# 3GPP(LTE)course

Presented By: Eng.karim Banawan. Eng.Yasser Youssry.

Mobile Communication part (4) : 4G mobiles

Eng. Karim Banawan Faculty of Engineering Electronics and communication department

OFDM AND OFDMA TECHNOLOGIES

OUTLINE NEED FOR MULTI-CARRIER OFDM ENTERS INTO THE PICTURE FFT / IFFT GUARD TIME INSERTION OFDM DRAWBACKS CHANNEL ESTIMATION OFDM BLOCK DIAGRAM SIMULATION RESULTS .

NEED FOR MULTICARRIER Time Domain Analysis .

NEED FOR MULTICARRIER cont.

Pulse completely distorted. ISI is significant in this case.

Pulse extended but the extension are much smaller than T the output behaves like the transmitted rectangular pulse.

NEED FOR MULTICARRIER cont.
Frequency Domain Analysis

NEED FOR MULTICARRIER cont.
Conclusion

Wide pulses is needed for simple equalization, But Narrow pulses is needed for high data rate

Solution
 

Multiplexing

NEED FOR MULTICARRIER cont. .

NEED FOR MULTICARRIER cont. Problem  Orthogonality Solution .

NEED FOR MULTI-CARRIER cont. .

NEED FOR MULTI-CARRIER cont. .

W efficiency  Min Separation .OFDM ENTERS INTO THE PICTURE Interference  Orthogonality B.

OFDM ENTERS INTO THE PICTURE cont. Min Separation  Problem Solution  ◦ Difficult Implementation with traditional oscillators ◦ DFT But ◦ DFT needs high processing Solution ◦ Easy implementation using FFT/IFFT  ◦ .

FFT / IFFT .

FFT/IFFT .

GUARD TIME INSERTION Channel Filtering .

ISI occurs . Problem ….GUARD TIME INSERTION cont.

.  No ISI àCircular Convolution achieved . Solution  Cyclic Prefix ….GUARD TIME INSERTION cont.

  The  . CP that occupies a duration called the Guard Time (GT). is a temporal redundancy that must be taken into account in data rate computations.Cyclic prefix  The CP allows the receiver to absorb much more efficiently the delay spread due to the multipath and to maintain frequency Orthogonality. often denoted TG.

OFDM DRAWBACKS cont.  Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)  .

Sensitivity to frequency offset  .OFDM DRAWBACKS cont.

CHANNEL ESTIMATION Pilot R e ce i d ve S i n a l a fte r g FFT Based Channel Estimation  E sti a te d m C hannel R e sp o n se K n o w n Pi o ts l .

CHANNEL ESTIMATION cont. Pilot         Time (OFDM Symbols) High channel frequency selectivity Arrangement Types Block Pilot Patterns Comb Pilot Patterns Frequency( sub carriers) Time (OFDM Symbols) rapid changing channels Frequency( sub carriers) Pilot symbols Data symbols .

OFDMA OFDMA is  a multiple access method based on OFDM signaling that allows simultaneous transmissions to and from several users along with the other advantages of OFDM.  .

256-OFDM  IEEE802.16e Mobile WiMAX .16d Fixed WiMAX.OFDM versus OFDMA IEEE802.

DIVERSITY AND MIMO PRINCIPLES .

  .What is diversity?  Is a technique that combats the fading by ensuring that there will be many copies of the transmitted signal effected with different fading over time. frequency or space.

1- Time diversity: We averaging the fading of the channel over time by using : 1-The channel coding and interleaving. to explain this we will see an example:   . 2-Or sending the data at different times.

1-time diversity: |H ( t ) |   t     No interleaving x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 z1 z2 z3 z4 h1 h2 h3 h4 interleaving z4 h4   x1 y1 z1 h1 x2 y2 z2h2 x3 y3 z3h3 x4 y4 So we can see that only the 3rd symbol from each codeword lost and we can recover them from the rest symbols in each .

frequency diversity: This type of diversity used for the frequency selective channels as we will averaging the fading over the frequency by using: 1-Multi-carrier technique like OFDM.   . 3-DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum). 2-FHSS (frequency hope spread spectrum).2.

2.frequency diversity:  We can see that each sub-band will effecting with different fading over the frequency. .

we use multi-antenna systems at the transmitter or the receiver or at both of them.   .3-spatial diversity: we will have many copies of the transmitted signal effects with different fading over the space .

Receive diversity: 1-The receiver will has many antennas . 3-number of different paths =Mr. 2-Each one has signal effecting with different fading.  Diversity order=Mr .

MIMO:  In this type we use multi antennas at both the transmitter and receiver as shown. Diversity order=Mt x Mr .

Notes:  The higher diversity order we have the better we combat the fading .

