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Mark Wallace, Wadham College CRL Floor 1 Office 1 Phone (2)75467

Question 1

a) The Schrödinger equation for a particle confined to a ring of radius r and subject

to a constant potential V may be written in the form:

% "h 2 # 2 (

' 2

+ V * + = E+

& 2I #$ )

where I is the moment of inertia of the particle. Show by direct substitution that

" = Ne im#

!

is a solution of the Schrödinger equation (where N and m are constants) and, by

applying the boundary conditions, determine the quantised values of energy.

b) If Ψ is an eigenfunction!of the operator " ˆ with eigenvalue " , show that the

expectation value of that operator is equal to " .

c) A linear combination of the form #" = Ae i$ + Be%i$ , where A and B are non-zero

constants, is a solution of the Schrödinger

! equation above,! and is an eigenfunction

! d

of the lz2 operator, but is not an eigenfunction of the lz operator ( lz = "ih ).

! d#

i. Determine the expectation value, lz2 , for the function #" .

! ! #" is equal to 2π(A2 + B2).

ii. Show that the normalization integral for !

iii. Determine the ratio of the coefficients A/B! if the expectation value

lz = h /3 . !

!

iv. What would be the quantum mechanical uncertainty in the measurement of

lz ?

!

d) When an electron confined to a ring interacts with radiation polarised in the x

direction, the transition dipole operator is of the form

!

0 2 0 (

µˆ = µ cos(" ) = 1 µ e i" + e#i" )

Show that the integral

2%

! &e "im# i# im $#

e e d#

0

is equal to zero unless m’=m-1, and hence deduce that the selection rules for transitions

induced by this radiation between the states of the electron confined to the ring are

∆m= ±1. !

Question 2

What is meant by the Hamiltonian operator, and why is it important in quantum

mechanics?

A one-dimensional particle is confined to a region 0 < x < L of zero potential energy, by

infinite potential barriers at x=0 and L.

a) Write down the Hamiltonian for the particle, and solve fully the Schrodinger

equation for the energy levels and wavefunctions of the system.

b) Compare briefly the predicted behaviour of the quantum system with its classical

counterpart.

c) How would the energy levels be modified if the potential for 0<x<L was a non-

zero constant, Vo?

d) Write down the corresponding expression for the energy levels of a two-

dimensional particle confined to the zero-potential region 0 < x < L1 and 0 < y <

L2. Under what conditions does degeneracy occur, and what property of the

system does this reflect?

Question 3

a) What is meant by the statement: ‘ψ is an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian with

eigenvalue E’?

b) Explain briefly why the determination of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues is

important in chemistry.

c) The Hamiltonian for the bending vibration of CO2 can be written:

"h 2 % # 2 1 # 1 #2 ( 1

Hˆ = ' 2+ + 2 2 * + kR 2

2m & #R R #R R #$ ) 2

where the cylindrical coordinates (R, φ) describe the displacement of the carbon

2

atom from the symmetry axis. Show that " = Ae#bR is an eigenfunction of the

Hamiltonian!and find the corresponding eigenvalue.

d) Give reasons for believing that this is the ground state and, from your knowledge

of molecular vibrations, what would ! you expect for the energy, degeneracy and

wavefunction of the first excited state?

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