GENERAL – TECHNOLOGY OF SHORT-STAPLE SPINNING

"Technology of Short-staple Spinning" deals with the basics, and therefore generally valid, technological relationships in short-staple spinning. The following chapters will be organized according to machines or machine groups. Generally valid basic principles will thus be kept separate from ongoing developments in machine design and construction. Introduction to Spinning The annual world fiber consumption in 2004 amounted to approx. 70 mio tons (synthetics: 38 mio tons, cotton: 22 mio tons, cellulose fiber: 2.5 mio tons and others: 7.5 mio tons).While about one third of the man-made fibers is processed as endless filament, still two thirds come in staple fiber form. The larger part of staple fiber, approx. 33 mio tons are processed in short staple spinning. This part of the spinning industry therefore is of great significance in the world of textile production. It is correspondingly important that adequate trained management personnel is available, with the necessary technical and technological knowledge. While technical knowledge relates more to machines, technological aspects are concerned with processing. Technological knowledge is the summarized expression of the basic principles involved in conversion of raw material to semi-finished or fully finished products – separated from the actual or currently realizable possibilities for putting these principles into effect. In relation to spinning, technology is concerned with the study of the production of a yarn. In this context the word “spinning” refers to the conversion of a large quantity of individual unordered fibers of relatively short length into a linear, ordered product of very great length by using suitable machines and devices. In processing natural fibers, the same basic operations are always involved. It is the aim of this volume to provide an introduction to the technology of spinning, to the relationships and laws involved in the performance of these basic operations and to awaken or to deepen understanding of what happens during material processing.

Table 1 - Machines used in short-staple spinning

RAW MATERIAL AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING SPINNING

Characteristics of the raw material
Raw material represents about 50-75% of the manufacturing cost of a short-staple yarn. This fact alone is sufficient to indicate the significance of the raw material for the yarn producer. The influence becomes still more apparent when the ease in processing one type of fiber material is compared with the difficulties, annoyance, additional effort, and the decline in productivity and quality associated with another similar material. But hardly any spinner can afford to use a problem-free raw material because it would normally be too expensive. Adapting to the expected difficulties requires an intimate knowledge of the starting material and its behavior in processing and subsequent stages. Optimal conditions can be obtained only through mastery of the raw material. Admittedly, however, the best theoretical knowledge will not help much if the material is already at the limits of spinnability or beyond. Excessive economy in relation to raw material usually does not reduce costs and often increases them owing to deterioration of processability in the spinning mill. As an introduction to the subject of raw material, the following pages will sketch out several relationships which are important for the yarn producer.

FIBER FINENESS

The influence of fineness
Fineness is normally one of the three most important fiber characteristics. A multitude of fibers in the crosssection provide not only high strength but also better distribution in the yarn. The fineness determines how many fibers are present in the cross-section of a yarn of given thickness. Additional fibers in the cross-section provide not only additional strength but also better evenness in the yarn. About thirty fibers are needed at the minimum in the yarn cross-section, but there are usually over 100. One hundred is approximately the lower limit for almost all new spinning processes. This indicates that fineness will become still more important in the future. Fiber fineness influences primarily:

• • • • • • •

spinning limit; yarn strength; yarn evenness; yarn fullness; drape of the fabric; luster; handle; productivity of the process.

Productivity is influenced via the end-breakage rate, the number of turns per inch required in the yarn (giving improvement of the handle), and generally better spinning conditions. In the production of blends, it must be borne in mind that, at least in conventional ring spinning processes, fine fibers accumulate to a greater extent in the yarn core and coarser fi bers at the periphery. Blending of fine cotton fibers with coarse synthetic fibers would produce a yarn with an externally synthetic fiber character.

Specification of fineness
With the exception of wool and hair fibers, fiber fineness cannot be specified by reference to diameter as in the case of steel wire, because the section is seldom circular and is thus not easily measurable. As in the case of yarns and fibers, fineness is usually specified by the relation of mass (weight) to length:

or

Whereas for man-made fibers dtex is used almost exclusively, the Micronaire value is used worldwide for cotton. The fineness scale is as follows: Mic VALUE up to 3.1 FINENESS very fine

Since some 5% immature fibers are present even in a fully matured boll. Measurement by FMT gives the Maturity Index (MI) refred to by Lord and Heap [3]. between 2. and with annually changing cultivation conditions.0-5.1-3. and this does not correspond to the true value for the spinnable fibers.9 above 6 fine medium (premium range) slightly coarse coarse Conversion factor: dtex = Mic × 0. for example. including their fineness. as immature when it represents 30-45%.0-4. cotton stock without immature fibers is unimaginable: the quantity is the issue. It grows in various soils. and as dead when it represents less than 25%. Owing to the use of the air-throughflow method for measuring the Mic value. Cotton is a natural fiber. Long-staple cotton varieties are commonly finer than medium-staple. ITMF recommended the Fiber Maturity Tester FMT for cotton maturity determination. in an extreme example. The maturity index is dependent upon the thickness of this cell wall. There is a further difficulty. Specification by linear density (tex) is more accurate in such a case.394 (heavily dependent on degree of maturity). Schenek [1] indicates that the Mic value varied. . in various climates. FIBER MATURITY The cotton fiber consists of cell wall and lumen.9 5. but far harder to obtain.9 from bale to bale in a lot of 500 bales.4 and 3. a low average value is obtained where there is a high proportion of immature fibers. The fibers therefore cannot be homogeneous in their characteristics. Schenek [1] suggests that a fiber is to be considered as mature when the cell wall of the moistureswollen fi ber represents 50-80% of the round cross-section.9 4. It should be remembered.Mic VALUE FINENESS 3. that the Micronaire value does not always represent the actual fineness of the fibers. however.

productivity. the quantity of waste. varying dyeability. FIBER LENGTH The influence of length Fiber length is also one of the three most important fiber characteristics. and only those fibers above these lengths produce the other positive characteristics in the yarn. yarn hairiness. neppiness. luster of the product. Noticeable shortening of many fibers arises before the spinning process . a high proportion of short fibers. yarn strength. The Staple diagram The fibers in the boll do not exhibit extremely great length differences. handle of the product. yarn evenness. must be such that the fibers survive carding without noticeable shortening. Processing conditions at the card. this will not be the case. still more decisive is the length after carding. they therefore lead to: • • • • • loss of yarn strength. Where there is a high proportion of immature fibers. It can be assumed that fi bers of under 4-5 mm will be lost in processing (as waste and fly). and also the fiber characteristics. It is not only the condition at purchase that is important in assessment of fiber length. general spinning conditions. processing difficulties. It influences: • • • • • • • spinning limit. Productivity is influenced via: • • • • the end-breakage rate. the required turns of twist (which affects the handle).Immature fibers have neither adequate strength nor adequate longitudinal stiffness. mainly at the card. fibers up to about 12-15 mm do not contribute much to strength but only to fullness of the yarn.

7). in relation to fiber materials. 3 . because long fibers have more mass than short fibers and therefore a greater effect. the numerical diagram emphasizes the proportion of short fibers. 2). then the staple diagram (Fig. This diagram should therefore be referred to in considerations and calculations relating to the yarn. It provides in visual form a good assessment of the running behavior in the process. Fig.Fig. there will be all lengths from the absolute minimum (2 mm) to the absolute maximum (between 30 and 60 mm depending on origin). The effect is such that fiber length exhibits the greatest irregularity of all the fiber characteristics. The weight-based diagram corresponds to the distribution of fibers in the yarn cross-section. ginning and cleaning. If the fibers of such a tuft are arranged next to each other with their ends aligned and sorted according to length in a coordinate system. then the weightbased diagram is obtained (Fig. s is the standard deviation of the fiber length distribution. If the diagram is derived abstractly from the masses of the length groups.owing to mechanical working. On the other hand. five types of diagrams can be distinguished according to their form (Fig. 1) typical of cotton is obtained. by number . the so-called numerical diagram . The two average staple lengths are related as follows: Where is the average fiber length based on the weightbased diagram. is the average fiber length based on the numerical diagram. Measurment of the staple diagram is possible by AFIS-Systems. In addition. This has a notably higher curve compared with the numerical diagram.The staple diagram. for example. In even the smallest tuft of cotton taken up in the hand. 1 .

however. For one thing. and material of this type would seem ideal. no length variations are present. only with manmade fibers. Such an impression would be false. Since the fibers are all equally long. for example. 2 .Staple diagram. by weight Various diagram forms Rectangular Staple Fig. rectangular staple The rectangular staple (Fig.Fig. thereby finally producing a high degree of unevenness in the yarn. Triangular Staple . the length evenness cannot be maintained into the yarn because fibers are shortened in the spinning mill. spinning machines are not suited to the processing of fibers having all the same length. For another. 3 . 3) is achievable.The staple diagram. and imaginable. such fibers are moved not individually but in bunches. mainly at the cards. In the drafting arrangement.

However. the short fibers cannot be kept under control. for example. Moreover. 4 . thereby producing waste and fly at the machines and devices. in the drafting arrangement. 5 . 5) is the ideal staple for processing and is more suitable the flatter the curve is. one end often projects. so that some of them are lost. but contains too many short fibers. however. they move freely and produce substantial unevenness.Staple diagram.Staple diagram.Fig. trapezoidal staple The trapezoidal staple (Fig. During movement of fibers. The yarn is hairy. a flat curve often means a high price. Stepped Staple . This diagram is typically for Cotton. 4) permits better processing than the rectangular staple. Trapezoidal Staple Fig. triangular staple The triangular staple (Fig. they cannot always be bound into the body of fibers.g. knitted fabrics). If a short fiber is bound-in. A certain hairiness is necessary for some product properties (e.

Fibrogram In addition to the The staple diagramstaple diagram<//a>. Whereas in the staple diagram the fibers are aligned at one end.Staple diagram. the Fibrogram (Fig. in the Fibrogram they are arranged by clamping randomly distributed fibers of a cotton sample. then a stepped staple curve (Fig.Staple diagram. but the Fibrogram corresponds to the . with the same effects as mentioned before. The fibers protuding from the clamps are straightened by a brushing process and measured optically. the fibers can be moved only in groups. which does not occur anywhere in practice. 7 .Fig. Fibrogram Fig. 7) is available. The normal staple diagram represents an artificial picture. stepped staple If fiber materials of very different lengths are blended in the wrong proportions. As with a rectangular staple. 6 . 6) can arise.

2. With some expections these values may be of interest to the statistician.5%. classer’s staple length). average fiber length. such as: • • • • classifying staple (trade staple.arrangement of fibers at the nip line of rollers. 8 . Looking at the staple diagram in Fig. 1%. It is produced by high volume instrumentation such as HVI. that is. 5% or 50% span length measurements (as setting staples) (e. It gives a good representation of the drafting operation and of the arrangement of the fibers in the yarn. but they tell the spinner nothing because they enable a statement to be made neither regarding the product nor regarding the process. The specification of length Fig. The trade staple (classer‘s staple. It is established to 1/32 inch during classifying of the cotton and corresponds to the fiber length in the weight-based diagram at about 25% (s) and in the numerical diagram at about 15% (s). 8. ordered bundle of fibers in the classers hand and the real staple length derived from it are referred to as the staple. lengths of clamed fibers that exceed a certain distance.g.Staple diagram by weight. It corresponds also to the . s) is the most important specification of length. minimum fiber length. 2. The trade and the processor commonly use the following data. upper quartile length (with end oriented methods). The lengths are stated as span-lengths. The accurate fiber length derived from this is referred to as the staple diagram. for example: • • • maximum fiber length.5% span length). upper half mean length or mean length (according to weight) (x). specification of lengths Both a parallelized. it is clear that various measures of length can be derived.

2. The following length groupings are currently used in stating the trade staple (classer‘s staple) for cotton: • • • • short staple: 1“ or less.1 3/8“.). or Uniformity Ratio (UR) from HVI measurements. the proportion of short fibers has increased substantially in recent years in cotton available from many sources.g. The proportion of short fibers will then be correspondingly high or low. The proportion of short fibers The proportion of short fibers has a very substantial influence on the parameters listed under Section "The influence of length".5% span length are lengths that are needed in setting machines.5% span length of FibrogramFibrogram<//a> and to the upper half mean length of HVI (calculated from Fibrogram). In the great majority of cases. and thus to strain on personnel. (except in the case of rotor spinning. 11. With the same trade-staple length.1 1/8“. . because the slope of the curve is not taken into account. The 1% and 2. medium staple: 1 1/32“ . the absolute shortfiber proportion is specified today as the percentage of fibers shorter than 10. Besides this influence. Specification of the trade staple alone is not enough. especially roller spacings. a large proportion of short fibers also leads to considerable fly contamination (among other problems). long staple: 1 5/32“ . This is due to mechanical picking and hard ginning. Unfortunately. In order to estimate how good the distribution of length is. 50% span length derived from staple). Schenek [2] and Lord [3] distinguish according to absolute short-fiber content and relative short-fiber content.5 mm (1/2in. the staple diagram could approach either the rectangular or the triangular form. and also to extreme drafting difficulties. 12 or 12. on the machines. the coefficient of variation. where this influence is less).g. the following data can be used: • • • • a second point on the Fibrogram curve (e. percentage diagram shorter tahn 1/2 inch). extra-long staple: 1 13/32“ and above. or the proportion of short fibers (e. and on the air-conditioning. on the workroom.

the strength of fiber bundles was measured and stated as the Pressley value. The following scale of values was used (93 000 p. however. the minimum strength of a yarn. Rieter is using 12. Since the short fibers cannot be measured easily. since most new spinning processes exploit the strength of the material less well than older processes. the relative short-fiber content must be established as proposed by Lord. and thus can exploit only 30 . a lower borderline of about 3 cN/tex is finally obtained for the yarn strength. Since binding of the fibers into the yarn is achieved mainly by twisting.i = 93): • • • • • • 93 and above = excellent 87-92 = very strong 81-86 = strong 75-80 = medium 70-74 = fair 70 and below = weak Conversion to physical units should be avoided because the measuring procedure is not very exact. .or HVI-calibration cottons) the strength is expressed in g/tex (cN/tex). Today the fiber bundles are commonly tested with HVI instrumentation.The short-fiber limit has not been standardized but may settle at around 12 or 12. very demanding. The minimum strength for a textile fiber is approximately 6 cN/tex (about 6 km breaking length). this value is seldom really accurate.s.5 mm. Some significant breaking strengths of fibers are: • • • polyester fiber 35-60 cN/tex cotton 15-40 cN/tex wool 12-18 cN/tex In relation to cotton. This can be seen from the fact that nature produces countless types of fibers. Depending on the used calibration standard (USDA. most of which are not usable for textiles because of inadequate strength.70% of the strength of the material. FIBER STRENGTH Strength is very often the predominant characteristic. If more exact values are required.5 mm as a standard. The procedure is. Fiber strength will increase in importance in future.

the permanent elongation and the elastic elongation together. wool 25-45%. from the difference in their elongation: • • cotton 6-10%. at knee or elbow) in order to withstand high loading (and also during processing).. The elastic elongation is of decisive importance since textile products without elasticity would hardly be usable. The following scale represents the cotton fiber elongation [27]: . fiber strength is moisturedependent. viscose and wool. it depends heavily on the climatic conditions and the time of exposure before operation. Elongation is specified as a percentage of the starting length. and preferably slightly more. breaking elongation: the maximum possible extension of the fiber until it breaks. They must be able to deform (e.e. gauge strength g/tex) [27]: • • • • • 32 and above = very strong 30-32 = strong 26-29 = base 21-25 = weak 20 and below = very weak Except for polyester and polypropylene fiber. The fiber elongation should therefore be at least 12% (glass fibers). Whereas the strength of cotton.g. It is important to know this in processing and also in testing. the reverse is true for polyamide fiber. but they must also return to shape. i. linen. increases with increasing moisture content.For the commonly used HVI-CC calibration the following scale of values is used (1/8 in. The greater crease-resistance of wool compared with cotton arises. elastic elongation: that part of the extension through which the fiber does return on relaxation. etc. Since fiber moisture is dependent upon the ambient-air conditions. Fiber Elongation Three concepts must be clearly distinguished: • • • permanent elongation: that part of the extension through which the fiber does not return on relaxation. for example.

demands are made on both its strength and elongation.6% = high. hoisery. 9) plays a significant role. or is even lost in processing. produces hairiness. A fiber that is too stiff has difficulty in adapting to these movements.0% = very low. there is a typical curve. For each type of fiber. revolving. In most cases. If a fiber is subjected to tensile loading.8% = low.8-7.7% = average. Fibers that are not stiff enough have too little springiness. 6.9-6. They have no longitudinal resistance. Fibers having the same structure and diameter will be stiffer. This relationship is expressed in the so-called stress/strain diagram. mainly when rolling. Strength and elongation are therefore inseparably connected. 9 . and stretch products. 5. Higher elongations are needed for sportswear. In blending. Measurment of elongation is difficult and time consuming. it is not properly bound into the yarn. especially in drafting operations. 5. For functional textile goods. but they make processing in the spinning mill more difficult. this leads to the formation of neps. The slenderness ratio can serve as a measure of stiffness: . Man-made fibers show higher elongation values from about 15 to 30%. They do not return to shape after deformation. Fiber stiffness is dependent upon fiber substance and also upon the relationship between fiber length and fiber fineness. the shorter they are. it should be ensured that the stressstrain curves of the fibers to be blended are similar in shape. above 7. For example. The Slenderness ratio (stiffness) Fig.0-5.6% = very high. corsetry.• • • • • below 5. and twisting movements are involved. still higher elongations are necessary sometimes.Stiffness of fibers of different lengths Fiber stiffness (Fig.

Metal parts can cause fires or damage card clothing. coarse and / or short fibers at the yarn periphery FIBER CLEANNESS In addition to usable fibers (lint). etc. as they are bound-in during yarn formation in the spinning machine. filling-up of card clothing. tar additives Other foreign matter • • • metal fragments cloth fragments packing material (mostly polymer materials) Fiber fragments • fiber particles (which finally make up the greater portion of the dust) This foreign material can lead to extreme disturbances during processing.Since the fibers must wind. etc. 25]: • • • • • husk portions seed fragments stem fragments leaf fragments wood fragments Mineral material • • • • earth sand ore dust picked up in transport dust picked up in transport Sticky contaminations • • • honeydew (insect sugar) grease. Vegetable matter can lead to drafting disturbances. Cloth fragments and packing material can lead to foreign fibers in the yarn and thus to its unsuitability for the intended application. This is due primarily to modern high-performance picking methods. contaminated yarn. oil. high wear rates in machines (grinding effects. hard . yarn breaks. The new spinning processes are very sensitive to foreign matter. the slenderness ratio also determines to some extent where the fibers will finish up: • • fine and / or long fibers in the core. Mineral matter can cause deposits. cotton stock contains foreign matter of various kinds Vegetable matter [1. Foreign matter was always a problem but is becoming steadily more serious from year to year. especially apparent in rotor spinning).

seed or leaf fragments. Investigations made by Artzt and Schreiber [11] indicate that fiber neps predominate. The processing method also has a considerable influence. and thus become clearly visible in the finished cloth.ginning and cleaning. The scale below represents the degree of trash: • • • • • up to 1. 1. for example. The card is the first machine to reduce the amount of neps to a usable level. ITMF publishes biannually a survey on cotton contamination and states most affected origins. (Zellweger Luwa AG) [28]. modern packing materials. Thus it is clear that there is a relationship between maturity index [3] and neppiness. particularly fiber neps having a core mainly of immature and dead fibers.2-2.0% = clean. Today. classification. foreign fibers. and nep reduction at the card is achieved primarily by disentanglement rather than by elimination. Based on the consolidated findings of Uster Technologies Inc.Proportion of waste in cotton of different classes A.1-4. In general. Fig. Neps not only create disturbance in themselves as thick places. careless handling during harvesting. because fine fibers have less longitudinal The slenderness ratio (stiffness)stiffness than coarser fibers. that is. 10 . have become almost a nightmare for the spinner. the following scale represents the amount of neps per gram in 100% cotton bales: . 2.0% = dirty. but also in dyed fabrics because they dye differently from the rest of the fibers.0% = medium. and the amount of neps is substantially increased in the blowroom. proportion of trash as percentage NEPS Neps are small entanglements or knots of fibers. packing. The amount of foreign material (primarily of vegetable origin) is already taken into account in grading. Fig.2% = very clean. 10 shows the ranges for impurities in American cotton as given in the literature of the Trützschler company.1-7. 4. small knots that consist only of fibers and others containing foreign particles such as husk. pre-drying. A large proportion of the neps in raw cotton is produced by picking and hard ginning.1 % and more = very dirty. on fiber fineness. B. and transport. exponentially. two types of neps can be distinguished: fiber neps and seedcoat neps. 7. Neppiness is also dependent.

it can induce allergies. In accordance with a classification system established by the International Committee for Cotton Testing Methods ( ITMF).• • • • • up to 150 = very low.g. leaf and husk fragments. and the remaining 20-30% is firmly bound to the fibers. it can induce respiratory disease (byssinosis). 150-250 = low. 1025% sand and earth. Additional stress on personnel: • • • dust is unpleasant. so that they can be transported in air over substantial distances. which are present as suspended particles in gases and sink only slowly. 20-30% is loosely bound. and 10-25% water-soluble materials. the following types are to be distinguished: PARTICLE SIZE Trash Dust Microdust Breathable dust (μm) above 500 50-500 15-50 below 15 A paper published by the International Textile Bulletin [4] indicates that microdust consists of 50-80% fiber fragments. The high proportion of fiber fragments indicates that a large part of the microdust arises in the course of processing. Problems created by dust Leifeld [6] lists the following problems as created by dust. for eyes and nose. e. 250-350 = average. Environmental problems: . Mandl [5] states that about 40% of the microdust is free between the fibers and flocks. above 550 = very high. DUST Definition Dust consists of small and microscopic particles of various substances. 350-450 = high.

as found. jamming and running out of true. glucose. Fats. trehalose and trehalulose. insecticides. but today all sticky substances are incorrectly called honeydew.7] identifies these sticky substances as: Secretions Fungi and bacteria honeydew. oil Pathogens Synthetic substances defoliant. contamination of the air-conditioning. Vegetable substances sugars from plant juices. Effects on the product: • • quality deterioration directly. In the great majority of cases. Stress on the machines: • • • • • dust accumulations leading to operating disturbances. but not exclusively. oil from harvesting machines. which can fall into the machines. primarily.g. seed oil from ginning. Schenek [1. the substance is one of a group of sugars of the most variable composition. however. saccharose. this is a secretion of white fly or aphid. fructose.• • • dust deposits. accumulations. rapid wear of machine components (e. increased yarn unevenness. Strictly. Chemical Deposits (sticky substances) The best-known sticky substance on cotton fibers is honeydew. rotors). leaf nectar. decomposition products. melezitose. overproduction of wax. or indirectly through machine faults. in sticky cottons [26]. fertilizers. more end breaks. .