2-Diversity order   BER .Notes: 1-The diversity reduces the BER of the communication system. .

.Notes:  The distance between the antennas must be larger than the coherent distance to ensure that data streams are not correlated .

Question?  How the receiver get the signal from the many copies reached ? Answer .

3-combining techniques are linear as the output of is a weighted sum of the different fading signals of branches.  . 4-It needs co-phasing. 2-The techniques can be applied to any type of diversity.Diversity combining technique 1-Combines the independent fading paths signals to obtain a signal that passed through a standard demodulator.

Diversity combining technique  The signal output from the combiner is the transmitted signal s(t) multiplied by a random complex amplitude term Fa d i g o f th e n p a th Type of technique  Diversity order R a n d o m S N R fro m th e co m b i e r n .

Diversity combining technique .

2-no need here for the cophasing.selection combining technique 1-the combiner outputs the signal on the branch with the highest SNR .  0 0 1 0 .

NR so that its performance less than the SC technique . Special case at diversity order = 2 ( SSC ) .Threshold combining technique  As in SC since only one branch output is used at a time and outputting the first signal with SNR above a given threshold so that co-phasing is not required.

Maximal ratio combining  In maximal ratio combining (MRC) the output is a h1* weighted sum of all branches due to its SNR h2* h3* hi * .

which co-phases the signals on each branch and then combines them with equal weighting .Equal gain combining technique A simpler technique is equal-gain  combining.

MIMO  Traditional diversity is based on multiple receiver antennas  Multiple-In Multiple-Out (MIMO) is based on both transmit and receive diversity  Also known as Space Time Coding (STC)  With Mt transmission antennas and Mr receiver antennas we have Mt Mr branches  Tx and Rx processing is performed over space (antennas) and time (successive symbols) 47 .

. Mr=1)  In the uplink (from mobile station to base station) diversity is achieved my conventional diversity (SIMO)  Hence. all diversity cost is moved to the base station  All 3G and 4G mobile communication system employ MIMO in their standard 48 .e.MIMO or STC  In Mobile communication systems it may be difficult to put many antennas in the mobile unit  Diversity in the downlink (from base station to mobile station) can be achieved by Multiple-In Single-Out (MISO) (i.

STTC is not used in any systems yet We will talk only about STBC  49 .Type of MIMO Two major types of space time coding ◦ Space time block coding (STBC) ◦ Space time trellis coding (STTC) STBC is simpler by STTC can provide better performance STBC is used in mobile communications.

Space Time Block Codes There are few major types ◦ Transmit diversity: main goal is diversity gain ◦ Spatial multiplexing: main goal is increase data rate ◦ Eigen steering: main goal is both. spatial multiplexing and simplified version of Eigen steering are used in 3G 50 . Requires knowledge of the channel at the transmitter side ◦ Mix of the above: Lots of research Transmit diversity.

Transmit Diversity Take Two Mt=2 and Mr=1 symbols so and s1 are transmitted over two transmission periods No change in data rate (denoted as rate 1 STBC) Channel is known at receiver only 51 .

Transmit Diversity  Transmission    Transmission A nt Ant1 matrix:6 4 o7 48  s o s1  ← Timeo S = * −s1 s o*  ← Time1   matrix columns are orthogonal to guarantee simple linear processing at the receiver  Other transmission matrices are defined in literature  ro   s o s1   g o  n o  R = = +  Received signalr is:  −s * s *   g   n  o 1  1  1  1    Performance is same as MRC with M=2  However. then 52 . if Tx Power is the same.

then transmit diversity (2x2) is 3 dB worse than (1x4)  53 .Transmit Diversity  Take Mt=2 and Mr=2  Performance is the same as MRC with M=4  However. if Tx Power is the same.

Performance Ratio Receiver Combining  Note 3 dB difference in favor of Rx MRC diversity Reference: S. Alamouti. a simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications. IEEE JSAC. October 98 No diversity Order 2 Orde r 4  MRRC=Maximal 54 .

Spatial Multiplexing ro = s o g o + s1 g 1 r1 = s o g 2 + s1 g 3  Purpose is to increase data rate (2x2 gives twice data rate)  The 4 gains must be known at receiver  Simplest way zero forcing algorithm:   ro   g o g 1  so   r  = g g  s  3  1   2 2 43  1  14 G ˆ r −1 s o  H H  o  s  = G G  G  r   ˆ1     1 55 .

Spatial Multiplexing ro = s o g o + s1 g 1 r1 = s o g 2 + s1 g 3  Optimum method: Maximum Likelihood ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ eo2 + e1 = ro − s o g o − s 1 g 1 + r1 − s o g 2 − s 1 g 3 ◦ ◦ Try all combinations of s1 and s2 ◦ Find the combination that minimizes the squared error: 2 2 2 ◦ ◦ Complexity increases with high order modulation 56 .

