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Outfeed and Infeed Effect Topics

Power System
Power System Protection
Electrical Machines
We will discuss here the Outfeed and Infeed Effect and its implication on Distance
DC Machine
protection. Consider the operation of distance relay R1 for a fault F close to remote bus on
Measurement and Instrumentation
line BC as shown in the figure below.
AC Circuit
Digital Electronics
Electrical Drives
Power Electronics
EM Theory

Therefore fault current will be feed by Source G1, G2 and G3. Therefore,
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IBF= IAB + IED Meaning of 1 Unit Electricity – Power

Consumption Calculation
So Voltage seen by distance Relay R1, Difference between Instantaneous and Definite
Time Overcurrent Relay
V = (Line Impedance of AB)×IAB+ (Line Impedance till Fault location on BC) ×IBF Torque Equation of DC Motor
AC Generator – Definition, Construction and
Torque Equation for Synchronous Machine
पीडीएफ़ डाउनलोड AC Motor – Definition and Types
कर Transformer Protection Scheme
Synchronous Motor Applications
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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) –
Construction and Working Principle
Switched Reluctance Motor – Construction and



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= (Z1+ XZ2) IAB+ XZ2IED
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So Impedance measured by Distance Relay R1,

V/IAB = (Z1+XZ2) + XZ2IED/IAB Your Email Please

Thus it is clear from above equation that Relay R1 do not measure the Impedance up to fault I consent to my submitted data being

location F i.e. (Z1+XZ2) rather it overestimates the Impedance i.e. higher than the actual collected via this form*

Impedance. If there is an equivalent generator source at bus E, then it feeds the fault current
as IAB and IED are approximately in phase. This is known as infeed effect. From the above SUBSCRIBE NOW
equation it is clear that infeed causes an equivalent increase in apparent impedance seen by
the relay R1. we respect your privacy and take protecting it
From the Relay’s perspective, the fault is pushed beyond its actual location. Thus, a fault in
Zone-2 may be pushed into Zone-3, thereby compromising selectivity of Zone-2. But, infeed
effect does not compromise selectivity of Zone-1 as the fault current will only be IAB in that

If there is an equivalent load at bus E, then IAB and IEB will be in phase opposition.


So Voltage seen by distance Relay R1,

V = (Line Impedance of AB)×IAB+ (Line Impedance till Fault location on BC) ×IBF




= (Z1+ XZ2) IAB– XZ2IED

So Impedance measured by Distance Relay R1,


Thus it is clear from above equation that Relay R1 do not measure the Impedance up to fault
location F2 i.e. (Z1+XZ2) rather it underestimates the Impedance i.e. lower than the actual
Impedance. This is called Outfeed Effect.

In other words, the relay R1 perceives fault to be at a point closer than its actual location. If
this perceived point falls well in the section AB, the relay R1 will operate instantaneously for
a fault on the back up line, thereby compromising selectivity. Hence, instantaneous
primary protection Zone-1of distance relay is always set below 100% line impedance.
Typically, Zone-1 is set to cover 0.8 to 0.9 times the primary line length. In other
words, we expect errors in measurements of fault impedance to be within 10-20%
accuracy. The remaining portion of the primary line is provided with a time delayed
protection known as Zone-2.

 April 17, 2016  admin  Power System Protection  No Comment  distance protection,  Infeed Effect,
 Outfeed Effect

«Why Zone-1 Setting 80% and Zone-2 150% in Effect of Load Encroachment on Distance Protection»
Distance Protection?
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