzd eo fdZs./ ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk gkbh d/ Bkb ikDK ukj[d z k ;h
go fXnkB f;zx B/ XZek wko e/ fgZS/ jNk fdZsk. ;zXKtkbhJ/ s/ j'o eJh ;odkoK B/
nzdo ikD dk :sB ehsk go fe;/ B{z th bkr/ Bk bZrD fdZsk frnk, fJZE/ sZe fe
ezto ;kfjp dh wksk wjkokDh uzd e"o th nkgD/ d'jK jZEK B{z dotkia/ Bkb wko wko
e/ EZe rJh s/ jZE bj{ b[jkD eo bJ/ go dotkiak Bk jh y'fbQnk frnk. fJZe gkbeh
pfjo/ B/ fi; B/ ezto ;kfjp B{z gkbeh ftZu gkT[D ftZu d{;fonK Bkb ;jkfJsk
fdZsh ;h fgZSI' eoBb rkovBo B{z dZf;nk fe fi; t/b/ ezto ;kfjp B{z T[mZ D bZfrnk
B{z u[eZ e/ gkbeh ftZu gkfJnk frnk ;h sK T[BKQ B[z wkw{bh ;ZN bZrh j'JH ;h s/ ezto
;kfjp d/ ;oQkD/ T[Zs/ fJZe o[gJhJ/ fisBk bj{ dk fB;akB bZrk ;h, go pknd ftZu
fi; t/b/ vkeNo j'fBrporo B{z p[bkfJnk frnk ;h sK T[; t/b/ T[BKQ dk f;o pj[s
p[oh soQK fuZfEnk j'fJnk ;h, ns/ fp;so/ d/ egV/ bj{ Bkb Go/ j'J/ ;B s/ bj{
dhnK XkoK trhnK j'JhnK ;B s/ T[BQK d/ puD dh e'Jh nk; BjhI ;h. fi; t/b/
dotkiak y'fbQnk frnk ns/ ;zXktkbhJ/ ;odko nzdo rJ/ sK ezto ;kfjp wo u[eZ /
j'J/ ;B.
ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh w"s fgZSI' fJ; ;pzXh ehshnK r[gs ekotkJhnK dk
y[ok y'i fwNk d/D dk g{ok g{ok :sB ehsk frnk. ezto ;kfjp dh gkbeh nzdo
fbikD tkb/ gzi/ ejko eoBb rkovBo d/ s'gyakB/ d/ ;B. T[j efjzdk j? fe fJBQK
ftu'I d' B[z y[cha nk s"o s/ wotk fdZsk frnk, d' w"s d/ vo s'I fjzd;[ skB B{z GZi rJ/ s/
gzit/I dk e[M gsk BjhI bZrk. ;akfJd T[; B{z th fe;/ soQK gko p[bk fdZsk frnk j't/
rk.
fszB fdB sZe ezto ;kfjp dh w"s dh yapo yac[ hnk oZyh rJh s/ ezto ;ao/
f;zx B{z ypo G/ih rJh fe T[j S/sh bkj"o g[iZ ikJ/.

;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 1, 64-72L j?fBrporo, EoNh


ckJht :hnoia fJB dh Jh;N, 101-105L ;fwZE, o/fBzr ca?fwbh n"ca bkj"o, 24-
36L ghno;, w?w"fJoi n"ca nb?ria?Ivo rkovBo, 11-26L efBzxw, fj;Noh n"ca dh
f;y; (1849), 44-45 .
29

wjkokDh uzd e"o B/ oki ;zGkbDk

fXnkB f;zx dk fyankb ;h fe ezto ;ao/ f;zx B{z wjkokik pDkfJnk ikJ/,
fJ;/ bJh fszB fdB ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh w"s dh yapo pkjo Bk fBebD fdZsh
rJh. go u{fz e ;Portk;h ezto ;kfjp d/ xo pZuk j'D tkbk ;h, fJ; bJh ezto ;a/
o f;zx B{z e/tb oki-gqpXz jh pDkfJnk frnk. go fXnkB f;zx d/ GkJh r[bkp f;zx
d/ izw[ s'I nkT[D s/ jkbks pdb rJ/. okik r[bkp f;zx s/ ;odko nso f;zx
;zXKtkbhnk wjkokik yVE f;zx dh ftXtk wjkokDh dk jh gzy fbnk. cai" th T[;/ d/
jh jZe ftZu ;h. n?;h jkbks ftZu ezto ;a/o fz;zx B/ th wjkokDh B[z jZedko gqtkB
eoBk wzB fbnk s/ 101 w'jo Biao g/;a ehsh. ;' ;odkoK dh gqtkBrh Bkb 30
Btzpo 1840 B{z n?bkB eo fdZsk frnk fe oki-gqpXz wjkokDh uzd e"o eo/rh .
efBzxw fbydk j? fe wjkokDh uzd e"o B/ fJj nkfynk ;h fe T[j fXnkB
f;zx d/ g[sZ o jhok f;zx B{z w[spzBk pDk bJ/rh. fJ; rZb B? fXnB f;zx B{z th mzYk
eo fdZsk, feT[Ife v'ro/ th fJj' jh ukj[zd/ ;B fe fe;/ soQK jhok f;zx B{z oki dk
tko; pDkfJnk ikt/. wjkokDh s/ T[; d/ ;bkjekoK dh e";I b fXnkB f;zx dh tXh
j'Jh skes d/ fto[ZX ;B Gkt/I fe nZr/ B{z[ ;G iao{oh j[ew ya[d wjkokDh ;kfjpk d/
d;yasK Bkb ikoh j'fJnk eoBr/, go fXnkB f;zx B{z fJj rZb ed gqtkB j' ;edh
;h. i/ wjkokDh dh e";I b d/ ;odko fXnkB d/ Nkeo/ s/ ekcah j[f;anko j[d z / sK s/ T[j
fJ; dhnK ;kia;Ka d/ s{cka B ftu'I dh oki-gqpXz dh p/Vh B{z gko b? fBed/, s/ ibdh jh
EK EK s/ pbt/ j'D bZr gJ/ s/ ca"i ftZu th p/u?Bh g?dk j'D br gJh, fi; s'I
yasoBke Bshi/ fBebD dk vo ;h.
1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh, n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 224 .
2. efBzxw, fj;Noh n"ca dh f;y; (1849) 245-6L E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp,
225-6L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 5-1-2L eBQJhnk bkb, skohfya gzikp,
387-8 .
ezto ;ao/ f;zx fJj ;G e[M d/y fojk ;h ns/ T[j ukj[d
z k ;h fe fe;/ soQK d/
;a ftZu nwB-nwkB j' ikt/ ns/ wjkokDh ns/ T[; d/ dofwnkB fyZu-' skD dk th
e'Jh ekoD Bk oj/ . fJ; dk ;G s'I uzrk fJbki fJj ;'funk fe wjkokDh uzd e"o
Bkb, i' T[; dh GoikJh brdh ;h, T[; dh ;akdh j' ikt/. wjkokDh th fJ; sithia
Bkb ;fjws ikgdh ;h s/ T[; B/ fJ; ;pzXh rZb-pks eoB tk;s/ ezto ;ao/ f;zx B{z
p[bk G/fink s/ fXnkB f;zx B/ ;a/o f;zx B[z nkfynk fe wjkokDh d/ p[bkT[D dk
nzdo{Bh wsbp T[; B{z esb eo d/D dk j?. ;' ;ao/ f;zx fpBk wjkokDh B{z fwbD d/
pNkb/ B{z ubk frnk .

3. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 226 .


30

ezto ;a/o f;zx oki-rZdh T[Zs/

ezto ;ao/ f;zx d/ tNkb/ B{z w[V ikD fgZSI' fXnkB f;zx B/ iBob t?sI o{ k s/
e[M j'o tZv/ tZv/ cai" h nca;oK Bkb ;bkj eo bJh fe wjkokDh dh EK ;/oa f;zx B{z
syas T[sZ / fpmkfJnk ikt/ ns/ nkg wjhB/ dh S[NZ h b? e/ izw{ B{z s[o frnk. o;s/ ftu'I
bkj"o ftZu pDkJh rJh pDs dk ;kok jkb ezto B{z fby G/fink ns/ Bkb gbNDK,
o;kfbnK s/ s'gyakfBnK d/ ioB?bK s/ e[wd / kBK B{z gotkB/ fby G/i/ fe fi; t/b/ ezto
;ao/ f;zx ih bkj"o d/ Biadhe gj[uz D sK fJj ;ko/ fwb e/ T[BKQ dh ;jkfJsk eoB.
fXnkB f;zx dh fuZmh g[iZ d/ ;ko ezto ;ao/ f;zx B/ pNkfbUI e{u eo fdZsk s/ thotko
3 wkx 1897 (14 iBtoh 1841) B{z bkj"o p[X{ d/ nkt/ gk; nk g[iZ k. fJZE/ T[; B{z
cai" K d/ ;oeod/ s/ w[B;ah w[;d Z h ik fwb/.
T[Xo wjkokDh uzd e"o B/ okik r[bkp f;zx s/ jhok f;zx nkfd dh ;bkj
Bkb s'gK febQ/ s/ uVQk fdZshnK ns/ fi; t/b/ ezto ;ao/ f;zx dh jwkfJsh cai" febQk
b?D nkJh sK s'g s/ s'g toQBh ;a[o{ j' rJh. fszB fdB fJj' jkb fojk. u"E/ fdB
;'wtko 18 iBtoh B[z okik fXnkB f;zx B/, i' ezto ;ao/ f;zx d/ w[ok;b/ nB[;ko w[V
nkfJnk ;h, ftZu g? e/ s'g pzd eotk fdZsh s/ febQk ezto ;kfjp d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsk.
febQ/ T[sZ / epiak j' ikD s/ ezto ;ao/ f;zx ih wjkokik pD rJ/. wkJh uzd e"o Bkb
;fseko tkbk ;b{e ehsk frnk. febQ/ ftZu jh T[BKQ dh fojkfJ;a bJh gqpXz eo fdZsk
frnk s/ r[ika o/ bJh u'yh oew Bh:s eo fdZsh.
fJ; t/b/ d/ MrV/ MKfink ftZu ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkfbnK B/ e'Jh
T[x Z k fjZ;k fbnk BjhI fd;dk. wkb{w j[d z k j? fe fJBQK j' ojhnK ;kia;K ftZu e'Jh g/
;a Bk ubdh d/y e/ nkg iaok fgZS/ jZN rJ/ ;B .

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;l 2, 7-16L E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca


dh gzikp fibd, 2, 226-29, efBzxw, fj;Noh n"ca dh f;y;, 247-48L
eBQJhnk bkb, skohfya-gzikp, 389-90 .
31
v'rok ;kia;hnK d/ fto[ZX Bkekw:kp :sB

fit/I fgZS/ dZ;/ tkfenks s'I ;g;aN j? fe v'rfonK dh skes bkj"o


ftZu pVh wiaps{ ;h. fJ; t/b/ T[j f;Zy oki d/ okik-;kia pD/ j'J/ ;B.
nkgD/ wsbp dh f;ZXh bJh T[j jo Yzr y/b b?d I / ;B. g"fbfNe; dh fJZe
pVh tZvh s/ ezw eYD tkbh ukb **pkjo'I bV/ ofjDk, nzdo'I ob/ ofjDk**
B{z T[j yap{ ikDd/ ;B, ns/ i' vokwk T[BKQ B/ ezto ;ao/ f;zx d/ bkj"o nktD
T[sZ / wjkokDh uzd e"o tZbI' w[yka bcas ns/ c/o ezw-;[bMkT[D ftZu y/fbnk
T[; dh j'o e'Jh fw;kb gzikp d/ fJfsjk; ftZu Biao BjhI nkT[d IZ h fXnkB
f;zx ezto ;ao/ f;zx tZb ;h s/T;[ dk Gok r[bkp f;zx s/ g[sZ o jhok f;zx
wjkokDh uzd e"o tZb, sK fe fijVk gk; th Gkok j' ikt/ T[Xo'I jh cakfJdk
fJe' nkgd/ NZpo B{z g[iZ ,/ jo jkbs ftu B[e;kB j't/ sK gokfJnk, cakfJdk
j't/ sK nkgDk. i/ wjkokDh uzd e"o dk gk;k Gkok j' iKdk sK T[; B/ fJj
efjDk ;h fe w?I sK bkj"oI' pkjo ;K fJ; bJh w/ok e'Jh e;{o BjhI ns/ w/
ok Gok s/ g[sZ o wjkokDh dh ;/tk oed/ oj/;B, j[D id ezto ;ao/ f;zx dk
gk;k Gkok j[d z k d/fynk sK d'jK gkf;nK s'I ub ojhnK s'gK B{z pzd eokT[D
s'I gfjbK iBob t?sI o{ k dh wkocas T[; B/ r[bkp f;zx s/ jhok f;zx dk
e;{o wkca eotk fbnk. ;ao/ f;zx tk;s/ n?;h jkbs ftZu fXnkB f;zx B{z
BKj eo ;eDk w[wfeB jh BjhI ;h.1
fJ; ;G e[M B{z e[M e[ dkB/ ;odko d/y oj/ ;B, go u{fz e T[j
;kca fdb s/ f;ZX/ okj/ ikD tkb/ ;B ns/ v'rfonK dh soQK v{x z hnK ukbK
ubD dh nkdh Bk j'D eoe/ fJ; caB ftZu wkjo BjhI ;B, fJ; bJh T[BKQ
dh g/;a BjhI ;h ubdh. fJJ ;odko ;B casfj f;zx wkB, Fkw f;zx
nNkohtkbk s/ bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk . fJBQK eJh tkoh wjkokik F/o
f;zx B{z ;wMkT[D ns/ v'rfonK d/ ikb ftu'I eZYD d/ :sB ehs/ ns/
eJh tkoh fJBQK dh ;bkj dk e[M e[ n;o th j' iKdk, go u{fz e wjkokik
pj[s fiankdk wiaps{ fdb BjhI ;h fJ; bJh fe;/ yaso/ ftZu g?D' ;zeu'
eod/ ofjD d/ ekoD ;yas ekotkJh eoB' ezBh esok iKdk ;h, fi; dk
[ jh G[rsDk fgnk .2
fe Bshik nzs T[; B{z yad

1. ;fwZE, o/fBzr ca?fwbh n"ca bkj"o, 37L ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k
2, gz a 13-15 .
2. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 238 .
32

ezto gqskg f;zx s/ bkov n?bBpo' dh w[bkeks

fi; t/b/ iBtoh 1841 ftZu wjkokik ;a/o f;zx oi-rZdh s/ p?m/ ;B T[; t/b/
ekpb ftZu, fiZE/ fe nzrq/iaK B/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx tZb'I G/ih rJh ca"i dh ;jkfJsk
Bkb ;akj ;a[ikj B{z syas s/ fpmkfJnk ;h, nwB nwkB ;h, go ezgBh d/ J/buh ;o
ftbhnw w?eBkNB dhnK g'bhNheb rabshnK s/ r'o/ nca;oK s/ f;gkjhnK dhnK gmkB
iaBkBhnK Bkb tXdhnK ik ojhnK pd-ubBhnK B/ gmkDK B{z gVEk fdZsk s/ T[j d';s
w[jzwd yakB d/ g[Zso nepo yakB dh ;odkoh j/mK nzrq/ia s/ N[ZN gJ/. 2 Btzpo 1841
B{z nb?raia?Ivo poBia esb eo fdZsk frnk, s/ e[M fuo fgZS'I w?eBkNB B{z th gko p[bk
fdZsk s/ T[; d/ nf;;N?IN e?d eo bJ/. w?eBkNB d/ woB fgZS'I nrq/ia nca;oK B/ fdb
SZv fdZsk s/ nepo yakB Bkb nfjdBkwk eoe/ ekpb'I fBeb s[o/. gmkDK B/ fgZS'I g? e/
e[M e[ nca;o e?dhnK s'I fpBK ;G B{z caBkj eo fdZsk s/ fJZe vkeNo pqhvB jh ikB puk
e/ ibkbkpkd g[Zi ;fenk. go SZsh jh wro'I ezXko tb'I iBob B"N B/ s/ ya?po d/ o;s/
iBob g"be B/ f;Zy ca"i dh ;jkfJsk Bkb 15 ;szpo 1842 B{z w[V ekpb T[Zs/ ik
epiak ehsk. 5 ngq?b B/ ncarkfB;skB ftZu y[ad gZeh soQK mfjoBk iK nkgDh tZb'I ;akj
;ai[ kj tork e'Jh pkd;akj fpmkT[Dk w[Bk;p Bk ;wM e/ nwho d';s w[jwz d yakB B{z Biao
pzdh -u'I fojkJh d/ fdZsh sK fe T[j w[V ekpb dh je{ws ik ;zGkb/. ebeZfsT[I S[N e/
nwho d';s w[jzwd yakB bkj"o g[Zik fiZE/ fe wjkokik ;a/o f;zx Bkb 21 iBtoh 1843
B{z w[bkeks ehsh. wjkokik ;kfjp B/ pVh fJZias Bkb T[; dk ;tkrs ehsk s/ c/o nZr/
ekpb B{z ftfdnk ehsk.
rtoBo iBob bkov n?bBpo' ikDdk ;h fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/
ncarkfB;skB dh gfjbh w[fjzw ftZu ns/ wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx B/ d{;oh w[fjzw ftZu nzri/q Ka
dh ekcah ;jkfJsk ehsh j? ns/ ekpb ftZu nzrq/iah nca;oK ns/ ca"i dh spkjh s'I pknd
1842 ftZu wjkokik ;a/o f;zx dh ;jkfJsk s'I pra?o nzr/qiaK tk;s/ ekpb ftZu w[V
nkgDk o'jp fpmk ;eDk w[wfeB BjhI ;h, fJ; bJh bkov n?bBpo' ukj[zdk ;h fe T[j
fcao'iag[o d/ w[ekw s/ wjkokik ;a/o f;zzx Bkb w[bkeks eoe/ y[ad T[; dh feogkbsk dk
XzBtkd eo/.
rtoBo iBob d/ fcaoi' ga o[ d/ g'bhNheb J/iNz fw;No i"oi o;b ebkoe
tb'I fJsbkj g[ZiD s/ 19 eZse 1899, w[skpe 2 Btpzo 1842, B{z wjkokik ;a/o
f;zx tZb'I iao{oh gqpzX bJh caeho nihia[ZdhB B{z uVQd/ tZb ikD dh nkfrnk j'Jh ns/
;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk ns/ ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ th Bh:s ehs/ rJ/ s/
j[ew j'fJnk fe caeho niahiad Z[ hB s/ fcaoi' ga o[ ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp d/ tehb okJ/ r'ftzd
i; dh woih d/ w[skpe ezw eoB.
wZxo dh ;zrqKd 15 Btzpo 1842 B{z ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk s/
;odko ;akw f;zx tZb'I wjkokik ;kfjp B{z fJsbkj nkJh fe T[j cb"o g[Zi rJ/ jB s/
T[BKQ B/ b[fXnkD/ caeho niahiad Z[ hB B{z fJsbkj d/ fdZsh j? fi; d/ T[sZ o ftZu caeho ;kfjp
B/ fbfynk j? fe bkov n?bBpo' S/sh jh f;awb/ s'I b[fXnkD/ nkT[D tkb/ jB, T[; d/
nkT[D sZe ;odko bfjDk f;zx s/ ;akw f;zx cb"o jh mfjoD. fi; t/b/ rtoBo
iBob nk ikt/rk T[; t/b/ ;bkj eoe/ T[BQK B{z p[bk fbnk ikt/rk.
d;zpo d/ gfjb/ jcas/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk tZb'I wjkokik ;kfjp
tZb noiah nkJh fe gfjbK fw;No ebkoe s/ c/o okJ/ fe;aB uzd eZbQ cb"o nkJ/ ;B
s/ fJeZm/ jh fco w[V rJ/ s/ d{;o/ fdB ;akw B{z w[bkeks dh sithia j'Jh. gfjb/ ;odko
bfjDk f;zx B/ ebkoe ;kfjp gk; bkN ;kfjp Bkb w[bkeks dk gsk eoB bJh w[;ha o
xZb/ fi; d/ T[Zso ftZu ebkoe ;kfjp B/ efjbk G/fink fe T[j d' xzN/ fgZS'I nkJ/rk s/
w[bkeks eok fdZsh ikt/rh. eJh d/o fJzsiako eoB fgZS'I ;odko bfjDk f;zx bkN
;kfjp d/ v/o/ tZb tJ/ s/ ebkoe ;kfjp gk; w[;aho G/i/. fJ; s/ T[; B/ itkp fdZsk fe
nZi w[bkeks dk fdB BjhI j? s/ Gbe/ fco'iag[o B{z s[o ikDk j?. fJj rZb nDyhb/
;odko bfjDk f;zx s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx B{z pj[s p[oh bZrh s/ T[j Bokia j' e/ nkgD/
v/o/ B{z w[V nkJ/ s/ fJ; rZb dh f;aekfJs wjkokik ;kfjp B{z fby G/ih. caeho niahiad Z[ hB
B/ fJ; rZb ftZu d';a ;odko bfjDk f;zx d/ f;o EZfgnk fi; dk Bshik fJj j'fJnk fe
g'j w[skpe 18 d;zpo B{z wjkokik ;a/o f;zx B/ iwkdko y[a;akb f;zx B{z Bh:s eoe/ G/
i fdZsk s/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx d/ Bkw gotkBk fby G/fink fe s'jca/ nkfde i' uhiaK
T[BQK gk; jB T[j iwkdko ;kfjp d/ nkdwhnK d/ jtkb/ eo d/D.
fJ; t/b/ jkbks nzdo'I nzdo pdb rJ/ efBzxw fbydk j? fe fJt/I wkb{w
j[zdk j? fe tiaho fXnkB f;zx BjhI ;h ukj[zdk fe bkov n?bBpo' s/ wjkokik ;a/o f;zx
dh w[bkeks dh sithia f;o/ uVQ/. T[; B{z yasok ;h fe feXo/ T[; B{z spkj eoB iK T[;
dh skes B{z s'VD bJh jh Bk e'Jh ftfX pD ikJ/. caeho niahia[ZdhB dk th fJ; t/b/

1. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 2, 40 .


2. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 2, 41 .
fXnkB f;zx tZb fiankdk r{VQ ikgdk j? fi; B/ j' ;edk j? fJ; t/b/ fXnkB f;zx dh
fJZSk g{oh eoB ftZu e[M ya[chnk ;jkfJsk ehsh j't/. 10 g'j (22 d;zpo) B{z caeho
niahiad Z[ hB dh i' noiah wjkokik ;kfjp gk; g[iZ h T[; ftZu fbfynk j'fJnk ;h fe bkov
n?bBpo' dk fdb ;odko bfjDk f;zx s/ ;akw f;zx pbfe y[ad wjkokik ;kfjp Bkb th
y[a; BjhI j?. 16 g'j B{z i' noaih caeho ;kfjp dh g[Zih T[; ftZu fbfynk j'fJnk ;h fe
u{zfe bkN ;kfjkp B/ fjzd[;skB tZb B{z s[o ikDk j? fJ; bJh S/sh jh ezto gqskg f;zx
B{z w[bkeks bJh G/i fdZsk ikt/. u[BKfu wjkokik ;a/o f;zx B/ gqskg f;zx B{z fcao'iag[o G/
i fdZsk fiBQK Bkb fe bkov n?bBpo' dh w[bkeks j'Jh s/ fgZS'I S/sh jh bkN ;kfjp
fcaoi' ga o'I w[V frnk s/ ekpb'I w[V e/ nkJhnK cai" K nkgDhnK-nkgDhnK SkT[DhnK B{z fSV
rJhnK .

1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 2, 48, 50, 52 a


2. T[wdks[ -stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 2, 52-56 a
33

wjkokik ;a/o f;zx dk esb

wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx d/ rZdh T[sZ / p?mD s/ wjkokDh uzd e"o d/ fjwkfJsh
;zXktkbhJ/ ;odko d/;a SZv e/ nzriq/ ha fJbke/ ftu ub/ rJ/ ;B fiZEI' fe T[j wjkokDh
d/ jZe ftZu :sB eod/ oj/ go e'Jh ;cabsk Bk j'Jh. ;odko nihs f;zx fJ;
wsbp bJh ebeZs/ th g[iZ k ;h go rtoBo iBob B/ w[bkeks Bk ehs. nyaho i/
m 1899, i{B 1842, ftZu wjkokDh uzd e"o d/ wko/ ikD fgZS'I jkbks pdb rJ/
sn/ nzri/q a g'bhNheb J/iNz B/ th ;zXktkbhJ/ ;odkoK d/ d/;a B{z nk ikD dh ;bkj
fdZsh. uVQd/ wZxo (Btzpo 1842) B{z wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx B/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx B{z
we/ohnK s'I fojk eo fdZsk ns/ ;odko nihs f;zx B{z th bkj"o p[bk fbnk ns/
fJBQK dhnK iaps ehshnK j'JhnK ikrhoK s/ ikfjdkdK tkg; eo fdZshnK. wjkokik
;a/o f;zx B{z fyankb ;h fe j[D ;akia;K dk e'Jh ekoD Bk ofjD eoe/ fiazdrh nwB
Bkb r[ioa ./
;zB 1843 d/ ;a[o{ ftZu wjkokik ;kfjp ns/ tiaho fXnkB f;zx ftZu e[M
Bkukeh j' rJh fi; dk ekoD v'rfonK dh skes pj[s fiankdk j[zdh ikDk ;h.
wjkokik ukjzd[ k ;h fe fJBQK dk iao' xZN ehsk ikJ/ ns/ fJBQK d/ nkdwhnK dh EK n?;/
nkdwh iawz[ t/ ko nk;kwhnK s/ oZy/ ikD fijV/ fe Go';/ :'r j'D. nkgDh g'iha ;aB ns/
skes B{z yaso/ ftZu g?d
I k d/y e/ fXnkB f;zx B/ wjkokik d/ fto[XZ fJZe ;kia;ha gkoNh
pDk bJh fi; ftu fszB/ v'ro/ Gok, fXnkB f;zx dk g[Zso jhok f;zx, ;zXktkbhJ/
;odko ns/ caeho niahiad Z[ hB i[V rJ/. fJBQK dk wB;ak wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx B{z syasI'
bkj[D dk ;h go uzf{ e nzdo'I nzdohI fJj fJZe d{;o/ d/ fto'Xh ;B, fJ; bJh fJBQK dh
;kfi;a f;o/ Bk uVQ ;eh. j[D fXNkB f;zx fpBk wjkoki/ dh fJikias d/ bkj"oI' rao? -