IEEE JSAC.Performance Equal rate comparison  Reference: David Gesbert. Smith. Peter J. and Ayman Naguib. April 2003    57 Z e ro fo rci g n ML A l m out a i . Da-shan Shiu. Mansoor Shafi. From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space– time coded wireless systems.

Eigenvalue Steering Assume a MIMO system 58 .

59 .Eigenvalue Steering  Example       Any with Mt = 2 and Mr=4  y 1   h11  y  h  2  =  21  y 3   h31     y 4   h4 2 1 41 matrix H can be represented using Singular Value H =U Σ V H Decomposition as H h12  h 22   h32   h 42  43  n1     x 1  n 2  x  +  n   2 3   n 4  [ y ] = H [ x ] +[ n]  U is Mr by Mr and V is Mt by Mt unitary matrices   is Mr by Mt diagonal matrix.

Eigenvalue Steering  Using transmit pre-coding and receiver shaping % y =U H ( H x + n ) = U H ( U ΣV H % = U H ( U ΣV H V x + n ) % = U H U ΣV H V x +U H n % % = Σ x +n 60 x +n) .

.e.S.Eigenvalue Steering  This way we created r paths between the Tx and specific Rx without any cross interference  The channel (i. r min(Mt. Channel State Information) must be known to both transmitter and receiver  The value of r= rank of matrix H.V] = svd(X) 61 . M r)  Not all r paths have good SNR  Data rate can increase by factor r  See Appendix C for Singular Value Decomposition  See Matlab function [U.

IEEE Communication Magazine. A high-performance MIMO OFDM wireless LAN. February 2005   62 .Example  Reference: Sanjiv Nanda. Mark Wallace. and Steven Howard. Rod Walton. John Ketchum.

.INTRODUCTION TO LTE AND ITS UNIQUE TECHNOLOGIES.

What is LTE?? The 3GPP LTE is acronym for “long term evolution of UMTS “.UTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) . 8 LTE is also referred to as EUTRA (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) or E . concepts for UMTS Long Term Evolution ( LTE ) have been introduced in 3GPP release 8. In order to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS for the next 10 years and beyond.

9G & invited to join the 4G family.UTRAN (Evolved UTRAN) on the access side and EPC (Evolved Packet Core) on the core side. Also considered a competitive system to mobile WiMAX as we will show .What is LTE(cont. Can be considered the real 3 .)? The architecture that will result from this work is called EPS (Evolved Packet System) and comprehends E .

)? .What is LTE (cont.

LTE DESIGN TARGETS .

1x2.( a ) capabilities: Scalable BW: 1. 2x2. 1x1 Duplexing modes: FDD and TDD Number of active mobile terminals:  LTE should support at least 200 mobile terminals in the active state when operating in 5 MHz. 5. Peak data rate: Downlink (2 Ch MIMO) peak rate of 100 Mbps in 20 MHz channel Uplink (single Ch Tx) peak rate of 50 Mbps in 20 MHz channel Supported antenna configurations: Downlink: 4x4. 2.5.0.4x2.  In wider allocations than 5 MHz. at least 400 terminals should be supported .25.0 MHz. 1x1 Uplink: 1x2.0 and 20. 10.

ts U p l n k : 2 to 3 x H S U PA R e l 6  2 .p l n e : < 5 0 – 1 0 0 m se c to e sta b l sh U a i pl ne a U -p l n e : < 1 0 m se c fro m U E to se rve r a Mobility O p ti i d fo r l w sp e e d s (< 1 5 km / h r) m ze o H i h p e rfo rm a n ce a t sp e e d s u p to 1 2 0 g km / h r M a i ta i l n k a t sp e e d s u p to 3 5 0 km / h r n n i Coverage Fu l p e rfo rm a n ce u p to 5 km l . 5 b i / s/ h z i .Spectrum efficiency D o w n l n k : 3 to 4 x H S D PA R e l 6  5 b i / s/ H z i . ts Latency C .

INTRODUCTION TO LTE KEY TECHNOLOGIES .

The composite received signal is distorted   .(1)OFDM and OFDMA:One of the key technologies used in LTE and WiMAX systems. The problem ??? Due to the multipath the signal is received from many paths with different phases that will result in DELAY SPREAD :symbol received along a delayed : path to “bleed” into a subsequent symbol (ISI)   FREQUENCY SELECTIVE FADING: : some frequencies within the signal passband undergo constructive interference while others encounter destructive interference.