Elsner [8] states that the sugars are broken down by fermentation and by microorganisms during storage of the cotton. Whether or not a fiber will stick depends. 12 the influence on yarn strength determined by Sasser [24]. not only upon the quantity of the sticky coating and its composition. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE FIBER INFLUENCES The influence of fiber parameters on yarn parameters and on running performance varies with circumstances. but also upon the degree of saturation as a solution [1] and the working temperature in the spinning mill. This occurs more quickly. 11 – Correlation between fiber properties and yarn properties according to Uster Technologies [23] Fig. Accordingly. conclusions regarding stickiness in the production process cannot be drawn automatically from the determination of quantity. new or conventional. however. the higher the moisture content.These saccharides are mostly. and Fig. Their significance also differs for the individual spinning systems. depending upon the influences on the plants prior to picking. During spinning of sticky cotton. but not always. 12 – Influence of fiber properties on yarn strength according to Sasser [24] . Fig. 11 shows the correlation between fiber and yarn properties as determined by Uster Technologies [23]. Fig. the relative humidity of the air as well as the ambient temperature in the production area should be kept as low as possible. produced by insects or the plants themselves. however.

that is the size of the flock. Since both measures can be obtained only with considerable effort. an open. or breaking apart – in which two or more flocks are formed from one flock without changing the specific density. Their use can only be justified if it substantially increases the degree of opening out (specific density) and thereby improves carding. The curve in this example shows. processable material. Fig. However. To enable an exact evaluation to be made of the degree of opening. 15 represents the ideal form of the opening curve as established by Trützschler [10]. by a diagram from Rieter (Fig. Type and degree of opening Two stages of opening must be distinguished: • • opening to flocks: in the blowroom. there is a flock which has been mainly broken apart. In addition. i. that machines M4 to M5 are already superfluous. Table 2 shows opening devices. 14 from Trützschler [10] shows the increasing opening of the material from one blowroom machine to another. Table 3 shows opening variants. but opening out is needed for blending and aligning. the technological operation of opening can include: • • opening out – in which the volume of the flock is increased while the number of fibers remains constant. but also stress the raw material in an unnecessary manner. for example. Thus.e. at the infeed to the card. . They not only make the process more expensive. opening must precede the other basic operations. Fig. the specification of the mass in milligrams/flock usually has to suffice. Breaking apart would suffice for cleaning. amongst other things. If. opening to fibers: in the card and OE spinning machine.OPENING The Needs for Opening Carrying out the basic operations of spinning demands. almost without exception. both a measure of breaking apart. Both opening out and breaking apart are found in each opening operation – the degree of each is decisive. but relatively little opened out. the raw material enters the spinning mill in highly pressed form (bale) for optimum transport and storage. therefore. 13) showing the degree of opening of several machines as a function of the material throughput. then staple shortening will quite certainly result. the specific density of the material is reduced. and a measure of density (in g/cm3) would be needed. Such information is provided.

Table 2 – Opening devices Table 3 – Opening variants .

machine passages. V. A.Fig. B. . material throughput (kg/h) Fig. B. M1-M5. flock weight in g/flock. 13 – Dependence of degree of opening upon throughput. A. feed material. degree of opening. mg). machines 1-5. 14 – Increase in the degree of opening from machine to machine in a certain blowroom. degree of opening (flock weight.

loose or clamped. type of clothing. density of the feed. form of feeding device. . It is clearly apparent that machines 4. degree of opening. A. Machines/devices: • • • • type of feed . type of opening device. flock weight in g/flock. 15 – Ideal form of the opening curve (green line) in an older blowroom. machines 1-5. M1-M5. machine passages. fiber coherence. in modern lines. size of flocks in the feed.Fig. fiber alignment. B. they should be omitted The Intensity of Opening The intensity of opening is dependent amongst other things on the following: Raw material: • • • • • thickness of the feed. 5 and 6 are superfluous.

the following should be noted: • • • • • • • • • • • Dirt can be removed practically only from surfaces. A high degree of opening out in the blowroom reduces shortening of staple at the cards. teeth. Accordingly. This means that each opening step should be followed immediately by a cleaning step without intervening transport..• • • point density of clothing. Newly exposed surfaces should as far as possible be cleaned immediately. within the blowroom line. Opening and cleaning of cotton on only one (universal) opening machine is very difficult owing to the requirement for continual improvement of the degree of opening. temperature. aligned or staggered. a specific machine is required at each position. The Type and degree of openingopening devices should become continually finer. i. during which the surfaces would be covered up again and would require re-exposure. on the surface. Speeds: • • speed of the devices. needles. . The degree of cleaning is linearly dependent upon the degree of opening. A high degree of opening in the blowroom facilitates cleaning in the carding room. i. spacing of the clamping device from the opening device. General Considerations regarding opening and cleaning The degree of cleaning cannot be better than the degree of opening. Ambient conditions: • • humidity. New surfaces must therefore be created continuously. Ideally the opening and cleaning machines should form a unit. throughput speed of the material.e.e. etc. The form of the opening machine must therefore be adapted to the degree of opening already achieved. arrangement of pins.

and elimination of some short fibers. each machine in the line represents often considerable stress on the fibers. Additionally. Clothing Arrangement Carding disposition Fig. they form neps. Feeding in a loose condition gives gentle. Feeding of flocks in a clamped condition gives an intensive but usually not very gentle opening action.• • • • • • On the other hand. aligning. blending. The operation of carding is performed with the aid of oppositely disposed sets of teeth or small wire hooks. Opened flocks should approach as closely as possible a spherical shape. The elimination of short fibers must. but also the stress on the material. Assuming flat waste at 1 to 2%. CARDING Purpose of carding Chiefly. The main eliminated material is in the flat strips. reduction of neps. therefore. however. Finally. quality considerations indicate the smallest possible number of machine passages in the blowroom. Narrow setting of the feed device relative to the roller increases the degree of opening. with about half in the form of short fibers there is such a minor precentage of short fiber elimination that it could hardly be measured with the current coarse staple measuring equipment. Aside from economy. be viewed in proportion. carding results in cleaning. but not very intensive opening. carding should separate the flocks into individual fibers. Long narrow flocks lead to entanglements during rolling movements and pneumatic transport. 16 – Carding disposition .

The fibers are in close contact with the other clothing surface and are processed intensively. . but v1 must be greater than v2 (feeding clothing). which presses the fiber towards the points of the other clothing surface. Doffing disposition Fig. In order to enable carding to take place. 18). 18 – Forces in the carding disposition If a fiber is held by friction at its ends on two teeth that are moving apart. 17). Forces acting on the fibers Carding disposition Fig. 17 – Doffing disposition The teeth of both clothing surfaces face in the same direction (Fig. 16). This arrangement is typical of the lickerin/main cylinder region. and also between the main cylinder and the doffer. E being the component tending to draw the fibers into the clothing. Here there is a deliberate transfer of material from one clothing surface to another. In this action. and aligned. the fibers are drawn apart.The teeth face in opposite directions (Fig. v1 must be greater than v2 or v2 must be in the opposite direction to v1. separated. tensile forces F act on the fiber in the axial direction owing to the drag from both sides (Fig. The parameter K is the carding component. Since the fibers are held on inclined surfaces. The retention capability of the clothing is dependent on this component. this tensile force can be resolved in accordance with the parallelogram of forces into two easily derivable components E and K. This is the typical arrangement between the main cylinder and the flats.

Such a random result is not acceptable everywhere. According to Artzt and Schreiber [11].3. by using a greater carding angle for the doffer clothing and thus obtaining an increased drawing-in component E. and these speeds arise practically only at the main cylinder and to some extent at the licker-in. must be able to take up a portion of the fibers. 19). substantial speeds are required. The doffer. all other things being equal. 19 – Forces in the doffing disposition In the doffing arrangement.2-0. Assisting transfer of fibers by special air-circulation conditions in the convergent space between the main cylinder and the doffer. the directions of the forces acting at one tooth have changed (Fig. Maintaining the catching effect of the clothing by frequent sharpening. Even with these measures. the transfer factor with rigid wire clothing is only 0. The fiber catches on the other tooth and is stripped. However. the fibers are not thrown off (at least the longer ones). This is only possible if the doffing conditions are improved by the following: • • • • • • An increased tooth density in the doffer clothing (no longer used with rigid wire clothing). centrifugal forces are of minor significance except when considering trash and short fibers.Doffing disposition Fig. although it is in the carding disposition relative to the main cylinder. Keeping the doffer clothing clean and receptive by continually withdrawing the web. and act both on fibers and on foreign particles. A very narrow setting between main cylinder and doffer. In this case the centrifugal forces support the transfer of trash and short fibers from the main cylinder into the flats. Resolution of force F into its components gives component D. which presses the fiber against the tooth. because the high air resistance due to the rotation presses the fibers back flat against the surface of the main cylinder. In spite of this. . A clothing supporting the carding capacity. the odds in favor of transfer are not even 50:50. In comparison to all other forces. The centrifugal forces are effective mainly in directions away from the main cylinder. Centrifugal forces Centrifugal force is superimposed on the forces produced by the machine parts. which tends to push the fiber off the tooth. it is a matter of chance on which tooth tip the fiber will remain caught. and a stripping component A. Fiber Transfer factor Reference to the forces exerted by the teeth in the carding disposition will show that. in order to produce noticeable effects.

on which the quality of carding is directly dependent. It will be rolled between the working surfaces and usually leads to nep formation Equally important at this working position is the reduction of neps. On the other hand. but not too high). Transfer zone at the doffer . The degree of opening. but not too high). evenness of the feed sheet. Accordingly. then it can be opened only with difficulty. rotation speed of the cylinders. density of the feed sheet. [12] indicates that 75% of all neps can • • • 30-33% pass on with the sliver. form of the feed plate. Thereafter. a fiber rotates from three to five times with the main cylinder before it passes to the doffer. The effect is caused by the strong adherence of the fibers to the main cylinder. Fiber damage is scarcely to be avoided here. the spacing of the main cylinder from the flats. is also important – the more so. the speed of the licker-in (high. hardly any further take-up of fibers occurs. Of the remaining 40% disentanglable neps: [13]. the tooth density of the clothing. i. throughput speed. This occurs relatively quickly. damage to the raw material can be influenced by: • • • • • • • • thickness of the feed sheet. Only by means of this fiber separation is it possible to eliminate the last dirt. However. stress on the fibers is not the only important aspect. The degree of opening. These pass into the flats. if a fiber bundle does not find a place in the first few flats. on average. and of these about 60% are in fact disentangled. 5-6% are removed with the flat strips. above all. separation into individual fibers. it first fills up. the extraction system. Carding between main cylinder and flats The main work of the card.e. the fibers being drawn into the main cylinder clothing during continual movement past the flats. The intensity of separation depends on: • • • • • the sharpness of the clothing. the speed of the doffer (high. especially the finer particles and dust. after only a few flats have moved into the working zone. the licker-in is the main elimination zone for coarse impurities. 2-4% are eliminated with the waste. The most important working regions in carding Pre-opening between feed roller and licker-in This is the most serious problem zone of the card because the licker-in must tear individual flocks out of the fairly thick feed sheet with enormous force. Kaufmann be disentangled. arrangement of the feed plate (co-rotation or counter-rotation). is performed between the main cylinder and the flats.This means that. or the droppings. the higher the production rate of the card. cylinder clothing. and only carding takes place. degree of cleaning and. When a flat moves into the working zone.

but a carding arrangement. 14]. This is the only way to obtain a condensing action and finally to form a web. degree of wear of the clothing. distance between the carding surfaces. as might have been expected. a stripping arrangement. is that an additional carding action is obtained here. aside from the serious disadvantage of hook formation. In the web. however. 22. Before transfer. or the doffer clothing rakes the fibers on the main cylinder. they form hooks at their ends. the other ends of the projecting fibers are caught by the clothing of the doffer and taken up. the carding effect mentioned is also produced here. Neps can still be disentangled here. During transfer. longer raking of the raw material by the clothing. whereby the rear ends of the fibers remain caught on the teeth of the doffer (A). A disadvantage to be noted is the formation of hooks at this point. 22 – Transfer of fibers from the main cylinder (T) to the doffer (A) The arrangement of the clothing between the main cylinder and the doffer is not. since either the main cylinder clothing rakes through the fibers caught in the doffer clothing. It has both advantages and disadvantages. geometry of the teeth. most of the fibers in the strand possess trailing hooks. Straightening-out of fiber hooks . sharpness of the clothing. The advantage. T). The diameter of the cylinders is also relevant. and then in the card sliver. By this means.Fig. or non-separated neps disentangled during the next passage through the flats [11. Large diameters imply a large contact surface at the working positions and thus. Since. the velocity of the main cylinder is much higher than that of the doffer. This is important. The intensity of carding (as at other carding positions) is here dependent upon [14]: • • • • • • • type of clothing. However. in addition to improvement of the transfer factor. number of teeth per surface. speed relationships. since the processing of the fibers differs somewhat from processing at the flats. the teeth of the cylinder wire (T) smooth out the fibers in the direction of rotation. some of the fibers remain caught at one end on the teeth of the main cylinder (Fig.

Consider first a trailing hook (S): it will be seen that for a certain period it moves with the remainder of the fiber strand at the speed of the back roller towards the front roller. about 15% have leading hooks. This is done by the draft or by combing as the following description shows: In the drafting arrangement. UK. the fiber hooks may be bedded in the body of fibers either as leading or as trailing hooks (Fig. about 15% have doubled hooks. The comber however mainly straightens out leading hooks. and others. 24). leading hooks (K) are immediately caught bodily by the front roller and carried along unchanged (Fig. 24).The straightening-out operation A disadvantage of web formation at the card that has already been mentioned is the formation of hooks. and less than 20% have no hooks. According to investigations by Morton and Yen in Manchester. the fiber is accelerated. 23 and Fig. cannot be permitted in the yarn. On the other hand. They must therefore be removed before yarn formation. the fiber is straightened before the whole fiber can reach the drawing speed — the hook is eliminated. If the fiber tip passes into the nip region of the drawing roller. 24 – Leading hooks in the drafting arrangement . which effectively convert longer fibers to short fibers. since the trailing end is moving with a relatively thick body of slowly moving fibers. However. Such fiber hooks. 23 – Trailing hooks in the drafting arrangement Fig. it can be assumed that the fibers in the web show the following hooks: • • • • more than 50% have trailing hooks. 25). Fig. because the needles of the circular comb can grasp only these (Fig.

Fig. D. almost all new spinning processes impose substantially higher demands on the cleanliness of the material than the conventional methods. 27 – Reversal of the dispositions of hooks between the card and the ring spinning machine CLEANING Impurities to be eliminated In cleaning. As Fig. E. 27 show. Cleaning was always an important basic operation. and it will become steadily more important. Possibilities for cleaning The available possibilities for cleaning natural fibers can be divided broadly into three groups: • • • chemical cleaning. Between the card and the comber. 25 – Leading hooks in the comber Required number of passages To eliminate the hooks. comber Fig. for another. a definite number of machine passages are required in intervening stages. This is achieved mostly by picking flocks out of the feed material and by rapid acceleration of these flocks over a grid. the disposition of the hooks is of little significance [15]. 26 and Fig. sliver-lap machine. Dirt. F. and neps should be eliminated. Fig. it is necessary to release the adhesion of the impurities to the fibers and to give particles an opportunity to separate from the stock. For one thing. cotton contains more and more impurities. reversal of the hook occurs at each processing stage between the card and these machines. foreign matter. leading hooks must be presented to the comber and trailing hooks to the ring spinning machine. card. there must be an even number of passages. ribbon-lap machine. mechanical cleaning. owing to machine harvesting. dust. . and there must be an odd number between the card and the ring spinning machine. Accordingly. wet cleaning (washing). In rotor spinning. 26 – Reversal of the dispositions of hooks between the card and the comber C. which furthermore are shattered by hard ginning.

by more than 90° (E). In combing. Impurities can be scraped off when the fibers are guided. which have been released during beating or transport. is substantially greater than that of the opened flocks owing to the low air-resistance of the impurities. grid-bars.. suction = separation. . In this machine the transport flow of air and stock (A) was subjected to rapid acceleration (V) before the transport direction was sharply altered. pass between the grid-bars into the waste box. Transport air is fed through filters or perforated sheets. Genuine exploitation of centrifugal force. use of centrifugal force = ejecting. in which there is no need for beating. carried out by pins. needles pass completely through the body of fibers and draw impurities out of the inner regions. when compared with the fibers. in which usually only particles on the surface of the flocks can be removed. because of their small size. The latter are hurled against the grid and. noses. In a beating operation. leads to repeated collisions of the flocks with the grid-bars. combing = extracting. i. as impurities have become smaller and smaller in recent decades. This operation is chiefly of importance in dust removal. The flocks cannot pass. Striking. the small dust particles. The inertia of the impurities. on the Type and degree of openingopening devices<//a>. over machine components. mote knives. etc. Because of their high ratio of mass to surface. This is the only form of mechanical cleaning in which regions other than simple surfaces are cleaned. under relatively high friction. for example. Suction is less suited to the elimination of coarse particles than to extraction of dust. causing foreign particles to drop through. This system was used still more intensively in the “air stream cleaner” from the former Platt company (Fig. The following procedures can be used: • • • • • • striking = falling out. However. in the card. beating = ejecting. this system does not function any longer – it has been abandoned. scraping = separation. is achieved. the dirt particles are thrown out into the flats while the fibers are retained in the clothing by the air current. the flocks are subjected to a sudden strong blow. The flocks were able to follow the diversion but the heavier impurities flowed straight on through a slot in the duct into a waste box (C).This discussion will be confined to mechanical cleaning.e. or even other fibers. while the flocks continue around the periphery of the rotating beater. pass with the air through the fine openings. accelerated to a high speed. 28).

arranged one after the other. as many impurities as possible should be eliminated at the start of the process. Fig. the higher the degree of cleaning. . In most cases a grid (beneath the beater) is used. bars with edges. the setting angle of the bars relative to the opening device. separation of stock and impurities is achieved by devices which let the impurities pass but retain the stock. 29). 29 – Co-operation of opening element. the better they can be removed. Grids can be made of perforated sheet (low elimination effect). Since almost every blowroom machine can shatter particles. and this can be additionally fitted with one or two mote knives in front of the grid (Fig. The higher the degree of opening. The intensity of cleaning depends on the spacing of the grid from the opening device. the width of the gaps between the bars.Fig. Opening should be followed immediately by cleaning (if possible. grid bars (a) and mote knife (b) Influencing factors • • • • The larger the dirt particles. in the same machine). A controlled influence on the elimination effect can be obtained by means of grid and mote knives. slotted sheet (low elimination effect). 28 – Former Platt air-stream cleaner Grid and mote knives Ignoring perforated surfaces and combs.