1.E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd 2, 263-66 a


jkfiao ofjD bZr fgnk s/ gjkV B{z s[o frnk fi; eoe/ wjkokik ;kfjp B{z t?sI o{ k B{z
j[ew fgnk fe cai" b? e/ ikJ/ s/ fXnkB f;zx B{z jkiao eo/. nkg nkgD/ Gok r[bkp
f;zx d/ efjD T[sZ / T[j nkg jh nk frnk s/ 9 i[bkJh 1843 B{z nzfwqs;o wjkoki/
d/ jiao{ jkiao j' frnk.1
j[D fXnkB f;zx B/ nkgDhnK ;kia;ha ukbK s/ia eo fdZshnK ns/ nr;s
d/ nkyahoh fdBhI wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ ;G s'I S'N/ g[sZ o ezto dbhg f;zx B{z izw{
s'I bkj"o b? nKdk. id wjkoki/ B/ fJ; d/ bkj"o nkT[D dk ekoD g[ZfSnk sK
nkfynk frnk fe u{fz e T[; dh wksk wjkokikDh fizd e"o phwko ;h fJ; bJh ezto
dbhg f;zx T[BQK d/ do;aB bJh nkfJnk j?. 4 ;szpo B{z r[bkp f;zx dh izw{ s'I
fuZmh nkJh feT[j wjkokik ;kfjp d/ do;aB bJh bkj"o nk fojk j?. T[;/ fdB
wjkokik B{z gsk bZrk fe fXnkB f;zx, ;[us/ f;zx, jhok f;zx, ;odko bfjDk f;zx
s/ ;odko nihs f;zx ;zXktkbhnK B/ fJZe ya{chnk whfNzr ehsh j?. d{;o/ fdB 5
;szpo B{z iBob t?sI o{ k B/ dopko d/ fgZSI' wjkokik B{z yapo fdZsh fe fJBQK gziK B/
wjkokik d/ fto[XZ ;kia;a xVh j?, s/ fJ;/ wsbp bJh ezto dbhg f;zx B{z izw{ s'I
fbnKdk frnk j? ns/ r[bkp f;zx Gh izw{ s'I T[BQK dh wdd bJh nk fojk j?, go
wjkokik B{z :ehB Bk pZMk. d{;o/ fdB 6 ;szpo B{z wjkokik ;kfjp B/ pkpk ;kfjp
f;zx p/dh B{z p[bkfJnk s/ fJ; ;kia;a dh yapo ;[DkJh go T[BQK th ;odko nihs
f;zx ;zXktkbhJ/ d/ fJ; ;kia;a ftZu ;akwb j'D dh rZb B{z mhe Bk wzfBnk.2
8 ;szpo B{z r[bkp f;zx bkj"o nk g[Zik s/ 9 B{z dopko ftZu jkiao
j'fJnk. T[;/ fdB ezto gqskg f;zx B/ nkgD/ fgsk wjkokik ;kfjp B{z fJsbkj fdZsh
fe ;odko nihs f;zx d/ s"o uzr/ BjhI fd;d/. 10 ;szpo B[z dopko d/ fgZSI' r[bkp
f;zx s/ fXnkB f;zx B/ wjkkoki/ d/ f;o s/ jZE oZy e/ ;"Ij ykXh fe n;hI jia{o d/
tcakdko ojKr/ ns/ ;odko nihs f;zx tb'I Go';k fdbkfJnk. go fJBQK ;kohnK
e;wK s/ Go'f;nK dh T[wo uko fdB th Bk fBebh s/ 15 ;szpo B{z GkDk tos
frnk.3
id s'I wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx B/ ;zXktkbhJ/ ;odkoK B{z tkg; p[bk e/ ikrhoK
ikfJdkdK tkg; d/ fdZshnK ;B, T[j wjkokik ;kfjp d/ pV/ r{V/Q fwZso gqshs j'D
1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 267-9 a
2. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 271-73 a
3. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 273-75 a
bZR gJ/ ;B ns/ jo t/b/ T[BKQ d/ Bkb Bkb ofjzd/ ;B. go wkb{w j[d z k j? fe g[okDh
feoV T[BQK B/ fdb ftu'I Bk rztkJh iK tiaho fXnkB f;zx dhnK ukbK ftZu c; e/
nkgD/ yakBdkB ns/ oki d/ Bca/ B[e;kB B{z Bk d/y ;e/. wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx u{fz e
fXnkB f;zx dh tXdh ik ojh skes xZN eoBk ukjzd [ / ;B, fJ; bJh T[BKQ d/ fJ;
fyankb dk cakfJdk T[mk e/ T[BKQ B/ wjkokik ;kfjp gk;'I fXnkB f;zx d/ eko/ ikD dk
j[ew d;yas eotk fbnk ns/ T[j j[ew fXnkB f;zx B{z ik fdykfJnk. fXnkB f;zx
B/ esb dk gk;k wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx tZb B{z T[bNk fdZsk ns/ wjkoki/ d/ esb bJh
ekria s/ d;yas eo fdZs./ fJj 14 ;szpo dh rZb j?.
nZ;{ 1900 dh ;zroKd, 1 ;szpo ;B 1843 ;ae[ otko Bz{ ;t/o wjkokik
;ao/ f;zx s/ik f;zx d/ pkra d/ uVQd/ tZb nkgDh pkoKdoh ;akj fpbktb s/ rJ/. T[EZ /
jh ;odko nish f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx dh cai" dk w[nkfJBk oZfynk j'fJnk. wjkokik
;kfjp gfjbtkBk d/ x'b t/y oj/ ;B fe ;odko nish f;zx nkgDh x'V-uVk s/
fgnkdk cai" ftykT[D bJh nk g[iZ k. wjkokik ;kfjp T[gZ o T[sZ o tZb d/ Mo'y/ ftZu
p?m/ ;B fe nihs f;zx B/ j/m'I fJZe BthI raohdh d'Bkbh pzd{e fdykJh. wjkokik
;kfjp B/ id Bkbh B{z jZE gkfJnk sK nihs f;zx B/ fgZSI' x'Vk dZp fdZsk. d' r'bhnK
wjkokik dh Sksh ftZu ik tZihnk. - *fJj eh drk<* nkyaoh ;apd ;B i' nkg d/ w{jz
ftu'I fBeb/ ns/ ngk pkoKdoh d/ nzdo tZb B{z fgZS/ jN/ jh ;B fe nish f;zx B/
sbtko Bkb T[BKQ dk f;o nk tZfYnk.
fJ; t/b/ wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx dk j'Djko g[sZ o ezto gqskg f;zx s/ik f;zx
d/ pkra ftZu s[bk-dkB eo fojk ;h fe ;odko bfjdk f;zx ;zXktkbhnk T[EZ / ik g[iZ k
s/ tk;s/ gkT[d I / ezto dk f;o ik tZfYnk.
fJj ekok eoB fgZS'I ;odko nihs f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx d'B'I f;o b? e/
feb/ B{z w[V./ o;s/ ftZu fXnkB f;zx fwb fgnk. fJj g[SZ D s/ fe j[D eh gqpXz j'tr/ k,
fXnkB f;zx B/ itkp fdZsk fe ezto dbhg f;zx wjkokik j'Dr/ s/ w?I T[BKQ dk tihao.
gsk BjhI nkg; ftZu fXnkB f;zx ns/ nihs f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx dk eh ;wM"sk ;h,

1. ;fwZE, o/fBzr c?fwbh n"ca bkj"o, 72-3L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 511-
2a
2. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 3, 28-29L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp
, 513L eBQJhnk bkb, skohfya gzikp, 593L E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp,
fibd 2, 278L ;fwZE, o/fBzr ca?fwbh n"ca bkj"o, 75 a
fi; s'I T[BKQ B/ fJ; B[z fcod/ fvZmk iK j'o eh e[M j'fJnk fi; B/ ;zXktkbhnK B[z fJe
dw fXnkB f;zx d/ fto[ZX eo fdZsk. fJ; t/b/ GkJh r[ow[y f;zx B/ nkfynk fe i/
tbN'jk BtK bkT[Dk j? sK fJj eVSk g[okDk fe; bJh oZy fbnk j?< fJj ;[D e/
;zXktkbhJ/ ;odko B/ tiaho fXnkB f;zx T[sZ / th r'bh dkra fdZsh s/ T[; B{z th gko
p[bkfJnk .
34

wjkokik dbhg f;zx dk iawkBk


(jhok f;zx s/ gzvs ibQ/ dk wkfonk ikDk)

fXnkB f;zx B{z wko d/D fgZS'I i/ ;zXktkbhJ/ ;odko ca"iK ftZu ik e/ jkb
y'bQ fdzs/ ns/ T[BKQ B{z nkgDh tZb eoB dk :sB eod/ sK ;akfJd jkbks e[M pdb
iKd/. go fJj T[ekJh T[BQK B{z pVh wfjzrh gJh. nkgD/ fgsk tiaho fXnkB f;zx d/
wko/ ikD dh yapo ;[Dd/ ;ko jhok f;zx ca"iK gk; g[Zik ns/ gZr bkj e/ T[BQK d/
;kjwD/ ;[NZ fdZsh ns/ sbtko eZY e/ efjD bZrk fe bT[ w?Bz{ th p/;ea wko fdU,
w?I fJj gZr sK jh pzBD Q h j? i/ s[;hI pBQkUr/. cai" K wjkoi/ ns/ tiaho d/ esb dh rZb
;[D e/ febQ/ T[sZ / uVQ s[ohnK fiZE/ fe ;odko nihs f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx nkeh j' p?m/
;B go sh;o/ fdB ca"iK B/ feb/ s/ epiak eo fbnk s/ d'B'I ;odko s/ T[BQK d/ e[M
;kEh wko/ rJ/.
wjkokik dbhg f;zx B{z oki-rZdh s/ fpmkfJnk frnk s/ jhok f;zx T[BKQ
dk tihao pfDnk, ns/ wjkokik ;kfjp dh wksk wjkokDh fizd e"o, i' fJfsjk; ftZu
wjkokDh iK wkJh fizdK eoe/ gqf;ZX j?, T[BKQ dh ;ogq;s pDh. wjkokik dbhg f;zx
wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ ;G s'I S'N/ g[sZ o ;B. nkg dk iBw 23 Gkd'I ;zws 1895
fpeqwh, 6-7 ;szpo ;zB 1838 Jh L B{z bkj"o ftZu j'fJnk ;h s/ fJ; t/b/ nkg dh
T[wo dk S/tk toQk bZrk ;h.
jhok f;zx B/ tiaho pDd/ ;ko jh j"bh j"bh cai" K ftu'I f;ZyK dh frDsh xZN
eoBh ;ao[ { eo fdZsh s/ T[BKQ dh EK g{ophJ/ Gosh eoB br fgnk. T[; B/ nkgD/ uku/
r[bkp f;zx B{z fejk fe T[j pj[s ;ko/ gjkVhJ/ bkj"o b? nkt/ sK fe yakbf;nK B{z vo
j/mK ofynk ik ;e/. fJ; t/b/ r[bkp f;zx nkgD/ Gshi/ jhok f;zx B[z ezBt[ bQN/ h oZyD
Bkb bkj"o d/ yaiakB/ ftu'I pj[s ;kok o[gJhnk izw{ B{z b? frnk.1 fJ; s'I gfjbK

1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 289-90 a


wjkokDh uzd e"o t/b/ th fJj p/;w[a ko d"bs ;zGkbh oZyD d/ pjkB/ izw{ b? frnk ;h
s/ nzs bkj"o dopko dk fJj' jh o[gfJnk nzr/qiaK B[z d/ e/ e;awho nkgD/ bJh
yaohdD dk Yetzi pDkfJnk.
wjkokDh fizd e"o dk th GJh ;odko itkjo f;zx u{fz e tiaho jhok f;zx
dh skes B{z ewia'o eoBk ukjz[dk ;h fJ; bJh jhok f;zx B/ 25 Btzpo 1843 B{z
T[; B{z e?dyakB/ ftZu pzd eo fdZsk fi; eoe/ wjkokik dh jhok f;zx BKb Bkokiarh
j' rJh. fJ; t/b/ jhok f;zx B/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ ;akjiakd/ ezto e;awhok
f;zx s/ w[bskBk f;zx B{z th e?d eo fdZsk, go fgZS'I ca"iK dh Bkokiarh d/ ekoD
wip{o j' e/ T[BKQ B{z SZvBk fgnk. cai" K B/ fJ; t/b/ jhok f;zx d/ ukuk ;[us/ f;zx B{z
p[bkfJnk, go jhok f;zx T[; d/ fto[XZ cai" b? ufVQnk s/ nkg; ftZu j'Jh bVkJh ftZu
;[us/ f;zx s/ T[; dk ;kEh okJ/ e/;oh f;zx wko/ rJ/.1
fJ; xNBk d/ pknd ezto e;awhok f;zx s/ g;ao" k f;zx f;nkbe'NI' pkpk
pho f;zx B'or z kpkdhJ/ gk; nk rJ/ s/ ;odko nso f;zx ;zXktkbhJ/ th T[BKQ Bkb
nk ob/. wjkokik ;ao/ f;zx d/ wko/ ikD d/ pknd ;odko nso f;zx u{fz e ;sb[iI'
gko gfNnkb/ s/ EkB/;o nzr/qiah fjcakias ftub/ fJbke/ ftu ubk frnk ;h fJ;
bJh jhok f;zx dh fJj ubkeh f;Zy cai" K T[sz / uZb rJh fe nso f;zx caor z h dh ;aj?
Bkb gzikp T[BKQ d/ nXHB eoB bJh :sB eo fojk j?. jhok f;zx fJZe seVh cai"
b? e/ 25 t;ky 1901, 5 wJh ;zB 1844, B{z bkj"oI' fJBQK d/ fto[XZ uVQ fgnk s/ 27
t;ky, 7 wJh fdB wzrbtkko B{z s'gK vkj e/ B"or z kpkd dk v/ok T[vk fdZsk fi; ftZu
fe pkpk pho f;zx, ezto e;awhok f;zx s/ ;odko nso f;zx ;zXktkbhJ/ wko/ rJ/.2
fJ; ekw:kph B/ jhok f;zx dk f;o j'o th c/o fdZsk. fJ; t/b/ fJ; dk
tZvk ;bkjhnk iZbkQ gzvs ;h fi; B/ fJ; d/ f;o s/ gsk BjhI eh X{fVnk j'fJnk ;h
fe jhok f;zx fJ; d/ fJ;ako/ s/ Budk ;h. iZbkQ fJsBk w{jz -iao' ;h fe T[j oki-wksk
wjkokDh B{z th p[ok Gbk nkyD'I BjhI ;h fMiedk s/ T[; d/ Gok ;odko itkjo f;zx
B{z, i' e[M fuo s'I fojkn j' u[Zek j'fJnk ;h, w[V e?d eoe/ esb eotk d/D dhnK
ftT[sI k pDk fojk ;h. 19 d;zpo 1844 B{z iZbQ gzvs d/ T[e;kJ/ j'J/ jhok f;zx B/

1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 291-95L T[wdks[-stkohy, dcaso


uko, fjZ;k 3, 47-52 a
2. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso uko, fjZ;k 3, 53-56, E'oBNB fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp ,
fibd d{;oh, 294-97 a
;odko itkjo f;zx dh frqcaskoh dk j[ew d/ fdZsk ns/ d' e[ jiako gjkVhnK d/
cai" h d;s/ Bkb T[; B{z cVB dh fsnkoh eo bJh.
go j[D yakb;k jhok f;zx s/ iZbQ/ gzvs dhnK fBZs BthnK ;kia;aK s/
wjkokDh fizd e"o B{z nky/ dopuBK d/ ekoD szr nk u[eZ k j'fJnk ;h. cai" K d/ gzuK
B/ nkg; ftZu ca;? b/ s/ fJeoko eo bJ/ ;B e T[j wjkokDh fizd e"o d/ j[ew d/
w[skpe uZbDr/, fJ; bJh T[BKQ B/ jhok f;zx dk ;kE d/DI' fJBeko eo fdZsk. iZb/Q
gzvs s/ jhok f;zx B{z j[D ikB d/ bkb/ g?d I / Biao nkJ/, fJ; bJh T[BKQ B/ ;'funk fe
fit/I j' ;e/ bkj"o ;oeko dk yaiakBk ;w/N e/ gjkVK B{z fBeb ubhJ/. ;' 9 g'j
1901, 21 d;zpo 1844, SfBSotko dh ;t/o/ i' e[M wkb-yaika Bk jZE bZrk,
jkEhnK T[sZ / bZd e/ whnKwho dk pjkBk eoe/ bkj"oI' izw{ tb B{z GZi s[o./ gsk brd/
;ko jh f;zx th T[BQK d/ wro g? rJ/ s/ jhok f;zx B[z bbekko e/ nkfynk fe fJ;
soQK u'oK tKC fBeb s[oBk pjkdoK dk ezw BjhI ns/ i/ ikB dh yao? wzrdk j?I sK iZb/Q
B{z ;kv/ jtkb/ eo d/. fJj ;akjdo/ jh g[iZ / ;B fe ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk s/
ioB?b w/tk f;zx wihmhnk fJBQK d/ fgZs/ g[iZ gJ/. jhok f;zx vo Bkb ezpdk fgnk
;h, ns/ nZr/ B{z d"fVnk iKdk ;h. iZb/Q s/ jhok f;zx B/ yakb;k cai" K BKb G[ubkT[D
bJh w'joK d/ SZN/ d/D/ ;ao[ { eo fdZs/ s/ fJ; soQK j' ojh d/o d/ nk;o/ d; pkoK e'j
nZr/ B{z GZid/ rJ/. ;odko ;akw f;zx s/ ioB?b w/tk f;zx B/ cai" K B{z bbekok wkfonk
fe *wko' ;{oK B{,z ikD Bk fdU*. fJ; t/b/ jhok f;zx B/ nkfynk fe w/o/ f;o fJj ;koh
w[;hps iZbQ/ dh petk; d/ ekoD nkJh j? ns/ jhok f;zx nkgD/ nkg B{z jtkb/
eoBk ukj[dz k ;h fe N'N/ N'N/ eo fdZsk frnk. iZbkQ gzvs th wkfonk frnk ns/ whnK
;'jB f;zx, whnK bkG f;zx s/ dhtkB uzd th wko/ rJ/ .

1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 302-3L T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 2,
65-67 a
2. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 2, 67-9L E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd 2, 303-
05L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 529-30 a
35

i;o'N/ s/ izw{ dh w[fjzw

tiaho jhok f;zx d/ GZi fBebD ns/ wko/ ikD d/ pknd wjkokDh fizd
e"o dh ;bkj Bkb T[; dk Gok ;odko itkjo f;zx tiaho pfDnk s/ ;odko
itkjo f;zx B/ nkgD/ fwZso fwZ;o bkb f;zx B{z cai" dk ;odko pDk fdZsk. ;odko
itkjo f;zx pzdk sK pVk fjzwsh ;h, go ;h iaok e[ ;aokph epkph. fJ; bJh ca"iK
T[; Bkb pj[s fiankdk y[;a BjhI ;B. T[BQK B/ ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhJ/ B{z i'
jhok f;zx dh tiahoh d/ fdBhI pBko; B{z ubk frnk ;h, s/ ezto fg;a"ok f;zx B{z
p[bkT[D bJh fuZmhnK fbyhnK. ;odko bfjDk f;zx wihmhnk sK fJsBh d{oI' nk Bk
;fenk, go ezto fg;a"ok f;zx bkj"o g[Zi rJ/. wkJh fizd e"o B/ T[; B{z fJZe seVh
ikrho d/ e/ f;nkbe'N d/ Biadhe G/i fdZsk.1
fJ; t/b/ ca"i ftZu gzukfJsK dk pVk ia'o ;h s/ ca"ih w[fjzwK dh pKrv'o
pj[s e[M T[BKQ d/ jh jZE ;h. fgSb/ fdBhI fi; t/b/ tiaho jhok f;zx d/ S'N/ Gok whnK
itkjo f;zx B/ bkj"o d/ jkbks ns/ jhok f;zx s/ iZbkQ gzvs nkfde d/ GZi fBebD
s/ wko/ ikD dhnK yapoK ;[DhnK sK T[j fJZe dw i;o'N/ g[Zik fiZE/ fe yakBdkB dh
d"bs iwQk oZyh j'Jh ;h s/ fJ; d"bs ftu'I pj[s ;koh nkgD/ uku/ r[bkp f;zx d/
febQ/ izw{ ftZu gj[uz k fdZsh.2
cai" K B{z gsk ;h fe v'ro/ bkj"o dk pj[s ;kok yaika Bk j"bh j"bh i;o'N/ s/
izw{ B{z b? rJ/ jB. wjkokDh uzd d/ iawkB/ s'I b? e/ jhok f;zx dh w"s sZe id id th
fJBQK dk dkU bZrk i' e[M fJBQK d/ jZE nkfJnk fJj ;w/N e/ gjkV B{z b? rJ/ s/ fJ;
soQK fJBQK ;oeko bkj"o dk yaika Bk sK yakbh tork eo fdZsk s/ nkgDhnK g[;sa K bJh
d"bs iwQK eo bJh. fJj fJj' jh ;oeko bkj"o dh u'oh ehsh j'Jh d"bs ;h fi;
1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh, 307-8L feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk,
290-91 a
2. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"c a dh gzikp, fibd d{;oh .
ftu'I 1845-46 dh f;zxK s/ nzrq/iaK dh bVkJh fgZS'I e[M e[ nzr/qiaK B{z d/ e/ r[bkp
f;zx B/ nzs e;awho dk oki ;KG fbnk. ;" ca"ih gzukfJsK B/ ;odko ;akw f;zx
nNkohtkb/ s/ okik bkb f;zx B{z i;o'N/ s/ uVQkJh eoB ns/ jhok f;zx d/ fJbke/ B{z
iaps eo b?D bJh Bh:s ehsk.
fJ; d/ Bkb jh wjkokDh fizd e"o s/ ;odko itkjo f;zx tZbI' bkb osB
uzd d[rZ b s/ pktk whjK f;zx d/ jZEhI r[bkp f;zx B{z ;[Bj/ k G/fink frnk fe jhok
f;zx dk fJbkek s/ wkb ns/ okik ;[u/s f;zx dh ftok;s dk nZX fijVk fe jhok
f;zx B{z d/Dk ehsk j'fJnk ;h ;oeko d/ jtkb/ eok fdZsk ikJ/ ns/ Bkb/ whnK
itkjo f;zx B{z th jtkb/ eo fdZsk ikJ/. fJ; Bkb jh T[BQK fby G/fink fe ya[d
r[bkp f;zx d/ fJbke/ B{z BjhI S'fVnk ikJ/rk. go r[bkp f;zx B/ tcakdko B"eo tKC{
j[ew wzBD dh EK whnK itkjo f;zx B{z i' fJ; t/b/ i;o'N/ ;h jZbk-;a/o fdZsh fe
yakb;k ca"i d/ w[ekpb/ bJh fsnko j' ikJ/ s/ fijVh ca"i jhok f;zx B/ uzp/ B{z ;o
eoB bJh iwQk ehsh ;h, T[; B[z o[gfJnk s/ fdbk;k d/ e/ f;zxK Bkb bVB bJh yVk
eo fbnk. fJ;/ soQK EK EK seV/ s/ yVQ/ j' ikD bJh whnK oDpho f;zx B{z okwBro,
dhtkB BkBe uzd B[z MZgkb s/ dhtkB eow uzd B[z g[DS gotkB/ fby G/i./ dhtkB
joh uzd s/ tiaho bygs B{z rVQh nkfd s'I ca"i b? e/ jkiao j'D bJh fby fdZsk.
fJsB/ B{z ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ cai" b? e/ i;o'N/ g[iZ rJ/. nZfrUI
Nkeo/ s/ fe;/ eh yV"Dk ;h. jhok f;zx dk ekodko tiaho puBk nkgD/ e[M nkdwhnK
;w/s f;zxK dh ;aoBhI nk fgnk s/ whnK itkjo f;zx fpBK e[M fiankdk bVkJh ehs/
ikB pukT[D bJh GZi e/ izw{ B{z fBeb frnk. i;o'N/ T[sZ / ;odko ;akw f;zx B/
epiak eo fbnk ns/ fJod frod d/ fJbke/ B{z ;'XD bJh fsnkoh nkozG fdZsh.
fJ; t/b/ okik ;[us/ f;zx d/ tiaho fBjkb f;zx B/ r[bkp f;zx gk;'I izwU { I
fJj efj e/ S[ZNh b? bJh e/ T[j ;Kpk ik e/ yakb;k ca"i d/ Nkeo/ bJh v[Zro ;?Bk
fJeZmh eo/rk. fJsB/ B{z i;o'N/ B{z ;o eoe/ ;odko ;akw f;zx ;Kp/ gj[uz gJ/ s/ tiaho

1. feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 293L T[wdks[-stkohya, fibd 4, fjZ;k 3, gz a 70


L bshca, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 531 a
2. feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 293-94 a
3. T[wdks[ stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 3, gz a 70 L feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 295
fBjkb f;zx T[BKQ gk; nk jkiao j'fJnk. ;Kp/ s'I jowzdo d/ o;s/ ;odko ;akw f;zx
s'gK s/ cai" b? e/ okwrVQ tZb B{z tX/. okik bkb f;zx, ioB?b w/tk f;zx wihmhnk,
;odko ;[bskB w[jwz d yakB s/ j'o ;odko nkgDhnK gbNDK s/ s'gyakB/ ns/
nthskfpb/ s/ e'oN ;kfjp dhnK gbNDK Bkb bkb/-u[pko/ tZb B{z j'J/ ns/ bkb/
-u[pko/, ukotkj nkfd s/ T[BKQ d/ Bkb brd/ r[bkp f;zx d/ fgzvK ns/ ikrhoK T[sZ /
epiak eo fbnk. UXo gzikp ftZu th r[ioks, ekdokpkd, XzBh, fgzv dkdB yakB
nkfd fJbke/ r[bkp f;zx d/ jZEI' fBeb rJ/.
j[D ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk, fwZ;o okik bkb f;zx s/ d{;o/ ;oeod/
izw{ B{z x/oB bJh fsnkohnK eoB bZr./ go cai" h ekotkJH eoB s'I gfjbK T[BKQ B/
okik r[bkp f;zx B{z ;wMk p[Mk e/ f;ZX/ okj b? nkT[D bJh fJZe j'o :sB eo t/yDk
w[Bkf;p ;wfMnk. GfbnK fdBK ftZu okik r[bkp f;zx s/ ;odko casfj f;zx wkB
d/ snZbe[ ks u{fz e pV/ uzr/ oj/ ;B fJ; bJh fJ; t/b/ rZb-pks eoB bJh T[;/ B{z
jh Bh:s ehsk frnk. ;odko casfj f;zx wkB, tiaho puBk s/ w[B;ah rDgs B{z
Bkb b? e/ okik r[bkp f;zx gk; rJ/. r[bkp f;zx bJh yakb;k cai" K dk Nkekok eo
;eDk e'Jh ;[ykbh rZb BjhI ;h ns/ Bkb/ ubke nkdwh ;h s/ yakjw[yka j fe;/ yaso/
ftZu BjhI ;h g?D tkbk, fJ; bJh 28 caotoh 1845 B{z T[; B/ ;odko casfj f;zx
dhnK ;G rZbK gqtkD eo bJhnK ns/ nkfynk fe i/ bkj"o dopko T[; B{z gZek
Go';k d/ d/t/ fe w[V T[; d/ nkgD/ w[be ns/ wkb T[sZ / jZE BjhI gkfJnk ikJ/rk sK
okik jhok f;zx dk i' wkb whnK itkjo f;zx gk; j? jtkb/ eo fdZsk ikJ/rk ns/
Bkb jh i;o'N/ dk fJbkek th fi; s/ fe yakb;k cai" K B/ epiak eo fbnk j'fJnk j?
d/ fdZsk ikJ/rk. u[BKfu ;odko ca
sfj f;zx wkB, tiaho puB/ ns/ w[B;ah rDgs B{z Bkb b? e/ okik bkb f;zx
d/ v/o/ yakb;k ca"iK d/ e?Ig B{z, i' izw{ s'I d; e[ e'j dh ftE s/ ;h, w[V fgnk. okik
r[bkp f;zx B/ tiaho iao' kto{ B{z ;odko d/ Bkb eo fdZsk sK fe v[r Z o f;gkjh e'Jh
o[ektN Bk g?dk eoB. go j[d z k T[jh j? i' T[; wkbe B{z wBiao{ j[d
z k j?.
whnK itkjo f;zx d/ e[M nkdwh, i' i;o'N/ s'I T[; d/ Bkb izw{ nkJ/ ;B
ns/ tiaho puBk s/ w[B;ah rDgs Bkb r[;Z / ;B, fJBQK T[sZ / N[NZ gJ/. puB f;zx Bkwh
6. feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 296-97
fJZe uo;h x'V-uVQ/ B/ T[uZ h nktkia Bkb nkfynk *Bwe-jokwhnK BB{z ikD BK fdU,
fJBQK B{z esb dk j[ew j?.* fJj ;[Dd/ ;ko jh ;ZfiU yZfpUI r'bhnK toQB bZr
gJhnK s/ ;odko casfj f;zx, tiaho puBk s/ w[B;ah rDgs fszB/ jkEh T[sZ / jh G[Bz
fdZs/ rJ/ ns/ ;odko d/ Bkb rJ/ gzu pVh w[;aeb Bkb w[V b;aeo ftZu g[Zi/ . w/
io po"vc[N nkgDh 3 wkou 1845 dh fuZmh ftZu nkgDh rtoBw?NI B{z fbydk j?
fe fJ; ftZu r[bkp f;zx dh ;aokos ;h sKfe wzr/ rJ/ 35 bZy o[gJ/ ftu'I uko bZy
o[gfJnk fijVk r[bkp f;zx B/ ;odko casfj f;zx wkB okjhI ;odkoK tZb G/fink
;h w[V y'j fbnk ikt/ s/ nkgD/ G/s puB/ B{z wotk fdZsk ikt/.
;odko casfj f;zx wkB s/ T[BKQ d/ ;kEhnK dh w"s dh yapo ;[De/ bVkJh
dh ;bkj ehsh rJh . ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ fJ; t/b/ i;o'N/ ;B . T[BKQ B/
T[ZE'I uZb e/ okwrVQ s/ uVQkJh eo fdZsh, okik bkb f;zx B/ d/thrVQ s/ ;odko
oDi'X f;zx wihmhJ/ B/ ;Kp/ s'I tiaho osB{ s/ eoB?b fpi? f;zx T[sZ / Xktk p'fbnk.
izrh pbtkb febQk okwrVQ dk EkB/dko ;h. T[; B/ id d/fynk fe T[;dk
Nkeok ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/ Bkb j? sK T[; dh ;koh fjzws s/ pjkdoh mzvh
g? rJh s/ vodk wkfonk febk SZv e/ izw{ B{z GZi fBefbnk. fi; t/b/ T[j okik
r[bkp f;zx gk; nkfJnk sK r[bkp f;zx r[;Z / Bkb bkb ghbk j' frnk s/ fwnkB
ftu'I sbtko eZY e/ T[; dk f;o ebw eo fdZsk. d{;o/ gk;/ noi[B wZb d/thrVQ
ftZu e[M nfVnk, go r[bkp f;zx dk j[ew nkT[D s/ T[; B/ th febk yakbh eo
fdZsk. okik bkb f;zx j[D f;ZXk izw{ tb B{z j' fgnk s/ S/ e[ e'j d/ cak;b/ s/ ;zpb
d/ w[ekw nk T[sfonk . UXo'I ;odko ;akw f;zx izw{ d/ fpbe[b Biadhe g[iZ rJ/
ns/ fgzv BzdBh, i' ;afjo'I d/ e[ e'j th BjhI j'Dk, nk v/ok bkfJnk.
16 u/so ;zws 1902 fpeqwh w[skpe 27 wkou 1845, B{z izw{ T[sZ / Xktk
p'fbnk frnk. 28 wkou dh oks B{z gjkVhnK B/ ;odko ;akw f;zx d/ v/o/ T[sZ / fJZe
pVk i'ao dk jZbk ehsk ns/ d' s'gK cV bJhnK, go ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ MN w"ek
;zGkb fbnk. nkg jkEh s'I T[Zso gJ/ ns/ nkgD/ nkdwhnK B{z i'V e/ w'VtK jZbk

1. feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 299-302 L e?ohno n"ca w/iao po"vca[N, 287-297


ehsk, nkgDhnK s'gK S[vk bJhnK ns/ gjkVhnK B{z wko e/ Gik fdZsk. r[bkp f;zx d/
fjwkfJshnK B/ wkw{bh fijk w[ekpbk ehsk, go okik r[bkp f;zx ;wMdk ;h fe
T[j fiankdk d/o BjhH nV ;e/rk, fJ; bJh T[; B/ ;odko uso f;zx nNkohtkb/
ns/ ;odko ;[bskB w[jwz d yakB dh wkocas nkgD/ nkg B{z jtkb/ eoB ;pzXh rb
pks ;odko w/tk f;zx wihmhJ/ Bkb S/Vh s/ fJj ;bkj j'Jh fe r[bkp f;zx fsZb/
d/ sbk s/ gj[uz e/ okik bkb f;zx Bkb fJZeoko gZek eo bt/. go okik bkb f;zx
B/ nZrI' iktp fdZsk fe fisBh d/o sZe whnK itkjo f;zx B{z ;kv/ jtkb/ BjhI ehsk
iKdk T[sBh d/o sZe e'Jh rZb f;o/ BjhI uVQ ;e/rh. okik r[bkp f;zx tk;s/ u{fz e
j'o e'Jh ukok jh BjhI ;h ns/ Bk jh T[; ftZu bVB dh fjzws ;h, fJ; bJh T[; B/
okik bkb f;zx dh fJj ;aos th gqtkB eo bJh ns/ whnK itkjo f;zx B{z jtkb/
eo fdZsk.
rZb-pks ;a[o{ j'D t/b/ ;odko w/tk f;zx wihmhJ/ B/ u{zfe okik r[bkp
f;zx B{z Go';k fdbkfJnk fe i/ r[bkp f;zx nkgd/ nkg B{z jtkb/ eo d/t/ sK T[j
bkj"o sZe T[; B{z fe;/ soQK dh y/ub BjhI j'D d/tr
/ k ns/ r[bkp f;zx B{z ;odko w/
tk f;zx d/ puB T[Zs/ g{ok fJspko ;h fJ; bJh T[j ;odko w/tk f;zx d/ b;aeo
ftZu nk frnk s/ nkgD/ nkg B{z jtkb/ eo fdZsk .1

1. feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 302-3 a


2. feogk okw, r[bkpBkwk, 303-5 L e?ohno n"ca w/io po'vc[Na , 294-6 a
36

okik r[bkp f;zx dh jkiao iwkBs

;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk, okik bkb f;zx, ;odko w/tk f;zx wihmhnk
s/j'o ;oeod/ okik r[bkp f;zx B{z Bkb b? e/ bkj"o B{z tkg; w[V gJ/ s/ 27 u/so
1902, w[skpe 7 ngqb ? 1845, B{z okth d/ ezY/ nk g[iZ ./ okik bkb f;zx iaok szr
fdb nkdwh ;h. T[; B{z fJj yako ;h fe rab [ kp f;zx B/ nkgD/ nkg B{z T[; d/ jtkb/
feT[I BjhI ehsk s/ ;odko w/tk f;zx d/ b;aeo ftZu feT[I frnk j?, fJ; bJh T[; B/
nkgD/ fwZso tiaho ;odko itkjo f;zx B{z ;odko w/tk f;zx d/ fto[XZ e[M gZNh gVQk
fdZsh s/ itkjo f;zx T[; d/ ej/ bZr e/ w/tk f;zx d/ fto[XZ j' frnk s/ j' ;edk j?
T[; Bkb e'Jh G?Vk ;b{e th eodk s/ nZfrUI pbtk j' g?Idk go GkJh okw f;zx B/
ftZu g? e/ ;wMkfJnk fe nkg; ftZu dzrk ca;kd uzrk BjhI . fJ; Bkb ;ko/ jh
popkd j' ikDr/, Biadhe jh f;o s/ p?mk j'fJnk vkYk t?oh w[be T[sZ / nk epiak eo/
rk, s/ fJ; soQK ;[orpk;h wjkokik dh pDkJH j'Jh je{ws, ;odkoh s/ skidkoh
;G yake j' ikJ/rh, fJ; bJh nkgDhnK iVQK nkg/ gZND tkbhnK ca;kd tkbhnK
rZbK Bk eo' . fJBQK ;apdk B/ ;odko itkjo f;zx B{z iaok fNekD/ b? nKdk ns/
;odko w/tk f;zx wihmhJ/ f;o nk ojh w[;hps Nb rJh.1
fisBk ;odko itkjo f;zx nVQG ;h T[sBh jh wjkokDh fizd e"o nebwzd
s/ j[f;anko ;h, T[; B/ 27 u/so, 7 ngqb ? dh oks B[z fJZe fuZmh s/ T[; T[sZ / e/;o dk
gzik bk e/ r[bkp f;zx B{z G/i fdZsh fe s/oh nkU Grs s/ fJias ftZu fe;h gqeko dk
caoe BjhI nkJ/rk s/ ikB wkb dh jo gqeko oZfynk ehsh ikt/rh . u[BKfu d{;o/ fdB
r[bkp f;zx B{z ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh jt/bh ftZu T[skok fdZsk frnk s/ jo soQK
T[; dh yaksodkoh ehsh rJh .2
1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 2, gz 71-2 a
2. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcaso 4, fjZ;k 3, gz 73-4
wkb{w j[d z k j? e fJ; t/b/ fe;/ B/ ;odko itkjo f;zx iK wkjkokDh fizd e"o
B{z fJj ;aeZ gk fdZsk ;h fe u{fz e cai" dk e[M fjZ;k okik r[bkp f;zx dk fjwkfJsh j?
fJ; bJh ;akfJd okik r[bkp f;zx feXo/ gjkV B{z jh Bk GZi ikJ/ . go u{fz e ;odko
;[bskB w[jwz d yakB, ;odko uso f;zx nNkohtkbk, ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk
s/ ;odko nso f;zx ekfbnKtkb/ ikDd/ ;B e/ r[bkp f;zx GZi e/ BjhI ikJ/rk iK
BjhI ikD fdZsk ikJ/rk, fJ; bJh T[BQK ya[d jh fJBQK dh ;aZe B{z ocak eoB bJh iK
fJBQK d/ efjD/ s/ j/m fbfynk jkiao-iawkBs-Bkwk 12 t;ky 1902, 22 ngqb ?
1845, B{z fby e/ ;oeko/ dkyab eo fdZsk.
soiwk jkiao-iawkBs Bkwk
n;hI ;odko ;[bskB w[jwz d yakB, ;odko uso f;zx nNkohtkbk, ;odko
;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk, ;odko nso f;zx ekfbnKtkbk i' ;odko d/ w[bkiw jK
fJ; t/b/ okik ;kfjp okik r[bkp f;zx pjkd[o f;gkj-;kbko d/ jkiao iakwB jiao{
dh ;/tk ftZu j'J/ jK, fi; t/b/ th jiao{ ;odko dk j[ew j'tr / k jkiao eo fdnKr/
. fJ;ftZu e'Jh T[ia oa BjhI j?. fJ;/ bJh fJj e[M ;soK jkiao-iakwB d/ sohe/ s/ fby
e/ fdZshnK jB fe ;Bd oj/.
skohya 12 t;ky 1902, w[ekw bkj"o .
(w'jo) ;[bskB wj[wz d yakB (cako;h)
(w'jo) nekb ;jkfJd uso f;zx (cako;h)
(w'jo) nekb ;jkfJ s';ka yakBk w[pkfoe okik bkb f;zx (cako;h)
(w'jo) nekb ;jkfJ nso f;zx ekfbnKtkbk (cako;h)
(d;yas) ;jh (r[ow[y)
(d;yas ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk)
;jh (r[ow[yh)
(w'jo) Grs okw (cako;h) fJsbkj j'Jh
(w'jo) dhBk BkE 1886 (cako;h)
(nbpd) GkJh okw f;zx ih
(w'jo) f;wo r'fpzd GkJh okw f;zx 1892 (r[ow[yh)
okik r[bkp f;zx uko e[ wjhB/ bkj"o fojk s/ nr;s d/ d{;o/ jcas/ izw{
B{z ftfdnk eo fdZsk frnk . fJ; no;/ ftZu 3 i/m 1902, 14 wJh 1845, B{z
;odko itkjo f;zx B{z tiahoh dh fyabns fwbh s/ T[j gZeh soQK tiaho gqtkB ehsk
frnk . 22 jkVQ w[skpe 3 i[bkJh 1845 B{z wjkokik dbhg f;zx dh wzrDh
;odko uso f;zx nNkohtkb/ dh bVeh Bkb j'Jh s/ 8 ;ktB, 21 i[bkJh, B{z
;odko uso f;zx tZbI' ;arB s/ eZgV/ nkfd g[iZ / fi; ;pzX ftZu jo gk;/ pVh y[;ha
wBkJh rJh .

1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 3, gz a 77-80 a


37
tihaao itkjo f;zx dh w"s

fgZS/ fbfynk ik u[eZ k j? fe wjkokDh fizd e"o B/ ezto ga;o" k f;zx B{z u'yh
ikrho d/ e/ f;nkbe'N tZb G/i fdZsk ;h, go r[bkp f;zx d/ izw{ B{z w[V ikD d/ S/
sh jh fgZSI' T[; B/ fco wjkokik dbhg f;zx d/ fto[XZ d"V GZi ;ao[ { eo fdZsh . fpBk
fe;/ B{z dZ;/ iK ;oeko bkj"o dh nkfrnk bJ/ T[j ;sb[i'I gko j' e/ b[fXnkD/ d/
o;s/ nzpkb/ frnk, go fejk iKdk j? fe nzri/q Ka B/ T[; dh e'Jh rZb Bk ;[Dh s/ T[j
fBok;a j' e/ gzikp B{z w[V nkfJnk . j[D T[; B{z nkgDh fojkfJ;a nkgDh ikrho ftZu
w[;aeb fd;h, fJ; bJh d[nkpk i/jbw B{z ubk frnk s/ e[M fdB T[ZE/ mfjo e/
nNe d/ feb/ ik e/ nkeh j' p?mk .
fi; t/b/ fJj yapoK bkj"o g[ZihnK sK ;odko itkjo f;zx B/ ;odko
uso f;zx nNkohtkb/ dh ewkB j/mK fJZe cai" nNe G/ih sK fe ezto g;ao" k f;zx
gk;'I febk S[vk fbnk ikt/. ;odko uso f;zx B/ nNe g[iZ e/ ezto g;ao" k f;zx Bkb
w[bkeks ehsh s/ T[; B{z ;wMkfJnk fe s[;hI nkgD/ g[okD/ fJbke/ ftZu ub/ ikU s/
nkokw u?B Bkb fiad z rh r[ika o',I wjkokik ;kfjp d/oki ftZu ca;kd g?dk eoBk uzrk
BjhI , feT[I fe fJj nkgDh iVQ nkg gZND tkbh rZb j?. ezto ;kfjp B/ ;odko uso
f;zx dh fJj rZb gqtkD eo bJh s/ e"b fJeoko s/ gZe/ j'D dk puB b? e/ 30
nr;s B{z febk yakbh eo fdZsk s/ Bkb dh fJZe ;oK ftZu v/ok eo fbnk. ;odko
uso f;zx B/ ezto ;kfjp Bkb j'Jh ;koh rZb-pks bkj"o ;odko itkjo f;zx B{z
fby G/ih . ;odko itkjo f;zx fJj yapo ;[D e/ pVk y[;a j'fJnk s/ fJBkw nkfd
dk bkbu d/ e/ ya[cahnk s"o s/ e[M nkgD/ nkdwh G/i fdZs/ fe fit/I j' ;e/ nNe ik
e/ ezto g;ao" k f;zx dh nby w[ekT[D. u[BKfu fJBQK nkdwhnK B/ nNe ik e/ ezto
;kfjp B{z gko p[bkfJnk.
1. T[wdks[-stkohya, dcso 4, fjZ;k 3, gzBk 81 e[M fbykohnK B/ fJ; eko/ ftZu casfj
yakB fNtkD/ dk jZe j'Dk fbfynk j? s/ e[M e[ B/ ;odko uso f;zx B{z Bkb bg/fNnk
j? go n;hI fJ; wkwb/ ftZu ;'jB bkb B{z fiankdk Go';/:'r ;wMd/ jK .
fi; t/b/ ezto g;a"ok f;zx d/ wko/ ikD dh yapo bkj"o g[Zih sK T[; t/b/
cai" K ftZu tiaho itkjo f;zx d/ fto[XZ r[;Z / dh nZr GVe T[mZ h . u[BKfu cai" h gzuK ftu'I
e[M nca;o wjkokDh fizd e"o gk; nkJ/ ns/ cai" K dh Bkokiarh dk fiaeo ehsk fi;
s'I wjkokDh ;kfjpk B{z jkbs d/ ftrV ikD dk pVk s"yb a k j'fJnk .
6 nZ;{ ;zws 1902, fdB ;ae[ otkko, 19 ;szpo 1845 B{z id okik bkb
f;zx, dhtkB dhBk BkE, py;ah GRs okw, ;odko nzod f;zx ekfbnKtkbk s/
yabhck B{odhB gbNDK B{z ;wMkT[D bJh T[BKQ dhnK b?BK ftZu rJ/ sK cai" h nca;oK
B/ iwk j' e/ ezto g;ao" k f;zx d/ wko/ ikD pkps pVk r[;Z k iakjo ehsk s/ g[SZ -gqshs
ehsh fe fJ; dh i[azw/tkoh mhe fe; d/ f;o j?. fJj ;koh rZb yabhck B{odhB B/
wjkokDh ;kfjpk B{z nk ;wMkJh. d{;o/ fdB ;t/o/ ;ko/ tZv/ tZv/ cai" h gzu nca;o feb/
jkiao j'J/ s/ p/Bsh ehsh fe wjkokDh ;kfjpk ;kv/ Bkbub e/ b?B ftZu do;aB d/
D. T[Zso ftZu wjkokDh ;kfjpk B/ j[ew fdZsk fe nZi dk fdB ofjD fdZsk ikJ/ s/
eb T[j ;odko ijkto f;zx B{z Bkb b? e/ b?B ftZu nkt/rh.
fJ; t/b/ r[bkp f;zx v'ro/ B/ uzrk w"ek skV e/ nkgDh ukb ubDh
nkozG fdZsh. T[; B/ whnK fgoEh f;zx s/ d{;o/ okig{sK B{z p[bk e/ nkfynk e/ fit/I j'
;e/ itkjo f;zx B{z wko w[ekT[D bJh :sB eoB. u[BKfu whnK fgoEh f;zx s/ T[;
d/ v'ro/ ;kEh bkj"ok g[iZ / s/ f;zxK dhnK gbNDK ftZu fwb e/ ;odko itkjo f;zx
d/ fto[XZ X[y ojh nZr s/ia wuk fdZsh.
8 nZ;{ ;zws 1902, fdB n?stko, 21 ;szpo 1845, B{z ;t/o/ jh wjkokDh
;kfjpk B{z Bkb b? uZbD bJh cai" h nca;o feb/ nk g[iZ ,/ go fsnko j[d z / j[d
z / T[BKQ B{z
b"Yk t/bk j' frnk. T[Xo gbNDK ekbhnK g? ojhnK ;B . j[dz h ik ojh d/o dh yapo
;[D e/ gbNDK B/ ioB?bh eo fdZsh. ioB?bh d/ fprb ;[D e/ wjkokDh ;kfjp B/
MN-gN ;odko itkjo f;zx s/ wjkokik dbhg f;zx B{z Bkb b? e/ gbNDK dhnK
b?BK tZb B{z e{u ehsk . fJ; t/b/ e[M gbNDK fdZbh dotkia/ gk; w"i{d ;B s/ e[M
feb/ tZb B{z tZX ojhnK ;B. ;odko itkjo f;zx s/ wjkokik dbhg f;zx fJZe jkEh
T[sZ / ;tko ;B s/ wjkokDh ;kfjpk d{;o/ T[sZ / . gbNDK B{z fwbD d/ wjkokDh
;kfjpk B/ nkfynk fe T[BKQ dk Gok itkjo f;zx r[Bkjrko j?, go j[D T[j T[BKQ dh
;aoD nk frnk j? . fJ; bJh ca"iK feogk eoe/ T[; B{z wkca eo d/D . nZr/ B{z T[j
e'Jh n?;h rZb BjhI eo/rk fi; Bkb gbNDK B{z Bkokiarh dk e'Jh w"ek j't/, go
v'rfonK r[bkp f;zx tZbI' G/i/ rJ/ whnK fgoEh f;zx nfd B/ fJsBk uVQktk uVQkfJnk
j'fJnk ;h fe GVekJ/ j'J/ pzfdnK T[sZ / fe;/ rZb dk e'Jh n;o Bk j'fJnk . ftu'I fe;/
B/ ;odko itkjo f;zx tkb/ jkEh B{z fpmkT[D bJh bbekok wkfonk. wjkps d/
jkEh B{z fpmkT[D dh d/o ;h fe wjkokik dbhg f;zx B{z itkjo f;zx dh r'd ftu'I b?
fbnk frnk. fJ; t/b/ ;odko itkjo f;zx B/ e[M p'bD dk :sB ehsk go o"b/
ftZu fe;/ B/ ;zrhB T[; dh yZph tZyh ftZu eZY wkoh . T[j ;Zi/ gk;/ B{z w[fVnk jh ;h
fe ;kV eodh fJZe r'bh nk tZih s/ T[j gko p'b frnk. Gok B{z nZyK nZr/ e'j
j'fJnk t/y e/ wjkokDh fizd e"o B/ pVk tobkg ehsk, go pD eh ;edk ;h . j[d z k
T[jh j? i' e[dos B{z wBiao{ j[d
z k j?.
d{;o/ fdB 9 nZ;{ ;zws 1902, 22 ;szpo 1845, fdB ;'wtko B{z
wjkokDh fizd e"o gk; yakb;/ B/ wzB fbnk fe T[BKQ B/ ;odko itkjo f;zx B{z wkoB
dk ekok whnK fgoEh f;zx (i' r[bkp f;zx tZbI' G/fink frnk j'fJnk ;h) d/ ej/ s/
ehsk j?, go j[D T[j soQK wjkokDh ;kfjpk dh nkfrnk ftZu ofjDr/. wjkokDh
;kfjpk B/ j[ew ehsk fe je{ws dk eko'pko T[j nkgD/ jZE ftZu b? bJ/rh s/ dhtkB
dhBk BkE s/ ;odkoK dh ;bkj Bkb ;kok gqpXz ehsk ikJ/rk ns/ ;oekoh gotkfBnK
T[sZ / wjkokDh ;kfjp yaD
[ nkgDh ;jh gkfJnk eo/rh .
j[D wjkokDh B{z tiahoh dh gdth ;zpXh ca;? bk eoB ftu e[V n"eV ijh
ikgh . fJ; t/b/ ;odko fwZ;o s/i f;zx th g;ao" I' nk frnk ;h . fJ; bJh fJ; t/b/
fszB nkdwh tiahoh d/ T[whdtko ;B, okik r[bkp f;zx, fwZ;o bkb f;zx ns/
fwZ;o s/i f;zx, fJj fszB/ nkgD/ ngD/ Yzr Bkb skes jk;b eoB d/ :sBK ftZu
;B s/ t/b/ d/ jkbks B{z ;kwQD/ oZy e/ tihaoh bJh fJBQK fszBK ftu'I fe;h d/ jZe ftZu
ca;? bk eo ;eDk pVk w[;ea b s/ w[;ea bK tkbk ;h . fJ; bJh wjkokDh fizd e"o B/
th T[jh sohek tofsnk fijVk fe eJh tkoh wjkokik oDihs f;zx tofsnk eod/
;B . fJj sohek ;h gouhnK gk e/ ca?;bk eo b?D dk . u[BKfu gzi gouhnK

2. ;'jB bkb, T[wdks[-stkoh], dcso 4, fjZ;k 3, gzBk 82-86L w[jzwd bshc,


fj;Noh nkc dh gzikp, 553-56 .
3. ;'jB bkb, dcso 4, fjZ;k 3, gzBk 86
pDkJhnK rJhnK fiBQK ftu'I d' ykbh oZyhnK ns/ pkeh fszBK T[sZ / r[bkp f;zx, s/i
f;zx s/ bkb f;zx d/ Bkw fby/ rJ/ . gouhnK eZYD dk ezw pkbe wjkokik dbhg
f;zx B/ ehsk ns/ u{fz e bkb f;zx dh gouh fBeb nkJh fJ; bJh T[;/ B{z tiaho wzB
fbnk frnk . go cai" K pj[s T[; d/ jZe ftZu BjhI ;B . fJ; bJh oki dk pj[s ;kok
ezw wjkokDh B/ nkgD/ jZEK ftZu b? fbnk.

1. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp, fibd 2, gzBk 326-27 .


38

eeokb/ s'I tkg;

;odko itkjo f;zx dh w"s d/ S/sh jh pknd ;odko ;akw f;zx nNkohtkb/
d/ bVe/ ;odko ekjB f;zx d/ ftnkj dh skohya ;h . fJ; t/b/ ;odko ;akw f;zx dk
fJj fJeZbk jh bVek ;h . tZvk bVek ;odko mkeo f;zx ;zB 1842 ftZu ;[ortk;
j' u[eZ k ;h . fJeb"sh bVeh phph BkBeh ezto B"fBjkb f;zx dh Xow-gsBh ftXtk
j' u[eZ h j'Jh ;h . bkj"o ftZu tos/ rJ/ fJ; Bt/I GkD/ ekoD gsk BjhI ;h jkbks j'o
eh gbNk yk ikD s/ ;odko ekjB f;zx dh ;akdh ftZu jh e'Jh ftxB nk gt/ . fJ;
bJh ;odko ;akw f;zx B/ fJ; ya{B yaokp/ d/ nyakV/ s'I iaok go/ j' e/ ;akdh B{z BfiZm
b?D dh ;bkj ehsh s/ ;sb[iI' gko nkgDh ikrho ftZu fgzv eeokb/ ub/ rJ/ .
;akdh dk ekoi j'J/ B{z E'Vk fuo jh j'fJnk ;h fe f;zxK s/ nzro/iKa dh izr
fSV gJh . fJ; bJh ;odko ;akw f;zx dh rao? s B/ rtkok Bk ehsk fe T[j j[D gzikp
s'I pkjo ofjD . fJ; bJh T[j nkgD/ fgzv nNkoh B{z w[V nkJ/ . ;o b?gb frqfcB
fbydk j? fe ;odko ;akw f;zx dh pjkd[oh T[sZ / sK fe;/ B{z ;aeZ j' jh BjhI ;h ;edk,
go fiBQK jkbks ftZu d'BK gkf;nK s'I bVkJh fSVh ;h s/ fit/I BkbkfJe s/ p/JhwkB
nkdwhnK dh nrtkJh j/mK cai? w"s d/ w{jz XZeh ik ojh ;h T[; B{z ;odko ;akw f;zx
d[yZ s/ nca;;' Bkb d/y fojk ;h s/ T[j fJ; soQK dh bVkJh d/ fto[XZ ;h, fJ; eoe/
u[gZ -ukg nNkoh ftZu p?mk ;h . fJ; gk;/ nzro/iKa B/ uko ;kb s'I fsnkoh ehsh j'Jh
;h, w/om, ;jkoBg[o, nzpkbk s/ eoBkb dhnK S"DhnK ndkwhnK, izrh ;wkB s/
o;d gZm/ Bkb GohnK j'JhnK ;B, ns/ y[d rtoBo ;o j?Boh jkofvzr s/ ewKvo-
fJB uhca ;o jhT{ r"ca fJZe seVh s/ w[ewz b s"o s/ fsnko ehsh j'Jh cai" dh ewkB
eo oj/ ;B . d{;o/ gk;/ ;odko bkj"o dh cai" h fsnkoh dh jkbs fJ; d/ fpbe[b
1. jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp, 65l frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, fibd gfjbh
242 .
T[bN ;h . d' fszB wjhB/ gfjbK nkw s"o s/ bkj"o ftZu fe;/ B{z fyankb th BjhI ;h
fe nzro/iaK Bkb izr bZr gJ/rh fJ; bJh fe;/ B/ fsnkoh eh eoBh ;h s/ fiBQK
nca;oK B{z e[M gsk ;h T[j u{fz e gzikp s'I pkjo d/ ofjD tkb/ ;B s/ fJZE/ B"eoh eoe/
o[gJhnk ewkT[D bJh nkJ/ j'J/ ;B fJ; bJh T[BQK B{z gzikp Bkb eh fgnko j'
;edk . T[BQK B{z fiZXo'I nkgDh nkwdBh d/ gZe/ ofjD s/ rZca/ fwbD dh T[whd j'Jh
UXo jh ob rJ/ . fJ; t/b/ bkb f;zx ;oeko bkj"o dk tiaho ;h s/ s/i f;zx cai" K
dk ewKvo-fJb jhca, fi; B{z fe bkb f;zx tiaho B/ g;ao" I' p[bkfJnk ;h . fJj d'BI'
jh nzdo'I nzdo'I Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh d/ nca;oK Bkb ob/ j'J/ ;B s/ ukjzd [ / ;B fe
ezgBh Bkb Nkeo/ ftZu f;Zy cai" B{z jko j' ikJ/ .
fJBQK jkbks ftZu e'Jh g/;a Bk ubdh d/y e/ ;odko ;akw f;zx u[gZ ukg nkgD/
fgzv nNkoh p?mk ;h go c/o{ ;afjo dh bVkJh ftZu okik bkb f;zx dh jko d/ fgZSI'
id wjkokDh fizd e"o B/ skrhd/ ;[Bj/ / T[gZ o'I Ebh G/iD/ ;ao[ { ehs/ sK T[j izr d/
w?dkB ftZu g[Zi frnk ns/ Xowh ;{ofwnK tKC{ ;GoktK dh bVkJh ftZu gzikp dh
nkiakdh bJh nkgDh fizd x'b x[wk frnk .
;GoktK dh bVkJh dk jkb dZ;D s'I gfjbK gzikp ;pzXh Jh;N fJzvhnk
ezgBh d/ eowukohnK dhnK ehshnK fsnkohnK dk fiaeo eoBk iao{oh j? sK fe
jkbks dk uzrh soQK E"j gsk br ;e/ .