 . OFDM: OFDM systems break the available bandwidth into many narrower sub-carriers and transmit the data in parallel streams each OFDM symbol is preceded by a cyclic prefix (CP). which is used to effectively (CP eliminate ISI.Old solutions of multipath fading include direct channel equalization or spread spectrum techniques(complex receiver is needed).

distortion can be corrected by applying an amplitude and phase shift on a subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis.  . In practice. the OFDM signal can be generated using IFFT  with a CP of sufficient duration.  Problems of OFDM are: susceptibility to carrier frequency errors (due either to local oscillator offset or Doppler shifts) and a large signal peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Once the channel impulse response is determined (by periodic transmission of known reference signals). multiplication  Also. preceding symbols do duration not spill over into the FFT period and also this satisfy that the output convolution with channel is complex gain multiplication.

 .OFDMA  OFDMA is  a multiple access method based on OFDM signaling that allows simultaneous transmissions to and from several users along with the other advantages of OFDM.

256-OFDM  IEEE802.16d Fixed WiMAX.OFDM versus OFDMA IEEE802.16e Mobile WiMAX .

( 2 ) Multi antenna transmission  LTE and WiMAX targets extreme performance in terms of ◦ Capacity ◦ Coverage ◦ Peak data rates  Advanced multi-antenna solutions is the key tool to achieve this  Multi antenna systems are integral part of those systems  Different antenna solutions needed for different scenarios/targets ◦ High peak data rates  spatial multiplexing ◦ Good coverage Beam-forming .

(3 ) Hybrid ARQ with soft combining

in LTE and WiMAX to allow the terminal to rapidly request retransmissions of erroneously received transport blocks.  The underlying protocol multiple parallel stop-and-wait hybrid ARQ processes  Incremental redundancy is used as the soft combining strategy and the receiver buffers the soft bits to be able to do soft combining between transmission attempts. 

 used

( 1 ) Spectrum

flexibility :

A high degree

of spectrum flexibility is one of the main characteristics of the LTE radio access. The aim of this spectrum flexibility is to allow for the
deployment of the LTE radio access in diverse spectrum.
The

flexibility includes:

◦ Different duplex arrangements. ◦ Different frequency-bands-of-

(a) 3G LTE – Duplex arrangement

(b) 3G LTE – Bandwidth flexibility

LTE physical layer supports any bandwidth from 1.25 MHz to well beyond 20 MHz in steps of 200 kHz (one ”Resource Block”)

 . in which the timefrequency resource is dynamically shared between users.(2) Channel-dependent scheduling and rate adaptation LTE use of shared-channel transmission.

(3)Interference coordination(soft reuse) Adaptive reuse ◦ Cell-center users: Reuse = 1 ◦ Cell-edge users: Reuse > 1 Relies on access to frequency domain ◦ Applicable for both downlink OFDM and uplink SC-FDMA .

( 4 ) SC . the PAPR is lower. because the underlying waveform is essentially single-carrier. The high PAPR and related loss of efficiency associated with OFDM signaling are major concerns. and it offers the same degree of multipath protection. As a result. .FDMA :LTE uplink requirements differ from downlink requirements. The basic transmitter and receiver architecture is very similar (nearly identical) to OFDMA. Single Carrier – Frequency Domain Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) is well suited to the LTE uplink requirements. power consumption is a key consideration for UE terminals. an alternative to OFDM was sought for use in the LTE uplink.

 This will eliminate ISI as OFDMA Reciever: by using FFT & CP simple equalizer are used (as OFDM). conversion to the frequency domain. Multipath distortion is handled in the same manner as in OFDM(removal of CP. then apply the channel correction on a subcarrier-by subcarrier .Basic block diagram:      transmitter :a QAM modulator coupled with the addition of the cyclic prefix.

LTE practical SC .FDMA :-          The practical transmitter is likely to take advantage of FFT/IFFT blocks as well to place the transmission in the correct position of the transmit spectrum in case of variable transmission bandwidth. .

.SC-FDMA receiver Frequency domain equalization (FDE) using DFT/IDFT is more practical for such channels.

 . compared with the OFDMA case. mapping This decision was motivated by the fact that with localized mapping.The fact of transmitting only a single symbol at a time ensures a low transmitter waveform. whereas with the OFDMA case it is the amount of subcarriers. it is possible to exploit frequency selective gain via channel dependent scheduling (assigning uplink frequencies to UE based on favorable propagation conditions). The resulting PAR/CM impact on the amplifier is thus directly dependent on the modulation. the current working assumption is that LTE will use localized subcarrier mapping. SC-FDMA subcarriers can be mapped in one of two ways: localized or distributed However.

(5) LTE Multicast/Broadcast  MBMS – Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service  OFDM allows for high-efficient MBSFN operation ◦ Multicast/Broadcast Single-Frequency Networking ◦ Identical transmissions from set of tightly synchronized cells ◦ Increased received power and reduced interference  Substantial boost of MBMS system throughput  LTE allows for multicast/broadcast and unicast on the same carrier as well as dedicated multicast/broadcast carrier .