30 from Trützschler [16] illustrates the cleaning indices of individual machines and the complete blowroom/card installation. Above a certain optimum roller speed. DD = the dirt content of the delivered material. The cleaning index is heavily. dependent on the dirt content. Cleaning is made more difficult if the impurities of dirty cotton are distributed through a larger quantity of material by mixing with clean cotton. zone II a cotton with medium resistance.• • • • • • • • A very high cleaning effect is almost always obtained at the expense of high fiber loss. The dirt content is usually determined with the aid of gravimetrical methods such as MDTA3. A new concept has been introduced to represent this ease of cleaning. among other things. AFIS or Shirley Analyser. also have an influence. 31 References[16] shows the conditions in a horizontal cleaner: • • • zone I represents a cotton with low cleaning resistance. reproducibly and so as to enable comparisons to be made. Fig. but stress on the fibers goes on rising and so does fiber loss. Fig. For this purpose. In borderline cases. the cleaning index C is defined as: where DF = the dirt content of the feed material. The particle size and adhesion of the dirt to the fibers. There are types that can be cleaned easily and others that can be cleaned only with difficulty. but not solely. Higher roller speeds result in a better cleaning effect. the cleaning index may be different for different cotton types with the same dirt content. a somewhat higher waste percentage can be accepted in the blowroom. Damp stock cannot be cleaned as well as dry. Degree of cleaning and resistance to cleaning Whereas formerly the cleaning effect of a machine could only be estimated. Where a waste recycling installation is in use. and T = total. and so does a thick feed sheet. no improvement in the elimination capability is achieved. and zone III a cotton with high cleaning resistance. there should be slightly less cleaning in the blowroom and slightly more at the card. . namely‚ “cleaning resistance”. today it can be established fairly exactly. but also more stress on the fibers. High material throughput reduces the cleaning effect. Hence.

zone of low resistance to cleaning. but now it poses a problem. III. card Fig. Dust removal Cotton contains very little dust before ginning. .Fig. and secondly. degree of cleaning of the machine. zone of medium resistance to cleaning. initial dirt content of the cotton. increasingly strict laws have been passed regarding observation of specified dust-concentration limits in the air of blowing rooms. 30 – Increasing degree of cleaning from machine to machine. zone of high resistance to cleaning. dust was of no great significance for the spinner. 31 – Resistance to cleaning (cleaning compliance) of various types of cotton. new dust is being created through shattering of impurities and smashing and rubbing of fibers. A. degree of cleaning of blowroom machines. blowroom machines 1-3. Firstly. B. V. Formerly. especially OE rotor spinning react very sensitively to dust. M1 – M3. Even where dust is removed. degree of cleaning (on the vertical axis). feed material. I. many new spinning processes. C. C. A. but working of the material on the machines causes dust. II.

Each stage is as important as the other. These operate mostly with perforated surfaces together with suction. Material leaving the drawframe contains only about 15% of the dust originally present or newly created [4]. cards. determination. 37): • • • metering. However. they must be rubbed off. where the components are fed intermittently in batches. mixing. for example. distributing the components evenly in the body of fibers. Formation of batches does not take place in the drawframe. However. The main elimination points for adhering dust. and the latter arises in drafting arrangements. Metering The following methods are distinguished References[17]: • • • Random mixing. so that generally only the undersides can be cleaned. Metered but intermittent mixing. are those points in the process at which high fiber/metal friction or high fiber/fiber friction is produced. Furthermore. Today the drawframe is a good dust removal machine owing to the suction extraction system around the drafting arrangement. intermingling.However.e. because de-blending tends to occur at various processing stages. the removal of dust is not simple. Dust that separates easily from the fibers is removed as far as possible in the blowroom. The latter is very difficult with fibers of different surface structure and varying energyabsorbing capacity on stretching. bringing together the metered quantities. difficulties arise primarily in intermingling and in maintaining the blend once it has been achieved. i. therefore. BLENDING Stages in blending operation Fig. etc. Metered and continuous mixing. in the A 81 UNIblend (Rieter). as occurs within blowroom machines. Various machinery manufacturers offer special dust-removing machines or equipment to be installed in the blowroom. 37 – Stages of the blending operation Blending is carried out in three stages References[17]<//a> (Fig. The former arises in the card. for example. for example. REDUCING the UNEVENNESS OF YARN MASS Unevennes of yarn mass The unevennes limit . and the drawframe. i. and precise establishment of the quantities of the individual components. mainly in the drawframe. it must always be borne in mind that flocks resting on the perforated surface act as a filter. Dust particles are very light and therefore float with the cotton in the air transport stream. but the individual components probably remain as strands throughout the whole product. as occurs in weighing-hopper feeders. the particles adhere quite strongly to the fibers.e. the Flockblender (Trützschler). between the main cylinder and the flats. It is also important that dust released during processing is sucked away immediately at the point of release. If they are to be eliminated.

in the best possible case.The spinner tries to produce yarn with the highest possible degree of homogeneity. There are two reasons for this: • • The number of fibers in the section steadily decreases. evenness of the yarn mass is of the greatest importance. Martindale indicates that. Each drafting operation increases the unevenness. if all favorable conditions occurred together. then the contribution of the ring spinning machine is: for our example: . a ring-spun yarn produced from a roving with a CV value of 4% has an unevenness of CV = 13. the following evenness limit could be achieved (for ring-spun yarn): or where n is the number of fibers in the yarn cross section and CVD is the coefficient of variation of the fiber diameter. Accordingly. the equations reduce to: or This can be expressed (admittedly to an approximation) as CV = 1.6%. However. that is ruled out by the inhomogeneity of the fiber material and by the mechanical constraints. Since the variation in the diameter of cotton and man-made fibers is small enough to be ignored in industrial use.25U. If. The contribution made by any one machine to the overall deterioration in evenness can be calculated. there are limits to achievable yarn evenness. In this connection. Uniform arrangement of the fibers becomes more difficult. all fiber characteristics would have to be uniformly distributed over the whole thread. This is: Deterioration in evenness during processing In processing in the spinning mill. In order to produce an absolutely regular yarn. for example. the smaller their number. The number of fibers can be estimated from the relation: The unevenness index I is used in evaluation of the evenness achieved in operation. the unevenness of the product increases from stage to stage after the drawframe.

incorrect arrangement of the same fibers would hardly be noticed against the background of the large number of such fibers in the total length. 14% based on 8 mm length. Drawing while twisting simultaneously is now found on a significant scale only in woolen-spinning mills. Doubling is still the most widely used. but mostly adequate method of equalizing (Fig. Accordingly. Unevenness is therefore discussed in terms of short lengths (Uster Tester). all thick places will coincide. If the coefficients of variation are arranged in a co-ordinate system in accordance with their reference lengths. and a single new product is produced. 38 – Length variation curve (CVL%) Basic possibilities for equalizing Each processing stage is a source of faults. admittedly largely at random. then an uneven appearance of the product will result.Unevenness over different lengths A length of yarn. but leveling is becoming gradually more significant. the CV value of the same yarn can be. These can be: doubling. Every irregular arrangement of only some of these fibers has a strong influence on the unevenness. Only variations over short-to-medium lengths can be averaged out. and variations over long lengths lead to bars in knitted and woven fabrics. In order finally to achieve usable yarn characteristics. long lengths (count variation). medium lengths (seldom used). contains only few fibers. drawing while simultaneously imparting twist. There is only a small probability that all thin places and. not very precise. If continual variations of mass over short lengths are involved. Drafting arrangements in particular increase unevenness very considerably. then the well-known length-variation curve is obtained (shown here in simplified form in Fig. Mass variations over medium (to long) lengths lead to stripiness in the product. . and only 2% based on 100 m length. for example of 10 mm. leveling. In a length of yarn of 10 m. 39). The degree of irregularity is dependent upon the reference length. for example. Doubling The averaging effect This is a simple. they will tend to be distributed and so to offset each other. 38). Several intermediate products are fed in together. the process must include operations that have an equalizing effect. Fig. On the contrary. for example several slivers into a drafting arrangement. These operations are sketched out in the following chapters. separately.

doubling of fibers. regardless of what happens in the room. As long as the conditions in the room remain constant – if. If a thermometer is provided in a heated room and the temperature is read. 40 – Transverse doubling at the drawframe In principle. such as slivers. transverse doubling. i.e. only one person is present all the time – no problems arise. then all cans from delivery 1 of the first passage can be passed only to delivery I of the second passage.e. for example. Both open-loop and closed-loop control are used in spinning mills.and closed-loop control For better understanding of the subsequent remarks. Previously. webs. 39 – The averaging-out effect in doubling Transverse doubling Fig. then nothing more has happened than the determination of a condition by measuring. Transverse doubling can improve both maintenance of long-term evenness and blending. the expression is used to refer to a quite specific type of blending. even as to whether a change has occurred. If that condition is not satisfactory. every doubling process is a transverse doubling because the feeds are united side by side. There is a continual comparison of the actual and the set conditions. In every case. Levelling Measuring. Unfortunately.Fig. however. transverse doubling is becoming steadily more infrequent in practice. This operation. however. and the temperature is held constant. also be controlled with the aid of an external thermostat. i. Open-loop control . The opening roller and feed tube separate the sliver almost into individual fibers.e. respectively. Open-loop systems lack a check upon the effects of a change. doubling could be carried out only with intermediate products. the laps were laid out in one (vertical) direction and removed in the other (horizontal). open. owing to the elimination of machine passages and the continual increase in production speeds. which may already be present in the sliver. This so-called back-doubling results in intimate blending and good equalizing. In this buffer zone. in the transverse direction (Fig. This can be carried out as described below. for example. Long-term unevenness. The system is different if a thermostat is provided in the room itself and is set for a specific temperature. The heating system could. and adjustment is made by altering the draft. More or less heat could be supplied depending upon the outside temperature. and each has two deliveries. With the use of rotor spinning. half the cans of the first passage could also be crossed over. however. with constant self-monitoring. an important transverse doubling point was. The system can be referred to as a control chain. a still more intensive possibility has arisen. these three concepts will be defined briefly by using room heating as an example. cannot be positively influenced. and the cans of delivery 2 can be handled in the same way. 40) for feed to the second passage. i. can be referred to as a closed-loop control system. etc. These are re-collected into a body of fibers in the rotor. If the owner of the apartment gives a party for 10-15 people. If two drawframes operate as passages I and II. then it will certainly become very warm. lap blending between the scutcher and the card. then appropriate action would be required. the volume of fibers passing through is measured. This gives a straight-line throughflow. Back-doubling In the past. the fibers being laid neatly one upon the other in the rotor groove. However. In this context. but only over the length of the rotor circumference.

F. or neutral pulses. this advantage. or otherwise (Fig. remain in the product. amplifier. the measuring point is after the adjusting point.A measuring sensor is provided in the region of the infeed for continuous detection of the actual value (volume) – mechanically. 41). This additional requirement represents a second disadvantage of open-loop control in addition to the lack of self-monitoring. D. If too much material passes through the sensor. amplifier. dead-time distance The measuring sensor is usually arranged in the delivery region. and adjusting devices can be used. setvalue input. store. Compensation cannot be achieved in this measured portion. positive. reduce speed) until the actual and set values coincide again. Fig. but no storage is needed. the signal must be held back in the storage device until this instant. Control by this chain of steps requires an additional element. namely a storage device.e. A. since very exact values of the adjustment are required at all times. A. downstream from the adjusting device (Fig. Adjustment of the draft . In contrast to open-loop control. some of the long and medium-term errors. adjusting device. and the advantage of self-monitoring. D. i. It is therefore clear that closed-loop control is unsuited to compensation of irregularity over short lengths. must be weighed against a serious disadvantage. amplifies the difference signal. measuring sensor. pneumatically. i. namely the dead time inherent in the system. and therefore arrives at the adjusting point with a time delay. 42). C. regulating. adjustment point. F. A regulator compares the result with the set reference value. set-value input Closed-loop control Fig. However. Moreover. E. the regulating transmission receives a negative signal (i. C. Neither a positive nor a negative signal is produced when there is coincidence – the instantaneous speed is maintained. measuring sensor.e. adjusting device. which then finally converts the impulse into a mechanical adjustment. G. 41 – The principle of open-loop control. Since the material has to travel a certain distance between the measuring and adjusting points.e. The principle is substantially simpler than open-loop control. B. There is a third disadvantage. The measured portion has already passed the adjusting point when the adjusting signal arrives. the actual value does not have to be established as an absolute value but can be derived as negative. 42 – The principle of closed-loop control. and all of the short-term errors. and feeds it to an adjusting device (actuator). optically. The same measuring.

If another thin place were to arise. in carding. The reduction can be • • through the draft. the following relationship is obtained: . The reduction of the number of fibers in the cross-section logically leads to a reduction in diameter of the strand. i. it occurs in the blowroom. as the aim is to remove short fibers. lead to continually changing production conditions. After that. Since this draft is greater than the break draft. in the thin places. the first intermediate product is a card sliver. alteration of the break draft could result in entry into the stick-slip region. In a drafting arrangement. However. It contains about 20 000-40 000 fibers in cross-section. i.Compensation is effected by altering the degree of draft. or through elimination of fibers (loss) into waste (p). Compensation occurs continually. the twist is distributed and the draft affects all portions uniformly. the distribution of an approximately constant total number of fibers over a greater length of the product [13].) However. If a draft is now applied to the strand. There is also a choice between adjustment of the feed or delivery speed. it takes effect primarily where it encounters least resistance. both the break draft and the main draft could be adjusted. the fibers begin to slide apart at the locations where the friction between them is least. This operation is typical of selfactor spinning and woolen spinning systems.e. since drafting takes place simultaneously here. and in combing.e. if cards and drawframes are combined into production units. among other things. Changing the delivery speed would. (Fiber loss is intentional in combing. Elimination is not an intentional reduction of the number of fibers but arises as an unavoidable side effect of the necessity for cleaning. In terms of fineness. This is at the thick places. In cotton-spinning mills. where the twist is lowest. Attenuation (draft) The draft of the drafting arrangement Draft and attenuation In most spinning mills today. the term “attenuation” is used. adjustment of the feed speed is generally used.e. but the main draft is almost always used. the whole procedure would be repeated. They are drawn first until they reach the volume of the thin places. Drafting with simultaneous twisting If twist is imparted to a fiber strand. constant infeed speed is required to maintain synchronism. In addition. This number must be reduced in several operating stages to about 100 in the effected in two ways: yarn cross-section. it permits finer modification. i. This is defined by: p is the waste percentage.

namely: • • a break draft zone (B): VB = v2 / v3.where dA = diameter of delivered product. Drafting operations always run irregularly. dZ = diameter of infeed product. 43 – Draft through a roller drafting arrangement During drafting.e. then the drawing apart of the fibers. takes place. This is defined as the ratio of the delivered length (LD) to feed length (LF). and a main draft zone (A): VM = v1 / v2 The total draft is always the product of the individual drafts and not the sum: The drafting operation in the drafting arrangement Drafting force . and each draft stage will therefore always lead to an increase in unevenness. Uniformity implies in this context that all fibers are controllably rearranged with a shift relative to each other equal to the degree of draft. Drafting is effected mostly on roller-drafting arrangements (Fig. i. The drafting operation Fig. The fibers are firmly nipped between the bottom steel rollers and the weighted top pressure rollers. such regularity is utopian as regards both the fiber material and the mechanical means available. 43). the draft. However. If the rollers are now rotated in such a way that their peripheral speed in the throughflow direction increases from roller pair to roller pair. D = delivery and F = feed. The drafting arrangement illustrated has two subdrafting zones. or the ratio of the corresponding peripheral speeds: where v = peripheral speed of cylinder. the fibers must be moved relative to each other as uniformly as possible by overcoming the cohesive friction.

In this example. to be drawn out of the slowly moving strand. sliding of the fibers out of the surrounding fiber strand. 44). . this arises from the adjacent fibers of the body B2 already moving at the higher speed and the retaining force FR exerted by the fibers of the body B1. In this case. the curve falls slowly with increasing draft. but the fiber strand is fairly thick and only its outer layers have contact with the rollers. For this to occur.e. i. since a higher degree of draft implies fewer fibers in the cross-section. straightening and elongation of the fibers would produce a temporary extension. magnitude of the draft As fibers are carried along with the roller surfaces they are drawn apart. the forces acting on a fiber f in the drafting arrangement will be considered here. elongation of the fibers. 44 – The forces acting on fiber (f) during drafting Fig. magnitude of the drafting force. From point n onwards. 45 – Drafting force diagram. The fiber is bedded at its trailing end in a body of fibers (B1) which is moving forward slowly at speed v2. furthermore. D. by which stage many fibers are already sliding. This is the straightening and extending stage. FZ must be greater than FR. the fibers must assume the peripheral speed of the rollers. As already indirectly indicated. various non-constant forces act on the fibers. The transfer of the roller speed to the fibers represents one of the problems of drafting operations. a tensile force FZ acts on the fiber f. drafting takes place in three operating stages: • • • straightening of the fibers (decrimping). the curve climbs steeply. which would immediately disappear on removal of the extending force. The effective drafting force can be represented by the curve form shown in Fig. Permanent deformation of the fiber strand could not be achieved if FZ is only slightly greater than FR. at which the fibers begin to slide apart. The reduction of the drafting force with the increasing extent of draft is easy to explain – there is a continuously declining number of fibers to be accelerated. To allow acceleration of the fiber f and finally a draft. F. Up to point m. The transfer can be effected only by friction.Fig. 45. For the purpose of illustration (Fig. The leading end is already in a body of fibers (B2) having a higher speed v1.

As often also found in other fields. etc. F. the critical drafting region lies somewhere between V=1.) Behavior of fibers in the drafting zone Fiber guidance . Stick-slip motion With a small amount of draft. depending upon friction between fibers e. that is. a kind of stop-and-go movement. the drafting force has to take the fibers from a static condition (motionless coherence of the fibers in a compact strand) to a dynamic condition. cohesion between the fibers (surface structure. the drafting force may suffice to overcome the frictional coherence instantaneously. the drafting forces are often inadequate to induce permanent relative fiber shifts. with often disastrous consequences for the evenness. The fibers are therefore braked and again take on the speed of their slowly moving neighbors. but not to maintain acceleration. magnitude of the drafting force.7. Thus.). 46). it is between V=1. For man-made fibers. crimp. this mechanical operation not only requires considerable force. for which the stick-slip effect is usually more strongly marked. and. spin finish.3 and 1. The drafting force will again take effect and accelerate the fibers but will not be able to maintain the acceleration. delustering. extremely disruptive stickslip effects are often observed. For cotton sliver. finish.4. namely with V between 1 and 2. Operating in the critical drafting region can be risky. the drafting force is also heavily dependent upon: • • • • the arrangement of the fibers in the strand (parallel or crossed.. Here. this is clearly recognizable as greater or smaller deviations. for cotton roving (on the ring spinning machine). fiber length. the range lies somewhat higher. 46 – Drafting force diagram for the stick-slip zone. etc. D.Besides the number of fibers in the cross-section. In this region. hooks). to set the fibers in motion relative to their neighbors.g. there is a continual changing of conditions between acceleration and standstill. nip spacing.e. i. magnitude of the draft (The zigzag line shows the continuous change from sticking to slipping and back of the fibers. Fig.15 and 1. In the force-draft diagram (Fig. In the critical region. but also does not always occur without disturbance. the socalled critical drafting region.