2. eoBb w{s'I, og'osl nko n?B e;N, fj;Noh n?c dh n?Be[n?;N n?c dh gzikp,
efBzxw, fj;Noh n"c dh f;y;, nkfd .
39
Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh dhnK gzikp ;zpzXh fsnkohnK

Jh;N fJzvhnK ezgBh b[fXnkD/ SkT[Dh w"}{d ;h s/ fco'}go[ th T[BQK d/


jZE ftu ;h . fJBQhI d'jhI EkJhI T[BQK d/ g'bhNheb J/izN w"}{d ;B i' gzikp
dh g'}hFB d/y oj/ ;B . ncrkfB;skB dh gfjbh bVkJh d/ BshfinK
B/ T[BQK B{z :ehB fdbk fdZsk ikgdk ;h fe fisBh d/o sZe gzikp ftu T[BQK
dh skes BjhII pDdh T[sBh d/o se ncarkfB;skB ftu T[BQK dh g'}hFB
ekfJw ofj ;eDh n"yh j? . fJ; f]nkb B{z 1841 d/ ne{spo ftu
bkov n?bpok B/ tbkfJs'I fjzd[;skB B{z s[oB s'I gfjbK b?cafNB?IN
vhT{o?Iv B{z c'aih B[esk fBrkj s'I gzikp ;zpzXh fJe :kd -dkFs
(Memoir) fsnko eoB bJh j[ew fdZsk s/ Bkb jh fjzd[;skB tZb'
gzikp dh jZd d/ nB[wkB fd;D sK d{o'I c'ai fJeZmh Bk eoBh gt/ ns/
bkfrUI ;[ykb/ jh uVQkJh ik ;e/ .
b?caNhB?IN vhT{o?Iv dh gzikp ;zpzXh :kd-dkFs 22 nes{po 1841 B{z
bkov n?bBpo' B/ vhT{e n"ca t?fbzrNB B{z G/ih s/ gzit/I fdB 26
nes{po 1841 dh fuZmh ftu vhT{e B{z fbfynk fe gzikp ftu yZg gJh
j'Jh j? s/ @ n;b ftu w[be dh je{ws fJe vkY/ wko/ - y'o/ nkdwh
fXnkB f;zx d/ jZEK ftu j? id th fXnkB f;zx B/ nkgD/ nkg B{z ekcah
seVk wf;{; ehsk, T[j fJBQK (;kvhnK ekp[b ikD tkbhnK) ca"iK s/ o;d
][oke B{z o;sk d/D' BKj eo d/t/rk, iK fit/I w?B{z f}nkdk vo j?, jZbk eo
e/ T[BQK B{z spkj eo d/t/rk . fJ; soQK ;kB{z S/sh jh ekotkJh eoBh
gJ/rh . fJ; t/b/ pkoK j}ko ca"i fcao'}g[o d/ B}dhe fJeZmh j'Jh j? sK
fe f;ZyK tZb fBrkj oZy/ s/ b'V t/b/ tosh ik ;e/ . w/ok wsbp (gzikp
;zpzXh :kd - dkFs G/iD dk <) fJj ;h fe s[;hI w?B{z fJj ;bkj d/ ;e'
fe gzikp T[sZ / jwbk eoB dk ;G s'I uzrk sohek fejVk j? <@ Jh;N
fJzvhnK ezgBh pV/ g{o/ }'o Bkb gzikp dh jZd T[Zs/ ca'i fJZemh eoB ns/
j'o fsnkohnK ftu i[Nh j'Jh ;h s/ fJzrb?Iv ftu th fJ; ;zpzXh u'yh fbyk
- gVQ j' ojh ;h . ncarkfB;skB ftu nzr/q}h skes s/ o'jp B{z poeko
oZyD ;zpzXh vhT{e n"ca t?fbzrNB B/ nkgDh 6 ng?qb 1842 dh fuZmh
ftu bzvB s'I bkov fcaNi?obv B{z fbfynk ;h fe @ gzikp dh j;sh B{z
ekfJw oZyDk pj[s }o{oh j't/rk. go w?I fJj }o{o nkyKrk fe i/ n;hI
ncarkfB;skB ftu nkgDh g'}hFB ekfJw oZyDh j? sK fgFkto ,]?po dk
dZok, ibkbkpkd ns/ ekp[b sZe d/ dZo/ ;kB{z }o{o b? b?D ukjhd/ jB .2-
7 i{B 1842 B{z nbkjkpkd s'I bkov n?bBpo B/ vhT{e n"ca t?fbzrNB
B{z fbfynk @ w?I ewKvo-fJB-uhca Bkb ;bkj eo e/ j[ew d/ fdZsk j? fe
Btzpo ftu ;ojzd fvft}B ftu (eoBkb iK fcao'}g[o ) fJe oh}ot c'ai
iwQK eo bJh ikt/. fJ; ftu pkoK gbNBK fgnkdk c'ai (uko :{oghnB
gbNBK) gzi o;kb/ , d' gbNBK y[b Z / x'V-uVQ/, uko s[og x[V?bh s'g]kBk
s/ fszB pksohnK fgnkd/ s'g]kB/ dhnK j'DrhnK . e[b c'ai gzdoK j}ko
Bcoh dh j't/rh.3
fJj fsnkohnK T[; t/b/ dhnK jB id fe jkb/ wjkokik F/o f;zx ih
ihT[Id/ ;B ns/ f;ZyK tZb'I e'Jh n?;h rZb BjhI ;h j'Jh fi; dk fe Jh;N
fJzvhnk ezgBh tZb'I e'Jh pjkBk pDk e/ th e'Jh d'F T[BQK d/ wZE/ wfVQnk ik
;edk . 20 ;szpo 1843 B{z p?oeg[o s'I n?bBpo' B/ ][d t?fbzrNB B{z
nkgDh fuZmh ftu fbfynk ;h fe @ ;kv/ fto[ZX e'Jh th i}pk wkb{w BjhI
j[zdk, T[j (f;Zy) nkg; ftu MrV oj/ jB, w?B{z feXo/ T[BQK tZb'I ;kv/ Bkb
t?o dk Bkw fBFkB se th BjhI fd;dk .1

go wjkokik F/o f;zx dh w"s s'I pknd gzikp d/ jkbks ezgBh dh


nzdo{Bh fJZSk d/ nB[;ko YbD bZr gJ/ . 15 ;szpo 1843 B{z wjkokik
F/o f;zx wko/ rJ/, ;tk e[ wjhBk fgZS'I n?bBpo 20 nes{po 1843 BP{z
fbydk j? fe @ w?I nkgD/ tZb'I ukj[zdk jK fe gzikp dh je{ws oDihs
f;zx dh id fe gzikp ;kv/ gqpzX ftu nk ikt/rk @2 ;zB 1844 d/
nkozG ftu jkbks fJ; soQK d/ pD rJ/ fd;d/ jB fe bkov n?bBpo' B{z
bVkJh bZrD s'I fJZeh wjhB/ gfjbK gsk ;h fe bVkJh fe; t/b/ j't/rh
ns/ Btzpo-d;zpo 1845 s'I gfjbK BjhI bzxDk gJ/rk . @ 20 ngq?b
1844 B{z n?bBpo' B/ fbfynk fe w?B{z g{oh T[whd j? fe Btzpo 1845 s'I
gfjbK ;kB{z e'Jh jZbk o'eDk BjhI gJ/rk. T[; t/b/ w?I jo rZb bJh
fsnko j' iktKrk . fJ; ;w/I ftu n;hI nkgDh skes pDkT[D bJh u[Zg
ukg ;G e[M eo btKr/ ;kv/ gk; tZvhnK ewkBK bJh nca;oK dk pj[s
xkNk j? . ;koh ca"i B{z pj[s e[M f;ybkJh dh b'V j? ns/ w?B{z s;Zbh j? fe
nmkoK wjhB/, fijV/ w?I wzrdk jK, c"ai B{z b'VhIdh jkbs se fbnkT[D
bJh ekcah Bkb'I f}nkdk BjhI jB.3 wJh 1844 dh fuZmh ftu c/o
fbfynk j? fe @ Btzpo 1845 ftu ca'i bVkJH bJh jo gqeko fsnko
j' ikt/rh.4 Btzpo 1845 dh gZeh skohy dZ;D ns/ ngqb ? 1844 ftu
@ nmkoK wjhB/ wzrD @ s'I n?IU gqshs j[zdk j? fe fit/I ]k; Bh:s
skohy B{z bVkJh 2k bZr ikDk bkov n?bBpo' dh w[Zm ftu j[zdk j? .
fJ; gqeko dhnK ca'ih fsnkohnK s'I fJbktk Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh B/
b'V g?D s/ ca'iK ;sb[i'I gko eoB bJh g[b pDkT[D tkbhnK p/VhnK th
fcao'}g[o iwk eo bJhnK ;B .

f;ZyK tZb' u{zfe ezgBh d/ fto[ZX e'Jh n?;h rZb BjhI ;h ehsh ik ojh
fi; B{z bVkJh dk ekoD dZf';nk ik ;edk fJ; bJh T[BQK B/ fjzd[;skB
ns/ fJzrfb;skB ftu b'eK d/ fdbK ftu fJ; Y'Jh ik ojh bVkJh dk
f]nkb g?dk eoB s/ T[BQK B{z fJ; ;zpzXh ]po ;[DB bJh fsnko eoB
tk;s/ gqkg'rzvk th F[o{ eo fdZsk ;h . ;o ukob; B/ghno B/ EkJhI EkJhI
SkUDhnK ftu b?euo d/D/ F[o{ eo fdZs/ fe @ f;Zy nk oj/ B/.@1

fJ; t/b/ fJzrfb;skB dh je{ws B/ bkov n?bBpo' B{z tkg; p[bk


fbnk s/ T[; dh irQk ;o j?Boh jkfvzr fjzd[;skB ftu rtoBo-iBob
pDk e/ G/i fdZsk i' 23 i[bkJh 1844 B{z fJE/ g[Zik. bkov n?bBpo' dh
gzikp ;zpzXh gkfb;h B{z ikoh oZyd/ j'J/ ;o j?Boh jkofvzr rtoBo-
iBob B/ w/io i"oi po"vcaN B{z, i' bVkJhnK yVhnK eoB ftu ske ;h,
sBkf;ow s'I pdb e/ fcao'}g[o dk g'bhNheb J/izN pDk e/ gzikp dh
;ojZd s/ b? nKdk . i"oi po"vc[aN B/ fcao'}g[o nkT[Id/ jh fJj :sB F[o{
eo fdZs/ fe bkj"o oki ftu c[ZN g?dk eo fdZsh ikJ/ ns/ nzr/q}K d/ gzikp
ftu dk]b j'D bJh o;sk y'fbnk ikJ/ .
i"oi po"vcaN dh vkfJoh ftu 26 wkou 1845 dh skoh] j/mK
fJ; soQK fbfynk j'fJnk j?
26 wkou 1845

okik BkGk dk w'jsfwd e/vk f;zx p[bkT[D go j}{o


(w/io i"oi po"vcaN) dh ;/t/ ftu jk}o j'fJnk . w[bkeks t/b/ ;kfjp B/
T[; B{z fejk fe s[;hI wjkokik d/ w'jsfws pD e/ bkj"o ikU s/ T[E/ fNe'
ns/ T[E/ d/ jkbks nZyo nZyo ;kB{z d;d/ oj' n"o fit/I j' ;e/ T[;
(;oeko bkj"o ) xo ftu p/fJscaeh s/ Bcaos c?abk fdU ns/ ;oeko
nzr/q}h d/ (gzikp ftu) dk]b j'D dh sith} eo' ns/ ;oeko bkj"o dk
B;p-Bkwk fby e/ G/i' . ;oeko ( nzr/q} ) tZb'I s[jkvh gkbDk j't/rh ns/
okik BkGk dh pj[s ]?o]kjh j't/rh . T[; (e/vk f;zzx ) B/ B;p-Bkwk fby
fdZsk go bkj"o ikD ns/ ofjD s'I BKj eo fdZsh .
nk]o j}{o B/ r[;Z / j' e/ wjkokik BkGk B{z fuZmh fbyh fe e'vk f;zx B{z
f;o'-gkU d/ e/ S[ZNh fdZsh rJh ns/ fJ; d/ j[ew Bk wzBD dh fFekfJs,
;}k d/D dh wBFk, j}{o tZb'I fJ; B{z fdZs/ rJ/ j[ew ns/ fJ; d/ fJBeko
eoB ns/ fJ; d/ g[Zso B{z, i' f;nkDk nkdwh j? fJ; ezw bJh fsnko
eoB tk;s/ fbfynk . fi; dk jkb/ se BkfGT[I itkp BjhI nkfJnk.
;[fDnk frnk j? fe j}{o bkvt/ d/ tehb T[Zs/ pj[s r[Z;/ j'J/ fe T[;
dk w[nZeb (bkvt/tkbk ;odko nihs f;zx) nkgD/ fJeoko g{o/ BjhI
eodk . @

fJ; t/b/ w'o' fgzv dh T[bMD th tX rJh . go po"vca[N B{z id


wjkokik dbhg f;zx d/ sfjs j/mK ;h s/ fJ; dk gqpzX th T[BQK d/ jh
nca;o efonk eod/ ;B . wkou 1845 B{z id bkj"o GkJh fpFB f;zx
p/dh ndkbsh s/ T[BQK d/ e[M ;kEh nkgD/ ;oeko ezw bJh sbtzvh d/
gZsD' bzzx e/ fJ; fJbke/ ftu rJ/ sK po"vc[aN B/ T[BQK B{z tkg; ub/ ikD
dk j[ew d/ fdZsk s/ Bkb/ e[M c"ia fJZemh eo bJh . Jh;No tkb/ fdB
160 fgnkdk f;gkjh s/ fszB ;" sbtkodko x'V-ufVQnK B{z Bkb b? e/
sbtzvh ik g[ZIik . fJ; t/b/ GkJh fpFB f;zx tkg; w[V u[Zek ;h s/ T[;
dhnK p/VhnK dfonk ftu ik ojhnK ;B . po"vc[aN fJ; rZb B{z ;kwQD/ oZy
e/ fe T[BQK B/ ca;b d/ e[M j'J/ B[e;kB dk w[Zb BjhI Gfonk, T{mK s/
x'fVnK dh bZdh j'Jh fJe nk]oh p/Vh cV bJh s/ r'bh th ubtk fdZsk,
fi; Bkb GkJh fpFB f;zx dh gkoNh dk fJe nkdwh wkfonk frnk .
fw;No o"poN n?B a e;N, i' fJ; t/b/ po"vc[N d/ Bkb ;h, fbydk j? fe
fJj f;ZyK Bkb bVkJh dh gfjbh r'bh ;h i' po"vc[N tZb'I dkrh rJh.

fJ; soQK ezgBh d/ eowukohnK tZb' j'o th fBZehnK w'NhnK rZbK


j'Jhnk fiBQK ;kohnK B/ obe/ nzs bkj'o ftu f;ZyK B{z :ehB fdtk fdZsk
fe nzr/q} f;zX tKC{ nkeoD jh gzikp d/ oki th y'jD B{z fsnko j' gJ/
jB . fJ; bJh nk]o T[BKQ th fsnkoh F[o{ eo fdZsh . go f;ZyK dh
fsnkoh pVh e[t/b/ F[o{ j'Jh . ezgBh d/ g'bhNheb J/izNK B/ ;oeko bkj"o
d/ eJh pV/ }[zw/tko H?o-gzikph tZv/ nca;oK B{z nkgD/ Bkb rzY fbnk
j'fJnk ;h s/ fJBQK gzikp Bkb HZdkoh T[Zs/ rtoBo-iBob B{z fJsBk
G'o;k j' frnk j'fJnk ;h fe bkov n?bBpo' B/ bVkJh s'I fJZeh wjhB/
gfjbK jh vhT{e n"ca t?fbzrNB B{z nkgDh 15 caotoh 1844 dh fuZmh
ftu fby fdZsk ;h fe fJ; rZb s/ Go';k oZy' fe w?I p/b'V/ jh iK ibdh
ftu bVkJh BjhI S/VKrk, ns/ i/ w?B{z bVkJh bkT[Dh jh gJh sK w?I ]k;
jZd se ekw:kph gfjbK jh jkf;b eo b?D bJh g{ok :sB eoKrk.

e;N fbydk j? fe pj[s ;ko/ b'e po"vc[N B{z jh fJ; bVkJh dh S/V
S/VB tkbk pbfe fJ; bVkJh dk w{b ekoD ;wMd/ ;B . e[M th j't/
fJ; rZb s'I fJBeko BjhI ehsk ik ;edk fe Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh dhnK
fsnkohnK s/ T[e;kjNK B/ ;zB 1845-46 dh bVkJh g??dk eo fdZsh .
ekowkJheb ;fwZE fbydk j? fe @ gzikp dh bVkJh ;zpzXh Bk sK w/oh
fJj okJ/ j? fe f;ZyK B/ fpBK S/V/ jwbk ehsk j? s/ Bk jh fJj fe n;hI
T[BQK Bkb e'Jh pVh Xhoh Bkb tos/ jK i/ f;ZyK B{z fpbe[b nk}kd je{ws
;wMDk ukjhdk ;h sK ;kB{z T[BQK B{z S/VBk BjhI ;h ukjhdk @ i/ 1809
dk nfwdBkwk d'BK j{ewsK ftueko ekfJw ;h sK f;ZXk ;tkb fJj j? fe
d';sh d/ ekB{zBK B{z gfjbK fe; B/ s'fVnk < w/oh gZeh okJ/ fJj j? fe
gfjbK n;hI d';sh d/ ekB{zB s'V/ jB . @2
40

nzr/}K s/ f;zxK dh bVkJh w[deh d/ w?dkB ftu

fit/ fgZS/ dZf;nk ik u[Zek j? fe Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh d/ g'bhNheb


eowukohnK B/ gzikp ;zpzXh nkgDhnK fsnkohnK w[zewb j[zdhnK ik
ojhnK d/y e/ ;oeko bkj"o d/ H?o f;Zy ns// g{ophJ/ nca;oK Bkb
:kokBk rzY fbnk ns/ fJj fcao'}g[o'I fjb ojh sko d/ w[skpe bkj"o
ftu BZuD bZr gJ/ f;Zy ca"iK B{z spkj eoB bJh r'Idk r[zdD bZr gJ/ .
Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh dhnK ca"ih fsnkohnK fcao'}g[o d/ g'bhNheb J/izN
dhnK ekotkJhnK d/ ekoD g?dk j' rJh GVekjN ns/ bkj'o ftu Bt/I
pDk bJ/ rJ/ ezgBh d/ y[cha nk fjwkfJshnK d/ ekoD nkgD/ d/F T[s/
nkT[Id/ fd; oj/ ]so/ B{z o'eD bJh f;Zy ca"iK bJh izr s'I pr?o j[D j'o
e'Jh ukok jh BjhI ;h fojk, fJ; bJh nzs T[BQK B/ th ibdh fsnkoh
eoBh nkozGh .
e[M fuo gfjbK s'I u{zfe d/F ftu ]{B ]okp/ dh jkbs ojh ;h ns/
nkg' ftu gkN'-XkV j'Jh ;h fJ; bJh c"aiK B{z fJe-w[Zm eoB bJh gzuK B/
whnKwho ns/ d{;oh ca"ih v/fonK ftu dhtkB bkJ/ s/ oki d/ tcakdko
ofjD d/ gqD ehs/ ns/ gbNDK dhnK gzukfJsK bVkJh d/ fdBK bJh pzd
eo fdZshnK . eh f;Zy ;odko s/ eh f;gkjh ;G gzikp d/ Bkw s'I
nkgDhnK ikBK tkoB bJh fsnko ;B . i/ nzdo' nzdo p/JhwkB ;B sK
fwZ;o t}hos/ ewKvo-fJB-uhca 1 fiBQK dk fe bVkJh d/ n]ho ik e/ th
g{oh soQK gki Bk T[xfVnk .
12 nZ;{ ;zws 1902 w[skpe 27 ;szpo 1845 B{z ]kb;k ca"iK B/
EkU EkJhI v/fonK ftu gqD-gZsq Go/ fe T[j jo soQK wjkokik dbhg f;zx
ns/ oki-wksk wjkokDh fizd e"o d/ tckdko ofj e/ caozrh Bkb izr
eoBr/ . fJSZo/ d/ v'o/ cako;h ftu Go/ j'J/ gqD-gsq dk gzikph T[bEk fJ;
soQK j? L
soiwK

n;hI i' okw-oiwD d/ f;gkjh ns/ S'N/ tZv/ j[zd/dko ;D/ eoB?b i'X
f;zx, e[w/dkB r[bkp f;zx, ;w/s ioB?b p[X f;zx wkB jK fJ; t/b/
fbys eo e/ fdzd/ jK ns/ gqD eod/ jK fe u{zfe ;ops ]kb;k ih B{z
ftuko eo e/ ns/ fJe-;bkj/ j' e/ pkdFkj dbhg f;zx t}ho wkJh (fizd
e"o) ;kfJpk wB}{o s/ gqtkD jB fJ; bJh ;kv/ ftu'I e'Jh th fJ; ftuko
ns/ ;bkj s'I pkjok BjhI j't/rk . fJj e[M Fpd gqwkD-gZsq d/ s"o s/ fby/
rJ/ jB .
d{ih rZb-gfjb/ B"oks/ ]kb;k ih dhnK c"aiK fcao'}g[o tZb e{u
eoBrhnK . fJeoko gZek j? fe ]kb;k ih gfjb/ B"oks/ fco"}g[o tZb B{z
e{u eoBr/ ns/ Xow-B/w nB;ko ;ops ]kb;k fco"}g[o ftu caozrh d/
Nkeo/ j't/rk . d[;fjo/ tkb/ fdB ;sb[i dfonk d/ ezY/ j't/rk . d[;fjo/
dk fdB fcao'}g[o tZb B{z gko eoB dk fdB w[eZoo j'fJnk J? . mhe j't/rk
.

12 nZ;{ ;zws 1902 B{z ;ops ]kb;k ihU d/ bkw d/ v/o/ fJZSo/ fJj
fbys j'Jh .