Introduction Similar to WCDMA/HSPA. layers note that the LTE radio-access architecture consists of a single node –the eNodeB . The eNodeB communicates with one or several mobile terminals. as well as to most other modern communication systems. the processing specified for LTE is structured into different protocol layers. also known as UEs .

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At the receiver side.Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) performs IP header compression to reduce the number of bits to transmit over the radio interface. The header compression mechanism is based on Robust Header Compression (ROHC)a standardized headerROHC compression algorithm also used in WCDMA PDCP is also responsible for ciphering and integrity protection of the transmitted data. . the PDCP protocol performs the corresponding deciphering and decompression operations.

and in sequence delivery to higher layers. the RLC protocol is located in the eNodeB since there is only a single type of node in the LTE radio-access-network architecture. segmentation concatenation retransmission handling.  There is one RLC entity per radio bearer configured for a terminal.  The RLC offers services to the PDCP in the form of radio bearers .  Unlike WCDMA.Radio Link Control (RLC)  is responsible for segmentation/concatenation. .

The hybrid .ARQ retransmissions and uplink and downlink scheduling. scheduling The scheduling functionality is located in the eNodeB.ARQ protocol part is present in both the transmitting and receiving end of the MAC protocol. The MAC offers services to the .Medium Access Control (MAC) handles hybrid . for both uplink and downlink. which has one MAC entity per cell.

MAC scheduling The basic operation of the scheduler is so-called dynamic scheduling . where the eNodeB in each 1 ms TTI makes a scheduling decision and sends scheduling information to the selected set of .

and antenna mapping)  And logical-channel control which mobile terminals are to transmit on their ULSCH  and on which uplink time/frequency resources  uplink scheduling decision is taken per mobile terminal and not per radio bearer.Downlink scheduling   UL scheduling  dynamically  dynamically controlling the terminal(s) to transmit to  the set of resource blocks upon which the terminal’s DLSCH should be transmitted.  Transport-format selection(selection of transport-block size. modulation scheme. .

Physical Layer (PHY) handles coding/decoding. The physical layer offers services to the MAC layer in the form of transport channels . modulation/demodulation. multiantenna mapping. and other typical physical layer functions.

DOWNLINK PHY LAYER OF (LTE) .

They are divided into 10 subframes. depending on whether the normal or extended cyclic prefix is employed. slots Slots consist of either 6 or 7 ODFM symbols. subframes each subframe being 1. each of 0.LTE Generic Frame Structure The generic frame structure is used with FDD. Each subframe is further divided into two slots.5 msec duration.0 msec long. .(TDD is also supported but not the trend). LTE frames are 10 msec in duration.

Different time intervals within the LTE radio-access specification are defined as multiples of a basic time unit Ts = 1/30 720 000. The time intervals can thus also be expressed as Tframe= 307 200 Ts and Tsubframe= 30 720 Ts .

.OFDMA For LTE Downlink :OFDMA is an excellent choice of multiplexing scheme for the 3GPP LTE downlink allows the access of multiple users on the available bandwidth. resource Allocation of PRBs is handled by a scheduling function at the 3GPP base station (eNodeB). Each user is assigned a specific time frequency resource. The total number of available subcarriers depends on the overall transmission bandwidth of the system. The LTE specifications define parameters for system bandwidths from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz as shown in Table.

.A PRB is defined as consisting of 12 consecutive subcarriers for one slot (0.5 msec) in duration. channel estimation. LTE does not employ a PHY preamble to facilitate carrier offset estimate. A PRB is the smallest element of resource allocation assigned by the base station scheduler.

there is an unused DC subcarrier in the center of the downlink band. where NFFT is the FFT size  the sampling rate Δf NFFT will be a multiple or submultiple of the WCDMA/HSPA chip rate (3.Downlink resource block  the OFDM subcarrier spacing has been chosen to Δf = 15 kHz. In subcarriers addition.84 Mcps)  in the frequency domain the downlink subcarriers are grouped into resource blocks  where each resource block consists of 12 consecutive subcarriers.  Sampling rate fs =15 000NFFT . it may be subject to un- .

.

◦ MBSFN reference signals  . a mobile terminal needs estimates of the downlink channel ◦ Cell-specific downlink reference signals. ◦ UE-specific reference signal.Downlink reference signal To carry out coherent demodulation of different downlink physical channels.

Cell-specific downlink reference signals  consists of known reference symbols inserted within the first and third last OFDM symbol of each slot and with a frequency-domain spacing of six subcarriers  the mobile terminal should carry out interpolation/averaging over multiple interpolation reference symbols  There are 504 different reference signal sequences defined for LTE. where eachsequence corresponds to one out of 504 different physical-layer cell identities .