When they finally pass into the nip region of the delivery roller. needles. this fiber is optimal. The ideal movement of the fibers would be achieved if the whole fiber strand moved with speed v2 into the nip region of the delivery roller pair without internal shifts. however. for example.out of fibers first occurs here. they will first move with speed v2 (as fiber b). 50 mm. Fiber a. In this case. aprons. however. they are without controlled guidance – they are floating (like fiber d). conditions are not nearly so favorable. which has a greater length than the nip spacing and thus temporarily extends across both nip lines. guiding devices. on the other hand. dragging neighboring fibers with it. (as fiber c). and d are shorter than the roller spacing. As far as only fiber guidance is concerned. however. etc. there are a few helpful circumstances which reduce these adverse influences to some extent. Fortunately. floating (d). but nevertheless causes disturbance. it may break. such as rollers. when it is gripped at two places with different speeds. Fibers b. This last factor. each fiber would have either speed v2 or speed v1 at any given instant. will now be dealt with specifically. Under normal circumstances.e. or can even change speed several times. This is achievable to the maximum extent. This leads to fiber clumps and hence to unevenness. after leaving the nip line of the entry roller pair and before reaching the nip of the delivery roller pair. they are subject to controlled guidance and movement. 47 – Guided and floating fibers in the drafting field Fibers arriving for processing exhibit very considerable length variations. and if drawing. Firstly. i. a 10 mm fiber. The majority of floating fibers can take on any speed between v2 and v1 at any instant in their movement through the drafting zone. if it can resist the tension. would be controlled over only 1/5 and uncontrolled over 4/5. which is extremely important for drafting behavior. Over a certain interval of their movement. secondly. which always leads to greater or lesser unevenness. however. 47): • • guided (a. c. In a drafting field. a 40 mm fiber would be theoretically under control for 40/50 or 4/5 of its path and would be without control for only 1/5. and if only the nipped fibers were drawn out. only when the infed fiber mass is glued together (as in the former Pavil spinning system from Rieter). .Fig. they will take on the speed v1. The fibers would be continuously guided under control. Upon entry into the drafting field. b. they are therefore found in two conditions (see Fig. A certain additional guidance of floating fibers is achieved by: • • • a sufficient number of longer fibers as carrier fibers for the shorter ones. These floating fibers are the problem in drafting. and the friction field. since fiber acceleration can then occur only when the fibers are gripped by the front rollers. In both cases. Floating fibers With a roller setting of. c). it will be pulled out of one nip line. is gripped by at least one roller pair at all times and is thus moved in a controlled fashion.

then drafting disturbance will arise. however.Friction fields The fiber friction field The top rollers must be pressed against the bottom rollers with considerable pressure to ensure that the fibers are transported. and a front field spreading backwards from the delivery roller pair. is transmitted into the drafting zone. This pressure is not only effective in the vertical direction but also spreads through the fiber stock in the horizontal direction. so that the fields overlap. and thus the inter-fiber friction. then poor guidance of the floating fibers results in high unevenness. Each drafting zone has two friction fields – a rear field spreading outwards from the infeed roller pair. The friction field is an extremely important medium of fiber guidance [18]. 50 – Effect of roller diameter on the friction field Both the spinner and the machine designer can exert strong influence on the friction field. If. The intensity declines. It keeps the disturbing effect of drafting within tolerable bounds. The compression of the fibers. 49 – Effect of roller hardness on the friction field Fig. 48 – The friction field created in the fiber strand by applied pressure Influencing factors Fig. on the other hand. Fig. via: . The ideal condition is achieved when the rear field extends far into the drafting zone in order to guide the fibers over a long distance and the front field is short but strongly defined. the spacing is too great. so that as far as possible only the nipped fibers are drawn out of the fiber strand. If the rollers are set too close to each other. and the intermediate zone between the two friction fields too long. with increasing distance from the nip line and finally reduces to zero.

g. i. A thin strand. Very hard top rollers.e. 49. A very low mass is identical with a lack of contact surface and hence a lack of friction. It is therefore clear that the friction field cannot be very long in directions away from the nip line. Rollers of larger diameter. However.e. this is not optimally effective. Better still is a strand having protective twist.or five-line drafting arrangements are in use. The mass of the fiber body exerts its effect mainly through the number of fibers. This is a problem in so far as the fibers spread out during each drafting operation. twist in the strand. without still being strongly burdened with preparatory work. strong compression. The increased friction penetrates more deeply into the drafting zone. In this case. roller diameter. Similar results are obtained with rollers of different diameter (Fig. however. then it should be borne in mind that strong interactions are found throughout the whole drafting process. since undesired delaying forces are produced by friction at the stationary condensing elements. Unless there are conflicting reasons. give a lower pressure peak but a larger pressure width. which holds the fiber mass together in a round and compact form (i. facilitates wide spreading of pressure and friction and thus gives a long friction field. but only up to an optimum pressure. However. Attempts are made to oppose this by compressing the fiber strand within condensers in the drafting arrangement. 49. which spread the total pressing force over a greater area. there is a steep decline in the pressure curve from the center towards each edge. The extent of break draft normally lies below the critical draft region. since it completely surrounds the fiber body. a). mainly the fiber mass in the drafting zone and the arrangement of the fibers in the strand.• • • • • • • pressure of the top rollers. The draft can be increased with increasing fineness of the intermediate product. Since the fibers in card sliver are relatively randomly oriented. The individual parameters produce the following effects: High roller pressure causes strong compression and a correspondingly long friction field. In some cases. roving). In this way. can take up neither pressure nor friction and therefore does not give a well-defined friction field. since the outer layers can evade the pressure. and also with increasing parallelization of the fibers. hardness of the top roller coverings. c). The fibers must be straightened and extended to such a degree that the main draft can immediately cause fiber movements. width of the strand. and the resulting broad fiber ribbon is not really rounded but only folded on itself. Distribution of draft Three-line drafting arrangements. 49. e. pressures have already reached the optimum. The task of the draft in the first draft zone (break draft) is simply to prepare the main draft in the second zone. the draft can then be increased at the second passage and so on continually to the ring spinning machine. The friction field is short. which readily moves apart. no further improvement in fiber guidance can be expected from pressure increases. in drawframes and ring spinning machines (with drafts around and above 40). break drafts above the critical figure are selected. b) of medium hardness. Since. steel rollers (Fig. The cross-section of the body of fibers is of decisive importance. with two draft zones. the main draft can be effected with less disturbance. are generally used in the short staple spinning mill In Asia still four. the draft in the first drawframe passage should not be too high. e. mass of the fiber strand. the body of fibers thus becomes gradually broader. 50). cross-section of the strand. and the optimum for loose but compact fiber material is a soft covering (Fig. If influence is to be exerted on the friction field by adjustment of individual parameters. An improvement is obtained with a covering (Fig. Other drafting possibilities . a higher break draft is needed. High density. The main draft must be adapted to the drafting conditions. density of the strand. in modern drafting arrangements. Only a round cross-section gives the optimum result. give very high pressure in the center of the nip line.g.

i. position of the fibers in the strand (e. This leads to the necessity for a subsequent collecting device which is also straightening the fibers. long fibers inside. The following factors are especially significant: • • • • • • • the number of fibers in the yarn cross-section. straightening of the fibers. short outside). fiber disposition. draft causes: • • • stretching out of the fibers. Draft at the opening roller Neither the drafting arrangement nor the mule spinner can draw the fiber strand out into individual fibers. a draft occurs. Additional effects of draft In addition to the reduction in diameter. and the spinning limit of the raw material. fiber alignment. evenness. opening rollers must be used. In order to prevent the thread sliding apart at its weakest point. parallelizing of the fibers. overall structure. twist. tears individual fibers out of the slowly moving feed material (sliver). in rotor spinning machines. since it not only disrupts parallelization of the fibers already achieved but also completely eliminates the retention of the fibers in a strand. strength. Number of fibers in the yarn cross-section This determines. there are lower limits to the number of fibers in the cross-section. YARN FORMATION Assembly of fibers to make up a yarn Arrangement of the fibers The characteristics of a yarn are strongly dependent upon the characteristics of its fibers. The principle is familiar from the licker-in of the card and is today deliberately exploited in new spinning processes. handle. but they are equally dependent upon the structure of the yarn itself. the thread must be given protective twist (see Drafting with simultaneous twisting).g. rapidly rotating roller. binding-in (fully or only partly bound-in). clothed with saw-teeth or needles. insulating capacity. This type of draft cannot be used in all conventional spinning systems.Mule spinning If the product to be drafted is firmly held at one end and is moved at the other end away from the fixing point. thread-breakage rate. All of these represent important operations for spinning. among other things. then drawing apart results. for example.e. as follows (for normal conditions): Cotton yarns ring-spun yarn: combed carded 33 fibers 75 fibers . A small. auxiliary support is needed. If this is required. Admittedly. Accordingly.

the same number of fibers of every group of the same quality parameter (i. an even yarn is achievable only by fulfilling some preconditions. b. Fig. However. 51 a/b). but very hard to obtain: in every yarn cross-section of the whole yarn length there should always be: • • the same number of individual fibers. These preconditions are very easy to explain. fineness. etc. Fiber disposition The yarn buyers expect that the yarn they receive is (besides other quality features) even in structure and appearance. If it is desired to ascertain the average fiber fineness in a blended yarn. such as fiber length. coefficient of friction.rotor-spun yarn: Synthetic fiber yarns ring-spun yarn: rotor-spun yarn: carded carded carded 100 fibers 50 fibers 100 fibers The spinning limit can then be calculated approximately by transposition of the equation: to give where nF is the number of fibers. this formula does not take into account other parameters.e. The order of the fibers within the yarn . However. Fig. length. 51 – The ideal arrangement of fibers of different lengths in the yarn. a. and the index x represents one component and the index y the other. the length groups extracted group-wise from the strand. the distribution within the yarn strand.. etc. the following formula can be used: where p represents the proportion of fibers as a percentage. which also affect the spinning limit. thickness.

highly tensioned fibers are destroyed. all or some of the fibers take up the required helical disposition. highly dependent on the height of the twist. by increasing pressure inwards. nullified to a large extent by the doffer). Under abrasion the outer. . 52 – The twist structure in ring-spun yarn [22] Owing to the twist. or at least some (wrap yarns) of the fibers is of decisive importance. However. In ring-spun yarns. which are created by the twist. parallelizing is a side-effect. Under loading. almost without exception. Deliberate collection of fibers. ring-spun yarn may be said to have sheath-twist. into the yarn structure.g. since each drafting of the fiber masses is accompanied by straightening). in yarns which have not been produced by using adhesives. the fibers have a lesser inclination.Also expected is that the yarn has optimal strength. Since the fibers become steadily less tightly wound towards the core. Hairiness on the yarn surface is mainly caused by protruding shorter fibers. and the degree of winding. which is not always desired to this extent). twisting takes place from the outside inwards. Floating of individual fibers in a strong air current (for example. Fig. One reason for the lower strength of rotor-spun yarn relative to ring-spun yarn is the lower degree of parallelization and the lower degree of straightening (fiber hooks) of the fibers in rotor-spun yarn. highest attainable degree of parallelism. Therefore the strength is. the strand loses its cohesion. fully twisted yarns with sheath-twist have high tensile strength but are not so resistant to abrasion. and that again means for the fibers: • • • high degree of stretching-out (straightening). Looking at the first two items. owing to the greater degree of winding. e. from twisting. the helical winding of all. the following operations are responsible for imparting this order: • • • • • Carding (the high degree of longitudinal orientation obtained on the main cylinder is. The number of fibers affected by the twist. Nowadays yarns obtain their strength. however. in the rotor. Drafting (this is the most usual method of imparting order. including if possible both fiber ends. are strongly dependent upon the spinning process. 52). binding-in of the whole fiber. At the periphery (the outer sheath A. beyond doubt. the outer layers will tend to take the radial forces and the inner layers will tend to take the axial forces. however. Combing (here. The position of the fibers in the yarn structure Ring-spun yarns Fig. (γ = angle between the fibers and the axis of the yarn) than in the interior of the yarn (the core B). Accordingly. Since these fibers hold the yarn together. the radial forces reinforce axial resistance to sliding apart of the fibers. Furthermore. but also on a large area of fiber-contact. since ultimately the stability and strength of the structure are derived from the pressure towards the interior exerted by fiber windings. in the feed tube of the rotor-spinning machine).

54. during each rotation of the rotor. since here the fibers are able partially to avoid twisting-in. since the outer layers have relatively little twist and can thus contribute little to strength. This is a typical characteristic of rotor-spun yarn. since these fibers did not create much strength anyhow. 53) first catches fibers in the core and then with further rotation gradually takes up fibers towards the periphery. for a given yarn strength. guide elements. However. By the further rotation of the yarn in the rotor they are wrapped around the already spun yarn like the band on a cigar. These form the very thick core. A further disadvantage of the loose outer layers is their sensitivity to axial rubbing. as in false-twist spinning (air-jet spinning and Dref 3). Fig. Typical characteristics of this so-called core-twist are therefore a harder handle accompanied by a lower strength than is obtained with sheath-twist. Since these open layers are not firmly secured in the core. If the thread is wrapped with filament. On the other hand. 55). new fibers join on to the already well twisted fiber strand. towards the exterior. the fibers are twisted in the reverse sense during cancellation of the false twist (reverse twisting) at the navel. As far as possible. it will have high strength. This arises from the false twist between the navel (Fig. In rotor-spun yarns. In the interior. T) and the binding-in zone (A). abrasion-resistance is often better. Wrap yarn Fig. fewer fibers are required in the Number of fibers in the yarn cross-sectioncross-section. this outer layer exhibits other peculiarities. since the fibers themselves are stretched out and arranged parallel and are pressed closely together. Another peculiarity is a thin outer layer of fibers with hardly any twist. 55 – Bundled yarns (wrap yarns) Wrap yarns consist for the most part of fibers arranged in parallel without any twist (Fig. These latecomers receive only a fraction of the desired twist level. where the fibers cannot avoid the twist. If this low twist is less than the false-twist effect. and are thus wrapped around the other fibers with reverse twist. twisting during rotor spinning takes place from the inside outwards. the core fibers are wrapped only with fibers of finite length (staple fibers). etc.OE spun yarns Fig. These are fibers which fly directly onto the fully created yarn as the rotor passes under the feed passage. Accordingly. open-end spun yarns should not be rewound. brushlike open yarn end (C. then the yarn strength is lower than that of ring-spun yarn because the relatively short fibers cannot hold the structure of the yarn together in an optimal fashion. Synthetic filament or staple fiber of the same kind as the core material is wrapped around this core but forms a small proportion of the fiber material. Airjet yarns If. In the latter. or even with twist in the reverse sense. A minimum fiber length is required for production . the strand becomes more compact but also somewhat harder. The rotating. compactness and hardness fall off to an increasing degree. One of these is the presence of wrap fibers. they tend to accumulate in small knots during passage of the yarn over edges. The filament also contributes some of the strength. Removal of outer fibers due to abrasion has little effect. 54 – Yarn formation in the rotor In contrast to ring spinning.

spinning process. At present. elongation. resulting in better yarn properties and higher productivity. etc. Yarn structures are very variable. it is difficult to produce a yarn equivalent to a ring-spun yarn by the new spinning processes – and the ringspun yarn still represents the standard of comparison (Table 4). and a second aspect is the internal and external make-up. strength. ability to resist wear. damage. voluminous or compact. spinning unit. etc. smooth or rough or hairy. soft or hard. wearing comfort. twist. But yarn structure is not simply appearance. the false-twist process is suitable mainly for the spinning of man-made fibers.. round or flat. 56 – Differences in the yarn structure for various spinning processes (drawings without attention to hairiness) . or combed cotton. The differences are partly deliberately caused. etc. strains. covering power. Yarn structure One aspect of structure is the visual appearance. resistance to abrasion. thin or thick. machine settings. blends of cotton and man-made fibers. tendency towards longitudinal bunching of fibers. Table 4 – Shows roughly the differences in structure arising from the spinning process (see also Fig. The yarn structure is dependent primarily upon the raw material. 56) Fig. created solely by the peripheral layer of the yarn. but for the most part they are predetermined by the means available. ability to accept dye. It has a greater or lesser influence on: • • • • • • • • • • handle. insulating capacity. The structure can be open or closed. therefore. etc. Air-jet spinning systems using one nozzle. For example. depending on the intended use of the yarn. machine.of such threads. like vortex-spun allow higher percentages of wrap fibers.

Moreover. immensely strong coherence of the body of the yarn (Fig. 57).e. stiff fibers move out towards the sheath while long. Staple fiber yarns held together by twist have a degree of exploitation between 25% and 70% (normally 30-50%). of course. etc. and therefore higher resistance to the draft. Total exploitation of the inherent strength of the fibers can be achieved only by using adhesives. Grouping arises mostly during drawing. this effect is more prominent the shorter the fibers and the more random their arrangement.. This tendency is reinforced by fiber migration (wandering of the fibers). the fibers take up different positions in the body of the yarn. Strongly crimped fibers are also found predominantly in the sheath. since they can exert greater resistance to binding-in. The extension of the fibers that arises during twisting leads. some fibers in the body of the yarn lose their helical dispositions during fiber migration. Short. to an increase in the frictional forces between the fibers and thus finally to the desired. Migration takes place from the sheath to the core and vice versa. flexible fibers move towards the core. Thus. for example). false twist and self-twist (as in the Repco process). even for the future. most prevalent during yarn formation but still occurs after yarn formation is completed. For example. e. Impacting strength Possibilities for impacting strength In order to obtain strength in the yarn. during bending. if any traction of power (even minimal) acts on the yarn. which consists of individual fibers of relatively short length. Since this process can be used only for a small market segment. In principle. twisting of the fiber strand remains the sole possibility for imparting strength. the persisting tensions in the fibers constituting the yarn lead to continuation of the process of fiber migration even after the completion of yarn formation. fineness. In addition to its dependence on length. for example. fine. in the Twilo process. etc. Fiber strands that are not held together by adhesives cannot completely exploit the inherent strength of the individual fibers. The adhesive effect can be produced by means of adhesive substances or adhesive fibers (polyvinyl-alcohol fibers). fiber migration is dependent upon degree of elasticity. Fig.g. When the smallest forces are exerted on the yarn. Short fibers are often found on the yarn exterior. 57 – Imparting strength to the yarn by twist . coarse. crimp.Fiber migration Owing to their different characteristics. stiffness. tensile loading. Possibilities available for producing the required twist are True twist (with reference to ring-spun yarn)true twist. since they exhibit more cohesive friction. long fibers are often located in the core. they press out the lower-tensioned fibers from the interior. For example. and remain in the interior. since the fibers do not always stay in the positions they first take up. via the associated fiber tension. the short fibers work their way to the surface and are then partly rubbed off. highly tensioned fibers of the outer layers press inward wholly or partly (the fiber ends. there are two alternatives: adhesives and twist. In doing so. as was done. to increased pressure directed towards the yarn interior. Fiber migration should be adequately taken into account in determining the composition of blends. the inherent strength of one fiber must be made wholly or partly transferable to another. i. Such migration is.

i. only special yarns such as voile (C) and crêpe (D) are twisted above this region. left and right. are always possible. turns of twist per meter in the yarn. T/m. cause the handle of the end product to become too hard. i. 58 – Twist directions in spun and twisted yarns Twist and strength Fig. Normally. the fiber windings can also have two directions. The direction of the twist is indicated as Z. to the optimal exploitation of the strength of the individual C) . This continues up to a certain maximum. cotton fibers The strength of a thread twisted from staple fibers increases with increasing twist. and finally becomes so considerable that fewer and fewer fibers slide past each other and more and more are broken. 58). strength. rotors. 59). Since two twist directions. and so on. i.e. B – warp).e. polyester fibers. Cohesive friction arises only in the middle-to-upper regions of the curve.or S-twist depending on the transverse orientation of the fibers. yarns are twisted to levels below the criticaltwist region (A – knitting.e. the orientation relative to the diagonals of the letters Z and S (Fig. In the lower portion of the curve (Fig. This is caused by the high tension. The last effect arises from the equation: . this strength will be due solely to sliding friction. 59 – Relationship between the number of turns of twist and the strength of a yarn.is dependent upon the raw material. though not to the exclusion of S-twist. F. and thus high pressure. Z-twist is normally used in short staple spinning. under tensile loading the fibers slide apart.True twist (with reference to ring-spun yarn) The direction of twist Twist is produced with the aid of spindles. rollers. PES. Co. and reduce productivity. Fig. Selection of a twist level below maximum strength is appropriate because higher strengths are mostly unnecessary.

these fibers lie at the periphery on the lines AC. The same effect is produced by the inclined disposition of the fibers relative to the yarn axis. spinning-in). respectively. two yarns are considered below in a theoretical model. Hence. while fiber f' has extended from H to L. A'C'. for example. One yarn is assumed to be double the thickness of the other [21]. however. the length of the spun yarn never corresponds to the delivered length measured at the front roller. owing to the greater diameter of yarn II. 61). m. the angle γ . This constant tendency to return to the unextended condition results in a high tension directed towards the core and thus to increase pressure continually towards the yarn interior. These tensions cause the strong compression. Consider for each case a single fiber f and f'. so that they cannot be used as a scale of assessment of the strength to be expected. twist multiplier (e. the extension of fiber f' must be significantly higher than that of fiber f. yarn count . The greater extension in yarn II also implies greater tension and thus more pressure towards the interior. Deformation of the yarn in length and width Fibers can be wound in spirals around other fibers only by increasing their length through exploitation of fiber elongation. each with the same height H. 60 – Shortening of yarns with different twist coefficients. respectively (Fig. probably be provided by an angle. However. Diameter is thus inversely proportional to twist. The difference becomes clear if the yarns are rolled on a plane. its elasticity tries to draw it back. Fiber extensions in the yarn can be measured only with difficulty. However. Each fiber can adopt this helical disposition only if its length is increased. The compression leads to a reduction in the diameter of the yarn. Fig. Such a scale could. 60 (as an example for Texas cotton). higher yarn twist can only be obtained through reduction in the delivery speed and hence in the production rate. The strength of yarn II is considerably greater than that of yarn I. shortening in %. and hence great density of the yarn body. whereupon two triangles (ABC and AB'C') are derived. respectively. english. When a fiber is extended. Then the fibers take up new positions indicated by the lines AEC and A'E'C'. α.Since the spindle speed is always pushed to the maximum possible limit (and thus may be considered as constant). Assume that the yarns are clamped at the lines AG (A'G') and CD (C'D') and are each turned once through 360°. metric) Twist formulas To elucidate several relationships involved in twisting. Prior to twisting. A. tex. Fiber f has extended from H to l . the tendency to relax also leads to shortening of the yarn (twisting-in. The degree of shortening is also dependent upon the raw material and especially upon the number of turns. Johannsen and Walz [20] indicate that for cotton yarns twisting-in can be derived from Fig.