;jh

r[bkp f;zx e[w/dkB, i'X f;zx eoB?b, ioB?b p[X f;zx wkB,nFoca
nbhw/io, cafsj f;zx ,ekBQ f;zx fo;kbk Bz a1, okw f;zx fo;kbk Bz
a2,;ktD f;zx fo;kbk Bz a 3, ihT[D f;zx fo;kbk Bz a4,- fo;kbk Bz a5,
fXnkB f;zx fo;kbk Bz a6 .
Btzpo d/ sh;o/ jcas/ ]kb;k ca"iK wjkokik oDihs f;zx dh ;wkX s/
jk}o j'JhnK s/ e;wK ykXhnK fe T[j jo soQK dopko d/ tcakdko
ofjDr/ ns/ ;sb[i'I gko caozrh d/ Nkeo/ s/ bVB ikDr/ . go fJj ;G
e{M ;[nko eh ;edk ;h id fe gzikp ;oeko d/ f;ftb s/ ca"ih d'B' tZv/
nca;o (i' H?o-f;Zy s/ H?o-gzikph ;B) ezgBh Bkb ob/ j'J/ ;B .
]kb;k caa"iK dk fJbkB nzrq/}K T[Zs/ bVkJh dk jZbk eoB dk BjhI ;h
pbfe bVkJH bJh fsnko j' e/ nkJ/ j'J/ nzr/q}K d/ Nkeo/ s/ nkgD/
fJbke/ ftu nkgD/ jZeK d/ pukU bJh bVBk ;h, fit/I fe bkj"o dopko
tZb'I nukBe izrh fsnkohnK bJh fdZs/ ekoDK s'I ;kca f;ZX j? .
gfjbK ekoD fJj ;h fe ;oeko nzr/q}h B/ gzikp ;oeko tZb'I
bVkJh fSVB tkb/ fe;/ ekoD d/ g?dk j'D s'I fpBK jh gzikp dh jZd T[s/
bVkJh bJh jo soQK fsnko nzr}q/ h cai" dh fJe pVh Gkoh frDsh fbnk
iwk ehsh j/? ns/ ][d rtoBo iBob th gzikp dh jZd tZb B{z tfXnk
ufbnk nk fojk j? . d{;ok fJj fe Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh d/ nc;o
;sb[i'I gko bkj"o dopko d/ nkgD/ fJbke/ ftu bkj"o d/ f;ftb s/ ca"ih
nkdwhnK B{z ikD'I o'ed/ jB . sh;ok fJj fe nzr/q}K B/ okik ;[u/s f;zx d/
fcao'}g[o d/ ]ikB/ ftu iwk gJ/ o[gJhJ/ ;zpzXh gzikp ;oeko dh wzr g{oh
BjhI ehsh, ns/ u"Ek fJj fe w'o' fgzv ;zpzXh wjkokik BkGk Bkb MrV/
ftu nzrq/}K B/ gzikp ;oeko d/ fto[ZX d]b fdZsk j? .
Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh tZb'I ca"ih fsnkohnK ns/ T[BQK d/ fcao'}g[o ftu p?m/
g'bhNheb J/izN po"vca[N tZb'I j' ojh S'V ykBh dk e[M e[ f}eo T[go
ehsk ik u[Zek j? s/ dZf;nk frnk j? fe fJ; dk nzdo{Bh wo;d eh ;h s/
fet/I v/Y d' ;kb gfjbK jh rtoBo-iBob B{z bkj"o dopko Bkb
bVkJh bZrD dh mhe skoh] se dk gsk ;h . fJ; s'I fJj rZb ;kca f;ZX
j? fe bVkJh dk fi; t/b/ b'V j't/ bk b[nk b?Dk ezgBh d/ nca;oK d/
nkgD/ jZE ftu ;h ns/ T[BQK nkgD/ Bkb ob/ j'J/ iK obD tkb/ bkj"o
;oeko d/ tZv/ nca;oK T[s/ fJsBk gZek Go';k ;h fe rtBo-iBob m'e
pik e/ fJe ;kb d; wjhB/ gfjbK jh efj ;edk ;h fe ««fJ; rZb s/
Go';k oZy' fe w?I p/b'V/ iK ibdh ftu bVkJh BjhI S/VKrk ns/ i/ w?B{z
bVkJh bkT[Dh jh gJh sK w?I ]k; jZd se ekwk:kph gfjbK jh jk;b
eo b?D bJh g{ok :sB eoKrk .ª fJBQK jkbsk ftu bVkJh S/VB dk d'F
;oeko gzikp d/ f;o wVQBk tkfenks d/ fto[ZX j? .
;sb[i dfonk d/ dZyD B{z ;oeko bkj"o dk ekcah fJbkek ;h . fJ; bJh
fi; t/b/ ;oeko bkj"o dk ekch fJbkek ;h . fJ; bJh fi; t/b/ ;oeko
bkj"o dhnK ca'iK bVkJh bJh iwk j'Jh s/ j' ojh nzrq/}h ca"i d/ Nkeo/
bJh (nzrq/}K s/ jZbk eoB bJh BjhI) ;sb[i'I gko j'JhnK sK T[j nkgD/
fJbke/ ftu jh ik e/ T[sZohn ;B nzrq/}h fJbke/ ftu BjhI .1 fJj mhe
j? fe 25 ngq?b 1809 d/ nfjdBkw/ ftu fJj rZb fbyh j'Jh ;h fe
nzdo{Bh gqpzX bJh b'V s'I f}nkdk ca"i T[; fJbke/ ftu BjhI oyh ikt/rh
fijVk fe ;sb[i d/ dZyD B{z ;oeko bkj"o dk j? go j[D id fe g{oh
soK bVkJh bJh fsnko fJe pVh ca"i nzrqiK B/ ;oeko bkj"o d/ fJbke/
dh ;ojZd T[s/ fbnk yVh ehsj ;h ns/ fJbke/ B{z ]sok ;kca fd; fojk
;h sK ;oeko bkj"o B{z T[; d/ w[skpe jh gqpzX eoB bJh ca"i th f}nkdk
frDsh ftu oyDh g?Dh ;h . ca"ih fsnkohnK ns/ ;ojZd T[s/ ca"i b?
nkT[D dh gfjb ezgBh tZb'I j'Jh ;h, ;oeko bkj"o tZb'I BjhI . fJ; s'I
fJbktk w/io ekowkJheb ;fwZE fbydk j? fe fJj 1809dk nfjdBkwk
gfjbK jh nzrq/}K tZb'I s'fVnk ik u[Zek j'fJNk ;h id fe T[BQK B/ fcao'}g[o
ns/ gzikp d/ ftueko ;sb[i ftu f;ZyK d/ fJe i}ho/ T[As/ e[p}k eo
fbnk .2 fJ; bJh BK sK nwbh tkfenks dh fpBK s'I ns/ BK jh
nfjdBkw/ B{z nZr/ eo e/ fJj nkfynk ik ;edk j? fe bkj"o dopko B/
nzrq/}h fJbke/ T[s/ e'Jh jwbk ehsk j? . u{zfe bVkJh dhnK fsnkohnK th
gfjbK nzrq/}K B/ ehshnK, bkj"o d/ fJbke/ dh jZd T[s/ ca"i th gfjbK
T[BQK jh fbnk iwk ehsh, ;oeko bkj"o d/ nkdwhnK B{z T{BQK d/ nkgD/ jh
fJbke/ ftu dk]b j'D' th ezgBh d/ nca;oK B/ jh o'fenk ns/ T[BQK T[s/
r'bh ubkT[D dh gfjb th T[BQK jh ehsh , f;ZyK d/ i}ho/ T[s/ ep}k
eoB eoe/ nfjdBkwk th T[BQk tZb'I jh N[ZNk, ;oeko bkj"o dhnK ikfJ}
wzrK B{z g{ok eoB ftu e'skjh th T[[BQK jh ehsh , nkgD/ nkdwh G/ie/
bkj"o dopko ftu c[ZN g[nkTD ns/ nzrq/}K d/ gzikp s/ ep{}k eoB bJh
;k}F dh e'fFF th T[BQK B/ jh ehsh, bkj"o dopko d/ t}ho ns/ ewKvo-
fJB-uhca B{z nkgD/ Bkb rzYD ns/ bVkJh ftu rZdkoh eoB dh
T[e;kjN d/ e/ d';sh dh fto'Xsk th ezgBh d/ g'bhNheb J/izNk B/ jh
ehsh, ns/ ;oeko bkj"o d/ g{oph B"eoK B{z nkgD/ Bkb obkT[D bJh
n?bkB th ezgBh B/ jh eZY/, fJ; bJh f;ZX/ iK N/Y/ YzrK Bkb bkj"o ezgBh
d/ f;o jh nkTI[dh j? . ns/ u{zfe bVkJh bZrD s' gfjbK jh 13 d;zpo
1845 B{z rtBo-iBob B/ ;oeko bkj"o ns/ eg{oEbk s/ ;sb[i'I dZyD
d/ fJbke/ B{z }ps eo b?D dk n?bkB eo fdZsk1 ns/ ;oeko bkj"o d/
fJbke/ ftu jh bVkJh brh, fJ; bJh ;oeko bkj"o d/ fJbke/ T[s/
jwbk eoB dk d'F ezgBh d/ f;o nkT[Idk j? ns/ u{zfe bVhnK rJhnK

1w[deh bVkJH i' f;zx s/ nzzro/}K dhnK bVkJhnK ftu'I gfjbh


bVkJh ;h, 18d;zpo B{z bVh rJh ;h . Gkt/I fJ; bVkJh ftu Gh okik
bkb f;zx t}ho ezgNB fBeb;B dh ;bkj Bkb jh nkgDh c"ai nzro/}h
ewKvo-fJB-uhca ;o jhT{ r"ca d/ fto[ZX b? e/ frnk, fit/I fe eoBb w{s'I
B/ nkgDh ohg'oN ftu fbfynk j?, go ;oeko bkj"o dk ;sb[i d/ dZyD
dk fJbkek }ps eo b?D dk n?bkB fJ; s'I gzi fdB gfjbK jh 13
d;zpo 1845 B{z ;okJ/ bFeoh ]kB s'I eo fdZsk ;h fi; t/b/ w[deh dh
bVkJh F[o{ j'Jh sK T[; tb/ ][d rtoBo-iBob ;o j?Boh jkofvzr dk
nkgDk fdb Gh fJj rtkjh fdzdk ;h fe j'o sK j'o fJzrfb;skB d/ b'e
Gh fJ; bVkJh B{z f;ZyK tbI'I nzro/}h ;ojZd T[s/ ehsk frnk jwbk BjhI
wzBDr/ . po"vcN d/ nf;;N?IN o"poN Bhvjw e;N T[; t/b/ rtoB-
iBob d/ Bkb ;h . T[j fbydk j? fe T[; t/b/ w?I rtBo-iBob d/ Bkb
jh fgZS/ ;tko ;K, ns/ n;hI g?db ca"i dh T[vhe ftu fJe doZ]s d/ j/mk
p?mk rJ/ . rtoBo-iBob B nkfynk ªªWill the people of
England consider this an actual invasion of our
frontier and a justification for war ? noEks eh fJzrfb;skB
d/ be fJ; B{z ;kvh ;ojZd T[s/ jwbk ns/ bVkJh bJh fJe ;Zuk ekoD
;wMDr/ < { R. N Cust Linguistic and Oriental Essays-
Another Chapter in the History of the Conquest of
the Punjab, part vi, p. 46-47.] bVkJhnK ftu fiZsK th bkj"o
dopko d/ H?o-f;Zy s/ g{ophJ/ nca;oK t}ho bkb f;zx ns/ ewKvo-fJB-
uhca s/i f;zx B{z nkgD/ Bkb y[cahnk s"o s/ rzY e/ T[BQK dh rZdkoh Bkb
gqkgs ehshnK, fJ; bJh y[cahnk s/ ftzr/ YzrK Bkb nkgD/ g?Ish; ;kb d/
fwZso wjkokik oDihs f;zx s/ T[BQK d/ tko;K d/ oki B{z spkj eoB dh
pdBkwh f;ZXh T[BQK d/ wZE/ brdh j? .
fJ; tZvh bVkJh dk w[ZY jh rZdkoh Bkb pZMk . eoBb w{s'I, i' ;oeko
bkj"o d/ f;Zy fo;kb/ dk nca;o ;h, fbydk j? fe ªª12 d;zpo B{z ca"i
fcao'}g[o'I 7 whb d/ cak;b/ s/ ;sb[i'I gko j'Jh . okik bkbk f;zx B/ f;ZyK
B{z fejk fe nzr/q}h ca"i dhnK uko d/;h gbNDK }o{o T[BQK Bkb nk
obBhrnK . UXo d{;o/ gk;/ fcao'}g[o d/ eko w[ysko egskB fBeb;B
B{z ;[B/jk G/i fdZsk fe ;oeko dh wo}h d/ fto[ZX ca"iK ;sb[i'I gko j'
gJhnK jB ns/ ioB?bK B{z th T[BQK dh fJZSk d/ fto[ZX Xohfenk frnk j?,
ns/ ;Zm j}ko ca"i fcao'}g[o s/ e{u eo ojh j? fi; B{z fe pukT[D bJh S/
j}ko Gh nkdwh T[E/ BjhI jB, nzs ftu egskB gk;' ;bkj gZ[Sh fe S/
;Zm j}ko ca"i fcao'}g[o s/ e{u eo ojh j? fi; B{z fe pukT[D bJh S/
j}ko Gh nkdwdh T[E/ BjhI jB, nzs ftu egskB gk;'I ;bkj g[ZSh fe
T[j eh eo/ . itkp ftu egskB fBeb;B B/ okik bkb f;zx B{z fejk fe
T[j nkgDh ca"i d/ gzMh j}ko nkdwh tZyo/ eo e/ ewKvo-fJB-uhc d/
Nkeo/ nkdwh B{z jko j' iktrh s/ pkeh dh ca"Ii fsZso fpZso j' e/ w[V
dfnkUI gko ubh ikt/rh .
fJ; rZdkoh B/ nzr/q}K B{z fJe :ehBh jko s'I puk fbnk . 15 d;zpo B{z
fszB fvth}B fgnkdk ca"i 24 s'gK, uko fo;kb/ dhnK gbNDK,;ko/ jh
p/ekfJdk x'Vk-uVQ/ ns/ okik bkb f;zx dk Gkoh s'g]kBk T[; dh ewkB
j/mK w[deh B{z s[o gJ/ i' fcao'}g[o'I 28 whb d/ cak;b/ s/ dZyD-uVQd/ B{z j?««
.1
nk]o Bshik T[j jh j'fJnk fi; bJh fe fJj ca"i w[doh fbikJh s/ d'jK
dh bVkJh j' gJh . efBzxw fbydk j? fe ªªbkb f;zx jwb/ dk w'joh ;h,
go nkgD/ gfjb/ fwE/ wB'oE nB[;ko T[; B/ nkgDh ca"i B{z bVkJh ftu
c;k fdZsk s/ fgZS'I T[BQK B{z fpBK ewkB d/, fit/I T[BQK dh pjkd[oh T[BQK dhnK
17 s'gK y[Z; rJhnK, go nzrq/}K dh cafsj fJsBh w[ezwb BjhI ;h fisBh
fe pj[s ;kohnK bVkJhnK ftu cafsj gkT[D tkfbnK dh j'Dh ukjhdh ;h
.
fJ; bVkJh B/ ezgBh d/ ca"ih nca;oK B{z frnkB eok fdZsk fe f;Zy Bk sK
p[}fdb jh jB ns/ Bk jh c'e/ dwri/ wkoB tkb/ jB . pkti{d fJ; d/
fe okik bkb f;zx nzr/q}K Bkb ofbnk j'fJnk j'D eoe/ f;zxK B{z
bVfdnK Sv e/ fy;e frnk ;h, fi; pjkdoh Bkb T[j T[; d/ fgZS'I th
bVd/ oj/ T[; B/ fJj rZb ;gFN eo fdZsh fe Gkt/I tZv/ nca;oK B{z rzY
fbnk frnk j? go f;Zy f;gkjh fpBK d' jZE ehs/ d/ GZi fBebB tkb/ BjhI
jB . fJ; bJh T[BQK c?;bk ehsk fe fisBh d/o se ;o i"B fbNbo dh
ca"i Bkb w/b Bk j' ikJh T[sBh d/o se c/o{ Ffjo tkbh f;Zy ca"i Bkb
wZEk Bk bkfJnk ikt/ .
w[deh dh jko fgZS'I f;zxK B/ ;sb[i d/ T[oko fJeZm ehsk fi; ftu fJj
rZb ;gFN j' rJh fe t}ho fwZ;o bkb f;zx B/ oki Bkb Xo'j
ewkfJnk j? j/mh s/ ca"i dk B[e;kB ehsk j?, fJ; bJh fJ; B{z w"s dh
;}k d/Dh ukjhdh j? s/ fJ; B{z ikB'I j? wko ;[ZNDk ukjhdk j? . fJ; rZb
dk fFeo eodk j'fJnk fJe ;wekbh s/ tkfeceko b/ye eft wNe
fbydk j? fe fJ; t/b/ s/i f;zx s/ p{V f;zx B/ f;zxK dhnK p{V f;zx B/
f;zxK dhnK pVhnK fwzsBK eoe/ T[; B{z S[vkfJnk s/ T[; dh ikB pukJh
.1

41
c/o{ Ffjo dh bVkJh
21 d;zpo d/ b"Y/ t/b/ c/o{ Ffjo d/ bkr/ f;Zy ezg{ s'I uko e[ whb dh
ftZE T[s/ ;o i"B fbNbo dh ca"i ;o jhT{ r"c dh w[Zy ca"i dk w/b j'
frnk .
fJE/ th ewKvo okik bkb f;zx jh ;h s/ s/i f;zx ;jkfJe-;?Bk dh
ewkB eo fojk ;h . FkfJd fJ;/ f]nkb Bkb fe w[ekpb/ T[s/ nkgD/ jh
nkdwh jB . r"ca B/ fsokekbK d/ t/b/, fi; t/b/ fe ;{oi fSgD ftu xzNk
e[ jh ofjzdk ;h, jZbk p'b fdZsk s/ nkgD/ wFj{o s'g]kB/ Bkb nZr
toQkTDh F[o{ eo fdZsh . go nZfrUI, efBzxw fbydk j? fe,ªªf;Zy s'gK p/Vh
s/}h s/ wro yV/ ;B . fJ; soK ;kwQfDUI Nkeok nzrq/}K dh nk; d/ ftoZ[X
;h s/ T[j ;G j?okB ;B . f;Zy s'gK e/ fBFkfBnK B/ nzr/q}h s'gK B{z
uoyhnK s'I bkj e/ G'IfJ wkfonk s/ pko{d c{e e/ nksF-pk}h tKC{ jtk
ftu T[vk fdZsk . eJh ;[enkvoB nZX ftu'I wo'V e/ fgZS/ B{z XZe fdZs/, eJh
gbNDK B{z SkBDh eo e/ Gik fdZsk ns/ w[Feb Bkb nBQ/ok j'D s/ nzrq/}h
ca"iK f;ZyK d/ w'ofunK d/ e[M e[ fjZ;/ dpk ;ehnK . oks d/ nB/Qo/ ns/
jmhb/ Nkeo/ B/ nzrq/}K dh j'F G[bk fdZsh . ;kohnK gbNDK ns/ ;kohnk
fe;wK d/ f;gkjh nkg; ftu ob rJ/ . ioB?b bVkJh ftu nkgDhnK
fiZsK ;zpzXh FZe ftu ;B ns/ eoB?bK B{z fJj BjhI ;h gsk fe T[BQK dhnK
gbNDK ns/ fi; cai" Bkb T[j ;B T[BQK dk eh pfDnk j? ,,,,,nzrq/}K dh
g'ihFB fJe ;u-wZu d/ ]so/ s/ xpokjN tkbh ;h . fJ; :kdrkoh oks
B{z T[j w[Feb Bkb jh T[; irQk d/ wkbe ;B fiZE/ fe T[j yV's/ ;B .
T[BQK gk; e'Jh ;jkfJe ca"i BjhI ;h id fe d[FwB (f;Zy) fJe j'o d{;oh
ca"i d/ ;jko/ s/ j' rJ/ ;B ns/ f}nkdk frDsh Bkb eo ;ed/ ;B .««1
e;N fbydk j? fe ª;koh oks s'g s/ s'g ubdh ojh . n;hI ikDd/ ;K
fe ;kv/ pukU dk e'Jh Yp BjhI fojk, ns/ fisBh d/o se n;hI bVkJh
Bk fiZs bJhJ/ ;kv/ ftu'I fJe th fgZS/ (pu e/) BjhI ik ;e/rk pbfe ;ko/
d/ ;ko/ jh wko w[ekJ/ ikDr/ .«« fJ; t/b/ wkb{w j[zdk j? fe FkfJd T[BQK B{z
bkb f;zzx ns/ s/i f;zx dh rZdkoh T[s/ g{ok g{ok :ehB BjhI ;h pZMdk .
Gkt/I n;b rZb ;kca fJj fd;dh j? fe fJj nzdo'I sK gZeh soQK d/Dk
ukj[zd/ . f;Zy f;gkjh u{zfe fJwkBdkoh Bkb tsB dh nk}kdh bJh
nkgDhnK fizdK x'b x[wk oj/ ;B fi; G/d dk fe FkfJd nzrq/}K B{z gsk
BjhI ;h ns/ T[j xpok oj/ ;B, ns/ nzs ftu f;Zy wko/ fJ; eoe/ rJ/
fe T[j fJBQK nca;oK B{z fJwkBdko ;wM e/ fJBQK j[ewK dh gkbDk eod/
oj/ .
fJ; xpokjN dh jkbs ftu 21-22 dh oks B{z nzrq/} c/o{ Ffjo
ftu mfjo/ ofjD ftu nkgDh jko :ehBh d/y oj/ ;B, fJ; bJh
fco'}g[o tZb B{z fgZS/ jN ikD dhnK ;bkjK ;'uD br/ pfbe/ ekfJw-
w[ekw n?vi{NzN-iBob e?gNB bwbh B/ e[M fo;kb/ B{z j[ew th d/ fdZsk
;h fe T[j f;ZXk fcao'}g[o B{z e{u eo ikJ/ .2
fJj jh BjhI pbfe jfEnko SZv e/ fpBK-Fos nkgD/ nkg B{z f;ZyK d/
jtkb/ eo d/D d/ T[gkU th ;'u/ ikD br gJ/ ns/ ;oekoh ekr}K B{z
nZr bk e/ c{e d/D dhnK ftT[IsK th pD rJhnK ;B3 ns/ jkbks fJ;
jZd se fto[ZX iKd/ fd; oj/ ;B fe rtoBo-iBob B/ nkgD/ g[Zso s/
gqkJht/N ;?feqNoh B{z e[M ;oekoh ekr}, nkgDk ;Nko n"ca dh pkE, ns/
nkgDh B?g'bhnB tkbh sbtko i' vhT{e n"ca t?fbzrNB tZb'I s'jck fwbh
j'Jh ;h. d/e/ nzpkb/ tZb B{z ub/ ikD dk j[ew d/ fdZsk ;h ns/ efj fdZsk
;h fe i/ jko j' ikt/ sK T[j ;oekoh ekr}K B{z nZr bk e/ c{e d/t/ s/
nkg f;ZXk fdZbh B{z ubk ikt/ .4

go 22 d;zpo dh ;t/o/ j[zd/ ;ko jh gk;k gbN frnk . nzr/}K B{z sK


n?t/I jh bkb f;zx ;zpzXh FZe gJ/ j'J/ ;B . bkb f;zx sK oks B{z jh
nkgD/ ;ko/ y[Zb/Q x'V-ufVQnK ns/ s'g]kB/ dhnK ;Zm s'gK d/ s'guhnK B{z
Bkb b? nzfwqs;o-bkj"o tZb B{z GZi fBefbnk ;h .1 fi; t/b/ nzr/q}K B{z
fJ; rZb dk gsk bZrk sK pkeh ofjzdh f;Zy c"ai B{z jo EK s'I ;[ykb/ jh
fgZS/ jNk fdZsk frnk . fiT[I jh fdB ufVQnk ns/ f;Zy c"ai dk d{;ok fjZ;k
goQk pzBQh B}dhe nkfJnk sK EZe/ N[ZN/ s/ G[y Bkb u{o j'J/ nzr/q}K B{z fJe
fBok;-Goh s/ p/-ckfJdk jZE g?o wkoB dh bVkJh ;kjwD/ fd;h . fJj
;jkfJe f;Zy ca"i s/i f;zx dh ewkB j/mK ;h . T[; d/ fBoSb ns/
T[sFkj-Go/ f;gkjhnK B/ T[; B{z pE/ok nkfynk fe gj[ c[Nd/ ;ko jh
nzrq/}K T[s/ N[N gt/ . go T[; dk sK we;d ;h G:zeo ]kb;k ca"i B{z
jotkT[Dk s/ fsZso fpso eotkT[Dk, ns/ nzrq/}K Bkb ehsh rzY-sg B{z
f;o/ ukVQBk . fJ; bJh T[; B/ T[sBh d/o se e[M Bk ehsk id se fe
bkb f;zx d/ GZi fBebD dk gsk Bk bZr frnk ns/ nzrq/}K B/ nkgD/
nkg B{z nkgD/ MzfvnK d/ fJod frod iwK Bk eo fbnk . nk]oh t/b/ th
fdqVQ s/ eoVk jZbk eoB dh EK fJe fdykt/ wkso wkw{bh MVg jh bJh s/
e[M fuo fgZS'I nkgD/ wksfjsK B{z e[M j[ew fdZs/ fpBK jh n?t/I nzBQ/-tkj
GZi fBefbnk .fJj T[j t/bk ;h fi; t/b/ fe nzrq/}K d/ sg]kB/ dk pko{d
w[e u[Zek j'fJnk ;h ns/ T[BQK dh ca"i dk fJe fjZ;k w[V e/ fcao"}g[o B{z
jfNnk ik fojk ;h . fJ; t/b/ i/ }ok e[ fjzws Bkb nZr/ B{z dZp ukVQh
iKdh sK nzr/q}K dk fe'Jh th gq:sB T[BQK dh pkeh ca"i B{z puk BjhI ;h
;edk .2
fjzws Bkb jZbk eoB dh EK s/i f;zx GZi fBebD fgZSI ;[bkj bJh
nzrq/}h e?Ig ftu ubk frnk ns/ rtoBo-iBob ;o j?Boh jkofvzr Bkb
ik w[bkeks ehsh . eh rZb-pks j'Jh, fJ; dk t/otk gqrN BjhI ehsk
frnk go nkfynk fJj iKdk j? fe rtoBo-iBob B/ T[sBh d//o se
e'Jh rZb-pks eoB' BKj eo fdZsh fisBh d/o fe nzrq/}h ca"iK bkj"o
dhnK ezXK EZb/ Bk gj[zu ikD .3

1eoBb w{s'I dh og'oN, gzBk 6,


2Cuningham,History of the Sikhs
(1849),308-09
w{s'I nkgDh og'oN (gzBk 6-7) ftu fbydk j? fe s/i f;zx 22 skohy B{z
nkfJnk ns/ T[; B/ wkwb{h fijh bVkJh fgZS' jh jN ikD dk j[ew d/
fdsk .
3History of the Punjab (Allen s
Co,1846),ii, 344

1efBzxw, fj;Noh n"ca dh f;Zy; (1849),307-8


1

ykBdkB
j'o d{;o/ f;ZX{ ik f;ZX-{ pokV iZNK1 tKC nNkohtkb/ ;odko Gh nkgDk
fgZSk i?;bw/o d/ w'Yh i?;b GZNh-okig{s Bkb ik w/bd/ jB . ir wZb dk
g[sZ q Xok fJ; ]kBdkB dk gfjbk pzdk ;h i' okig{skfBUI T[mA e/ gzikp B{z
nkfJnk ns/ ;zB 1580 Jh;th d/ eohp wkbt/ ftZu c{b wfjoki nk e/
nkpkd j'fJnk . fJj nkgD/ ;w/I dk fJe uzrk okrh ;h ns/ okr-ftZfdnk
d/ ikd{ jkb sZe Gh T[; B{z pV/ ;fseko Bkb :kd eod/ jB .2
;zB 1735 d/ eohp fJ; ykBdkB ftZu fJe tkoh fjZb i[b j'Jh s/
fJBQK ftZu'I e[M c{b wfjoki fgzv s'I T[m e/ b[fXnkD/ d/ f}b/ nbkek
irokUI ftZu fJzdrVQ (ekUIe)/ nk t;/ . fJ; ]kBdkb d/ fJ; t/b/ d/
fJfsjk; ;pzXh e[m gsk BjhI ubdk . f;oca fJsbk jh gsk bZrdk j? fe
ekUIe/ d/ u"Xoh ekBQ uzd d/ d' g[sZ q r"jo s/ e"o uzr/ okm fBeb/ s/ nkgDh
fe;ws niwkT[D bJh gzMh e[ ;tko b?e/ wkM/ tZb nkJ/ . fJZE/ fJBQK B/
nNkoh s'I uVQd/ tZb nZX e[ whb dh ftZX s/ nk w'VhQ rZvh s/ Bt/I fgzv dk
BkUI nkgD/ fgSb/ fgzv d/ BkUI T[sA / ekUIe/ oZfynk . fJj fgzv jkb sZe T[E/
nkpkd j? .3

