Lesson 1: Fundamental features of Korean Language

The Korean language is spoken by more than 60 million people. It belongs to the group of Altaic languages together with Japanese, Ainu, and Mongolian, which were splitted one another several thousand years ago. Syntactically, Korean shares some common characteristics with these Altaic languages, while over 70% of its contemporary vocabulary came from Chinese. 1) SOV language Korean is classified as an SOV language, which stands for <Subject-ObjectVerb> word order. English on the other hand is an SVO language. A subject is the one who acts. An object is the one who receives the subjects action. For example: <English> Bob loves Jenny. Who loves Jenny? Bob does. Who is loved by Bob? Jenny is. In Korean this sentence will be in the the word order: <Korean> Bob Jenny loves. 2) Topic-prominent language Although we call it a subject, its position is not for subjects, the actor, only. A topic can also be in the position. A topic may not be an actor, but the one which the sentence is about. Let's take an example: You bumped into a friend after lunch. Your friend asks you, "Hey, how about a lunch?" You might want to say, "Lunch? I already had it. How about a cup of coffee?" The first part of this speech can be understood, 'As for (or, speaking of) lunch, I already ate it.' In Korean, this can be stated simply: <Korean> Lunch, I ate. 3) Agglutinating language Now, you may have been confused, saying, "I don't get it. How come no one interprets it 'A lunch ate me.'?" This is where the powerful function of particles, endings, and conjugation comes in. By attaching these little grammatical devices, you label each words, so that your words come into places without causing misunderstanding. 4) Basic Sentence Formation: {Subject/Topic+particle} + {Object+particle} + {Verb/Adjective+conjugation}

Lesson 2 : Hangul 1. Consonants (자음) -- Click on the chart and listen to how they sound. Consonant chart Plain ㄱ [k] ㄴ [n] ㄷ [t] ㄹ[ r / l ] ㅁ [m] ㅂ [p] ㅅ [s] ㅇ [zero / ng ] ㅈ [ch] ㅎ[h] dictionary order: ㄱ (ㄲ), ㄴ, ㄷ (ㄸ), ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ (ㅃ), ㅅ (ㅆ), ㅇ, ㅈ (ㅉ), ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ Aspirated ones are with more puff of air than the plain ones. As for tensed ones, you add more stricture, but without puff of air, when letting out the sound. Tensed ones are difficult for beginners, and many students take long time to acquire the correct pronunciation. ㄱ is similar to g as in god. ㄲ is similar to k as in sky. ㅋ is similar to k as in kill. ㄷ is similar to d as in do. ㄸ is similar to t as in stop. ㅌ is similar to t as in two. ㅊ [ch'] ㅉ[cc] ㅍ[p'] ㅃ [pp] ㅆ [ss] ㅌ[t'] ㄸ [tt] Aspirated ㅋ [k'] tensed ㄲ [kk]

ㄹ is similar to tt as in butter (not [t] but a flap like a Spanish [r]), in a syllable initial position. ㄹ is similar to l as in filling, in a syllable final (받침) position. ㅂ is similar to b as in bad. ㅃ is similar to p as in spy. ㅍ is similar to p as in pool. ㅅ is similar to s as in astronaut. ㅆ is similar to s as in suit. ㅈ is similar to j as in jail. ㅉ is similar to tz as in pretzel. ㅊ is similar to ch as in charge. ㅎ is similar to h as in hat. 2. Vowels (모음) -- Click on the chart and listen to how they sound.

Vowel Chart Simple ㅏ [a] ㅐ [ae] ㅓ [o^] ㅔ [e] ㅗ [o] ㅜ [u] ㅡ [u^] ㅣ [i] Palatalized ㅑ [ya] ㅒ [yae] ㅕ [yo^] ㅖ [ye] ㅛ [yo] ㅠ [yu] ㅘ [wa] ㅙ [wae] ㅝ [wo^] ㅞ [we] ㅚ [oe] ㅟ [ui] ㅢ[u^i] labiovelarized

ㅔ is similar to " editor". ㅑ. ㅕ. ㅟ). ㅙ. ㅗ is similar to "order". ㅗ (ㅘ. ㅝ is similar to " one". ㅘ is similar to " Wow!" or "what". ㅞ.dictionary order: ㅏ(ㅐ. ㅒ). ㅖ is similar to " yes". ㅒ is similar to "yam". ㅠ. ㅜ is similar to " Ungaro". ㅣ ㅏ is similar to "Ah". . ㅓ (ㅔ. ㅡ is similar to "good" or "le chatau". ㅙ is similar to "wagon". ㅓ is similar to "cut". ㅞ is similar to " weather". ㅚ). ㅜ (ㅝ. ㅖ). ㅛ. ㅛ is similar to " Yoda". ㅣ is similar to "easy". ㅡ (ㅢ). ㅑ is similar to "yard". ㅐ is similar to "add". ㅚ is similar to "Koeln". ㅕ is similar to "just" or "Eliot". ㅠ is similar to "you".