Yarn II also has a greater inclination angle γ than yarn I. then the inclination angles must be the same. 61 – Winding of two fibers (f and f’ ) in yarns of different thickness Fig. 63 – Number of turns of twist in yarns of different thicknesses . yarn I must therefore have twice as much twist as yarn II (Fig. the greater the angle of inclination. The strengths (F) are proportional to the inclination angles: In other words. 62 – Number of turns of twist in thin yarns Derivation of the twist equation Fig. This is only possible if the height of each turn in yarn I is reduced from H to h. From the above considerations. it follows that yarn II has a higher strength than yarn I.of inclination to the axis. If the two yarns are to have the same strength. Fig. so that γ1 = γ2 (all other influencing factors being ignored here). the higher the strength. 62). In the given example.

the following results are obtained: Here the yarn counts are related by the formula: . The mass of a yarn is given by V = volume σ = specific mass Since the volume is given by . A = surface area in cross section L = length and the area the mass of the yarn is The masses of the yarns I and II are: If these masses are inserted in the count formulas of the English system.If the two yarns are illustrated on a somewhat larger scale. the situation of Fig. 63 is obtained relationships can be derived: [20]. The following and T = Twist in the yarn.

5-3.3-3.0 2. but.which reduces to The diameters are related by the formula: i.1-2. and the following generally valid formula can then be The twist coefficient following values: is derived in accordance with the English count system.0-3. the following formulas apply: Turns per meter: .6 2.5-3.5 2. for example.9 For the other count systems.8 3. since also we therefore have Expressed in an alternative form: This constant can be arbitrarily designated.0-5.4-3.5-3.0-3.4 3.8 3.0 4.5 3. as derived: . and for cotton yarns it takes the Yarn type Short staple Medium staple Long staple Knitting Weft Semi-warp Warp 3.0 3.0 3.8-4.e.7-4.

The strand therefore never has any twist between the twisting element and the delivery cylinder. This principle is used in false-twist texturing. With a running thread. In the given example these are turns of Z-twist. both thread portions were untwisted at the start. the strand will take up the same number of turns on each side of the twisting element (T). however. 64 – Creation of false twist (above) in stationary condition. Z-twist is shown on the right and S-twist on the left (seen vertically). In the example above. 64) is held by two clamps K1 and K2 at two spaced points and is twisted at some point in between. Fig. but with opposite twist directions. however. the thread entering path section b is already twisted with the number of turns imparted to it in path section a. twist is found only between the infeed cylinder and the twisting element. In a false-twist device. the same thing happens – but the conditions are now different. (beneath) in through-flow condition Impacting strength by false twist . as first assumed. is creating S-twist in the left-hand path section. so that each turn of Z-twist imparted a is cancelled by a turn of S-twist imparted in the second section b. If the clamps are replaced by rotating cylinders (Z1 and Z2) and the yarn is made to run past the cylinders during twisting. With a stationary thread. The twisting element.Conversion factors are: False twist Operating principle If a fiber strand (Fig.

and the thread can be continuously rolled on the contact surface of the navel owing to the movement created by the rotor revolution at the point E. The counter-torque created in the yarn will.Fig. threads are currently spun by this process . as actually occurs in rotor spinning. then it will be continuously twisted with alternating Z. eliminate this twist immediately after the yarn leaves the roller nipping line. however. The effect is the same. 68). Without this false twist effect. False twist at othe places in the spinning process The creation of false twist is not limited to the example given before. however. but not completely identical fashion and there are slightly greater differences in the Dref 3 system. the strength of the self-twist thread made in this way is not quite sufficient because of the untwisted pieces between the twisted portions – it must be additionally twisted subsequently. For example. Twist in the opposite direction is. 65 – Forming a yarn by means of false twist As described. Alternatively. The opposite twist now imparted by the twisting element cancels all twist in the newly arriving strand. If – instead of one strand – two fiber strands are passed through while arranged parallel and very close to each other. untwisted fibers (Fig. imparted to all those fibers which were untwisted on arrival. in particular the turns in the core. A plied thread is created with continually varying twist direction – Z-twist where S-twist is present in both yarns and S-twist where the yarns had originally Z-twist. This twist principle is therefore normally unsuitable for imparting strength to a yarn.but with modification of the system. with the core still representing by far the greater part of the fibers. false twist will be produced. The clamping points can be stationary as in the example given (e. the twisting element (T) can be stationary. 65). for example.and S. Instead. at the crown of the flyer in the roving frame and at the rotor navel in the rotor spinning machine. at various other points in the spinning process. In most cases. and the sheath fibers have no twist or only a low twist level. In contrast to the operation described in the preceding section. the yarn contact point E in the rotor and the withdrawal rollers Z. i.twist over successive short portions (Fig. the fiber strand entering the twisting element is no longer fully twisted. 66 – Creation of false twist in the rotor Self-twist If the strand is passed forward (by the delivery movement) between rubbing rollers (N). and the twist element (the navel T) can rotate. Nevertheless. it would probably not be possible to operate with the high rotor speeds that are normal today. the strand leaving the false-twist unit consists of parallel.e. These are now wrapped around the core fibers so that a bundled yarn is produced. It must operate on both. a considerable number of edge fibers can avoid the twisting effect.g. False twist arises. At any point where a twisting element is operative between two clamping points. The Murata jet system operates in a similar. Fig. as shown in Fig. and causes twisting of the two threads around each other. The result is that. . 66). owing to this substantial width. 67 and Fig. which are also moving to and fro. then the counter-torque can no longer operate solely on one yarn. the fibers in the sheath. whether or not it is wanted. False twist occurs between E and T. the fiber strand fed by cylinder Z1 has to be very wide as it passes into false-twist zone a. as described in Section Operating principleOperating principle. only the core is twisted.

the comparison becomes obvious. Transportability always . Certainly. self-twist spinning (also known as Repco spinning) has been in use for several years. they often exert a quality-reducing influence. this assertion is somewhat exaggerated – but it contains an element of truth.In worsted spinning. 67 – Self-twist Fig. its sole field of application. Furthermore. although not on a very large scale. 68 – Forming a yarn by means of self-twist HANDLING MATERIAL Carriers for material Material carriers and transport A spinning mill is less a production plant than a largescale transport organization. Storage and transport of material are substantial cost factors in the spinning mill. When the quantities of material and the distances over which they have to be moved are considered. Fig.

take up little room. These operations are frequently not carried out precisely in practice. are economical to procure. For example. are well suited to unwinding the product at high speeds in a controlled and trouble-free manner. two shifting movements of the deposition point are carried out simultaneously. on which the material is wound. The rotating plate R. The delivery plate rotates at higher speed in a second larger plate. The most widely used package Laying down in cans Laying down of slivers Cycloidal deposition of sliver has proved to be the most advantageous method of filling a can (Fig. the sliver must be so deposited that a hollow space is created from top to bottom in the middle of the can. They are therefore used where many production units are operated in confined spaces. cans. which consist only of the material. etc. They are only usable for special purposes. facilitate transport (in full or empty condition). which is also rotating but at a lower speed. the deposition point of the circle is constantly shifting. with its guide passage L. since the turntable can plate C continually rotates the can. However. In this complex problem. In this process. . Take-up formers. the ideal infeed for the ring spinning machine is still the roving bobbin. spindles. Furthermore. The space is required to ensure that the sliver layers do not overlap completely in the middle of the can. In many coilers. can be filled or wound in an uncomplicated manner. such as cylinders.. leaving the side portions of the can half-empty. the necessity for winding up is a handicap to performance in many machines. They provide less protection for the material. but they are easy to transport. draws the sliver away from the delivery cylinders D and continuously deposits it on a circle. In relation to material carriers. but in the empty condition it occupies the same amount of space as when it is full. These are bumps. and occupy little space when empty. hanks. both movements must be induced from above. A helical arrangement of the circles is produced within the can (Fig. for example. Thus. cakes. This also leads to shifting of the circles and hence to cycloidal deposition. tubes. protect the material. Unsupported packages. and are well designed ergonomically. it is important that they: • • • • • • • • take up as much material as possible. This package form provides a high degree of protection for the material. 76). for example. permit simple removal of material. etc. Material handling and transport are therefore significant problems in a spinning plant – problems that the machine designer and mill personnel must always take into account. the cans are no longer rotated. Package form Classification Three groups of packages are used for the intermediate and end products of the spinning mill [18]: • • • Containers into which the material is made to run. it is always necessary to find the new optimum and to seek the most appropriate means.requires a taking-off operation at the preceding machine. strands. cones. In this case. In all cases. and a feeding-in operation at the subsequent machine. 75). This avoids formation of a central pyramid-shaped column of material. the ring spinning machine is scarcely capable of much further development simply because of the winding of cops (by travelers).

With small coils. The diameter relations should be approximately or . or with small coils (Fig. With large coils. the diameter of the sliver coil (dB ) is less than the radius of the can (rC ).Fig. 77. 78. Large coils are generally used in small to medium-sized cans and small coils generally in large cans. undercenter coiling). 76 – Laying down sliver in cans Large and small coils The hollow space can be obtained with large coils (Fig. 75 – Can filling device (coiler) Fig. the sliver-coil diameter is greater than the can radius. over-center coiling).

the can capacity is 5-10% higher. 78 – Laying down in small coils (under-center coiling) Twisting of the sliver . and wear). With large cans. since then less mass has to be rotated. noise. however. it is more advantageous if the plate is kept as small as possible. 77 – Laying down of sliver in large coils (over-center coiling) Fig. Moreover. A speciality is the coiling into rectangular cans as they were developped for optimal space usage.Large coils are better with small to medium-sized can diameters because lower plate speeds can be used for the same circumferential speed (reduction of force. Fig.

On the other hand. However. the winding point must be continually shifted. The sliver twists during withdrawal when it has to follow the helical coils in the can. 79). unwinding is not always so easy. In principle. Since both the plate and the turntable are rotating. the circumference of the wraps is already larger.e. It creates twist in the sliver. i. Winding by rolling and lap forming In this type of winding operation. A random arrangement of fibers on the lap surface separates the individual layers from each other substantially better than an arrangement with a high degree of parallelization. the turns caused by the turntable remain. or scale apart and thus produce disturbances. However. They cling to each other. The turntable creates no turns during deposition of the sliver. twist can arise at both these places. However. such as a lap or a web. In order to be able to wind over the whole length of the tube. 80 and Fig. i. each wrap is laid on the tube closely adjacent to the neighboring wrap (Fig. so that the package takes up as much material as possible. its diameter and hence its circumference (length of wrap) are both small. In this case. This can often be seen clearly in the raising of hairs on the ribbon lap machine in combing. A traverse mechanism is unnecessary since the width of the product is the same as that of the receiving tube. is wound up over its full width on a mandrel or a tube (Fig. 79 – Winding of lap layers on a mandrel Winding on flyer bobbins Build-up of the package Laying down of roving in the package is effected in parallel layers. this is possible by adjusting the position of the press finger through raising and lowering the flyer or by upand-down movement of the tube. the package (as a unit with a bobbin rail) must be moved more slowly for this second winding layer than for . 81). a product of substantial width. in the processing of man-made fibers. it can lead to disturbances. The second layer of wraps lies upon the first. the appropriate up-and-down movement of the flyer cannot be implemented in practice because it would result in continual variation of the spinning geometry – the inclination and length of the thread path from the drafting arrangement to the head of the flyer.Cycloidal deposition of sliver has several advantages. self-isolating separating layer. and there is only a shift in the position of the deposition point. The only practical method is the more complex continual raising and lowering of the packages together with the bobbin rail. tear apart. winding is a very simple procedure. Fig. However. The turns created at the plate are not permanent: they are subsequently detwisted when pulling-out the sliver from the can. Since the first winding layer is formed on the bare tube.e. Mostly this is insignificant because only a few turns are created. since the individual wraps must be located very close to each other. This will occur all the more readily if the lap does not form a closed. It can happen that the individual layers of the lap do not separate cleanly. but it also has disadvantages.

whereas that to the bobbin is long. only three twists per meter instead of the required 40-60 twists. i. Furthermore. the spindle starts . This is necessary because of the lack of end limitations in the form of flanges. the drive transmission to the bobbin includes a slip position. with a pre-set fixed spindle speed. the flyer (spindle). Such a design. With a non-rotating flyer. because the drive transmission path from the motor to the spindle is short. it must be moved still more slowly. namely. all modern short staple roving frame designs use the principle of the leading bobbin. must be continuously reduced. is needed to twist the roving. A leading spindle has the advantage that. however. the two assemblies must have the same direction of rotation. there would be too few – only one twist per wrap. winding and controlled twisting of the roving to a selected degree. It provides significant advantages. In order to prevent such falling away. In order to fulfill both tasks. A second change of movement is required insofar as the bobbin rail must perform continually shorter strokes. both the flyer and the bobbin. Nevertheless. there would be no turns in the product. the bobbin must rotate faster than the flyer or the flyer faster than the bobbin. When the roving frame is started. such a difference can be obtained very easily if one of the two assemblies does not rotate.e. The speed of the bobbin rail. A bobbin diameter of 106 mm leads to one twist per circumference (= 333 mm). If the stroke were held constant. namely twisting of the roving. the ends are made conical. This is referred to operations with a leading bobbin or with a leading spindle (flyer) (Fig.the first. Winding is effected only when the difference between the speeds of these two assemblies is equal to the delivery speed. For the third layer. However. the operation can be run with lower bobbin speeds – lower than the spindle speed. the package ends were made straight. 81 – Laying wraps next to each other Speed relationships One assembly. and consequently the stroke of the bobbin rail has to be reduced after each layer. and also of the bobbin itself. i.e. 80 – Build of roving bobbin in sections Fig. Fig. then the individual layers would fall away at the ends. In terms of design. and so on. would impede the fulfillment of an additional task of the flyer. but two assemblies are needed to wind it. 82). with a nonrotating package. as follows: • Fewer roving breaks or faulty drafted places at the winding point. the cone belt transmission.

(a) with a leading bobbin. spi = spindle) are given by: then. At each instant. the air-resistance tends not to lift the roving off the bobbin but rather to press it back against the bobbin. No unwinding of the layers. the bobbin speed must be reduced slowly with increasing bobbin diameter. winding can occur only when there is a difference between the circumferential speed of the bobbin and that of the spindle (flyer). The following general principle can therefore be derived. Speed reduction with increasing package diameter. the bobbin speed corresponding to any given bobbin diameter can be derived: which gives . Fig. with a leading spindle. If the circumferential speeds (bo = bobbin. 82 – Winding on flyer bobbins. With a leading spindle. with a leading bobbin. because the roving is moved against air-resistance in the rotational direction of the bobbin. and a roving break would occur. On the other hand. in the absence of intervention. since delivery is given by: The bobbin diameter and the spindle diameter are equal. With a leading bobbin. (b) with a leading spindle The winding principle As already mentioned. there are no such effects.• • up immediately. This is advantageous in terms of power consumption. the circumferential speeds (and finally their difference) would increase. with increasing mass to be moved. but the bobbin follows with a delay. the roving would tear at the press finger. which is not altogether sensible. As roving layers are deposited on the bobbin. Hence. To avoid this the bobbin speed must continuously be reduced in a precisely controlled manner in order to maintain the speed difference continually equal to the constant delivered length. Unwinding of the roving would arise on a roving break with a leading spindle. With a leading bobbin. their diameters increase. however. the bobbin speed must gradually be increased. since the length delivered and the length wound up must be the same. since in this context only the winding point at the press finger is significant. Hence we obtain: By transforming the equation. On the other hand. this difference must correspond to the delivery speed. and a drafting fault at the finger would be created. There would be a constant increase in the length wound up. i.e.

etc. Raising and lowering of the ring rail are caused by the heartshaped cam and are transmitted by chains. and the conically convergent tip K. steep portion causes downward movement that is rapid but occurs with decreasing speed. 83) consists of three visually distinct parts – the barrel-like base A. slowly but with increasing speed. the cylindrical middle part W. 83 – The cop as a yarn package Fig. With the deposition of one layer on another. the conicity gradually increases. The short.Winding of cops Build of cops Form of cops The cop (Fig. 85). 86). individual yarn layers would inevitably be pressed into each other.. to the ring rail (Fig. The main layer is formed during slow raising of the ring rail. The main layers are the effective cop-filling layers. 84 – Building up the cop in layers . Each layer consists of a main layer and a cross-layer (Fig. Fig. flatter part of the cam surface forces the ring rail upwards. The long. steeply downward inclined wraps of yarn and are formed during rapid lowering of the ring rail. winding begins with an almost cylindrical layer on the similarly almost cylindrical tube. In the absence of such separating layers. The cross-layers are made up of widely separated. In the base portion itself. but constant conicity is achieved only after the formation of the base. belts. rollers. the individual wraps being laid close to each other or on each other. and layer-wise draw-off of yarn would be impossible. 84). They form the separating layers between the main layers and prevent the pulling down of several layers simultaneously when yarn is drawn off at high speed in winding machines. It is built up from bottom to top from many conical layers (Fig.

and hence per yarn double layer. 85 – Main layers and cross layers Fig.Fig. . The heart-shaped cam and the delivery cylinder are coupled together by the drive gearing. is always the same. Thus the quantity delivered for each revolution of the cam. The volumes of the individual double layers are therefore also equal. 87 – The formation of the curvature at the cop base The creation of the typical cop form is explained as follows by Johannsen and Walz [20]. 86 – The winding mechanism The formation of the base Fig.

and the volume. With constant layer volume. i. b1 1/2 instead of b1. the first layer would be half as thick at the top as at the bottom.e. would also be the same. The gearing change wheel has little influence on this sequence of events. it follows that a curve. Since the ring rail is also raised by a constant amount h after each deposited layer. Fig. and the cop will be too thin. 88 – The formation of the conical layers The winding process The winding principle As in the case of the roving frame. At the bottom. d1 (Fig. One conical layer will be laid upon the other until the cop is full. rather than a straight line. each assembly . Accordingly. This is followed by the deposition of the second layer. Owing to the constant. the trapezium will become a parallelogram. The average diameter at the top would be the same as that of the first layer. At the tip of each layer the speed is higher than at the base of the layer. however. The formation of the conical layers It has already been mentioned that the ring rail is not moved uniformly.e. Since all other winding conditions now remain the same. the winding diameter is increasing continually so that the layer thickness is declining from b1 to b2 to b3 to b4 . the upper portion of the new layer would again be deposited on the bare tube. i. at the bottom.Deposition of double layers on the tube begins with a small average layer diameter. It will be too thick if the ring rail is lifted too slowly. In the roving frame. i. and so on. The average diameter increases gradually with each newly deposited layer. If too many teeth are inserted. Each newly deposited layer will have this thickness of b11/2 at the top. 87). arises automatically in the base portion. (Fig. the other is the traveler representing the remnant of the flyer. and the layer is thinner at the tip. and hence the thickness. the ring rail does not dwell as long at the tip as it does at the base: less material is wound. no further variation can now arise in the layering.e.e. 88). the lower side will be the same size as the upper side: both will be b11/2. that is b1 1/2. when the cylindrical portion of the cop is formed. If it is assumed by way of example that the ring rail is moving twice as fast at the top of its stroke as at the bottom of the stroke. The first layer would correspond to a trapezium with the side b1 at the bottom and the side b1 1/2 at the top. this can have only one result. At some stage. namely a continual reduction of the layer width from b1 to b2 to b3. One assembly is the spindle. two assemblies with different speeds must be used in order to enable winding to occur. continually narrowing trapezia are produced. the final condition of constant conical layers will be reached too soon. Furthermore. Its speed increases during upward movement and falls during downward movement. short-term lifting of the ring rail. the speed difference must be equal over time to the delivery length at the front cylinder. i.