1. "Sidhu, with its branch the Barar, or Sidhu-Barar, is the largest and
most important of the Jat tribes of the Punjab, for from it have sprung
the great Phulkian families of Patiala, Nabha and Jind and the Brar
family of FAridkot. the Sidhu trace their origin to Jaisal, a Bhatti Rajput
and founder of Jaisalmer... The pure Bhatti Rajputs of Bhattiana still
admit their relationship with the Sidhu and Barar." Rose, H.A. - A
Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and N.W.F.P., iii 421
2. ;:Zd jkd j;B s/ ;:Zd oip nbh, oJh;kfB gzikp, 60-1l b?gb frqfcB,
gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd 1, 238
3. jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp, 61l gzikp uhca;, (1890), 238 .
gzE gqekF ftZu fbfynk j? fe r'o/ B/ ;zws 1794 B{z Xb/FNk d/ bkr/ fJe fgzv
t;kfJnk s/ T[; dk Bkw r'og[ok ofynk . gzE gqekF, d{ih n?vhFB, 835.
fJj fdB ]kb;/ bJh pV/ fpyV/ ;B . ;?c[Zd"bk Btkp npd[b
;wZd Bk fdb/fo-izr dk g[Zsq }eohnk ykB i' fJfsjk; ftZu ª]kB
pjkdo« eoe/ gqf;ZX j? bkj"o dk ;{pd / ko ;h . f;zxK dh esb-nkw sK
fJ; d/ fgT[ d/ }wkB/ s'I jh fJe Fkjh caowkB Bkb ikoh j' u[eZ h j'Jh ;h
id fJj j[ew j' frnk ;h fe fiZE/ feXo/ Gh e'Jh f;Zy fwb/ fpBk g[SZ
gqshs d/ esb eo fdZsk ikt/ .1 fJ; wsbp bJh bkj"o s'I ]kB pjkdo
dhnK rFsh c"iK fBebdhnK s/ f;ZyK B{z N'b Gkb ftZu fgzv' fgzv
fcodhnK . fiZE/ feXo/ f;zxK B{z gsk brdk T[E/ ik Skgk wkodhnK s/
T[BKQ B{z cV e/ bkj"o gj[uz k fdzdhnK . fJBQK rFsh d;fsnK B/ wkM/ s/
fonkVeh dk ;kok fJbkek rkj wkfonk . eJh tkoh dPkp/ s/ BZe/ d/
T[gob/ fjZf;nK sZe Gh fJj ik g[iZ d/ . fJ; soQK j}koK dh frDsh ftZu
f;zx geVh: geVh: e/ bkj"o g[iZ d/ ofjzd/ . fiZE/ T[jfdZbh dotki/ d/
uVQdh tZb pk}ko Byk; ftZu bzv/ pk}ko dh EK s/ Fjhd eo fdZs/ iKd/
. eJhnK B{z sbtko Bkb esb ehsk, eJhnk B{z uoyVhnK s/ ukVQe/
T[BKQ dhnK jZvhnK eVek fdZshnK, eJhnK B{z w{r z bhnK Bkb e[Ntk e/
wotk fdZsk ns/ eJhnK B{z j'o eJh gqeko d/ s;hj/ d/ e/ wko w[ekfJnk
. T[BKQ d/ f;o d/ w[Bko/ u[D/ iKd/ ;B s/ p/-f;o XV esb-rkj ftZu
dptk fdZs/ ikd/ . fJ;/ n;EkB s/ jh fJBQK FjhdK dh :kd ftZu bkj"o
dk Fjhd-rzi j? .2 fJj i[bw e/tb f;zxK T[s/ jh BjhI ;B j[d z / . who
wzB{ d/ t/b/ sK f;zxDhnK B{z gh n;fj s/ nefj eFN fdZs/ rJ/ id fe
T[BKQ d/ d[XZ u[x
z d/ pZfunK d/ N'N/ N'N/ eo e/ T[BKQ dhnK M'bhnK ftZu gkJ/
rJ/, T[BKQ B{z G[yZ / GkD/ jo o'} ;tk ;tk wD dkD/ ghjD B{z fdZs/ iKd/ ;B
ns/ T[BKQ B{z yzBh yzBh o'Nh s/ r[}kok eoBk g?dI k ;h, go FkpkF T[BkQ r[o{
d/ bkbK s/ r[o{ dhnK pZuhnK d/, fiBQK B/ fJj ;ko/ eFN fyV/ wZE/ ;jko
bJ/ s/ j}koK ftZuI' fe;/ fJe B/ Gh nkgDh fizd pukT[D bJh Xow B{z
fsnkrDk gqtkD Bk ehsk .3 fJBQK w[;hpsK d/ ekoB f;zxK B{z xo xkN
4. w[BFh dkfBFto fbydk j? fe pzdk f;zx pjkd[o d/ esb d/ pkd j[ew j' frnk fe
fiE/ feXo/ Gh fJ; fcoe/ d/ b'e fwbD, MN esb eo fdZs/ ikD . fwcaskj-T[-
stkohy, ;ck 396 .
5. rD/Fdk; pv'jok, fo;kbk fJ-;kfjp B[wk, 198-9l eBQJhnk bkb, skohfy-bkj"o
219 nbh-T[-dhB, fJpqs Bkwkl bshc, fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp, 193 .
6. frnkB f;zx, gzE gqekF . fJj ;]shnK fJ; jZd se ehshnK iKdhnK ;B s/ f;zxK B/
fJBQK B{z fJ; soQK fyV/ wZE/ ;jkfonk fe jkb se fJj ]kb;/ dh nodk; dk fjZ;k pDhnK
ubhnK nk ojhnK jB .
SZv e/ izrbK ns/ gjkVK tZb B{z fBeb ikDk g? frnk . go fJj ;G e[M
Gh T[BKQ dh ;fgfoN B{z Bk e[ub ;fenk, pbfe T[j d{D ;tkJ/ j[d z / rJ/
. fJj r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx dh f;zxK ftZu c{eh j'Jh BthI o{j ;h fi; B/ T[BKQ
B{z ;Zu-w[uZ fuVhnK s'I pk} ns/ frZdVK s'I F/o pDk fdZsk ;h . fJ; t/b/
]kb;/ ftZu jT[w? s/ ngDZs BjhI ;h . T[j r[o{ gzE dh ;/tk bJh ihT[d I /
ns/ r[o{ gzE B{z uVQdhnK ebK ftZu oZy tykT[D bJh e[opkB j' iKd/ ;B
. eJh fBZi dk bkG T[BKQ B{z Gowk e/ GoktK Bkb'I s'V BjhI ;h ;edk ns/
fe;/ fBZih B[e;kB iK ikB dk vo T[BKQ B{z nkgD/ gzE dh ;/tk s'I fgZS/ BjhI
;h jNk ;edk . gzE dh ;/tk T[BKQ dk we;d ;h Gkt/I T[j fe;/ Gh jkbs
s/ g'}hFB ftZu ;B . Gkt/I e'Jh f;zx ;odko ;p/r f;zx dh g[}hFB ftZu
bkj"o dk e[stkb ;h s/ Gkt/ ;odko Fkw f;zx s/ eg{o f;zx tKC je{ws
dk eZNV fto'Xh . fdb ftZu fJZSk ;kfonK d/ fJe' ;h s/ T[j ;h fe ªijK
ijK ]kb;k ;kfjp, sjK sjK foZfXnk fonkfJs, d/H s/H casfj, fpod
eh g?i oj/, gzE eh ihs, ;qh ;kfjp ih ;jkfJ, ]kb;/ ih d/ p'b pkb/ .« fJj'
jh ;t/o/ ns/ Fkw r[o{ d/ j}{o T[BKQ dh nodk; ;h s/ fJ; B/ jh T[BKQ B{z fJe
ikB s/ fJe w[mZ eo oZfynk ;h . fJ;/ e[opkBh dh ;fgfoN s/ gzE bJh ikBK
x'b x[wkT[D dh feos B/ j}koK pzfdnK d/ wo fwN ikD go Gh e"w B{z fBZs
BtK fBo'nk, ihT[dI k ikrdk s/ uVQdhnK ebK ftZu ofynk . frDsh ftZu
]kb;k Gkt/I nkN/ ftZu b{D Gh BjhI ;h go r[o{ Go';/ T[BKQ T[j e[M eo
ftykfJnk i' eo'VK dh frDsh tkb/ j}koK d/ Nkeo/ s/ Bk eo ;e/ .
f;zxK dhnk nkgk-tko{ e[opkBhnK s/ gzE bJh xkbK s'I T[s;kjs j' e/
ekT[fI enK d/ r"jo s/ e"o Gh nzfwqs;o g[iZ / s/ gzv/ dh gkj[b SZe e/ f;zx ;Zi
rJ/ s/ fJBQK d/ Bkw r"jo f;zx s/ e"o f;zx j' rJ/ .1
fiZE/ j[D fgzv nNkoh nkpkd j? T[E/ T[; t/b/ fJe g[okDh E/j j[dz h ;h
fi; B{z fNZpk :k y/Vk2 nkyd/ ;B s/ fJ; d/ T[go p?okrh ;kX{nK dk v/ok ;h
1 oJh;kfB gzikp, 61l gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd gfjbh, 238 .
2. b?gb frqfcB B/ ?gzikp uhca;" ftZu fJ; n;EkB B{z, fiE/ fe pokrhnK dk v/ok j[zdk
;h s/ pktk w{b dk; B/ r'o f;zx B{z nk p;D bJh fejk, fNpbhnK ik eotk (Biblia
or Karewa) fbfynk j? . ;:Zd jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh B/ fNZpk T[oca yo/tk
(oJh;kfB-gzikp, gzikp, gzL 61) . mhe fNZpk :k y/Vk, j'Dk ukjhdk j? . pj[s ;kohnK
g[okDhnK E'jK ni/ sZe fNZp/ iK y/V/ jh nytkT[IdhnK jB .
. fJ; v/o/ d/ nkb/ d[nkb/ e[M eZu/ e'm/ ;B . fJ; fBZe/ fij/ fgzv s/ T[;
d/ fJod frod dh G"I d/ wkbe Gh p?okrh jh ;B . w[be ftZu npsoh
d/ ekoD u'ohnK s/ vke/ nkw ;B fiBQK s'I eJh tkoh ;kXK d/ e'm/ s/ v/ok
Gh ;[eZ / BjhI ;B pud/ . ;kX{ ftuko/ pV/ szr ;B s/ j?okB ;B fe eh eoB .
p?okHhnK ftZuI' fJe pktk w{b dk; ;B fiBK Bkb fgzv t;kT[D d/ fdBk s'I jh
r"jo/ dk pVk gqw/ j' frnk j'fJnk ;h . id r"jo f;zx nzfwqs Se e/ f;zx ;i
frnk s/ T[j d/ Bkb j'o eJh ;zpXz h ns/ ;zrh ;kEh f;zx ;i rJ/ sK pktk
w{b dk; B{z fynkb nkfJnk fe i/ e'Jh T[BKQ dh fJ; npsoh d/ t/b/ ;jkfJsk
eo ;edk j? sK fJj r[o{ e/ f;zx jh jB . f;zx T[; t/b/ dhB d[yhnK d/ oky/
s/ rohpK d/ ;jkJh ;wM/ iKd/ ;B i' b'eK dh w[;hps nkgD/ rZb gk e/ Gh
T[BKQ d/ eFN fBtkoB B{z fsnko j' g?dI / ;B . fJj ;'u e/ pktk w{b dk; B/ r"o
f;zx B{z nkfynk fe s[;hI ;kv/ gk; jh ub p;' s/ nkgD/ ofjD bJh ;kv/ y/V/ s/
fJe T[uZ h nNkoh pDk bU, s/ fJod frod dh G"I dh wkbeh Gh s[;hI jh ;KG'I
. n;hI sK ;kX{ jK, nkokw Bkb f}zdrh r[}koBk ukj[dz / jK, d' wX{eVhnK
o[yZ hnK fwZ;hnK i' fwb ikD, ;kB{z T[j jh pj[s jB .
r"jo f;zx B/ pktk w{b dk; dh fJj rZb gqtkD eo bJh s/ E/j B{z nk
nkpkd ehsk s/ T[BKQ d/ nkyD w{ip fJE/ fJe T[uA h nNkoh nk pDkJh . r"jo
f;zx dh nNkoh T[uA / fNZp/ s/ j'D eoe/ d{oI' fd;dh ;h . fJ; d/ Bkw s/ j"bh
j"bh fgzv dk Bkw Gh nNkoh tZiD bZr fgnk .
id f;zx ;odko S'N/ S'N/ iZE/ pDk e/ wZbK wkoD bJh d/F ftZu fcoB
bZr/ sK r"jo f;zx nkgD/ ;zpXz hnK ;w/s ;odko r[op]F f;zx o'VKtkb/ d/
iZE/ ftZu Fkwb j' frnk . ;odko r[op]F f;zx ;odko Gzwk f;zx Gzrh s/
;zrhnK ftu'I fJe f;o-eZY ;odko ;h . T[; d/ d' j'o ;kEh ;odko ;B, fJe
T[; dk Gshik r[iZ o f;zx s/ d{;ok ;odko bfjDk f;zx ekjb'I . ;odko
r[op]F f;zx d/ ubkDk eo ikD fgZSI' T[; dh eK s/ r[iZ o f;zx ;odko
pfDnk . r[iZ o f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx d'BI' ;odko joh f;zx Gzrh d/ fw;bdko
;B .
fJ; t/b/ r"jo f;zx B/ j"bh j"bh nNkoh d/ fJod frod d/ fgzvK s/
ep}k eo fbnk fiBQK dh ;bkBk nkwdBh ;Zs j}ko o[gJ/ ;h .1
1. ;:Zd jkdh j;B (oJh;kfB-gzikp gzL 61, ns/ b?gb frqfcB (gzikp uhca;, gzBk
238) B/ r"jo f;zx d/ nNkoh d/ fJod frod d/ fgzvK s/ ep}k eoB dk ;zB 1737
Jh;th fdZsk j?, fi; t/b/ ykB pjkdo }eohnk ]kB bkj"o dk ;{p/dko ;h ns/ Bkdo
Fkj ni/ fjzd[;skB T[s/ jZbk, eoB BjhI ;h nkfJnk . fJ; t/b/ jkb sZe f;zx B/
nkw ep}/ eoB/ BjhI ;B nkozG/, fJ; bJh fJ; skohy T[s/ }ok FZe g?dk j?, go u{zfe
j'o e'Jh rtkjh fJ; d/ fto[ZX th BjhI, fJ; bJh fJ; B{z rbs Gh BjhI nkfynk ik
;edk.
;odko r[op]F f;zx o'VKtkb/ d/ ubkDk eo ikD fgZS'I r"jo
f;zx ;odko r[iZ o f;zx s/ bfjDk f;zx GzrhnK d/ Bkb jh fojk . T[;
dh pjkdoh s'I gq;Bz j' e/ ;odko r[iZ o f;zx B/ T[; B{z nmkoK j}ko S/
;' o[gJ/ wkwb/ dk fJbkek ikrho ftZu d/ fdZsk .1
~~~

1. oJh;kfB-gzikp ftZu nmkoK j}ko d" ;' o[gJ/ ikrho fbyh j'Jh j? i', f}nkdk
gqwkDhe j? . frqfcB, gzikp uhca;, fibd gfjbh, 238 .
42
;odko Fkw f;zx B[{z ;Zdk

fi; t/b/ c/oP Ffjo d/ w?dkB'I bkb f;zx s/ s/i f;zx d/ GZiI fBebD dh ]po bkj'o
wjkokDh fizd e"o B{z g[iZ h sK T[BKQ B/ 25 dz;po 1845 B{z d; ;tko ;odko f;zx
tZb T[BKQ d/ fgzv nkNoh G/i/ ns/ T[BKQ B{z izr ftu Fkwb j'D bJh ;[Bj/ k G/fink .
fit/I T[go dZf;nk ik u[Zek j?, ;odko Fkw f;zx BkbkfJe ns/ p/JhwkB g{ophJ/
nc;o dh ewkB j/mK f;Zy c"} B{z spkj eoB dh pdBh:s Bkb bVh ik ojh
bVkJh d/ fto[XZ ;h go id wjkokDh tZb' T[go' Ebh skehdh ;[Bj/ / g[iZ D/ F[o{ j' rJ/
ns/ fJj fynkb g?d Z k fdf;nk fe T[j FkfJd ew fdbh d/ ekoD w"s s'I vo e/ fgZS/
jfNnk j'fJnk j? sK T[; B/ izr ftu Fkwb j'D dk c?;bk eo fbnk ns/ Bkb jh
;"j yk bJh fe bVkJh jkoh ikD dh jkbs ftu T[j ihT[d I k BjhI w[Vr
/ k.
fJ; t/b/ bkb f;zx s/ s/i f;zx nkgDhnK c"iK B{z Gik e/ dfonkT[I gko j' u[eZ /
j'J/ ;B ns/ ;GoktK fgzv d/ B}dhe fJeZm/ j' rJ/ ;B . ;odko Fkw f;zx 28
d;zpo B{z bFeo ftu Fkwb j' frnk . f;Zy c"iK }'o d/ ojhnK ;B fe w[V dfnkT[i
gko j' e/ MZN nzr}q/ K T[sZ / Xktk p'fbnk ikt/ . f;oc d' ;odkoK s'I fpBK ;ko/ jh fJ;
rZb d/ jZe ftu ;B ns/ ;GoktK d/ B}dhe g[b pzBDk F[o{ ehsk frnk . fJj d'
;odko ;B fwZ;o s/i f;zx ewKvo fJB uhc ns/ ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk.
go d'jK dk B[esk fBrkj tZyok tZyok ikgdk j? . s/i f;zx u{fz e nzr}/q K Bkb ofbnk
j'fJnk ;h fJ; bJh T[j T[BQK dh p' p;h t/b/ jZbk BjhI ;h Bh:s T[s/ FZe ;h fJ;
bJh T[j fJj BjhI ;h ukj[dz k fe fJj rZdko b'e f;Zy c'i B{z fe;/ e[EK c;k e/ nikJhI
wotk d/D .
T[Xo s'gK s/ pko{d d/ xkN/ ns/ w[deh ns/ c/o{ Ffjo ftu j'J/ B[e;kB d/

1. Griffin, The Punjab Chiefs (1890), volume ii, 242-43


2. Moution, Rapport (1846), p. 7; Griffin, The Punjab Chiefs (1890), ii 12
ekoD nzr}/q th jZbk eo e/ nkgDh fiZs B{z f;o/ Bk uVQk ;e/ ns/ fJ; soQK wjhBk e[
u[g ukg Bkb phfsnk . fi; t/b/ ;GoktK dk g[b fsnko j' frnk sK 15 iBtoh
1846 B{z f;Zy c"iK dfonkU gko j' gJhnK . nzr}q K tZbI' e'Jh ]k; ekw:kp o[ektN
Bk gkJh rJh , ns/ wkw{bh E'VhQ nK fijhnK r'bhnK uZbD ubkT[D s/ fgZS/ jN rJ/
. FkfJd T[BKQ dk nkgD/ jh nkdwh jB, fJ; bJh fi; t/b/ T[j nkgDh f;Zy c"i B{z
jokT[D ftu ekw:kp j' ikDr/ sK nZr/ dfonk j'D d/ ekoD jkfonK j'fJnK B{z
f}nkdk nk;kBh Bkb spkj ehsk ik ;e/rk iK u{fz e nzr}q/ K gk; Gkoh s'gK jkb se
BjhI ;B nkJhnK fJ; bJh T[j e'Jh tZvh bVkJh ;j/VBk BjhI ;h ukj[zd/ . i/ f;Zy
c"iK ;odko Fkw f;zx dh ;bkj wzBdhnK ns/ w[V dfonkU gko Bk j[zdhnK ns/
T[E/ jh nzr}q K tZbI' jZb/ dh T[vhe eodhnK sK T[BKQ tk;s/ nkgDh g'}hFB B{z pukJh
oZyDk f}nkdk nk;kB j[zdk ns/ id th nzr/q}h c"iK dfonk gko j'D dk :sB
eodhnK sK T[BKQ B{z B[e;kB th pj[s gj[uz kfJnk ik ;edk
43
nbhtkb dh MVg

wkbt/ d/ ;odkoK s/ okfinK ftu'I bkvt/ dk ;odko okik nihs f;zx jh fJe
T[x Z k ;odko ;h fi; B/ fJ; izr ftu ;oeko bkj"o dk gZy fbnk ;h . T[j bkj"o
;oeko dk ikrhodko ;h s/ b[fXnkD/ d/ B}dhe pZd'tkb ftu T[; dk febk ;h .
fi; t/b/ nzr/q}K dh b[fXnkDk c'o; fpqr/vhnk thbo dh ewkB j/mK p;hnK d/
w[ekw s/ w[y c"i Bkb w/b bJh rJh ;h sK T[BKQ B/ okj ftu ;odko nihs f;zx d/
pZd'tkb d/ feb/ s/ ep}k eo fbnk . fi; t/b/ w[deh s/ c/o{ Ffjo B/ nzrq/}K B{z
b[fXnkD/ tZbI' nt/;bk eo fdZsk sK ;odko nihs f;zx B/ nk e/ w[V pZdt' kb T[sZ /
nkgDk ep}k eo fbnk .
17 iBtoh 1846 B{z id ;odko oDi'X f;zx wihmhnk b[fXnkD/ d/ B}dhe'I
;sb[i gko j'fJnk sK ;odko nihs f;zx th T[; d/ Bkb fwb frnk . fJBQK B/
b[fXnkD/ dh SkT[Dh d/ e[M fjZ;/ c{e fdZs/ . fi; t/b/ fJj ]po rtoBo iBob
bkov jkofvzr ns/ ewKvo fJB uhc ;o jhT{ r'c B{z bZrh sK T[BKQ ;o j?oh ;fwZE
B{,z i' 17 iBtoh B{z Xowe'N ns/ cfsjrVQ d/ fefbnK s/ ep}k eoB bJh G/fink
frnk ;h , j[ew G/fink fe T[j b[fXnkD/ ik e/ eoBb r"vph dh ;jkfJsk eo/ . ;o
j?oh ;fwZE b[fXnkD/ tZb B{z tXdk j'fJnk 21 iBtoh B{z pZdt' kb e'b gj[fz unk jh
;h fe ;odko oDi'X f;zx s/ ;odko nihs f;zx B/ nukBe Xktk p'b fdZsk . ;o
j?oh ;fwZE dh c"i fsZso fpZso j' rJh ns/ T[; dk ;kok wkb n;pkp s/ j;gskbh
;N'o f;zxK d/ jZE nkfJnk . fJ; t/b/ i/ feXo/ fpqrv/ hnk feT[oNB dk Xowe'N tZbI'
nk fojk fo;kbk n?B t/b/ f;o e[M ;jkfJsk Bk nk eodk sK FkfJd fJ; MVg ftu
nzr/q}K dk j'o th f}nkdk B[e;kB j[zdk .

1. M'Gregor, History of the Sikhs (1846), ii, 132


go pZdt' kb dh jko dk X'Dk ;o j?oh ;fwZE B/ b[fXnkfDT[I jN e/ jcs/ fgZSI'
28 iBtoh B{z X' fdZsk id fe j'o nzrq/}h c"i nk ikD s/ nbhtkb dh MVg ftu
;odko oDi'X f;zx dk gk;k fYZbk g? frnk s/ wdd bJh e'Jh s'gK Bk g[iZ D s/ T[;
B{z jko j' rJh.
nbhtkb ftu f;zxK dh pjkdoh dk f}eo eodk j'fJnk E"oBNB fbydk j? fe
f;Zy pj[s fdqVsQ k Bkb bV/ ns/ ;kv/ fo;kb/ Bkb eJh tkoh jZE' jZEh MVgK bJhnK.
;'btQ I/ bK;o fo;kb/ T[sZ / f;Zy fgnkfdnK d/ fJe jZb/ t/b/ T[BKQ (f;Zyk) B/ nkgDhnK
p{d
z eK go/ ;[N fdZshnK ns/ nkgDhnK sbtkoK s/ YkbK b? e/ B/f}nK dk nK Nkeok
ehsk .
fJe f]nkb fJj th j? fe u[fz e pZdt' kb dh bVkJh ftu ;o j?oh ;fwZE dh jko B/
T[; B{z pdBkw eo fdZsk ;h, T[; dh ;koh T[wo dh ewkJh o[VQdh ik ojh ;h ns/
fJ; pdBkwh BPz{ S/sh jh B/eBkwh ftu pdb ;eD dhnK e'Jh pj[s T[s;kj dkfJe
T[whdK th BjhI ;B ojhnK ,fJ; bJh nbhtkb ftu j'Jh wkw{bh i/jh MVg B{z
wBxVs pBktNK Bkb pj[s ;kok tXk e/ ;oekoh fv;g?uK ftu fJe pVh Gkoh
skohyh bVkJh dh Feb ftu g/F ehsk frnk j? sK fe ;o j?oh ;fwZE dh pdBkwh
XZsh ik ;e/ . fJ; f]nkb dh rtkjh J/ a n?b a n?vw} dh g[;se ÒtKvforzi n"c
J/ B?u[ofb;N fJB fJzvhnkÓ s'I fwbdh j? fi; ftu fe T[j nbhtkb d/ w?dkB dk
f}eo eodk j'fJnk fbydk j? L
¿nbhtkb ;zpzX pj[s e[M nkfynk ik u[Zek j? go ;Zu/ fBogZy rtkj T[; t/b/
fbyhnK rJhnk rZbK Bkb' fpbe[b jh tZyoh rZb dZ;d/ jB .
¿w?I T[; oD G{wh ftu fJe n?;/ nkdwh d/ Bkb fcfonk jK i' T[; bVkJh ftu

1. Gough and Innes, The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars,111-2., Latif, History
of the Punjab, 544-45, Autobigrophy of Sir Harry Smith, 523-35, Edwards,
Reminiscence of a Bengal Civiliam (1866), p. 98, Cust, O. S L. Essays, V. 7-157.
2. go okik bkb f;zx s/ s/i f;zx dh soQK ;odko oDi'X f;zx dh Bh:s T[s/ e'Jh
FZe BjhI ehsk ik ;edk . frqfcB fbydk j? L-
Ranjodh Singh was, if any thing, superior to the other leaders of the
Sikh Army, if leaders they can be called but he was no triator. He had no
confidential agents in the British camp as Raja Lal Singh had, nor did he, like
the Raja, pray for and labour for the triumph of the English , Punjab Chiefs
(1890), i, 272-73.
3 History of the Punjab (1846),ii. 349.
w"i{d ;h . T[; B/ w?B{z :ehB fdbkfJnk ns/ T[; dh rZb dh j'o eJh d{;fonK B/
Fkjdh Goh j? fe fi; t/b/ (fJ; bVkJh pkps) ;oekoh fpnkB fbfynk ik fojk
;h sK fJe pVh ekw;kp wBzebgDk ezw eo ojh ;h . T[; d/ bc} ;B fe Ònbhtkb
fJe fbys ftu jh nkJh bVkJh ;h feT[fI e ;kv/ ftu'I T[; t/b/ se fe;/ B{z th gsk
BjhI ;h fe n;hI e'Jh bVkJh bV/ jK id se fe fJ; d/ jkbks fJe gZso ftu
gqekFs BjhI ;B j' rJ/ fi; B/ ;kv/ ftu'I jo fJe Bkb fJB;kc s'I th tX uzrk
;b{e ehsk. Ó
¿go T[j fJ; B{z fpBk veko gh rJ/ ns/ ;kvhnK pj[s ;kohnK fjzd;[ dskBh
bVkJhnK ns/ fjzd;[ skBh HbshnK dh soQK bVkJh d/ n]oh Bshi/ B/ fJ; pkps
B[esk uhBh pzd eok fdZsh .
¿fJe nkfJoF ej/rk fe c'i dk ;kwkB t?oh d/ jZE nk ikD eo/ e/ Ò;kB{z
pZdt' kb ftu xkNk fgnkÓ ns/ e'Jh th w[pkbrk fJ; B{z fiZs ftu BjhI pdb ;e/rk.
go E'V/ fuo fgZS' fgZS' B{z jN oj/ f;ZyK d/ fJe d;s/ s/ e[M r'bhnK d/ uZbD ns/
fJe iK d' d;fsnK d/ jZb/ B{z tXk uVQk e/ fJe pVh tZvh bVkJh dZf;nk frnk ns/
fJ; soQK nbhtkb d/ w?dkB B{z fjd[;z skB d/ fJe w?oE/ B dk oDy/so eoe/ fby
frnk . @
1Adams, A.L- Wanderings of a Naturalist in India, the Western
Himalayas and Kashmere; Edmonston and DoUglas, Edinburgh, 1867, p.
60-1 :-
Much has been said of Aliwal, but can did witnesses give a far different
account from that written at the time.
I wandered over the field with one who had been present at the enagement
he assured me, and his testimony has been corroborated by many others, that
a fruitful imagination was at work when the official account was drawn up. His
words were:--
"Aliwal was the battle of the despatch, for none of us knew we had
fought a battle until the particulars appeared in a document which did more
than justice of everyone concerned."
But they gulped it down, and like many of our Indian battles and
Indian blunders, the final issue of the struggle disarmed criticism.
An Irishman would say, "We gained a disadvantage at Budiwal." by the
baggage of the Army falling into the hands of the enemy; that no exaggera-
tion could well turn it into a victory but shortly afterwards, a few shots and the
charge of a squadron or two in persuit of a host of retreating Sikhs were