The classification also principles the vowel-hamp3ony phenomena that Korean has as a member of Altaic language family.ㅖ) are placed on the right. ㅡ are placed undersneath the initial consonant. Traditional vowel classification: Traditionally.g) ㄱ ㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㅎ + + + + + ㅏ ㅜ ㅜ ㅏ ㅘ + + + ㅁ ㄱ ㅇ = = = = = 감 국 꿍 나 화 [na] [hwa] [kam] [kuk] . How to make a character out of alphabet Each character is designed to represent one syllable. that is yang (bright). ㅕ. ㅑ. for it will be used when we learn conjugation of predicates and some phonological aspects of Korean. (C) initial consonant + V vowel + (CC) final consonant (coda) Some vowels are placed on the right side of the initial consonant. vowels are classified into three categories. and neutral. yin (dark). where C stands for a consonant. ㅝ) 3. ㅐ. i. some are placed underneath the initial consonant: Vowels ㅏ.e. ㅒ. ㅜ.ㅟ is similar to "we" or "Oui!". E. ㅣ (and their derivatives. ㅓ. ㅘ) (ㅓ. the structure of which may be described as (C)V(C). The cassification is as follows: yang (bright) -yin (dark) neutral --ㅏ and ㅗ series ㅓ and ㅜ series ㅡ and ㅣ (ㅏ. ㅔ. This classification is very important. ㅠ. ㅗ. Final consonants are always placed at the bottom. ㅛ. ㅜ. and vowels ㅗ. and V does a vowel-(C) means that the consonant in the position is optional.

ㄻ. ㄼ. ㄻ. This ㄹ comes alive when the cluster is followed by another vowel. ㅄ Except for ㄺ. As for ㄺ. [ㄹ] is alive even when followed by another consosnant. 값 = kap "price" 값 + 과 = kap kwa "price and" 값 + 이 = kapsi "price (with a subject particle)" Final clusters with 'ㄹ+consonant' fomp3ation are pronounced with slight irregularity. However. the second consonant of the cluster becomes silent. ㄻ. ㄼ. ㄼ. ㄾ. ㄾ. ㄽ. This second consonant will come alive when there is a vowel after it. however. ㅀ (ones with ㄹ placed befre another consonant). Seoul speakers (and many other regions too) tend to throw in a touch of liquid sound for the ㄹ even when the cluster is followed by a consonant or nothing. ㄿ. ㄽ. ㅀ. when followed by another consonant or nothing. ㄺ. the foregoing liquid sound [ㄹ] of the cluster is ignored when followed by another consonant or nothing." Lesson 3: Phonological notes . 끓 + 고 = kku^l k'o "boil and. ㄾ.ㅇ ㅇ ㄱ ㄲ ㅂ ㅎ ㅇ ㄸ + + + + + + + + ㅐ ㅗ ㅗ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ ㅓ ㅓ + + + + + + + ㅅ ㄷ ㅊ ㅌ ㄺ ㅄ ㄼ = = = = = = = = 애 옷 곧 꽃 밭 흙 없 떫 [ae] [ot] [kot] [kkot] [pat] [hu^(r)k] [o^p] [tto^(r)p] NB) Final consonant clusters: ㄳ. ㄵ. ㄿ.. ㄶ. ㄿ. 삶 = sa(l)m "a living" "a living (with a subject particle)" 삶 + 이 = sal mi In clusters ㄽ and ㅀ.

ㅍ ㅇ sound [k] [n] [t] [l] [m] [p] [ng] examples 각. 낳 all pronounced as [ 낟] 쌀 봄 입. 부엌 눈 낟. marker) 이 (top. In reality.1. and ㅃ are not used as 받침.e. any consonant can be in the 받침 (syllable final) position. 낫. Orthographically. vowel)./sub. ㅎ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ. ㅉ. 낮. ㅊ.1. Rules of Pronunciation 2. Summarized as follows: consonant endings 받침 ㄱ. they remain different./sub. Liason (받침 carry-over) . 잎 both pronounced as [입] 영 3) These merged sounds regain their original values when they are followed by a zero-initial syllable (i. 낯. ㅈ. ㅋ ㄴ ㄷ. 각 부엌 낮 낯 입 잎 + + + + + + 이 (topic/subject marker) 에 (place marker) 에 (temporal marker) 에 (place marker) 이 (top. Syllable-final Consonants (받침): 1) Theoretically. however. maeker) = = = = = = [가기 kagi] [부어케 puo^k`e] [나제 naje] [나체 nach`e] [이비 ibi] [이피 ip`i] 2. ㅅ. 2) Some of the consonants merge into one sound when they are in the syllablefinal position. ㄸ. 낱. ㅌ.