For winding with a leading spindle (see also Speed relationships). for example. the layer diameters given (as in Fig. Influence can be exerted on this process by way of the mass of the traveler.has its own regulated drive. 89 – Different winding diameters In contrast to the roving frame. The speed of the traveler required to give a predetermined speed difference arises through more or less strong braking of the traveler on the running surface of the ring. 89). this is true only for the spindle. The traveler is dragged by the spindle acting through the yarn. Assuming. In the ring spinning frame. The delivery is given by: where vT is the traveler speed. and a delivery speed of 15 m/min. 89). the winding diameter in the ring spinning frame changes continually with raising and lowering of the ring rail. a spindle speed of 13 500 rpm. Variation in the speed of the traveler Fig. The traveler must have different speeds at the base and the tip. the following relationships apply. the traveler speed at the base will be: and at the tip it will be . the diameter d is the diameter at the winding point. Thus we have: and The required traveler speed is then: As in the case of the roving frame. since the winding layers are formed conically (Fig.

41%. the aim here is to provide the textile specialist involved in everyday practice with an understanding of the interrelations and in .In comparison with the constant speed of the spindle. the inaccuracy of measurement in the estimation of yarn twist by test instruments is greater than this twist variation. since the turns arise from the traveler and not from the spindle. Secondly.77 to 1. In the given example. Force and tension relationships during winding by using travelers Preliminary ramarks Fig.73 turns/m that is exactly the number of turns previously missing. Variation in yarn twist The equation is generally used to calculate the number of turns in the yarn. However. even during twist tests. representation exclusively in two dimensions when the actual process is three-dimensional. the yarn finally receives its full twist in any case. If 191 turns per minute are missing at the tip. for example. the result is Tm (missing)= 191 turns/min / 15 m/min = 12. and 15 m of yarn has to be wound up in this period. 90 – Resolution of forces in the force parallelogram In the following explanations. The compensation of the missing turns can then be explained easily. be ensured that cops are always unwound over end. 104 turns per minute are missing at the base of the winding on the cop (larger diameter). and 191 turns per minute at the tip (smaller diameter). since each rotation of the yarn around the tube (1 wrap) leads to the insertion of an additional turn in the yarn. The intention is not to present either exact scientific theory or a detailed basis for calculations. the traveler has a changing speed difference of 0. each yarn wrap on the cop (one circumference) produces one additional turn. this is not wholly accurate. As just established. At the tip (cop diameter 25 mm). It must. we have: Ta (additional)= 1 000 mm/m / 25 mm × π = 12. these missing turns are a theoretical rather than a practical problem for two reasons. certain inaccuracies have been deliberately accepted. however. Rather. Firstly.73 turns/m During unwinding. This happens as soon as the yarn is drawn off the cop over the end.

the tangential force FT. This is no longer true if the force is directed with a sideways inclination (pulling in direction FF). then the pulling force must have the magnitude FF (friction forces being neglected here). 20. These forces can be represented graphically and measured or calculated in accordance with the formula: Conditions at the traveler in the plane of the ring Fig. diminishing the friction of the traveler at the ring created by the centrifugal force FZ ).e. the force FR) will press the carriage against the rails at an angle of 90° to the direction of movement. In the stationary state. there is much literature available on scientifically exact usage [18.particular to bring out the interplay of forces. For this purpose.e. the normal “school” presentation of which is repeated here briefly for completeness (see Fig. 90). A frictional force FH between the ring and the traveler. this braking force FH is in equilibrium with the forward component FT of the yarn tension FF. and the radial force FR. 21]. simplified models have been used. The pulling force FF can therefore be resolved into two components. If a carriage is to be moved forward on rails. it can be pulled directly in the direction of the rails (as FT). 91 – The forces acting at the traveler The following forces act on the traveler (1) in the plane of the ring (2): • • A tensile force FF. Part of the force FF ( i. with constant traveler speed. which arises from the winding tension of the yarn and always acts at a tangent to the circumference of the cop (3). Now only a part of the total force exerted (FF) will contribute to the forward movement (FT). i. Hence we have: or A force FN normal to the surface of the ring (pulling the traveler in the direction of the cop. if the carriage is to be moved forward with the required force FT and the pulling force is effective at an angle . In this case the whole of the force contributes to the forward movement. The whole treatment is based on the parallelogram of forces. Accordingly. This component is lost as far as forward motion is concerned. which draws the carriage forward. The frictional force FH arises from this normal force in accordance with the relation: Where μ .

when wraps have to be formed on the bare tube (small diameter). This can be observed easily in the balloon on any ring spinning machine. This variation is especially large with regard to changes in the winding diameter. Zurich) identifies the following relationships between these forces. owing to the difference in the angle a the tensile forces FF are different. Frictional force FH undergoes only small variations. i. solved for the tensile force: For a rough estimate. and then on the full cop circumferences (large diameter). such changes arise at very short intervals in each ring rail stroke as demonstrated by the example illustrated in Fig. This force can be calculated in accordance with the relations [20]: where mL is the mass of the traveler. therefore. This occurs not only at the start of cop winding (formation of the base).e. Approximately. which is the largest force acting on the traveler. The tube and ring diameters must have a minimum ratio. 93 is obtained. However. yarn tension is substantially higher than when the ring rail is at its lowest position. the term can be ignored. 92. then the picture in Fig. When the ring rail is at the upper end of its stroke. it can be assumed to be the same in both cases. and dR is the diameter of the ring. . The same dependence of the tensile force FF on the angle a can be seen from the formulas given above. between approximately 1:2 and 1:2. It has already been mentioned that tensile force FF must be assumed tangential to the cop circumference because it arises from the winding point. The result is that the tensile force exerted on the yarn is much higher during winding on the bare tube than during winding on the full cop diameter because of the difference in the angle of attack of the yarn on the traveler. in spinning onto the tube. Professor Krause (ETH. in order to ensure that the yarn tension oscillations do not become too great. If the yarn tension is measured over time. ωL is the angular velocity of the traveler.2. we have: Changes in the force conditions Continuous variation of the operating conditions arises during winding of a cop.• A centrifugal force FZ. The components FT of the yarn tension are then also equal.

e. b. which arises from the balloon and can be assumed as tangential to the balloon curve. Zurich. the three forces FL. FZ. The other is a force FB. Furthermore. the angle σ therefore undergoes substantial variations. 94). H. acting at an angle a to the x-axis. 95). 94 – Resolution of forces at the traveler: a. 92 – The tensile force (FF) on the yarn. and FN are in equilibrium. At constant traveler speed. As the ring rail goes up and down. the traveler is subjected to the forces FZ (centrifugal force) and FN (normal force).Fig. in plan . The influence of the yarn on the traveler can be expressed in terms of two forces (see Fig. with a large cop diameter. W. Stalder. they intersect at point P and form a closed triangle (Fig. a. in elevation. The weight of the traveler can be ignored here. One of these is tensile force FF. Fig. b. of ETH. i. 93 – Continual changes in yarn tension due to winding on larger and smaller diameters Conditions at the traveler in the plane through the spindle axis These conditions were formulated by Professor H. This force draws the traveler upwards at an angle γ to the y-axis. Krause and Dr. with a small cop diameter (bare tube) Fig. Thus the traveler is drawn upwards at an inclination by the resultant force FL of the two components (FB + FF ).

In addition to these tilting movements. with the magnitude of the tensile component FL. This variability in the movement of the traveler is not good in terms of friction conditions. 96 a)). When the ring rail moves down.e. on the other hand. and the angle of attack. If the yarn moves upwards in the traveler (Fig. the yarn acts on the traveler at a position only slightly above the ring. yarn tension is high. the latter straightens up again (Fig. when the yarn in the traveler approaches the ring more closely during upward movement of the ring rail. caused by the greater force FL . the traveler also performs a so-called rolling motion. the balloon widens out.Fig. 97 b)). The yarn acts on the upper portion of the curve in the traveler. 95 – The resultant tensile force FL on the yarn Changes in the conditions The forces FF and FB and the angle δ are subject to substantial variation during one stroke of the ring rail. Fig. and the yarn slips towards the middle of the curve in the traveler. When the ring rail is at the top of its stroke (small cop diameter. and it draws the free end of the traveler upwards on the left-hand side. which is thereby drawn out of the vertical with an inclination to the left. Fig. however. This implies corresponding variation in force FL . 97 a)). the traveler needs this freedom to enable it to adapt to the varying forces and to take up impact. 96a) – Raising and lowering of the traveler raising. as the yarn moves downwards relative to the traveler. The traveler straightens up. The free end of the traveler tilts slowly downwards on the left-hand side. The point at which the yarn passes through the traveler also varies. In the reverse effect. the tensile forces are reduced. i. the point of attack of the yarn on the traveler moves away from the contact surface with the ring.

a component FC.Fig. Even without this. This is true also of the air resistance of the traveler. The balloon tension FB does not therefore act as a vertical pulling force. 96b) – Raising and lowering of the traveler lowering. An exact formulation would require three-dimensional representation and a corresponding analysis. 98 – Resolution of forces with an inclined balloon . and a component FA. it can be seen from the drawing that the balloon tension can be resolved into two components (Fig.e. i. 98). in the plane of the spindle axis. however. namely. which acts as a restraining force on the traveler and slightly reinforces the restraining force arising from the friction appearing between the ring and traveler. 97 – Varying inclination of the traveler on the ring. which presses the traveler upwards against the ring. Fig. as previously assumed in the simple representation. It follows a curve caused by the air resistance created by the balloon rotation. Component FA is relatively small and can be ignored. b) inclined Conditions at the traveler in the tangential plane The yarn does not run absolutely vertically. caused by the reduced force FL Fig. a) upright. Its effect is actually inclined upwards at an angle.

Thus. and greater balloon heights. uniform. the attitude of the traveler on the ring is also changing. stable running of the traveler is therefore impossible. The value of eμξ generally lies between 1. Since the yarn is diverted at the traveler and friction arises there. σ is the specific mass of the yarn. the yarn tension in the balloon is strongly dependent upon the traveler speed and the height of the balloon.8. Fig. Since the forces themselves and their angles of attack are constantly changing. However. H is the height of the balloon. for a given yarn count. Yarn tension FV (Fig. An equilibrium of forces must be obtained between yarn tension FF and balloon tension FB. i. It is reduced to a very small degree by the diversion of the yarn at the thread guide.e.2 and 1. lead to very high yarn tensions in the balloon. Since the traveler has no drive of its own but has to follow the spindle. High traveler speeds. 99 – The balloon tension Effects on the traveler All of the forces mentioned here act on the traveler. This is one of the great problems in ring spinning. its movement must be braked. The balloon tension FB is therefore a little more than half the winding tension (FF). and ξ is the angle of wrap of the yarn on the traveler. this equilibrium is given [20] by: where e is the base of natural logarithms (2. very . Accordingly. 99) at the point of maximum diameter in the balloon can be derived approximately from the following formula given by Professor Krause: where ωL is the angular velocity of the traveler. and k is a constant. μ is the coefficient of friction between the yarn and traveler.Balloon tension The yarn tension in the balloon (FB ) is the tension which finally penetrates almost to the spinning triangle and which is responsible for most of the thread breaks in practice.718). Quiet. These analyzable variations are reinforced by sudden sharp forces arising from the balloon or from the friction conditions between the ring and the traveler. braking without generation of heat is not possible. (yarn mass/yarn length)≈tex. A still bigger problem is the development of heat.

Here again. drawframes. improving personnel efficiency. and has to continue to the end of the process. long-term product quality. The volume of rejects if anything goes wrong at any production unit in the mill is equally high. The mass of the traveler is too small to enable it to transmit the heat to the air or to the ring in the time available. informing the personnel responsible and enabling them to react immediately. . Even with complete new designs of ring and traveler as introduced by the Rieter company.g. and yarn under present conditions. The top level of the MIS is usually a commercial host computer. the level at which sensitive sensors are installed directly at special control points on the machines.high temperatures arise in the traveler. and to end at the winding machines. 100). systems referred to as “Mill Information Systems” to control the process in terms of both quality and economy are now available from some machine manufacturers. QUALITY ASSURANCE The necessity Running high-tech spinning plants without the requisite technological knowledge is not possible. 101). They pick up the incoming figures and transmit them to the second level. More than ever the following slogan is valid: "FAULTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED. The summarized result is often indicated in a simple manner on a panel at the machine.The detailed analysis of the second. all information arriving from the third (or perhaps second) level is collected in a condensed and compatible form by a local network and selectively evaluated in an easy-to-use form. transform and evaluate the signals arriving from the sensors. as diagrams (Fig. but also for an overall control. The third level is the level of the PC workstation. one of which is the Rieter Company. optimizing raw material utilization. this also has a very important second advantage.. The structure of the Mill Information System (MIS) These systems mostly feature a three or four-level structure. this expertise includes the ability to ensure constant. enormous damage has occurred because highperformance machines such as cards.e. third and fourth level enables immediate action to be taken if the slightest deviation occurs. The problem here is actually not so much the generation of heat as its dissipation. the machine level. either individual or group-wise. monitoring and information system with control devices at all relevant points of the material through-flow. The advantage of the Rieter system ( SPIDERweb) is that it controls the entire mill from the blowroom to the winder. a drawframe operating at a speed of 800 m/min produces sliver for about 55 to 60 cops of yarn. where the data collected at the machine level is selectively evaluated and informatively displayed in the supervisor‘s office.e. e. sufficient to manufacture 25 shirts. In addition to many other subjects. By the time it is able to react to faults in production. These various explanations show that it is not easy to achieve considerable improvements in the interplay of the ring. simple computers collect. The system has to start at the point where the first intermediate product is created. whereas many other systems control only specific machine groups. i. The wrong tool for high-tech spinning plants in respect to quality is the time-honored “Statistical Quality Control Office”. to start at the process infeed of the card. At the machine level. but it is also not possible without the required management expertise. but also for mill management. i. NOT CORRECTED" Meeting this requirement calls not only for competent quality management. One tool for ensuring virtually total process security is the Mill Information System (MIS). starting at the lowest level. namely considerably reducing production costs by: • • • • enabling the precisely required quality to be produced. As sensors are installed nowadays in any case at all important points on nearly all machines. it makes sense to equip these control units additionally with data collecting and data evaluating systems in order to have the necessary tools not only for quality management. They reach more than 400°C. This can be illustrated by a simple example: in only one minute. often also in graphic form (Fig. traveler. increasing productivity. produce huge amounts of intermediate products within a very short time. Besides ensuring quality. the traveler speed is limited to about 50 m/s (180 km/h). Fortunately. etc.

and can be extended to include additional machines at any time. Its modular design permits the interconnection of any number of machines. etc. machines purchased now will become part of such overall systems later. It relieves management staff of time-consuming routine work. The resulting new alarm schedule enables improvements to be made at the next deficient production unit. The initial data required are available from Rieter. It enables production data. stop events. weight per time unit. one of the requirements of competent management. and the fault can be eliminated at once. Classimat data. and so on. A very important feature of this system is the inclusion of an alarm system. A further advantage of these systems is the potential for constant improvement of quality and productivity due to the following effect: when the alarm record indicates a deficient production unit. etc. and quality data. but can also be elaborated by the mill itself. the reason for this deficiency can be eliminated. CV values. thus enabling the alarm limit to be lowered. down-times. SPIDERweb provides responsible personnel with all necessary data to run the mill without major problems. efficiency.Fig. . and allows it to concentrate fully on exceptional events. 101 – Diagram of SPIDERweb Fig. The moment any controlled item at any point within the mill crosses a preset limit specified by the mill. spectrograms. Comment If these systems are not purchased together with the machinery at the outset it has to be kept in mind that: • • • a mill information (monitoring) system is essential sooner or later.. e. Improvement becomes increasingly difficult with each improvement step. this is indicated immediately. 100 – The different levels of the SPIDERweb system The Rieter “SPIDERWeb” Mill Information System (Mill Monitoring System) SPIDERweb is a user-oriented data system based on Windows. from every machine to be logged and analyzed according to the requirements of the mill. of course. and will end when the effort required is greater than the result achieved. SPIDERweb is a very modern and important management tool. It permits control and monitoring of the entire mill from bale lay-out to the winding machines. these machines have to fit into the MIS.g. e.g.

Schenek. Part 1).11/1984. “Handbuch der Baumwollspinnerei”.Y. The Textile Institute and Butterworths... Lord. Textilbetrieb.J. Volume II. 1973. [7] A. . Manchester and London.. Textil-Praxis. 1961. 977. 6/1984. 1961/62. [19] K. 107-115. “Die Baumwollspinnerei”. Textil-Praxis. Chemiefasern/ Textilindustrie. [13] Autorenkollektiv. [21] A. [5] G. 717-720. Schenek. Faserbeanspruchung an Hochleistungskarden. Kanarski. W. Textil-Praxis. 305-308. 4/1980..P. 1995. Gan. 608-611. 6/1984. [2] A. [18] W. Wang and G. [3] E. Staubkontrolle in der Baumwollspinnerei. 9/1984. 6/1967. Rakow. No. Artzt and O. Walz.P. Melliand Textilber. Rechnerische Ermittlung der Reinigungswirkung einer Spinnereivorbereitungsan-lage. Staubbekämpfung in der Spinnerei-Vorbereitung. 7/8. 475-479.M. References [1] A. 89100. Jordan. Band III. 1/1980. Text. 980. Spinning. Mandl. Melliand Textilber. 983-986. Technologische Untersuchungsergebnisse von teilautomatisierten Baumwollspinnereien. Messmethoden zur Bestimmung des Kurzfaseranteils in Rohbaumwolle. O. Rakow and W. [4] Rohstoffentstaubung in der Putzerei und ihre maschinentechnische Lösung. 559-563. [6] F. Leifeld. 2/1973. Schenek. Textil-Praxis. 28. Leifeld. [10] F. 29. and A. I. Band II. 374-377. VEB-Verlag. 1953.. The Characteristics of Raw Cotton (Manual of Cotton Spinning. Binder and M. Leipzig. Germany. Melliand Textilber. 1954. Verlag Handwerk and Technik. Schreiber. VEB Verlag Technik. [20] O. Melliand Textilber. Budnikow. N. Massnahmen zur Vermeidung von Reklamationen bei der Verarbeitung von Baumwolle. [9] H.W. Abhängigkeit der Nissenzahlen in Kardenbändern. Faserparameter für neue Spinnverfahren. Mischverfahren der Stapelfaserspinnerei. Fortschritte beim Öffnen und Kardieren. Germany. [12] D.Chemiefasern/ Textilindustrie. Artzt. [11] P. Sotikow. Leifeld. Int. Leipzig. Krjukow. [14] P. 3/1982. 184-191. Frey. 551-554. Schreiber. “Spinnereitechnische Grundlagen”. 761-762. Deussen. 4/1980. Bull.E. Berlin. [17] W. Abbau des Zuckers von Honigtau auf Baumwolle. [16] F.I. 381-387. 1977. Germany. Johannsen and F. Germany. 8/1982. [15] R. Luftgesponnene Garne – ihre charakteristischen Eigenschaften. 622.. Melliand Textilber. Kaufmann. 1974. Untersuchungen an der Wanderdeckelkarde. “Grundlagen des Spinnens”. Melliand Textilber. Elsner and R.• management‘s failure to take this into consideration would create insoluble problems. 1980. Naturfaserlexikon Deutscher Fachverlag 2000/2006 [8] O.. Melliand Textilber. VEB Fachbuch-Verlag.. Band I–II. 754. Budnikow. Wanner.