magnified into a grand combat and thus the plain of Aliwal has been recorded
as the scene of one of India's Marathons.
also see Cunningham, History of the Sikhs (1849), p. 613
44
;GoktK dh bVkJh

;odko Fkw f;zx dh Fjhdh


10 cotoh 1846

c/o{ Ffjo ftu jko d/ fgZSI' bkj"o dopko B/ okik r[bkp f;zx B{z izw{ s'I
bkj"o p[bkfJnk . wjkokDh fizd e"o B{z FkfJd fJj f]nkb j't/ fe r[bkp f;zx izr
ftu dopko dh ;jkfJsk eo/rk . i/ T[j ukj[d z k sK bVkJh B{z bwek ;edk ;h . go
T[j nkgDk T[b{ f;ZXk eoBk ukj[zdk ;h , fJ; bJh T[; B/ }kjok s"o s/ e'Jh rZb
nzrq/}K d/ fto[ZX Bk ehsh pbfe jko yk u[Ze/ j'J/ f;ZyK B{z jh T[; B/ e';Bk F[o{ eo
fdZsk ns/ nzr}/q K Bkb rZb pks nkozG eo fdZsh.
rtoBo iBob th fJ; rZb'I ][F ;h fe bkj"o dopko JhB b?D B{z fsnko j?
feT[Ife T[j ;Zu/ fdb'I wfj;{; eo fojk ;h fe ;ko/ gzikp B{z ;o ehs/ fpBk fJ;
bVkJh B{z ekw:kph Bkb ]sw BjhI ehsk ik ;e/rk ns/ ]kb;k c"i dh w"}d{ rh ftu
gzikp B{z ;o eoB bJh g?o g?o T[sZ / ]sok j' ikD dh jkbs ftu gzikp B{z ;o eoB
bJh g?o g?o T[Zs/ bVkJh bzph j' ikD dh jkbs ftu rowh d/ w";w ftu r'fonK
tk;s pVh Fkws j'tr / h ns/ fe;/ nkw phwkoh d/ g? ikD Bkb nc;oK ns/ f;gkjhnK
dk pj[s f}nkdk B[e;kB j'tr / k . fJj th wfj;{; ehsk ik fojk ;h fe ;ko/ fjd[;z skB
ftu b'eK d/ wB v'b/ j'J/ jB ns/ bVkJh bzph g? ikD dh jkbs ftu T[BKQ dk nzr/q
}K dh c"i d/ nfiZs j'D ;zpXz h :ehB j'o th fjZb ikJ/rk ns/ w[be ftu F'o Fokpk
g? ikJ/rk . dfonk f;zX se nkgDh cfsj d/ Mzv/ M[bkT[D ns/ gzikp B{z nzr/q}h
je{ws j/mK b? nkT[D dk f]nkb rtoBo iBob d/ wB B{z j[bkok fdzdk ;h . go
;G s'I gfjbK rZb ]kb;k c"iK B{z sbtko d/ }'o Bkb iK bkj"o dopko d/ fpBk
Fos JhB wzBD s/ ;sb[iI' ;wM e/ fjzd;[ skB dk jo S'Nk w'Nk ;odko w"ek fwbD
s/ nkgDh nk}kdh bJh fsnko j' e/ jZE g?o wkoB d/ :sB eoB br gJ/rk. go i/
feXo/ w[be d/ ;ko/ ;odko f;o bZE j? e/ fe;/ fJe :'r ns/ nkgk tko{ nkr{ d/
j[ew j/mK nkfd eZm/ j'J/ sK bkj"o dopko dh fsnko po fsnko pjkd[o ]kb;k
c"i B{z fJe nZXh j'o jko Bkb g{oh soQK w[ekfJnk BjhI ik ;e/rk.
fJBQK rZbK B{z ;kwQD/ oZy e/ rtoBo iBob B/ r[bkp f;zx B{z efj G/fink fe
]kb;k c"i B{z s'V fdZs/ ikD fgZSI' ;oeko ftu f;Zy pkdFjs B{z gqtkD eo b?D bJh
fsnko j'tr / h . go r[bkp f;zx B/ itkp fdZsk fe c"i B{z s'V d/D dk fJeoko eoBk
T[; d/ n]fsnko s'I pkjo j? . efBzxw fbydk j? fe nkgD/ wsbp B{z g{ok eoB
bJh r[bkp f;zx f;Zy j'J/ j'D go T[j T[BKQ B{z j'o vok s/ :oek e/ nkgDh ;/tk d/
pdb/ T[BKQ gk;'I nkgDhnK fBi dhnK rZbK wBtkT[Dk ukj[d z k ;h fi; ftu fe nzs
T[j g{oh soQK ekw:kp j' frnk . UXo u{fz e f;ZyK dh okiXkBh ftu ik e/ T[BKQ gk;'I
JhB wBtkT[Dk nzr}q/ h je{ws d/ o'jp B{z ekfJw oZyD bJh }o{oh j' fojk ;h , fJ;
bJh r[bkp f;zx ns/ nzr}/q K ftu e'Jh fJj' fijk ;bjk ;wM'sk j' frnk fe nzr/
}q f;Zy c"i T[sZ / jZbk eoB ns/ jko j' ikD s/ ;oeko bkj"o (fi; d/ w[yhJ/ fJ; t/
b/ okik r[bkp f;zx v'rok, fwZ;o bkb f;zx t}ho s/ fwZ;o s/i f;zx ewKvo JhB
uhc ;B) T[; B{z y[bQ/ s"o s/ fsnkr d/t,/ ns/ ;sb[i dfonk dk okj ns/ bkj"o sZe
;Ve nzrq/}k tk;s/ ]kbh SZv fdZs/ ikD . fJ; w{oysk Goh gkfb;h ns/ p/FowK
tkbh rZdkoh d/ jkbks ftu ;GoktK dh izr j'Jh. fJj ;koh rZb pks cotoh
1846 d/ gfjb/ jcs/ dh j? id fe rtoBo iBob ;o j?Boh jkofvzr dk e?gI
fco'}g[o ;h .
rtoBo iBob dk e?Ig ni/ fco'}g[o jh ;h fe 7 cotoh B{z nzr/q}K dhnK
tZvhnK s'g, fiBQK dh jcfsnK s'I T[vhe bZrh j'Jh ;h, g[ZiDhnK F[o{ j' rJhnK s/
d{;o/ fdB se ;kok s'gykBk g[Zi frnk .fJ;/ fdB 7 cotoh B{z fwZ;o bkb f;zx
t}ho B/ nkgD/ nkdwh fco'}g[o rtoBo iBob gk; G/i/ ns/ nkgDhnK bkj"o
dopko dhnK c"iK dh go/pQ d z h s/ j'D tkbh bVkJh dk BeFk T[; B{z G/i fdZsk. fi;
1. efBzxw, fj;Noh n"ca dh f;Zy; (1849); 219-21L wo/, fpqfNF fJzvhnk 713-
15
c"i d/ nc;o jh dFwB Bkb ob/ j'D s/ nkgDh bVkJh dk BeFk gfjbK jh t?oh
B{z d/ d/D, T[; d/ jkoB ftu fe;/ B{z eh FZe j'Dk j'fJnk <
fJe gk;/ nc;oK dh p/JhwkBh dh fJ; soQK jZd j'Jh ;h, d{;o/ fe fJe nzr/q}
nc;o B{z SZNhnK ;GoktK d/ ;kwQD/ e[M f;Zy ;tko B}o gJ/ . fJBQK ftu'I fJe B{z T[;
B/ p[bkfJnk .fJj f;Zy x'V uVQk pVh ]Fh Bkb T[; e'b ubk frnk ns/ T; d/ Bkb
jh nzr}q/ h e?gI B{z so fgnk fiE/ fe fJ; dh w[bkeks nzr}/q h ewKvo fJB uhc bkov
jhT{ r"c Bkb eokJh rJh. rZb pks eod/ j'J/ f;zx ih B/ fejk fe fJ; ftu e'Jh
FZe BjhI fe ]kbf;nK B{z eJH tko jko j' u[eZ h j?, go T[j bVB bJh fco fsnko
po fsnko vN/ j'J/ jB ns/ fJj rZb fdb ftu'I T[Zeh jh eZY fdZsh ikJ/ fe f;zx
nkgDh ;oeko Bkb b{D jokwh eoBr/ iK SZv e/ GZi fBebDr/ .
9 cotoh B{z rtoBo iBob fco'}g[oI' ewKvo fJB uhc d/ e?gI ftu nk frnk
ns/ d{;o/ fdB 10 cotoh B{z ;t/o/ jh f;zxK T[Zs/ jZbk eoB dk c?;bk j'fJnk .
wkb{w j[zdk j? fe s/i f;zx B{z nzr/q}K tZb'I j'D tkb/ jZb/ d/ tes dk gsk ;h . nzrq/
}K Bkb u{fz e fJ; rZb dk nzdo'I nzdo c?;bk j' u[eZ k j'fJnk ;h fe f;Zy c"i B{z T[BKQ
d/ nc;o SZv ikDr/,fJ; bJh s/i f;zx ukj[zdk ;h fe fe;/ gkf;UI th nzr/q}K dk
vNtK Nkeok Bk j't/ . bkb f;zx sK T[; dh i[zvh dk :ko ;h ns/ T[j ][d th nzr/
}q K Bkb ofbnk j'fJnk ;h fJ; bJh T[; T[sz / s/i f;zx B{z g{ok Go';k ;h . s/i f;zx
B{z i/ eo vo ;h sK ;odko Fkw f;zx dk,fi; B/ fe ;"jI yk bJh j'Jh ;h fe T[j fJ;
izr ftu ikB se e[opkB eo d/tr / k ns/ i/ f;zxK B{z jko j' rJh sK w?dkB ftu'I
ihT{d I k BjhI w[Vr
/ k . frqfcB fbydk j? fe nkfynk iKdk j? fe ;GoktK dh bVkJh s'I
gfjbh oks(9 cotoh 1846) B{z s/i f;zx B/ ;odko Fkw f;zx B{z th nkgDh
rZdokBk ;k}F ftu Fkwb eoB dk fBFcb :sB ehsk s/ T[BKQ B{z nkfynk fe T[j

1.E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"ca dh gzikp, 315; tkJhekT{IN jkofvzr (o{bo} n"ca fJzvhnk)
113, n?vtov}, p?Irkb f;ftbhnB, 99; efBzxw (1918), 192
2. w?rq?ro, fj;Noh n"ca dh f;y;, fibd d{;oh, gzBk 146
"He said that Khalsa had no doubt been beaten several times;
but they were determined to fight against; and it must not be sup-
posed they would prove unfaithful to their employers and desert
their cause."
j'o t/y' ;fwZE, o/fBzr ca?fwbh, 180-81
th nzr/q}K d/ gfjb/ jZb/ t/b/ T[; d/ Bkb jh fNeb ubD, go ;odko Fkw f;zx
fJe tZyoh fwZNh dk pfDnk j'fJnk ;h . T[j fJBQK Nek gzEh GkV/ d/ NN{ Bwe
jokwhnK ftu'I BjhI ;h . T[j T[; nkgk tko{ ;odko fBjkb f;zx dk nDyhbk g[sZ o
;h fi; B/ fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ Fohoe eFN B{z fBtkoD bJh j;{z j;z{ eod/
nkgDh ikB tko fdZsh ;h . T[; B{z f;zxK dh jko ftu nkgD/ tsB dh nk}kdh y[;Z dh
B}o nk ojh ;h . T[j fJ; d/ fgZSI' ihT{Dk nkgDh nDy B{z tZNk bZrDk ;wM e/ fJ;
d/ Bkb jh s[o ikD B{z fsnko j'Jh p?mk ;h . T[; B/ s/i f;zx dh fJ; fBzdBh: ekbh
eos{s T[sz / fxoDk gqrN eod/ j'J/ T[; d/ Bkb Fkwb j'D' fJBeko eo fdZsk . fJ;
go s/i f;zx B/ r[;Z / Bkb nkfynk @ i/ s{z n?vk jh pjkd[o j?I sK fJe tkoh yk sK ;[rXz
feT[fI e w?IA ;wMdk jK fe nzs w/o/ / Bkb jh nk ikDk j? . ;odko Fkw f;zx T[; t/b/
;qh r[o{ rqEz ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftZu jk}o j'J/ ns/ r[o{ B{z jk}o Bk}o eoe/ e/ puB
ehsk fe i/ f;zxk B{z jko j' rJh sK w?I w?dkB ftZuI' fiT{dI k BjhI fBebK rK .
10 cotoh B{z ;t/o/ jh nzro/}K B/ jZbk eo fdZsk ns/ f;zx th nZfrU
fsnko j' gJ/ . ;t/o/ jh Fkw f;zx B/ fuZNk pkDk ;ik fbnk ns/ nkgDh yk; ;tkoh
dh uhBh x'V/ s/ ;tko j' fBeb gJ/ . ;odko Fkw f;zx dh uVQsb dk f}eo j'fJnk
wNe fbydk j? .
gfjo oks ;w/I fJFBkB Fkw f;zx ftZu Bdh d/ tfVnk .
i[gih gfVnk .
g[B dkB pj[s eho/ wod[ B/, fXnkB r[oK ek Xfonk
G"ib[ s[fonk .
fBw;eko ;;so/ gfjo/, s'Vk pzde{ h ifVnk
iok Bk vfonk .
efjs wNe np i[X Xow ek f;nkw f;zx oD ufVQnk
yzvk cfVnk ..28..
d'jhI fXohI szpo{ yVed/, i[XZ dh GJh fsnkoh
bFeo Gkoh .
tZiB sw[o}k n"o w[obhnK, ;[Eoh ofD e/ ;koh
nfXe fgnkoh .

1. gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd 1, gzBk 243l u'gVk, dh gzikp n?} J/ ;"toB ;N/N, 164
uVQ/ o;kb/ n"o gVsbK r'ok p/ F[wkoh
rod r[pkoh .
efjs wNe np gzE e/ T[go, M[e ojh Bzdo ;koh
bFeo Gkoh .
d'jhI pzde{ K szpo{ yVed/, bVd/ Bdh feBko/
w[byK tko/ .
ubB pzde{ K n"o ofjeb/, s/r/ uwefD Gko/
pD/ d[Xko/ .
rZifD ;{ow/ ;Bw[yZ j' e/, ofjD d/ ftZu g[eko/
b?fD j[bko/
efjs wNe r'bk fgnk to;/, trd/ o[dq gqBko/
b?fD j[bko/ ..30..
e[vbhnK Szd
Fkw f;zx ;odko B/ ehnk shoE fJFBkB
rT{nK jkEh wD; e/ ;Bw[y ubk i[nkB .
;Bw[y ubk i[nkB i[XZ dh GJh fsnkoh .
nzro/} ;kE ;{owk nkg dhdkoh .
wNek r'o/ wod B/ wko' phu w?dkB .
cfV yzvk jZE rofink Fkw f;zx pbtkB ..31..
bVkJh s/ ikD s'I gfjbK ;odko Fkw f;zx B/ f;gkjhnK B{z ftnkfynkB
fdZsk ns/ ;wMkfJnk fe nZi s[jkvh e"wh nD] dh goy dk ;wK nk frnk j?, i/
s[;hI ykb;/ d/ ;Zu/ ;g[sZ o j' sK nkgD/ f;zx Bkw s/ dkVhnK B{z bki Bk bZrD fdU,
g[oik g[oik j' e/ eZN woBk ns/ d/F dh nk}kdh bJh nkgDhnK fizdK e[opkB eo
d/Dk go izr ftZu t?oh B{z fgZm Bk fdykT[Dk .1
f;Zy c"i ih ewkB dh soshp fJ; soK ;h fw;o s/i f;zx fJ; izr dk
ewKvo-fJzB-uhc ;h, fi; B/ yk; eoe/ nkgD/ puk bJh fJe p[oi pDkfJnk j'fJnk
;h . sK eh yso/ t/b/ T[; ftZu b[e ;e/ . ;Zi/ gk;/ ;odko nso f;zx ekfbnktkbk
;h i' y[b
Z / x[V ufVnk dh ewkB eo fojk ;h . yZp/ gk;/ ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk
ns/ ioB?b w/tk f;zx wihmhJ/ dk fpqrv/ ;h ftueko ;odko ekBQ f;zx wkB ns/

1. jkdh j;B s/ oZip nbh, oJh;kfB gzikp, 66l gzE gqekF, d{ih tko, 837
ioB?b nftskphb/ d/ fpqrv/ ns/ ioB?b wfjskp f;zx wihmhJ/ ns/ ioB?b r[bkp
f;zx gj{ftzfvnk ;h . fJE/ jh fwFo s/i f;zx dk fpqrv/ ns/ p[oi ;h okik bkb f;zx
;jkfJe c"i dh ewkB s/ fJe gk;/ tZyok yVk ;h .

nzro/}k nkgDk tZvk s'gykBk vkfjnk ns/ s'g T[s/ s'g uZbD bZrh . okik bkb
f;zx B/ nzro/}K B{z fJsbkj fdZsh j'Jh ;h fe f;zxK dk ;Zik gk;k, fiZE/ ;odko nso
f;zx ekfbnKtkb/ d/ ybQ/ x'V ;B ew}'o j? fJ; bJh ioB?b fve dk vth}B
;[ykbk nZr/ tZXdk ubk frnk . fJ; t/b/ eoBb w's' B/ s/i f;zx B{z ;bkj fdZsh fe
j[D o;kfbnK B{z nZr/ eoB dk t/bk j?, feT[fI e fgZS/ B{z jNd/ ik u[e/ nzro/ih vth}B
B{z fo;kb dh ;jkfJsk Bkb GKi fdZsh ik ;edh j? . go s/i f;zx sK fJj eoBk jh
BjhI ukj[dz k ;h . fJ; bJh T[; B/ fJj rZb gqtkB Bk ehsh ns/ w{sI' nkgD/ fo;kfbnK
gk; B{z w[V frnk . go fi; t/b/ f;zxK B{z fve d/ tX/ ub/ nkT[D dk gsk bZrk sK
T[BKQ B/ eoBb w{sI' ns/ j'o nc;oK dh ewKB j/mK jZbk eoe/ fJ; B{z fgZS/ B{z XZe
fdsk ns/ y[d iBob fve B{z fJe wko{ i]w nk frnk . fJ; dh wZdd bJh iBob
frbpoN G/fink frnk, go T[j th e[M Bk pDk ;fenk ns/ f;zxK B/ fgZS/ jNk fdsk
ns/ fJj' jkb ;o j?oh ;fwE d/ vth}B dk j'fJnk ns/ ;ys B[e;kB T[mk e/ fJ;
B{z th fgZS/ w[VBk fgnk . fJ; t/b/ bVkJh d/ nkozG ftZu ;odko Fkw f;zx jo EK
gj[uz e/ f;zxK B{z vZN e/ ;{othoK tKr bVQB bJh jZbk-F/ok ns/ j";bk d/ fojk ;h .

nzro/}h s'gK d/ jZb/ dk f;zxK y{p vN e/ w[ekpbk ehsk ns/ fJbkjh p]F s/ wky/ yK
B/ nZfrU T[j nZr tokJh fe nzro/}h s'gK fJBQK B{z s'gK u[Zg Bk eok ;fenK ns/
nzro/}K B{z fJj gqshs j[dz k ;h fe fJ; soK to ojh nZr ftZu T[BKQ B{z ekw:kph j'
;eDh n;zGt j? .
fJ; t/b/ dh f;zxK dh bVkJh dk f}eo eodk j'fJnk Fkj w[jwz d fbydk
j? L
nkJhnK gVskbK phV e/ s'gykB/ .

1. frqfcaB, gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd 1, gzBk 12


2. efBzxw, fj;Noh nkc dh f;Zy; (1849), 322, 324
3. n?vtov}, pzrkb f;ftbhnB, 99-100l wo/, pfofNF fJzvhnk, 718l w{s'I,
og'os (1846), 8 gzE gqekF (d{ih tko), 837l frqfcB, gzikp uhca; (1890), 243
4. E'oBNB, fj;Noh n"c dh gzikp (1846), 352l [poNB, c;N n?Iv ;?ezv f;Zy
tko}, 39-40
nZrI' f;zx B/ gk;V/ w'V ;[N/ .
w/tk f;zx s/ wky/ yK j'J/ f;ZX/ .
jZb/ fszB cozHh d/ s'V ;[NZ / .
Fkw f;zx ;odko nNkohtkb/
pzB FFsoh i'V ftS'V ;[N/ .
Fkj w[jwz dk f;zx B/ r'fonK d/
tKr fBp{nK bj{ fBu'V ;[NZ / ..90..

izr fjzd gzikp dk j'D bZrk\


d'tI/ pkdFkjh c"iK GkohnK B/
nZi j't/ ;oeko sK w[b Z gkt/
fijVhnK ykb;/ B/ s/rK wkfonK B/ .
;D/ nkdwh r'fbnK Bkb T[vD
jkEh Yfjzd/ ;D/ nzpkohnK Bh .
Fkj w[jz wdk fJe ;oeko pkM'I
c"iK fis e/ nzs B{z jkohnK B/ ..92..
y[b
Z Q/ x'V ufVnk tZb nzro/}k B/ fJj w[V e/ fJe jZbk c/o ehsk fi; Bkb
w{s' d/ fo;kb/ d/ e[M e[ g?o fBeb gJ/ ns/ e[M e{ ;odko nso f;zx ekfbnKtkb/
d/ x'V-uVQ/ fjZb rJ/ . yZp/ gk;/ d/ f;zxK B/ fiZE/ fe ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk s/
iBob w/tk f;zx wihmhnk ewkB eo oj/ ;B, ewkB dh pjkdoh tykJh s/ eJh
tko f;zx sbtkoK jZEh b? e/ nzro/}h c"iK d/ ftub/ fjZ;/ T[s/ f;o-s'V N[N gJ/ ns/
T[BQK ftZu rVpV wuk fdZsh . ftukb/ th ioB?b dhnK e'oN dhnK g[okDhnK c"iK
ns/ ioB?b wfjskp f;zx dhnK c"iK B/ pVh pjkdoh Bkb nkgD/ w'ofunK dh
oZfynk ehsh . fJ; t/b/ f;zx B/ pjkdoh d/ T[j i'jo ftykJ/ e/ t?oh th nZF nZF eo
T[fmnk . go fi; t/b/ bVkJh ;kohI gk;hI rfj-rZu j' ojh ;h, ewKvo-fJB-uhc s/i
f;zx ns/ bkb f;zx nzro/} Bkb gfjb/ ehs/ j'J/ ;wM's/ nB[;ko ftZuI' GZi fBeb/
ns/ nkg dfoUI gko j' e/ ftZuI' fJe p/Vh y[bk e/ ik v[ptk e/ ;Zsb[i dk g[b s[Vtk
fdZsk sK fe fiZE/ sZe j' ;e/ ykb;k c"i spkj s/ popkd j' ikt/ .1 GZiD t/b/ s/i
1. w{s'I, og'oN, 8-9l n?vtov}, pzrkb f;ftbhnB, 100l efBzxw, 327l w?ro?ro,
fibd d{;oh 176, wo/, pfofNF fJzvhnk 718, gzE gqekF (d{ih tkoh), 839
f;zx B/ nkgD/ vthiB d/ pkeh ;ko/ ;odkoK B{z th j[ew G/i fdZsk fe T[j c"iK B{z SZv
e/ GZi fBebD, go w{s' fbydk j? fe e/tb fJe B/ jh T[; dk j[ew wzfBnk ns/ j'o
;G nkgDh nkgDh EKJ/I nyho dZw sZe vZN/ oj/ . T[; d/ Bkb obD tkbk fJj T[;
dk i[zvh dk :ko fw;o bkb f;zx jh ;h .
ekowkJheb ;fwZE fbydk j? fe fi; t/b/ s/i f;zx c"i B{z SZv e/ d"V ikD
dh fsnkoh eo fojk ;h e[M x'V-uV/ ;ogN bk e/ T[; d/ p[oi gk; g[Zi/ s/ T[; B{z
fejk fe T[j ibdh jh T[; EK g[iZ / fiE/ fe ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ f;gkjh fjZbD/ F[o{
j' rJ/ jB sK fe T[j T[; B{z ;jkfJsk bJh nk g[iZ k ikD e/ yV' ikD go s/i f;zx
T[BKQ B{z fJj efj e/ w'V fdZsk fe ;odko Fkw B{z B{z ej' fe T[j vN/ ofjD ns/ w?I g[b
dh gfenkJh dk gqpXz eoe/ S/sh jh T[BKQ dh ;jkfJsk bJh nKdk jK . go g[b T[E/
g[Zid/ ;ko jh T[j dfoUI gko ubk frnk . fJj th nkfynk iKdk j? fe T[; B/
dfonKT[I gko j' e/ nZm dZ; s'gK nkgDh tZb d/ ezY/ T[s/ phV fdZshnK fiBK dk
we;d jko/ j'J/ f;zxK d/ dfonkTI gko j'D dh e'fFF ftZu o'e gkT[Dk s/ T[BK B{z
spkj eoBk gqshs j[d z k ;h .1 wNe efjzdk j? fe L
bkb{ dh bkbh rJh, s/i{ dk frnk s/i .
oD ftZu fgZm fdykfJ e/ w'Yk nkJ/ c/o .
w'Yk nkJ/ c/o w{}h w[odko ;dktB .
d[Fkb/ jzYkJ/ rkdhnK w[cs rtktB .
efjs wNe ftZu irs d/ j'sh uou ftuko .
bkb{ s/i{ BZm e/ nkJ/ ghm fdyko ..34..
s/i f;zx s/ bkb f;zx d/ Gi fBebD Bkb f;zx dh bkJhB dk ftukbk
pj[s ;kok ykbh j' frnk . fJ; bJh T[BKQ dk pj[s ;kok fXnkB fJXo j' frnk . ns/
g[b s'V fdZs/ ikD dh ypo Bkb ;koh gk;h xpokjN tZX rJh . fJ; t/b/ dh jh sK
nzro/} skV ftZu ;B . T[BK B/ fJe dZw f;zx/ d/ ;Zi/ gk;/ yb/ x'V-ufVnK tZb fJe
pV/ i'o dk jZbk p'b fdZsk . fJe sK fJj gk;k nZr/ jh iok j"bk ;h d{;o/ g[b d/ N[N
ikD B/ ;ZN wkoh, fJ; bJh fJBQK d/ g?o fEVe rJ/ .
j[D bVkJh dk ;kok i'o yZp/ gk;/ ;odko Fkw f;zx ns/ ioB?b w/tk f;zx
tZb g? frnk . nzro/}K dh p/F[wko skes fJXo N[N gJh . fi; t/b/ ;odko Fkw
f;zx B{z s/i f;zx ns/ bkb f;zx dh rdkoh ns/ dfonk dk g[b s[VtkD dh ypo

1. o/fBzr ca?fwbh n"c bkj"o, 183-84


fwbh sK T[j r[Z;/ Bkb fpZco/ s/ MzibkJ/ j"J/ F/o dh soQK wko'-wko eodk j'fJnk
nZr/ tZfXnk . fJ; t/b/ T[; B/ fuZNk pkDk gfjBhnK j'fJnk ;h ns/ nkgD/ yk;
n;tkoh dh uhBh x'Vh T[s/ ;tko ;h . j[D t/y fojk ;h fe ykb;/ dh fis j' ;eD
dh e'Jh nk; BjhI ojh . ftukbk rdkoK B/ ykbh eo fdZsk j? ns/ ;Zik gk;k T[Ii
ezwi'o j'D eoe/ fEVe frnk j? ns/ yZp/ gk;/ t?oh dk i'o g?D eoe/ finkdk mfjo
BjhI ;e/rk . go fJ; Yfjzdh ik ojh jkbs ftZu ;odko Fkw f;zx B/ fdb Bk
SZfvnk, pbfe jo EK gj[uz e/ f;zxK B{z ;{ophoK tKr{ bVB ns/ ;Zu/ d/F GrsK dh
soQK e[pokB j' ikD bJh jZbk F/oh fdzdk fojk . fiZE/ w'ouk N[Ndk ik c"i fEVedh
fd;dh T[E/ nkg gj[uz dk s/ efjzdk fe ykb;k ih eh n;hI fJj dkVhnK b? e/ gzikp
ftZu jko e/ iktKr/ < j[D t/bk ;Bwzy[ Fjhd j'D dk j? . fJ; t/b/ ;odko dh x'Vh
r'bh Bk wkoh rJh . ;kJh; tjkph nkg d/ Bkb ;h . T[; B/ MZN d{;oh x'Vh jkio
eo fdZsh . d{;oh x'Vh b? e/ tjkph B{z fgZS/ G/i fdZsk ns/ ikD bZr/ B{z fejk, ¿s{z ik,
s/ nNkoh B{z efj d/th fe n;hI j[D BjhI nkT[Dk .À nzs t/b/ bVkJh jkoh iKdh fdZ;h
sK r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh j}P{oh ftZu ehs/ gqD B{z e/;h ;tk;h fBGk ftykT[D bJh
;odko Fkw f;zx nZr/ tZfXnk . fJ; t/b/ nzro/}K dh gzikj Bzpo r'ok gbNB nZr/
tZXh nk ojh ;h . ;odko Fkw f;zx B/ nkgD/ u'Dt/I itkBK B{z r[o{ d/ BKw T[s/ e[opkB
j'D bJh bbekok wkfonk . gzikj e[ ;{ow/ Skbk wkod/ ;odko d/ wro fBeb gJ/
. j[D Fkw ;odko Fkw f;zx nkgDh uwedh FwFho b? e/ r'ok gbNB T[s/ N[NZ
fgnk ns/ eJhnK d/ bkj{ bk fdZs/ .
wNe fbydk j? L
Fkw f;zx ;odko B/ s/r cVh
nzro/} e/ ;h; go ikJ/ iVQh j? .
w[vz ekN e/ ikN MkN ehU
dweh dfb w? ofD j'Jh eoh j? .
uweh ufV T[go r'oB e/
sB ekfN e? p;sq o[dq Goh j? .
wfN okfJ i[nkB wdkB bVk .
go nZr/ r'fonK dh r'bh whIj tKr toQ ojh ;h . ;Zs r'bhnK ;odko dh
Sksh s/ ;oho B{z SkBDh eo rJhnK ns/ T[j ;Zu/ d/F GrsK s/ ;{ophoK dh soQK
nkgD/ tsB dh n}kdh bJh bVdk j'fJnk Fjhd j' frnk . ;odko d/ ;kEh th
T[BQK d/ Bkb Y? Y/oh j' rJ/ ns/ ;odko w/tk f;zx wihmhnk th nk]ho dw se
nkgD/ w'ofunK dh okyh eodk s/ f;zxK B{z jZbk-F/oh fdzdk j'fJnk j[ew ;fs j'
frnk.
w{sI' fbydk j? fe Gkt/I yZp/ gk;/ T[sZ / fiZE/ ;odko Fkw f;zx ewkB eo fojk
;h, nzr}q/ K B/ Bk-:ehB-nkT[D tkb/ jZb/ ehs/ go fJBQK n]ho dw sZe T[BKQ B{z o'eh
oZfynk ns/ nzro/} e/tb T[; t/b/ fJBQK dhnK pksohnK sZe g[Zi ;e/ id fe