In case of downlink multi . ◦ In case of four antenna ports . with a frequency-domain offset of three subcarriers.the reference symbols for the third and .antenna transmission the mobile terminal should be able to estimate the downlink channel corresponding to each transmit antenna reference-signal structure for each antenna port in case of multiple antenna ports within a cell: ◦ In case of two antenna the reference symbols of the second antenna port are frequency multiplexed with the reference symbols of the first antenna port.

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As such a reference signal can only be used by the specific terminal to which the beam-formed transmission is intended. it is referred to as a UE-specific reference signal . In order to allow for channel estimation also for such transmissions. additional reference signals are needed. .UE-specific reference signals LTE also allows for more general beam-forming.

LTE block diagram (DL transport channel processing) .

The corresponding error indication is then. for example. a 24 .(1)CRC insertion: In the first step of the transport-channel processing. The CRC allows for receiver side detection of errors in the decoded transport block. .bit CRC is calculated for and appended to each transport block. used by the downlink hybrid-ARQ protocol as a trigger for requesting retransmissions .

codeblock segmentation is applied before Turbo coding.block segmentation implies that the transport block is segmented into smaller code blocks (2)Code-block segmentation and per-code-block CRC insertion: . including the transport-block CRC.The LTE Turbo-coder internal Turbo interleaver is only defined for a limited number of code-block sizes with a maximum block size of 6144 bits. exceeds this maximum code-block size. bits In case the transport block. Code .

 Having a CRC per code block allows for early detection of . filler bits may have to be inserted at the head of the first code  An additional (24 bits) CRC is calculated for and appended to each code block. In order to ensure that the size of each code block is matched to the set of available codeblock sizes.

The older interleaver used in HSPA been replaced by QPP based interleaving . the QPP interleaver provides a mapping from the input (non-interleaved) bits to the output (interleaved) bits according to the function: .(3) FEC(forward error  The correction):- UL-SCH uses the same rate 1 / 3 turbo encoding scheme (two 8-state constituent encoders and one internal interleaver) as the DL-SCH.

 The bit selection then extracts consecutive bits from the circular buffer . the exact set of bits to be transmitted within a given TTI. interleaved  The interleaved bits are then inserted into what can be described as a circular buffer with the systematic bits inserted first. and second parity bits) are first separately interleaved. followed by alternating insertion of the first and second parity bits. from the blocks of code bits delivered by the channel encoder.  The outputs of the Turbo encoder (systematic bits. first parity bits.(4) Rate-matching and physicallayer hybrid-ARQ functionality  The task of the rate-matching and physicallayer hybrid-ARQ functionality is to extract .

In general.(5) Bit-level scrambling LTE downlink scrambling implies that the block of code bits delivered by the hybrid-ARQ functionality is multiplied (exclusive .or operation) by a bit-level scrambling sequence (usually a gold code). scrambling of the coded data helps to ensure that the receiver-side decoding can fully utilize the processing gain provided by the channel code .

(6) Modulation
The set of modulation schemes supported for

the LTE downlink includes QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM. All these modulation schemes are applicable to the DL-SCH, PCH, and MCH transport channels. only QPSK modulation can be applied to the BCH transport channel.

(7) Multi antenna transmission
LTE

supports the following multiantenna transmission schemes or transmission modes , in addition to single-antenna transmission:
◦ Transmit diversity ◦ Closed-loop spatial multiplexing including codebook-based beamforming ◦ Open-loop spatial multiplexing

Transmit diversity
LTE

transmit diversity is based on Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC) SFBC implies that consecutive modulation symbols Si and Si+1 are mapped directly on adjacent subcarriers on the first antenna port. On the second antenna port, the swapped and transformed symbols - S*i+1 and Si*are transmitted on the corresponding subcarriers

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SFBC/FSTD(combined SFBC and (Frequency Shift Transmit Diversity .

 Closed loop Spatial multiplexing .spatial multiplexing implies that multiple streams or ‘ layers ’ are transmitted in parallel. thereby allowing for higher data rates The LTE spatial multiplexing may operate in two different modes: closed-loop spatial multiplexing and open-loop spatial multiplexing where closed-loop spatial multiplexing relies on more extensive feedback from the mobile terminal.

indicating that ◦ the network selects one pre-coding vector (the beam-forming vector) from a set of pre-defined pre-coding vectors (the ‘ codebook ’ ) with the selection. This kind of beamforming can be referred to as codebook-based beamforming . . based on the terminal reporting a recommended precoding vector.General beam-forming closed-loop spatial multiplexing includes beam-forming as a special case when the number of layers equals one. for example.