International committee on cotton testing methods. for modern high-performance lines the following are added: • • • high operational efficiency. Bremen march 2002 [27] Cotton fi ber chart 2006. The task of the blowroom line is to: • • • • open the material into very fine tufts. 100. 41-44. 80-84. [23] Zellweger Uster AG. Textilbetrieb. [25] Cotton Contamination Surveys. 23.-J. 1/2. And this has to be done: • • • with very careful treatment of the raw material. high flexibility. 8. Sasser. eliminate most of the impurities. ITMF International Textile Manufacturers Federation [26] Dr. 38. Asia. No. No.. Hequet.[22] K. provide a good blend.Uster Luwa AG Fiber preparation Blow-room Introduction Fig. The requirements mentioned here are standard for all blowroom lines. Brockmanns. Text. Strukturuntersuchungen an Fasergarnen. 1982. high economy. while assuring the optimum level of quality. 1. eliminate dust. E. No. with maximum utilization of the raw material. Uster News Bull. 1991. working group stickiness. 1 – Technological performance of a blowroom line and influencing factors The first volumes of the Rieter Manual of Spinning are mainly focused on the treatment of cotton. The relationships between the scope of tasks and the influencing factors are shown in Fig. 1999 – 2001 – 2003 – 2005. .ITMF International Textile Manufacturers Federation [28] Uster statistics 2001. [24] P. 1988.

carried out to the stage of tufts – in contrast to the cards. And this can be done.• machines of ergonomic design. The small improvements by each of the subsequent machines are obtained only by considerable additional effort. A blowroom installation removes approximately 40 . 2 – Openness of the fiber material after the various blowroom machine stages. it is clear that there is no better way to reduce costs than via the raw material. Summary of the process Basic operations in the blow-room Opening Fig. The result is dependent on the raw . The main saving potential. and optimum preparation for further processing. e. Artzt. the avoidance of deterioration. unnecessary fiber loss and a striking increase in neppiness. axis B: Blowroom stages The first operation required in the blowroom line is opening. All the above-mentioned facts are what makes the blowroom line so very important. stressing of the material. 2. or even almost all. Errors or negligence in selection.e. This is unavoidable. Tuft weight can be reduced to about 0. e. Considering the overall costs of a ring spinning plant. Foreign matter cannot be eliminated without simultaneous extraction of good fibers.g.1 mg in the blowroom. reproducible and stable settings. where it is performed to the stage of individual fibers. 3 or (at least) No.Looking additionally at the cost structure of a yarn in which the raw material accounts for about 50 . however. is achievable with the introduction of professional and competent raw material management. composition or treatment of raw material in this section can never and by no means be corrected in the subsequent process stages. very significant in respect of raw material treatment. Another big problem with conventional blowroom lines is the deterioration of the raw material: • • • about 50% of all shortcomings in the yarn. And even then the best blowroom line is not able to eliminate all. i. only the amount of good fiber loss can and must be influenced. It is. safe and easy to handle. the best possible utilization. of the foreign matter in the raw material. about 50% of all quality reducing factors. as it enables a somewhat cheaper material to be used than with an older blowroom line.e. and also guarantees the optimum preparation and utilization of the raw material. however. Within a progressive line of machines it is therefore necessary to create new surfaces continuously by opening the material. It should end somewhere at machine No.70% of the impurities. The latter is not so easy to achieve with regard to one of the tasks of the blowroom. It enables the raw material to be selected to conform exactly to requirements. If necessary the card is able to assume rather more of the overall task.70%. Cleaning It has to be kept in mind that impurities can only be eliminated from surfaces of tufts. with a modern high-performance blowroom line. This line is a theoretical layout for study purposes only. andaround 50% of all yarn break causes can be traced back to the operation of the blowroom and cards. 4. maintenance friendly. Schenek and Al Ali [2] indicate that the degree of opening changes along a blowroom line as shown in Fig.g.. the share of the blowroom line with about 5 to 10% is not very relevant. axis A: Degree of opening (specific volume). cleaning the raw material. i. The flattening of the curve toward the end shows that the line is far too long.

6% to 1. 3 – Degree of cleaning (A) as a function of the trash content (B) of the raw material in % . Since the proportion of fibers in waste differs from one machine to another. it is necessary to eliminate about as much fibers as foreign material. 4 shows. It is essential to know this range and to operate within it. Thus. AF = good fibers eliminated (%). fibers represent about 40 . In an investigation by Siersch [3].1% and AF = 0. For example. and this occurs mostly exponentially. Therefore each machine in the line has an optimum range of treatment. It is clear from this diagram that the cleaning effect cannot and should not be the same for all impurity levels. if AT = 2. and can be strongly influenced. the quantity of fibers eliminated increased by 240%. Looking at the machine. in this case on the level of impurities. the quantity of waste eliminated on a cleaning machine by modifying settings and speeds was raised from 0.65%: Fig. since it is easier to remove a high percentage of dirt from a highly contaminated material than from a less contaminated one.2%: while the quantity of foreign matter eliminated increased by only 41%. the cleaning effect is a matter of adjustment. However. increasing the degree of cleaning also increases the negative effect on cotton when trying to improve cleaning by intensifying the operation. as Fig. in cleaning efficiency (CE): AT = total waste (%).e.60% of blowroom waste. 3 illustrates the dependence of cleaning on raw material type. in order to clean. the machines and the environmental conditions.material. The diagram by Trützschler in Fig. It can be expressed as a percentage of good fiber loss in relation to total material eliminated. Normally. the fiber loss at each machine should be known. i.

(b) licker-in deposit. blowroom machines. dust removal is not an easy operation.Fig. it is mainly the suction units that remove dust (in this example 64%). II. dust in the exhaust air. as shown by Mandl [4]. 5 shows Mandl’s figures for the various machines. Fig. 4 – Operational efficiency and side effects Dust removal Almost all manufacturers of blowroom machinery now offer dust-removing machines or equipment in addition to opening and cleaning machines. (a) filter deposit. However. Blending Blending of fiber material is an essential preliminary in the production of a yarn. 7. drawframes. 5 – Dust removal as a percentage of the dust content of the raw cotton (A) at the various processing stages (B): 1 . It follows that dust elimination takes place at all stages of the spinning process. 6. Fibers can be blended at various stages of the process. These possibilities should always be fully exploited. Fig. for example by Transverse . dust removal will be more intensive the smaller the tufts.5. I. dust in the waste. since the dust particles are completely enclosed within the flocks and hence are held back during suction (because the surrounding fibers act as a filter). Since. card.

intensive blending in a suitable blending machine must be carried out after separate tuft extraction from individual bales of the layout. yarn and twisted threads. man-made fibers. lap and web. is now no longer possible (automatic bale openers). A well-assembled bale layout and even (and as far as possible simultaneous) extraction of fibers from all bales is therefore of the utmost importance. This blending operation must collect the bunches of fibers arriving sequentially from individual bales and mix them thoroughly (see Fig. However. this was carried out by means of precisely weighed laps from the scutcher. Simultaneous extraction from all bales. since the individual components are still separately available and therefore can be metered exactly and without dependence upon random effects.doublingtransverse doubling. Fig. 6. Feed material Raw material Fiber materials used in short-staple spinning can be divided into three groups: • • • cotton. comber waste for the rotor spinning mill. Re-usable waste Rieter indicates average quantities of waste (in %) arising in the spinning mills of industrialized countries as shown in Table 1. recycled fibers from dirty waste in the blowroom and carding room. filter strippings from the drawframe. . clean waste such as broken ends of sliver. of various origins. the start of the process is one of the most important stages for blending. today they generally operate well. and description The Rieter UNImix B 70). While in the introductory phase such installations were subject to problems regarding evenness of tuft delivery. An additional classification can be based on the degree of previous processing: • • • • • • raw fiber. Previously. which used to be normal in conventional blending batteries. regenerated fibers (viscose fibers). the blowroom must ensure that raw material is evenly delivered to the cards. Mostly. raw cotton and man-made fibers are used together with a small proportion of clean waste and possibly some recycled fibers blended with the raw material. Accordingly. but automatic tuft feeding installations are used nowadays. ring spinning machine and rotor spinner. fibers torn out of hard waste such as roving. 6 – Sandwich blending of raw material components Even feed of material to the card Finally. roving frame. mainly polyester and polyacrylonitrile. direct from the ginning mill or the man-made fiber manufacturer.

When such fibers are used at all. fixed percentage of waste fibers of different sorts.5% Rotor-spun yarns: • • • coarse up to 20% medium up to 10% fine up to 5% As regards fibers from hard waste. they are often not returned to the blend from which they came but to a lower quality blend.Binder References[5] gives the following figures for the quantity of good fibers obtainable from waste material. Table 1 – Amount of waste (%) from the different machines in industrialized countries Adding waste to the raw material It will be apparent that raw fibers are usually better than waste fibers because waste contains processed and therefore stressed fibers. For example. since considerable count variation will result along with quality variations. Random and uncontrolled feeding of such fiber material back into the normal spinning process is to be avoided at all costs. Furthermore. recycled fibers can be returned in limited quantities to the blend from which they arose. lap web is very compressed. there should be a constant. and even then only in the smallest possible quantities. It is preferable that: • • a constant. . All of the clean waste arising in the mill can be returned to the same blend from which it arose. Rieter gives the following average amounts of recycled fibers that can be added to the normal blend: Ring-spun yarns: • • carded up to 5% combed up to 2. comber waste is used mostly in the rotor spinning mill. but waste from thread break suction systems is barely compressed at all. fixed percentage of waste fibers should be added to the fiber blend. since waste fibers have experienced differing numbers of machine passages. they differ from each other in their characteristics. and within this fixed proportion of waste. only roving is used.

Material from bales
Production of a reasonably homogeneous product from inhomogeneous fiber material requires thorough blending of fibers from many bales. In practice, fiber is taken from 20 - 48 bales of cotton simultaneously; with man-made fibers 6 - 12 bales are sufficient. Simultaneous extraction of tufts from more than 48 bales is seldom useful, because usually there is no space for additional blend components in the blending chambers of the bale opener or blender without disturbing the evenness of distribution. On the other hand, the constancy of the blend can often be improved if care is taken with regard to homogeneity at the bale layout stage. The bales can be chosen in such a way that, for the layout as a whole, constant average values are obtained, for example for length, fineness and/or strength, within predetermined upper and lower limits, which is a bale management task. In order to achieve this, the quality of each bale must be known. Today computer software is available for optimizing bale grouping.

Fig. 7 – Bale layout in front of an automatic bale opener

Acclimatisation of the raw material
Air temperature in the blowroom should be above 23°C and relative humidity should be in the 45 - 50% range. Damp air makes for poor cleaning and over-dry air leads to fiber damage. It should be borne in mind, however, that it is not the condition of the air that matters, but that of the fibers. It is assumed, however, that the fibers adapt to the air conditions. To enable this to happen, the fibers must be exposed to the air for an appropriate period. This is not achieved if cotton or, what is even worse, man-made fibers, are taken from the cold raw material store and processed as soon as they have been laid on the extraction floor. Cotton bales should be left to stand in the blowroom in an opened condition for at least 24 hours before extraction starts, better still for 48 hours. Synthetic fiber bales should be left to stand for 24 hours longer than cotton bales, but in an unopened condition. This allows the bales to warm up. Otherwise, condensation will form on the surfaces of the cold fibers. Further adjustment to the air conditioning occurs within the pneumatic transport devices. In such devices, the relatively small tufts are continually subjected to the air current in the transport ducts.

The blowroom installation as a sequence of machines
In processing the material, different types of machines are necessary, namely those suitable for opening, those for cleaning and those for blending. Different intensities of processing are also required, because the tufts continually become smaller as they pass from stage to stage. Accordingly, while a coarsely clothed cleaning assembly is ideal after the bale opener, for example, it is inappropriate at the end of the line. Therefore, there are no universal machines, and a blowroom line is a sequence of different machines arranged in series and connected by transport ducts. In its own position in the line, each machine gives optimum performance – at any other position it gives less than its optimum. Also there may be advantages in different modes of transport, feeding, processing, cleaning and so on from one machine to another along the line. Finally, the assembly of a blowroom line depends among other things on:

the type of raw material;

• • • • •

the characteristics of the raw material; waste content; dirt content; material throughput; the number of different origins of the material in a given blend.

In most cases a modern blowroom line consists of the following machines, as shown in Fig. 8 (Rieter) and Fig. 9 (Trützschler), illustrating two typical blowroom lines.

Fig. 8 – Rieter blowroom line; 1. Bale opener UNIfloc A 11; 2. Pre-cleaner UNIclean B 12; 3. Homogenous mixer UNImix B 75; 4. Storage and feeding machine UNIstore A 78; 5. Condenser A 21; 6. Card C 60; 7. Sliver Coiler CBA 4

Fig. 9 – Trützschler blowroom line; (conventional, for combed cotton. One line with a number of variations.)

The component of blowroom machines Feeding apparatus
Feeding material to the opening rollers of an opening and/or cleaning machine occurs in free flight (gentle, but less intensive treatment of the fibers), or in a clamped condition (intensive but less gentle treatment). Free flight requires only a drop chute, suction pipe or vortex transport from rollers; a clamped feed condition calls for special machine components. In this case feed devices can be distinguished according to whether they comprise:

• • •

two interacting clamping cylinders; a feed roller and a feed table; a feed roller and pedals.

Operating with two clamping cylinders (Fig. 10) gives the best forward motion, but unfortunately also the greatest clamping distance (a) between the cylinders and the beating elements. In a device with a feed roller and table (Fig. 11) the clamping distance (a) can be very small. This results in intensive opening. However, clamping over the whole width is poor, since the roller presses only on the highest points of the web. Thin places in the web can be dragged out of the web as clumps by the beaters. Where pedals are used (Fig. 12), the table is divided into many sections, each of which individually presses the web against the roller, e.g. via spring pressure. This provides secure clamping with a small clamping distance (a). As far as

the feed system is concerned, influence can be exerted on opening and cleaning only via the type of clamping, mainly via the clamping distance (a) to the opening element.

Fig. 10 – Feed to a beater with two clamping rollers

Fig. 11 – Feed with an upper roller and a bottom table

Fig. 12 – Feed with a roller and pedals

Opening devices Classification
Some of the operating devices in blowroom machines function only for opening. Most of them work, however, in cooperation with cleaning apparatus such as grids, etc., and thereby function also as cleaning units. Consequently, they are designed to operate both in opening and cleaning machines. Opening units can be classified as:

the width of the gaps between the bars. gripping devices.• • • endless path.. This type of opening device is therefore no longer used. Grids are segment-shaped devices under the opening assemblies and consist of several (or many) individual polygonal bars or blades (i. etc. This type of gripping is the most gentle of all methods of opening. adjustment. the overall surface area of the grid. construction. at most 3/4 and usually 1/3 to 1/2 of the opening assembly. it is the grid or a grid-like structure under the opening assembly that determines the level of waste and its composition in terms of impurities and good fibers. They grasp the material like fingers. these assemblies exert enormous influence on the whole process. elements with edges) and together these form a trough. facing each other like the jaws of a pair of tongs. Endless path devices (spiked lattice) Gripping elements (plucking springs) Some manufacturers. The grid encircles at least 1/4. rotating assemblies.e. the setting angle of the bars relative to the opening elements. for example former Schubert & Salzer and Trützschler. have used plucking springs for opening. The grid has a major influence on the cleaning effect via: • • • • • the section of the bars. Two spring systems. . Fig. but it produces mostly large to very large clumps of uneven size. the grasping effect of the edges of the polygonal bars. are parted and dropped into the feed material and are then closed before being lifted clear. 15 – Plucking springs Rotating devices The Grid The grid as an operating device In the final analysis. Depending on their design.

Fig. 25 – Two-part grid The elements of the grid .

without other element types. because of their high ratio of mass to volume. Heavy particles could drop out. blades (e): strong and effective. and afforded the possibility of exerting a significant influence on events by permitting some of the transport air for forwarding the tufts (the so-called secondary air) to enter through the waste chamber and the grid. As far as the cleaning effect is concerned. triangular section bars (c): the most widely used grid bars. fibers were . Blades have been used as grid elements for a long time (the mote knife). Waste collecting chambers under grid Impurities and fibers fall through the grid gaps and accumulate in large quantities in the chamber under the grid. are to be found in old. but slotted and perforated sheets. but pneumatic removal systems are used today. easy to manipulate and produce a good cleaning effect. In older designs they sometimes participated actively. grids are made up of knife blades alone. perforated sheets (b): poor cleaning. Waste used to be periodically removed manually.Fig. obsolete cards only. which were formerly placed under the licker-in. They are robust. Modern grids are mostly made up of triangular bars. Angle bars are somewhat less robust and can tend to create blockages. angle bars (d): somewhat weak. The same is true of blade-grids. Today. Such systems enabled the interaction of airflow and beating power to be exploited. However. without influence on the operation. They can be used individually or in combination. 26 – The elements of a grid The following elements can be used in the grid: • • • • • slotted sheets (a): poor cleaning. against the airflow through the grid gaps. modern waste chambers are passive elements. almost always in combination with triangular section bars.

two or three parts. a=closed. setting angle relative to the beater envelope (Fig. none of the transport air now passes through the grid gaps. it can be adjusted only as a unit or in individual sections.taken up again with the airflow because of their low ratio of mass to volume. width of the gaps between the bars (Fig. In most the cases the machines are so designed that only two adjustment types are possible. 27 – Changing the grid bar angle to the beater Fig. Today. 27 and Fig. this principle cannot be exploited because of the small size of the foreign matter. 28c). Accordingly. Fig. Three basic adjustments are possible: • • • distance of the complete grid from the beater. b=open). 29 to Fig. 32 demonstrate the influence of adjustments to these elements: . It is not common to make all these three adjustments. a so-called dead chamber is now used. openingelement and grid Fig. 28. Correspondingly. 28 – Adjustment of the grid bars Intraction of feed assembly. which would now be carried back along with the fibers. Grid adjustement The grid can be in one.

%) on the setting angle of the grid bars relative to the beater (B in degrees). beater speed 550 rpm. 29. 32 – The same function as Fig. III. 31. beater speed 740 rpm (and setting angle of the grid bars). Fig. The design of the machine and its components exerts the strongest influence on neppiness. 32. distance between feeding device and beater. mm) on waste elimination (A. very fine settings and high rotation speeds can produce very negative effects. 29 – Influence of feed pedal distance (Δs. trash content. that can be caused. 4 open). On the other hand. fiber content. 31 but with a beater rotation rate of 550 rpm. b = trash content. Alternative cleaning possibilities . %) on the width of the grid gaps (B) (1 closed. Nevertheless. a = proportion of good fibers. Fig.) Fig. Fig. Fig. filter drum loss. %) Fig. or even damage. the number of neps is scarcely affected. 30. 31 – Dependence of waste elimination: (A. B. Fig. The figures do not show fiber deterioration. I. (Beater rotation speed: 740 rpm. II.• • • • Fig. grid gap width. 30 – Dependence of waste elimination: (A.

speed of the opening device.e. The cotton passes from the Kirschner roller (in front of A) into duct A. as shown diagrammatically in Fig. i. area of the grid surface. influenced by: degree of cleaning and fiber loss are primarily dependent upon. degree of penetration into the material. type of feed. In region C. The transporting air is subjected first to acceleration due to convergence of the duct bore. The ‘Air-stream-cleaner’ comprises two parts. the whole airstream undergoes a sharp diversion (of more than 90°) towards E. but it requires foreign matter significantly less able to float than the fibers.Fig. a Kirschner roller as opening assembly (and pre-cleaner) and the airstream cleaner itself. this is no longer true for all cotton varieties. it must be substantially heavier than the fibers. spacing of the feed from the opening device. This is an extremely gentle cleaning technique. type of grid. . and can therefore be • • • • • • • the type of opening device. 33. beyond region C. While the relatively light cotton tufts can follow the change of direction. and therefore this good cleaning idea is not applicable today. 33 – Airflow cleaner An alternative to the commonly used mechanical cleaning was the airflow cleaner from the former Platt Company. the heavier foreign particles fly through an opening in the duct. General factors influencing opening and cleaning Degree of opening. and to an additional airstream created by fan (V). Unfortunately. into the waste chamber.