pjkd[o ioB?b ;odko Fkw f;zx s/ T[; d/ ;ko/ ;kEh Fjhd j' u[e/ ;B . ;odko w/
tk f;zx B/ th pVh w}p{sh Bkb nkgD/ w'ofunK B{z pukJh oZfynk, go id T[; dh
Skgh ftZu d' r'bhnk nk tZihnK ns/ T[j fgZS/ jfNnk sK E'Vh d/o fgZSI' jh brGr
;kok w'ouk t?oh d/ jZE nk frnk . fJ; t/b/ dh rZb j? fe j[ew f;zx dk u"jK s'I
nzro/}h gbNDK Bkb fxfonk j'fJnk vth}B T[BQK dhnK fGnkBe ;zrhBK B{z
uhodk j'fJnk nkgDh soshp B{z ekfJw oZy e/ dfonk d/ feBko/ sZe gj[uz frnk .
w{sI' efjzdk j? Bw;eko j? T[; B"itkB ;{opho ioB?b B[z i' fJBQK dh ewkB eo fojk
;h . nzs t?oh dhnK fszB r'bhnK Bkb fJj th Fjhd j' frnk .1
f;zxK dh pjkdoh dk f}eo eodk j'fJnk efBzxw fbydk j? fe Gkt/I
nzro/}K d/ x'V-uVQ/ fo;kb/ ns/ g?db gbNDK f;zxK T[s/ jo gkf;T[I uVQhnK nk
ojhnk ns/ jZb/ eo ojhnK ;B go fe;/ f;Zy B/ JhD wzBDh gqtkB dk ehsh ns/ r[o{
r'fpzd f;zx d/ fe;/ fJe th Bkw-t/bk B/ gBkj Bk wzrh . jo EK s/ T[BKq B/ ftikJhnK
dk ;Bw[y Nkeok ehsk noEks fes/ fgZm Bk ftykJh ns/ pV/ d[yZ h fjod/ Bkb j"bh
j"b fgZS/ jZN/ ns/ eJh fJeZb/ fJeZb/ jh nB/eK Bkb i{M e/ ;kwQD/ yVh fd; ojh w"s
dk ;[nkrs eoB bJh e[Zd gJ/ . ftiJh fJBQK jkfonK j'fJnK dh fJe Bk-fis-ik
;eD tkbh db/oh B{z d/y d/ nihp soQK j?okB j' oj/ ;B ns/ id T[j p/-pZ; s/ wo
oj/ ;h (t?oh nZr/ ofjw bJh fbbVhnK eZYD dh EK) Bcaos dhnK shT{VhnK tZNd/
;B sK ftiJh (j?okBh d/ ekoB) T[BKQ s/ tko eoB'I o[e iKd/ ;B .2

1. w{s'I, og"os, gz 9
2. Although, assailed on either side by squardon of horse and battalions of
foot, no Sikh offered to submit, and no disciple ofGovind asked for quarter. They
everywhere showed a front to the victors, and stalked slowly and sullenly away,
while many rushed singly forth to meet assured death by contending with a multi-
tude. The victors looked with stolid wonderment upon the indomitable courage of
the vanquished and forebore to strike when the helpless and dying frowned unavail-
ing hatred-Cunningham, History of the Sikhs. (1849), p. 328
tkJhekT{IN jkofvzr dh fbys nB[;ko FkfJd edh th feXo/ nzs sZe
fJsBk vN e/ w[ekpbk Bk j'fJnk ns/ Bk jh nZr/ edh ykb;k c"i d/ f;gkjhnK B/
nkg; ftZu fJsBk r{VQk iwkU dZf;nk j? . fgZS/ w[VB T[s/ wip{o j'J/ j'J/ th fJj
fJ; gq;Fz Bh: sohe/ Bkb jN/ fe r'o/ f;gkjh th tkj tkj eo T[mA / .
jhT{ wo/ efjzdk j? fe fJ; s'I gfjbK edh th fe;/ B/ fJ; soQK dh vNthI
pjkd[oh ns/ :'rsk Bkb nzro/}h c"i dk Nkeok BjhI ;h ehsk fit/I fe fJ; (;GoktK
d/) y{Bh w?dkB ftZu T[BQK Bkb j'fJnk . ncrkfB;skB d/ dZfonk ftZu fi; wko{
bVkJh d/ ekoB e[M fuo bJh nzro/{}h MzfvnK d/ j/mh j' rJh ;h, T[; d/ G? dk
ekoB jmhbh go p/-soshp c"iK dh pjkd[oh BjhI pbfe w[be dh e[dosh pBktN
;h . go fJE/ T[BKQ (nzro/}h c"iK) dk w[ekpbk y[b Z /Q w?dkB ftZu fJe n?;/ t?oh (f;zxK)
B/ ehsk i' T[BQK dhnK s'gK dh roi ;[D e/ G?-Ghs BjhI ;h j[zdk ns/ i' jwb/ bJh
uVQkJhnK j'JhnK T[BKQ dhnK ;zrhBK dhnK uwedhnK B'eK d/ ;kjwD/ nv'b yV'sk
ofjzdk ;h ns/ id ;zrhBk d/ }'o Bkb f;zxK d/ w'ofunK d/ e[M fjZf;nK T[s/ ep}k
j' iKdK sK T[j sbtkoK jZE ftZu b? e/ T[BKQ B{z w[V b? b?D bJh pVk fGnkBe ;zrkq w
nk wukT[d I / ;B.2
jko j' ikD fgZSI' fi; t/b/ f;zx dfonk tZb B[z w[V/ sK fJe pVk fGnkBe
s/ dodBke B}kok ;h . rZdko s/i f;zx s/ bkb f;zx B/, fit/I T[go dZf;nk ik u[eZ k
j?, dfonk dk g[b s[Vtk fdZsk j'fJnk ;h .fJe gk;/ nzro/}K dhnK s'gK nZr toQk

1. Never perhaps was so obstinate a contest carried on to the end; never


before was such cohesion displayed in the ranks of the Khalsa Army. Com-
pelled to retire, they gave way in such admirable order as to excite the admira-
tion of the British Soldiers. - Viscount Hardinge (Rulers of India), p. 118
2. Never before had the British arms been opposed to such determined
bravery and skill, as strove with them on that bloodly plain. The deadly struggle
which had hung disgrace for a time on the British banners in the passes of
Afghanistan, owed their fatal terrors to the natural character of the country, far
more than to the bravery of its hardy but indisciplined forces. But here they
were withstood on a fair field by a foe that listened unappalled to the thunders
of their carnnon, and stood unmoved before the glittering points of their
bayonets when laid to the charge.
The Seiks, even when at particular points their entrenchments were
mastered with the bayonet, strove to regain them by the fiercest conflict sword
in hand - Murry, British India and its Races (1850), p. 720-1
ojhnK ;B ns/ d{;o/ gk;/ ;kwQD/ dfonk ;h, ns/ dfonk ftZu fmb fojk s/ T[s/ th
s'g s/ s'g ub ojh ;h . ¿go f;Zy d"V/ BjhI pbfe nk]ho dw sZe nkgDhnK
sbtkoK Bkb bVd/ oj/ s/ nzso ftiJhnK tb'I ;kfonK gkf;nK s/ i'o g? ikD s/
Gkoh B[e;B j'D s/ j"bh j"bh fgZS/ B{z dfonk d/ ezY/ tZb g[b T[s/ B{z XehId/ rJ/ fiZE/
fe nukBe ;Zs fJzu gkDh uVQ ikD ekoB g?ohI bZxDK w[Feb j' frnk ;h fJ; bJh
p/F[wko f;Zy ;sb[i d/ o'VQ ftZu v[p rJ/ .1
o"poN e;N fbydk j? fe rtoBo-iBob B/ w?Bz{ ibdh dfonk tZb
ikD bJh fejk s/ w?I ubk frnk . w?I eh t/ydk jK fe dfonk w[ofdnK s/ wo fojk
Bkb pzd j'fJnk fgnk ;h, o/sb/ ezY/ YZe/ j'J/ ;B ns/ w[od/ j"bh j"bh o[Vd Q / ik oj/
;B . fJ; b'EK d/ fGnkBe dzd/ B{z bxkT[D bJh fco'}g[o dk p/VhnK dk g[b y'bD Q k
fgnk j'tr/ k . ;kvhnK gbNDK nZv' nZv gkf;nK s/ eskoK ftZu yVhnK ;B ns/ ;kvk
s'gykBk T[u/ T[u/ w'ofunK d/ Bkb jh pkjo'I dfonkTI gkob/ ezY/ s/ d"V e/ ik u[e/
j'fJnK ns/ r'b/ toQk fojk ;h . fJj fJe vokT[Dk B}kok s/ fGnkBe esbK s/
xw;kB ;h, fi; Bkb fe ;GoktK dh izr, gzikp dh nk}kdh ns/ ;odko Fkw f;zx
nNkohtkb/ d/ ihtB dk nzs j' frnk .

1. The Sikhs did not run, but fought to the last with their swords until,
pressed by the victors on every side, slowly and with heavy loss they were
driven back to the river and precipitated in massess over the bank and over the
bridge where many were drowned in the waters of the Sutlej which a sudden
rise of seven inches had rendered scarcely fordable. -- Col. Burton, The First and
the Second Sikh Wars, p. 41
2. Uohn?INb n?Iv fbzr[fJ;fNe n?A;/], fjZ;k 6, gzBk 59
45
;odko Fkw f;zx dk ;;eko

bVkJh d/ Ew ikD fgZS'I T[;/ fdB b"Y/ t/b/ ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ B"eo
dfonk so e/ w[V oD G{wh ftZu gj[zu/ ns/ ;odko dh b'E dh Gkb eoB bJh
nkfrnk wzrh . nzro/}h ewKvo-fJB-uhc bkov jhT{ r"c B/ ;odko Fkw f;zx ns/
d{;o/ T[x/ ;odkoK dhnK b'EK b? ikD dh nkfrnk d/ fdZsh . u'yh Yz{v s'I pknd
;odko dh b'E fJe n?;h EK s'I bZGh fiE/ fe f;zxK dhnK b'EK dk dzdk bZrk j'fJnk
;h . ;odko d/ B"eoK B/ fJe s[bk pDk e/ T[BKQ d/ ;oho B{z T[; T[go gk fbnk no
e/ dfonkT[I gko j'J/ .
sh;o/ fdB 12 caotoh 1846 B{z ;odko dk fwqse ;oho T[BKQ d/ fgzv
nNkoh gj[zuk . fJ; t/b/ T[BQK dh f;zxDh wkJh dk;h ;sh j' u[Zeh ;h . ;odko dh
Fjhdh dh ]po T[BkQ d/ fwqse ;oho s'I gfjbK jh nNkoh gj[uz u[eh j'Jh ;h . T[BKQ
B/ f;zxDh B{z ;odko ih d/ ;qh r[o{ rqEz ;kfjp dh j}{oh ftZu bJ/ gqD dk gsk jh ;h
fe i/ f;zx izr ftZu jko rJ/ sK ;odko ih ihT[dI / fgZS/ BjhI w[VBr/, fJ; bJh T[BKQ
dh f;zxDh ;odko d/ ftnkj tkb/ fdB gfjBh g[Fke/ Bkb ;sh j' rJh . fJj gzikp
ftZu nk]oh ;sh ;h ns/ j[D sZe T[; n;EkB T[s/ nNkoh fgzv s'I pkje fJe
:kdrkoh ;wkX yVh j? .1 fJ; d/ bkr/ jh ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ ;oho dk ;;eko
ehsk frnk . fJ; ;;eko-n;EkB s/ T[BKQ dh ;wkX pDh j'Jh j? fiZE/ fe ;qh r[o{ rqEz
pkfjp dk gqekF j[zdk j? .
frqfcB fbZydk j? fe ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk iZN pz; d/ ;G s'I uzr/
gqfsfBEK ftZuI' fJe ;h, i' wodT{gD [ ,/ JhwkBdkoh, fjzws s/ db/oh ftZu d[BhnK ftZu
fe;/ Bkb'I xN BjhI jB . T[BKQ dh w"s Bkb fJe pVk Gkoh xkNk fgnk feT[fI e e'Jh
th nkdwh n?;k BjhI ;h i' T[BKQ dh EK g{oh eo ;edk . fJj mhe j? fe r[ioKtkbk,
1. frqfcB, gzikp uhca; (1890), fibd d{;oh, gzBk 243, w?ro?ro, fj;Noh n"c
dh f;Zy; (1846), d{ih fibd, gzBk 177
bkj"o ns/ nzfwqs;o d/ nkb/ d[nkb/ d/ fgzvK ftZu xN doi/ d/ f;zx ftZuI' pj[s n?;/
;B i' db/oh, ;kdrh ns/ d/F d/ bkG bJh brB ftZu T[BQK d/ pokpo ;B go
dopko bkj"o d/ ;k}Fh ;odkoK ftu'I fJe th ;odko Fkw f;zx d/ s[b Z dk BjhI ;h
. i' e[M j'o ;odko th fJBQK tor/ j[zd/ sK ;sb[i dh bVkJh edh Bk brdh ns/
f;Zy e"w nkgDh nk}kdh B{z pukJh oZydh .1
fJj rZb mhe j? fe F[oP{ ftZu ;odko Fkw f;zx nzro/}K Bkb bVB d/
fto[ZX ;h feT[Ife T[; B{z fJ; d/ Bshi/ uzr/ BjhI ;B fd; oj/ . fi; c"i d/ tZv/
nc;o s/ jkew jh t?oh Bkb ob/ j'J/ j'D T[; d/ fiZsD dh eh nk; j'Dh j'Jh s/ T[;
dh spkjh ftZu eh FZe< ;odko Fkw f;zx B{z fd; fojk ;h fe tZvk t}ho fw;o bkb
f;zx s/ tZvk c"ih nc;o ewKvo-fJzB-uhc fwZ;o s/i f;zx Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh d/
g"bhNheb nc;oK Bkb ;k} pk} eo e/ ykb;k c"i B{z spkj s/ popkd eoB T[s/
s[b/ j'J/ jB, go e'Jh pZ; Bk uZbD eoe/ wip{o ;h ns/ nkgDh fgzv nNkoh p?mk
;h, go nzs c/o{ Ffjo dh jko fgZSI' id wjkokDh fizd e"o B/ T[; B{z jb{Dk fdZsk sK
T[j ;Zu/ f;zx ;{ofwnK tKr{ w?dkB ftZu nk fBZsfonk . ;G ;'uK ftukoK w?dkB ftZu
T[soD s'I gfjbK j[d z hnK jB go id ;{owK w?dkB ftZu nk T[sodk j? sK T[j
dbhbK s/ frDshnK ftZu BjhI g?Idk pbfe nkgDh fizd jE/bh T[s/ bJh e[opkB
eoB B{z fsnko ofjzdk j? . fJ;/ ;{owrsh dk fJe Bw{Bk ;odko Fkw f;zx nNkohtkbk
;h s/ nfij/ ;{ofwnK ;pzXh jh Fkj w[jzwd B/ fejk j? fe L
Fkj w[jzwdk f;oK dh bk pk}h
BjhI w'Vd/ ;{ow/ nzr whnK .
1. jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp, 67lfrqfcB, gzikp uhca; (1890),
gzBk 244
Sardar Sham Singh was one of the best representatives of the Jat race,
which, for manliness, honesty, strength and courage, is second to non in the
world. His death was a great loss, for there was none to take his place. There
were, it is true, many of humble rank in the villages round Gujranwala, Lahore
and Amritsar, of equal courage, simplicity and devotion to the interest of
country, but none among the intriguing Sardars at the court. Had there been
more chiefs like him, the Satlaj Campaign would never have been undertake,
and the Sikh national would have preserved the independence. Punjab Chiefs
(1890), Vol. ii, 244
j'o d/y' jkdh j;B s/ oiZp nbh, oJh;kfB-gzikp, 67
46
;odko Fkw f;zx dk pz;

;odko Fkw f;zx d/ d' g[Zso ;B, ;odko mkeo f;zx s/ ;odko ekBQk
f;zx. ;odko mkeo f;zx sK nkgD/ fgsk dh f}zdrh ftZu jh ;zB 1842 ftZu r[}o
frnk ;h . ;odko ekBQk f;zx 1873 sZe ihT{d I k fojk go T[; d/ e'Jh n"bkd BjhI
;h . fJ; bJh ;odko Fkw f;zx dk pz; tZv/ g[so ;odko mkeo f;zx s'I ubdk j?
fi; d/ fszB g[so ;B, ;odko ihtB f;zx, ;odko joh f;zx s/ ;odko nihs f;zx
. ;odko ekBQ f;zx d/ fgZS'I ;odko nihs f;zx ]kBdkB d/ w[yh wzB/ rJ/ ;B s/
1888 ftZu ;[orpk; j'J/ . fJBQK d/ gzi g[so ;B, ;odko pbtzs f;zzx, jopz;
f;zx, i;tzs f;zx, e[btzs f;zx ns/ p;zs f;zx . fJjBK ftZu'I ykBdkB d/ w[yh
;odko pbtzs f;zx j'J,/ go gzEe ezwK ftZu fjZ;k b?D d/ ekoB ;G s'I T[x/ ;odko
jopz; f;zx ih ;B . ;odko jopz; f;zx f;Zyh Gkt, nDy s/ fBoG?sk nkfd F[G
r[DK ftZu nkgD/ gVdkdk ;odko Fkw f;zx dh jh Mbe B}o nkT[d I / ;B . nkg B{z
f;Zyh-gquko Bkb nrkX gq/w ;h ns/ fJ;/ fwFB T[s/ rJ/ j'J/ g[DS ftZu 24 wJh
1936 B{z r[o{ noiB ;kfjp d/ i'sh i's ;wkT[D tkb/ r[og[op d/ fdB n?stko i/
m ;[dh 4 ;zws 1893 fpeqwh B{z uVQkJh eo rJ/ . fJ; t/b/ nkg d/ g[so ;odko
i;pho f;zx jB . pkeh ]kBdkb dk t/otk e[;oh-Bkw/ ftZu fdZsk frnk j? .
e[o;h-Bkwk
ekjB uzd
r"o f;zx e"o f;zx

db f;zx fdnkb f;zx ;odko fBjkb f;zx

;odko Fkw f;zx

mkeo f;zx ekjB f;zx phph BkBeh

ihtB f;zx joh f;zx nihs f;zx

gqskg f;zx SKrk f;zx i;tzs f;zx uzdk f;zx

;{os f;zx

pbtzs f;zx , jopz; f;zx, i;tzs f;zx, e[btzs f;zx p;zs f;zx

irpho f;zx pbpho f;x r[ouoB f;zx wfjzdo f;zx


i;pho f;zx

e[bdhg f;zx ngihs f;zx

okitzs f;zx e[bdhg f;zx wfjzdo f;zx nwo f;zx

Fwd{o f;zx
47
nkXko ;{uh

cko;h, T[od{ s/ gzikph

nfjwd Fkj, ;:Zd, pNkbhnk -- skohfy fjzd do fpnkfB w[bfe fjzd tk


wb{fe nKl cko;h, fbysh, 1233 fjioh . ]kb;k ekib nzfwqs;o . fJ; dk
f;zxK d/ fJfsjk; ;pzXh fjZ;k w[BFh ;'jB bkb dh T[wdks[-stkohy d/ sfswK
dcaso ntZb tk d'w d/ d"o s/ f}efo r[on { K dk fJpfsdkfJ f;xK tk w}jfp
J/FK d/ f;o b/y j/m Sfgnk j'fJnk j? .
nwoBkE – }co-BkwkfJ oDihs f;zx, bkj"o, 1928, cko;h
nbh-T[-dhB, w[csh – fJpos Bkwk, stkohf]-gzikpl cko;h, fbysh, ;zB
1854 . ykb;k ekbi nzfwqs;o .
Fkj w[jwz d – feZ;k bVkJh f;zxK s/ cozrhnK dk, r[ow[hy .
;'jB bkb – T[wdks[-stkoh], gzi fibdK, bkj"o, 1855-89 cko;h .
jkdh j[;D ? , ;:Zd s/ ;:Zd, oiZp nbh-oJh;kfB-gzikp, bkj"o, T[od{ .
j?os, fwoik – j:kfs sZJh:Zpk; w"bkBk Fkj w[jz wd fJ;wkJhb Fjhd eh
;PkfBj-T[woh . cko{eh gq;? fdZbh, T[od{ .
eBQJhnk bkb – skohfy bkj"o; bkj"o, 1884 T[od{ . skohfy-gzikp, wspk-
fJ-fteN'ohnk, bkj"o 1881, T[od{ .
rD/F dk; pv/jok – fo;kbk-fJ-;kfjp B[wk, ujko r[bFfB gzikpl cko;h
fbysh, ;zws 1912 fpqewh, ;zB 1855 Jh;th gqL' rzvk f;zx
frnkB f;zx, frnkBh - ;qh r[o{ gqekF, d{ih tko, wspk uFw? B{o, nzfwqs;o,
;zws 1946 fpeqwh, ;zB 1889 Jh;thl S/thI tko,t}ho fjzd gq;? nzfwqs;o,
1923 Jh;th, r[ow[yh .
H[bkw w[jJZ h-:[-dhB T[oc p{N/ Fkj, skohfy-gzikp cko;h, fbysh, d' fibdK,
ykb;k ekbi nzfwqs;o .
rzvk f;zx f;Zy fJfsjk; pko/l gzi dfonk, bkj"o, 1942, d{ih n?vhFB,
1946
f;Zy fJfsjk; tZbl gzi dfonk, bkj"o 1946
gzikp dhnK fJfsjk;e tkoK, nzfwqs;o, 1946
dkfBFto, w[BFh ns/ N"w; phb-fwcskj T[-stkohy, ekBg[o, ;zB 1867 Jh
cko;h .
fBjkb f;zx, p?sI K F/o f;zx ehnKl ;zgkfds gqL' rzvk f;z, cotoh, 1938 r[ow[yh
.
po"vc[N i"oi po"vc[N eh vkfJoh (1 wkou 31 i[bkJh 1845),
T[od{, fbysh, gq' rzvk f;zx .
gqw/ f;x, pkpk wjkoki oDihs f;zx, sh;oh n?vhFB, 1931, r[ow[yh .
ezto B" fBjkb f;zx, 1927, r[ow[yh .
pkpk c{bk f;zx nekbh r[ow[yh .
wNe, eth, izr f;zxK s/ cozrhnK dkl ;zgkfds gq' rzvk f;zx, r[ow[yh

nzro/}h
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from thence to Cabul with the Mission of Lt.-Col. Sir C.M.
Wade. James Madden and Co , London, 1844.
Broadfoot, W. The Career of Major George Broadfoot in
Afghanistan and the Punjab. John Murray London, 1888.
Burnes, Ale ‘. Travels into Bukhara...also Narrative of a
Voyage on the Indus from Sea to Lahore, etc. John Murray
London, 1834. Vol. III.
Burton, R G. The First and the Second Sikh Wars, compiled
for the General Staff. India. Simla, 1911.
GoIchester, Lord. History of the Indian Administration ot’Lord
Ellenborough. Richard Bentley, London, 1874.
Cunningham, Joseph Davy. A History of the Sikhs from the
Origin of the Nation of the Battles of the Sutlej. John
Murray, London, 1849.
Cust, Robert Needham. Oriental and Linguistic Essays. Part
V and VI, 1898.
Edwards, William. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Smith,
Elder and Co., London, 1866.
Fane H. E. Five Years in India. London, 1842.
Fraser, J. Baillie. Military Memoir of Lieut.-Col. James Skinner,
C.B. Smith, Elder and Co., London. 1851. 2 vols.
Ganda Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Khalsa College, Amritsar,
1939. - Bibliography of Sikh History. -Maharani Jind Kaur
of Lahore. The Illustrated Weekly of India. Bombay, January,
22, 1939.
Some New Light on the Treaty of Bharowal, December, 1846.
Proceed, of T. H. R. Comm. 1940. Vol. VII. Griffin, LepeI. Punjab
Chiefs. Lahore, 1890,2 vols. Honighberger, John Martin.
Thirty-five Years in the East. London, 1852.
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in the British Dominions of. India, Tibet Lahore and
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Edward Churton, London, 1834, 2 vols. .
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Elder and Co., London, 1855. Latif, Syed Muhammad. History
of the Punjab. Calcutta, 1891. Ludlow, J.M. British Tndia:
Its Races and Its History Macmillan & Co., Cambridge,
1858.
Masson, Charles. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan,
Afghanistan, and the Punjab. Richard Bentley, London,
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Account of the War between the Sikhs and the British
in 1846. James Madden, London, 1846, 2 vols.
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etc. Allen and Co., London, 1846.
Pearse, Major High. Memoirs of Alexander Gardner, Colonel
in the Artillery of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Blackwood and
Sons, London, 1898.
Prinsep, H.T. Origin of the Sikh Power in the Punjab and
Political Life of Muha-Raja Runjeet Singh. Calcutta,
1834.
Schonberg, The Baron Erich Von. Travels in India and Kashmir.
Hurst and Blacket, London, 1858.
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and after the death of Ranjit Singh. John Murray, London.
1847.
Smith G.C. The Autohiography of Lt-General Sir Harry Smith,
Baronet of Aliwal on the SutIej, G.C.B. John Murry,
London, 1903.
Smyth, G.C. A History of the Reigning Family of Lahore, etc.
Thacker and Co., Calcutta, 1847.
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Country of the Sikhs. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1846.
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