UPLINK PHY LAYER OF (LTE) .

LTE

uplink transmission is based on so-called DFTS - OFDM transmission Which is a‘ single-carrier ’ transmission scheme that allows for
◦ flexible bandwidth assignment ◦ orthogonal multiple access not only in the time domain but also in the frequency domain. ◦ the use of a cyclic prefix allows low-complexity frequency-domain equalization at the receiver side.

Transmission method
“M” determines the BW

Mapping is applied to consecutive carriers  localized

DFT implementation
 The

DFT size should preferably be constrained to a power of two.  However, such a constraint is in direct conflict with a desire to have a high degree of flexibility of the bandwidth that can be dynamically assigned to a mobile terminal for uplink transmission all possible DFT sizes should rather be allowed.  For LTE, a middle way has been adopted LTE where the DFT size is limited to products of the integers two , three , and five .  For example, DFT sizes of 60, 72, and 96 are allowed but a DFT size of 84 is not allowed.

in contrast to the downlink. ◦ time-domain structure. the LTE uplink is very similar to the downlink However. as much as aligned possible. with the corresponding parameters of the OFDM-based LTE downlink ◦ spacing equals 15 kHz ◦ resource blocks.Uplink physical resource parameters Chosen to be aligned. consisting of 12 subcarriers ◦ Any number of uplink resource blocks ranging from a minimum of 6-110 resource blocks. no unused DC - .

Sounding reference signals ( SRS ) .Uplink reference signals Demodulation ( DRS ) reference signals ◦ reference signals for channel estimation are also needed for the LTE uplink to enable coherent demodulation of different uplink physical channels ◦ are transmitted on the uplink to allow for the network to estimate the uplink channel quality at different frequencies .

a reference signal is transmitted within the fourth symbol of .signal transmission are different from those of the downlink certain DFTS-OFDM symbols are exclusively used for referencesignal transmission.Basic principles of uplink DRS transmission Due to the importance of low power variations for uplink transmissions The principles for uplink reference .

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signal sequences of the same length.amplifier efficiency. Furthermore. sufficiently many reference . should be available to easily assigning reference-signal sequences to cells . Limited power variations in the time domain to allow for high power .Uplink sequences Limited power variations in the frequency domain to allow for similar channel-estimation quality for all frequencies.

length Zadoff–Chu Zadoff sequences would be preferred. prime .Zadoff–Chu sequences have the property of constant power in both the frequency and the time domain.   Zadoff–Chu sequences are not suitable for direct usage as uplink: ◦ to maximize the number of Zadoff–Chu sequences and to maximize the number of available uplink reference signals. At the same time. the length of the uplink reference-signal sequences should be .

Phase-rotated referencesignal sequences by cyclically extending different prime-length Zadoff – Chu sequences . Additional reference-signal sequences can be derived by applying different linear phase rotations to the same basic reference-signal sequences .

sounding reference signals (SRS) the uplink channel quality estimate at different frequencies A terminal can be configured to transmit SRS at regular intervals ranging from as often as once in every 2 ms (every second subframe) to as infrequently as once in every 160 ms (every 16th frame the frequency-domain scheduling: ◦ entire frequency band of interest with a single SRS OR ◦ narrowband SRS that is hopping in the frequency domain in such a way that a sequence of SRS transmissions jointly covers the frequency band of interest. .

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Uplink transport-channel processing uplink transportchannel processing are similar to the corresponding steps of the downlink transport-channel processing no spatial multiplexing or transmit diversity currently defined for the LTE uplink As a consequence. .

LTE ACCESS PROCEDURE .

LTE cell search Aim ◦ Acquire frequency and symbol synchronization to a cell. ◦ Acquire frame timing of the cell. two special signals are transmitted on the LTE downlink. determine the start of the downlink frame. ◦ Determine the physical-layer cell identity of the cell. that is. ◦ the Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS) ◦ Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS)  .

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◦ The main part of the system information. . is transmitted using the downlink shared channel (DL-SCH). system information is delivered by two different mechanisms relying on two different transport channels ◦ A limited amount of system information. corresponding to different so-called System Information Blocks (SIBs).System information In LTE. is transmitted using the BCH. corresponding to the so-called Master Information Block (MIB).

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commonly referred to as random access . random access is used for several purposes. ◦ to re-establish a radio link after radio link failure.Random access A fundamental requirement for any cellular system is the possibility for the terminal to request a connection setup. In LTE. including: purposes ◦ for initial access when establishing a radio link (moving from RRC_IDLE to RRC_CONNECTED. ◦ for handover when uplink synchronization needs to be established to the new cell. .