08 66 0. time-saving adjustment. It enables operating personnel to adjust the degree of cleaning and the cleaning efficiency (to a certain extent the unavoidable loss of fibers) exactly to the raw material and the requirements of the mill. i. adaptable to all requirements. increasing roller revolutions). At the display it is possible to choose any point of operation adjustment within the complete cleaning field (the square A/X/Z/H): see Fig. condition of pre-opening.65 67 0.6:1 0. 2.55 34 2:1 The example from the UNIclean B 12 clearly shows that a change in the horizontal direction (A to Z. for the degree of cleaning from 1 to 10 (marked here in the example from A to Z).2% trash From/to Waste amount Trash [%] Good fibers [amount] Good fibers [%] Ratio of trash/fibers Setting A A→X A→Z A→H 0.32 33 2:1 1. and for cleaning efficiency from 0.0 to 1. 65. 65). In detail this means: • • • • simple. but another aspect is becoming more and more important: easy handling of machines everywhere. VarioSet: Changes in the extraction of trash and good fibers when changing the settings from A to X. a component of the UNIclean B 12 and UNIflex B 60.5 0. .e.62 90 0. reliability and operational safety are vital in this respect. This display includes a special setting arrangement called VarioSet (Fig. reproducible adjustments.e. opening of the grid) results in a far higher loss of fibers than the change in the vertical direction (A to X.5 3. flexible adjustments. i. Various setting positions can be fixed on the screen. Rieter VarioSet All performance and treatment alterations on both machines mentioned can be made very easily and electronically during the normal operation of the machine from outside the machine without any stoppages.80 78. thickness of the feed web. All that is needed is to push a few buttons on the operating panel at the side of the machine. no uncontrolled changing of settings by the machines. Z till H.g. An easily understandable and clearly arranged display is available at one side of the machine for this purpose. durable adjustments.• • • • • grid settings (airflow through the grid).22 21. position of the machine in the machine sequence. e. High performance machines ougth to be easy to handle Demands The subjects dealt with in the previous chapters are the main technological demands on a modern high-performance blowroom line.07 10 9:1 0. Example: Indian cotton: 1 1/8 inch. Above all. A system of this kind will be explained by means of the Rieter VarioSet. material throughput.0 (marked here from A to X).

Fig. 65 – VarioSet cleaning field Fig. 66 – Practical examples and their effect on waste composition Transport of material The need for transport .

Mechanical transport is limited exclusively to forwarding within the machine. entangling of tufts can arise in long ducts and finally neps can be formed. material is now transported only pneumatically. The belts are driven by shafts that simultaneously serve for belt tensioning. They are used as collector belts in mixing batteries or as infeed or horizontal conveyors in openers and hopper feeders. vortexes are created.Blowroom installations consist of a combination of a number of individual machines arranged in sequence. They are used as horizontal feed lattices and as short transport belts within a machine.e. i. this was performed manually. 67 – Georg Koinzer lattice Fig. and thus function mainly as opening devices. In processing. Inclined lattices or spiked lattices (Fig. The current of air itself is a further disadvantage.e. Since the tufts are subjected to these vortexes. Mechanical transport equipment This comprises conveyor belts. i. 67). 13) are the same in terms of structure and drive. since the air flows in a turbulent fashion through the ducting. 68 – Habasit conveyor belt Pneumatic transport Basic principle Air is not inherently a very efficient transport medium. outside the machine. The forwarding effect is often better on lattices (Fig. Previously. Fig. the material must be forwarded from one machine to the next. Very large quantities must be moved at high speeds in order to keep the tufts that are being transported floating. However. Inclined lattices are operated at speeds up to 100 m/min. but now it is done mechanically or pneumatically. using air as a transport medium. steel spikes are set at an angle in the crossbars. The belts consist of different layers with a fiber-free surface. 68) no longer use crossbars. Conveyor belts permit high speeds. A closed duct (generally a pipe) and a source . They are endless and consist of circulating belts to which closely spaced. They usually interact with evener rollers. lattices and spiked lattices. The forwarding speed is usually very low. Today’s conveyor belts (Fig. They have the disadvantage that sometimes the material slips on them. individual hardwood crossbars are screwed or riveted. so that the raw material can be transported upward.

while the material slides down on the aluminum ribs of the rear wall of the chute. Since each machine has excess capacity. the drum surface is screened off from the partial vacuum in its interior. the sensing lever rises. while the air can pass through the perforations in the drum. 69). it should never exceed 20 . At a given air speed. They operate almost continuously and without stops. and 12 . That means that the raw material is always . during filling of the reserve hopper (R). the fiber tufts remain on the surface of the rotating drum and are carried along with it. v is the air speed in m/s. and must pass on the same quantity per unit of time to the next. To ensure an adequate flow of material. this causes the preceding machine to be switched off .15 m/sec is better. The duct must terminate in a device that separates the air from the material. often in so-called suction boxes (condensers). the machines are adapted to each other so that each machine can produce a little more than the succeeding machine requires.of partial vacuum (a fan) at one end of the duct are needed to move the air. On the other hand. as already discussed. 70) places material into the hopper until sensing lever (a) is pushed so far to the right that a contact is made to switch off the drive of conveyor belt (1). Fig. Fig. each machine must always receive an exact quantity of material per unit of time from the preceding machine. A fine control device serves to maintain material throughput by adjusting the production speeds of the individual machines. by a fan at one end of the drum.24 m/sec. in continuous operation created by changing the speeds of the machines. However. and thus in the duct. the required quantity of air can be calculated as: where L is the quantity of air. for example. 69 – Separation of air and material Control of material flow Classification Since. the pressure exerted by the column of material eventually becomes so great that sensing lever (b) is depressed. the machines’ production rates are much more closely adapted to each other. It is used in various machines and parts. The tufts are no longer retained by suction and fall into a chute. In exactly the same way. The treatment of the material remains uniform all the time. When the column of material has again been largely removed by conveyor (1). The air speed should be at least 10 m/sec. a control system must be provided to ensure the correct delivery quantities. Unfortunately. Another assembly for separating air and material is the slotted chute of the Rieter UNIflex (Fig. A is the cross section of the duct in m2. A partial vacuum is created in the drum. in practice the individual machines actually produce during a period that is often only 50% of operating time and are unproductive during the remainder of the operating time. and is then passed to filters for cleaning. the conveyor (1. the blowroom line is a sequence of individual machines. 57). In a hopper feeder. Air and material flow toward the drum. Separation of air and material By far the most widely used assembly for this purpose is the perforated drum (Fig. In the lower region. Two basic principles are used: batch operation and continuous operation. Batch operation has the advantage that the machines always run at the same speed and with the same production rate when they are in operation. the preceding machine is switched on and the reserve chute is refilled. where the transport air is extracted through the slot.

72 – Optical regulation (Example: Marzoli horizontal cleaner) Four optical monitoring devices (Fig. In continuous operation. the preceding machine is switched on and delivers material. there are continual slowdowns and accelerations.processed under the same conditions. provided variations in production rates do not exceed ± 20%. Fig. 70 – Regulated feed of material in the hopper feeder Optical regulating systems in batch operation Fig. The loading of the machine is high. the machine is switched off again. As machines often do not operate during 50% of the time.. therefore – and this is very important – an attempt should be made to regulate the installation so that the productive time of the individual machines is very high. conveyor belt and mixing chamber of the machine. 300 kg/h as calculated by the spinner. Light barrier (3) monitors the . e.g. in their productive periods they are not working at. since there are only two treatment levels – full on or off . and that might lead to a correspondingly poor cleaning effect. Light barrier (1) is also an over-fill safety monitor. with possibly varying intensities of treatment of the raw material. and only few non-productive periods occur. Data provided by Trützschler indicate that there are no negative effects. When the chute has been filled to such an extent that the material interrupts the light beam in light barrier (1). 72) are mounted in the filling chute. The disadvantage of batch operation lies in the incorrect handling of the material throughput. In the mill. If the column of material falls below light barrier (2). however. instead they are actually processing material at a rate of 600 kg/h.

alarm indication of malfunction. plus an additional PC in the supervisor’s office as an option. e. This receives an analog signal from the tacho-generators of the cards. 71 – Trützschler CONTIFEED Rieter UNIcommands Fig. A language-independent color graphic representation and touchsensitive monitors are chosen for the display. simple switch-over of the process sequence. this is not new in the blowroom. UNIcommand works on an electronic basis. developed by Trützschler.to two. it has been used for a long time in the scutcher as pedal regulation of the feed to the beater. This installation. In this way. requiring a good. automatic shift switch referring to the shift schedule. groups of machines and the total blowroom line. Fig. No computer or software knowledge is required to handle the system. Using this demand. the microcomputer can establish the basic speeds of all drives that determine the throughput and the drives can be correspondingly controlled. A second signal is superimposed on this basic speed signal. is the “CONTIFEED”. from one. they can be transferred to the “CONTIFEED” and stored there. the instantaneous demand for material is continuously calculated from this signal. the successive machines are linked via individual control loops. Light barrier (4) will trigger an alarm if there is no material left on feed conveyor (5). 73 – UNIcommand control system As already mentioned. What is new is that now the whole blowroom line operates continuously and regulation is performed electronically. the blowroom line is a sequence of several machines.amount of material in the mixing chamber and controls the drive to conveyor belt (6) and the feed roller of the chute.or three-blend operation. display of operational status of all system components. and is a combination of PLCs (programmable logic) and PCs with a central control unit somewhere near the blowroom line. The main functional and operational requirements are: • • • • • switching on/off . derived from the contents of the storage unit of the succeeding machine. Continuous operation As a concept. reliable system for monitoring and controlling the individual machines. The central regulating unit. to which all the individual machines are connected. . When balanced operation is achieved. As everywhere. The programs for speeds. Rieter standardized panels are used. production quantities and allocation are first established manually.g. which represents a fairly substantial initial outlay. In their operation these machines have to be very well coordinated. will be presented briefly (see Fig. 71).

The next device. Electronic metal extractors The material is fed from an opening machine such as Blendomat (Fig. Damage prevention and fire protection Metal detection Magnetic metal extractors Fig. too. Spark sensor (2) detects smoldering material and metal detector (3) any kind of metal.• machine remote control for adjusting and changing the operating mode. The most effective form of device is a knee-bend within the feed duct having permanent magnets at the two impact surfaces. Electronic extractors are needed to remove the other particles. 75). extracts the material by suction (5). and let all others pass. Magnetic extractors provide only a partial solution to the problem because they can eliminate only magnetizable metal particles. The user interface is exactly the same as on the machine itself. In either case. When tufts are driven against the magnets. normally a fan in front of the mixing machine. 74 – Magnetic extractor (Marzoli) Magnets have been used for decades in ducting or in special parts of machines in order to eliminate pieces of ferrous material. which is equipped with a fire extinguisher device (7) and a temperature sensor (8) to monitor the container (Fig. 75. active operating flap (4) is opened by a signal from the detector and feeds the material into the receiving waste container. . ferrous particles are retained and can be removed from time to time. 1).

on average about 50% of blowroom and carding droppings consist of good fibers. Fig. The spark detector pivots the rapidly operating flap as soon as the latter detects sparks or burning material. therefore. one possibility lies in recovery of fibers from waste: after all. It is unlikely that much can be done about this. Their recovery is not especially difficult and the saving in raw material costs is significant. After an adjustable time the flap moves back into its normal position. 76). the same rapidly operating flap is pivoted and the foreign material is ejected into a container. and is built into the transport duct (Fig. as illustrated by the following very approximate. 76 – ComboShield (Rieter) Waste management Economy of raw material utilisation Raw material costs make up more than half the yarn costs. spinners will be forced to improve exploitation of the raw material. which preferably stands outside the room. Increasingly. The pivoting flap remains in the eliminating condition until the line is switched on again. a metal extractor and an eliminating device. Without doubt. Simultaneously. If such a piece of material is detected. In contrast to detected sparks. 75 – Electronic metal extractor (Trützschler) ComboShield (Rieter) This comprises a spark detector. the detection of metallic material.Fig. and not very exact calculation for a small spinning mill: Quantity of raw material processed per year 10 000 t . The material passes into a receiving container. since rising raw material prices are to be expected in future. This device has a second function. the blowroom line remains switched on. an alarm is given and the blowroom line as well as the filter installation is switched off.

and dust and fly. no more than 5% should be returned to the blend (for ring spinning). On average. As far as possible. Air is used exclusively as the collecting and transport medium. since handling of these waste materials is unpleasant for mill personnel. Classification of spinning mill waste A spinning mill produces the following waste. some in significant quantities: • • • directly reusable waste. Waste materials falling into the first group can be collected without difficulty and can be fed back into the blowroom line in always the same admixing quantities. Recycling of waste Recycling installation for reusable waste .5% without any effect on quality. in modern mills. About 90% of the good fiber elimination can be recovered as secondary raw material.Total waste from blowroom and carding room 800 t Recoverable waste Price of the raw material (net) per kg (US$) Saving on raw material per year (US$) 360 t 1.32 475 000 An additional advantage of such recycling installations is that a somewhat higher degree of cleaning can be used in the blowroom machines. consisting of 50% good fibers and 50% contaminants. it is clear that the quantities to be expected here are relatively small. Up to 5% can be blended with hardly noticeable changes in quality. since with recovery of waste fibers the level of their elimination in blowroom and cards becomes relatively insignificant. and this still contains about 6% trash.8% primary waste. Accordingly. 77 – Material flow diagram for raw material and waste Quantity of waste material In spite of the emphasis on the proportion of waste in the diagram. waste material is now removed pneumatically. Such secondary raw material can be mixed into the same blend up to a proportion of 2. Fig. can be expected. The other two groups cannot be dealt with so easily. about 6 . dirty waste.

Dirty waste first has to pass through a special waste recycling plant before a portion of it (about 30 .Fig. the admixing cannot be performed by a single waste opener. . a considerable amount of waste can be reused in the same mill by feeding it through a bale opener ( waste opener) into the normal blowroom line. such as: • coarse dirt remaining after recycling. Since in this case the amount of waste is larger. 79 – Rieter recycling installation As mentioned above. 79) is required. a complete feeding installation as shown in the illustration (Fig. Beyond that.40% good fi bers) can be reused. Recycling of dirty waste The various processes in the blowroom create various waste materials which cannot be reused for textile purposes. in rotor spinning it is common to spin useful yarns from waste or by adding waste to the normal raw material. 78 – Integrated recycling plant by Rieter Fig.

cards and combing machines are connected by suction ducts to central suction equipment that leads to pneumatic bale presses (or silos). waste from all blowroom machines and cards is sucked directly through the UNIclean B 12 cleaner of the recycling equipment (1) to a mixing bale opener (2). . for example of the flat strippings. 80 – Recycling system On-line recycling plant for the entire spinning mill Installed equipment can be designed for continuous (on-line) or batch (off-line) operation. the reclaiming installation is an integral part of the blowroom. handling is easy for the operators. 79). a bale press is required for each specific type. first from all blowroom machines. e. Waste chambers (one or more at a time) are selected intermittently and cyclically for suction. Dirty waste consists of a large amount of impurities and a smaller amount of fibers.The yield of good fibers is fed into the bale press. About three bale presses (or silos) should be sufficient for a normal cotton spinning mill. The mixing bale opener continuously feeds the cleaned material back into the blowroom line (3). then an extra duct is needed for each waste group. all waste chambers of the blowroom machines. If only one bale press is available. and several others. an individual silo must be provided for each type of waste. dedusted in the A 21 condenser and cleaned further in the B 51R fine cleaner. In order to keep the various types of waste (comber waste. Since the same types of machines are used in this recycling installation as in the blowroom. In Rieter installations. Such presses are available from Autefa. 80) will be described here as representative of all the others. If dirty waste is involved. dust from the fine filters. batch operation implies that the secondary raw material is first pressed into bales following recovery. waste opener). and is then fed to the blowroom in the same way as other bales. Here. etc.• • fly from the preliminary filters. For this purpose.g. pre-cleaned in the UNIclean B 12. Continuous operation implies that secondary raw material is blended with the primary raw material again in the same quantity. The latter can be recycled in different recycling plants. Both systems are used in practice. and that this takes place permanently and immediately after recovery. Fig. an additional UNIflex B 60 cleaner should be inserted between the mixing bale opener (2) and the point of feed into the blowroom line.) separate from each other. is carried out. licker-in droppings.g. Primary waste is pneumatically fed via condensers into the B 34 mixing opener. and the contents are blown into the presses. If the installation does not operate intermittently. Secondary waste from the recycling machines and pre-filter is fed into the bale press for black waste. the reclaiming installation can deliver to a bale opener (e. for example (see Fig. now offer recycling installations. or the material can be blown directly into the ducting of the blowroom line. That of Rieter in conjunction with LUWA (Fig. Recycling plant for all types of waste Almost all manufacturers of blowroom machines. etc. The transport air is always separated from material and fed to the pre-filter. On the other hand. Bisinger. This installation can also be operated in off-line mode if the secondary raw material is not re-blended immediately but pressed into bales in a bale press (4). After automatic changeover to the second press. suction draw-off. In this system.

Blowroom (a).. individual filters may have to be used in older premises for reasons of space availability and room height. Fig. is removed by rollers and falls into a carriage located beneath the drum. 83. These operations can be performed with individual filters or a central filter. in which it must be separated from the air and carried away. Dust filtering Usually two filter stages are used because a great deal of fly is carried along in the removal of dust by suction. 83. or disposal installation with horizontal bale presses. 82 – Principle diagram of filtration . often in great quantities. In processing it is important to ensure that this dust cannot bind with the fibers again and also that it cannot settle in the atmosphere. 1). 2). In new installations in new buildings a central filter (part of the air-conditioning plant) will probably be chosen. Fig. etc. owing to turning-over. Released dust passes immediately into this suction system. combing room (d). of the material. almost all machines up to the drawframe are enclosed as far as possible and connected to dust extraction lines. disposal installation with silos (1 . Before the air returns into the room. 81 – A feasible arrangement for the disposal of dirty waste.The Rieter plant is described here briefly by way of an example. Handling of dust and fly The problem of dust and fly Dust is released at each machine. Today. cards (b). The dustladen air flows against a slowly rotating filter drum (Fig. A layer of dust and fly forms. it is passed through the fine filter in the form of a filter drum (Fig. The stages are preliminary filtering and fine filtering. drawframes (c). plucking apart.3) and bale presses.

83 – Flow diagram of waste removal plant Fig.Fig. 84 – Panel pre-filter (LUWA) .

Final disposal of waste Dirty waste materials are preferably collected. waste can be composted or burned. it is possible to install a self-contained. The discharge unit (4) moves the waste from the material silo to the internal material conveying system (8). Functional description of the Bale Press System (BPS.Fig. The heating value is approximately 4 kWh/ kg (for comparison. There are several possibilities for baling and packing: Baling density (kg/m3) After passage through a condenser.120 200 . The waste is discharged from the fiber separator (2) into the material silo (3).the air-conditioning installation – with similarly high air circulation. Subsequent pressing of the material is performed in the bale press (12).250 600 . The material can then be fed to the bale press (11) by means of waste separator WS (9). a second system with high circulation is required.lighter bale presses Press into cakes or briquettes by briquetting presses 100 60 . But it is more rational and economical in energy terms to combine these two systems into an integrated unit and to use the air circulation required for the waste disposal system as part of the air circulation in the air-conditioning installation.1 200 When waste is pressed into containers. Of course. It is essential that the dusty conveying air in the fiber separator is discharged into a filtering installation. 85 – Rotary fine filter (LUWA) Central filter installations Complete disposal of fly. The waste disposal installation should then be incorporated into the air-conditioning system. mainly as briquettes.heavy-duty bale presses . Fig. packed and removed so that manual handling is excluded as far as possible. eject or press into container Fill into sacks via fiber separators (compactor) Re-used . baled. or formed into bales or briquettes.80 80 . namely the air-conditioning installation.The fiber or waste separators are used as standard separators.Simultaneously. 86): • • • • • The textile waste (material) is usually pneumatically conveyed (1) (and separated according to quality) directly from the production plant to the fiber separators. In this form. the value for heating oil is just over 12 kWh/kg). handling and transport are simple. dust and waste requires high air circulation with corresponding energy consumption. and additionally a second system . . independently operating waste disposal system with its own air circulating arrangements.

Fig. 86 – Example: Bale Press System with pneumatic material conveying CARD Spinning Preparation .