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no separate pagingindicator channel is used . In LTE. An efficient paging procedure should allow the terminal to sleep with no receiver processing most of the time and to briefly wake up at predefined time intervals to monitor paging information from the network.paging Paging is used for networkinitiated connection setup.

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LTE ARCHITECTURE AND SAE .

LTE System Architecture .

         . RLC (Radio Link Control) .  eNBs are connected together through the SGW. MAC. Radio Access Network (RAN) UE: User Equipment eNB: enhanced Node B -Contains PHY. PDCP (Packet Data Control Protocol).LTE System Architecture  Evolved cont.

Enforcement of negotiated UL QoS.  Functions of eNodeB: Radio Resources management. Ciphering/deciphering of user and control plane data Compression/decompression of DL/UL user plane packet .LTE System Architecture cont. Cell information broadcast. Admission control.

LTE System Architecture cont. (relaying the traffic between 2G/3G systems and PDN GW). .   Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN GW)   -Connects UE to external packet data networks (serve IP functions) -Anchor for mobility between 3GPP and non3GPP technologies such as WiMAX and 3GPP2 (CDMA 1X and EvDO). Serving Gateway (SGW) -Routes and forwards user Data Packets. -Mobility anchor for eNB handovers and LTE to other 3GPP systems.

        Mobility Management Entity (MME) -Manage the UE’s mobility.LTE System Architecture cont. -Paging procedure.  . -Authentication and authorization.choosing the SGW for a UE at the initial attach -Security negotiations. -Idle-mode UE tracking and reachability . .

Fundamental requirements for LTE-Advanced complete fulfillment of all the requirements for IMT . in practice implying that it should be .Advanced defined by ITU LTE-Advanced has to fulfill a set of basic backward compatibility requirements ◦ Spectrum coexistence. implying that it should be possible to deploy LTE-Advanced in spectrum already occupied by LTE with no impact on existing LTE terminals ◦ infrastructure .

cost infrastructure deployment and terminals. that is. Possibility for low . High power efficiency. low efficiency power consumption for both .data up to 1 Gbps in the downlink and 500 Mbps in the uplink. Substantial improvements in system performance such as cell and user throughput with target values significantly exceeding those of IMT-Advanced.Extended requirements beyond ITU requirements Support for peak .

Technical components of LTE-Advanced Wider bandwidth and carrier aggregation Extended multi-antenna solutions Advanced repeaters and relaying functionality Coordinated multi-point transmission .

perhaps up to as high as 100 MHz or even beyond  In case of carrier aggregation.Wider bandwidth and carrier aggregation  LTE-Advanced will be an increase of the maximum transmission bandwidth beyond 20 MHz. the aggregation extension to wider bandwidth is accomplished by the aggregation of basic component carriers of a more narrow bandwidth .

Extended multi-antenna solutions support for spatial multiplexing on the uplink is anticipated to be part of LTEAdvanced extension of downlink spatial multiplexing to more four layers benefits of eight-layer spatial multiplexing are only present in special scenarios where high SINR can be achieved .

Coordinated multi-point transmission  Coordinating the transmission from the multiple antennas can be used to increase the signal to . sites  Such strategies can also improve the power amplifier utilization in the network. especially in a lightly loaded network where otherwise some power amplifiers would be idle .noise ratio for users far from the antenna  for example by transmitting the same signal from multiple sites.

This is often referred to as decode .forward relaying . for example.  “ L1 relays ” schemes where the network can control the transmission power of the repeater and. activate the repeater only when users are present in the area handled by the repeater  intermediate node may also decode and re-encode any received data prior to forwarding it to the served users.and .Advanced repeaters and relaying functionality  Repeaters simply amplify and forward the received analog signals and are used already today for handling coverage holes.

Potentially up to 100MHz  Local area optimization of air interface  Nomadic / Local Area network and mobility solutions  Flexible Spectrum Usage  Cognitive Radio  Automatic and autonomous network configuration and operation  Enhanced precoding and forward error correction  Interference management and suppression  Asymmetric bandwidth assignment for FDD  Hybrid OFDMA and SC-FDMA in uplink  UL/DL inter eNodeB coordinated MIMO   .The proposals could roughly be categorizedfor Relay :Nodes into  Various concepts UE Dual TX antenna solutions for SU-MIMO and diversity MIMO  Scalable system bandwidth exceeding 20 MHz.

Timeframe Standardization is expected to be included in 3GPP Release 10 timeframe. The importance and timeframe of LTE Advanced will of course largely depend on the success of LTE itself . . If possible LTE-Advanced will be a software upgrade for LTE networks.

Technology Demonstrations In February 2007 NTT DoCoMo announced the completion of a 4G trial where they achieved a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5 Gbit / s in the downlink using 100MHz frequency bandwidth to a mobile station moving at 10 km / h .