ex) 국이 → [구기] 밥을 → [바블] 잎이 → [이피] 문이 → [무니] 옷이 → [오시 ] 밖에 → [바께] 2) The second part of a double 받침 is carried over by the folowing syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-syllable. ㅍ → → → ㅇ ㄴ ㅁ / before ㄴ or ㅁ ex) 갑니다 → [감니다] 낱말 → [난말] 먹는다 → [멍는다] 2.1) A 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial. the nonnasal consonant absorbs the nasality. ㅌ. . ex) 앉아요 → [안자요] 밟아요 → [발바요] 읊어요 → [을퍼요] 읽어요 → [일거요] 핥아요 → [할타요] 없어요 → [업서요] 2. keeping its place of articulation. Nasalization When a final (non-nasal) consonant is followed by a nasal initial (ㄴ. Aspiration When ㅎ [h] is adjacent.2.3. ㅈ.ㅁ). 'ㅇ' in the initial position is not a nasal consonant but a zero. ㅊ. ㅅ. ㄱ. a consonant is influenced and aspirated. ㅋ ㄷ. Remember. ㅎ ㅂ.

To describe a state.4. we find three basic ways of describing facts: description of action. To say "I am a student" is characterizing a property of the subject ('I'). we use adjectives. Liquidation ㄴ ex) 전라북도 → [절라북도] 신라 → [실라] → ㄹ /before another ㄹ Lesson 4: Base forms and Stems In a language. Describing an identity is relating one thing to another. we use verbs. When we say. a paplatalization occurs.5. characterizing the property of the subject. Palatalization When ㄷ or ㅌ is followed by 이 [i]." it describes the state ('being tall') of the subject ('I')." which describes the action ('eating') of the subject ('I'). and identity. state. For example.ㄱ ㄷ ㅂ ㅈ ex) → → → → ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅊ / before or after ㅎ 좋다 → [조타] 생각하다 → [생가카다] 노랗다 → [노라타] 입히다 →[이피다] 2. "I am tall. by . in English. we say "I eat lunch. To describe an action. ㄷ[t] ㅌ[t`] ex) 미닫이→[미다지] 굳이 →[구지] 같이 →[가치] → → ㅈ [ch] ㅊ [ch`] / before 이 2.

such as tense." "you go. Korean also uses this conjugation of predicates. a lexical verb stem. as long as they are obvious by the context.. "Go (Leave)!" A stem is a part of a verb predicate." In order to differentiate the mode of facts." or sometimes. This variation is called "conjugation. In English. the story is not simple. we see a part that is constant in all kinds of sentences. "I was a student.e. you have to say." Like English.identifying the subect as a student. making a presenttense predicate. we make variation on the predicates--in other words. i. a high-polite stle of speech is used. if the your action of eating had happened in the past. "to go") High-polite -세요 When addressing a senior (in terms of age or social ranking). adjectives. With an intonation rising at the end ( ).) Subjects can be omitted in many simple everyday-conversational sentences. etc. pushing. in a verb predicate. ("-요" has more stories.. and the other part that changes according to the modes of facts. we add "다" at the end of a stem." etc. and "-ing" are alternating. Thus. When we talk about facts that happened in the past. 가 stem "to go/leave" 요 mid-polite suffix (present tense) "가".. "-세요" is a typical suffix of this style. Therefore. "He goes. "Do you go (Are you leaving?)" or "Shall we go?". not a whole word. we say." in English. and noun phrases. "I was tall. "I ate lunch. (Think of "push. you need to use a different form of the verb. "가요"thus can be used in the sense of "I go. "-ed". A simple "How are you?" is made as the following. Stem + 다 = Base Form 가 + 다 = 가다 (Base Form." If you used to be quite tall for your age in the past. pushes. When we list it in dictionaries." For similar reasons. but it is not the case now. verbs. or a something that will happen in the future. The conjugation in Korean is made by attaching different suffixes to the stems. We will learn them later. or refer to it as a word--just as when we say "to go" or "to eat" as words--. It can even be taken as an imperative sentence.) The constant part is called the 'stems'. pushed. is attached with a mid-polite suffix "요". etc. it can be a question. for example. 안녕하 stem 세요 high-polite suffix . "Push" is the constant. where "-es".

가세요? 가세요! I/you go. '-하다' verbs and adjectives It's cheap. Practice Using the given words. [verbs] --. Do you go? Does he/she go? Please go! 2. [adjectives] --. as in "You go (Please leave)" or "Do you go (Are you leaving)?". etc. the subject. as it is used in the mid-polite style. 타다 (to ride). However. 파다 (to dig) <Key> 가요. whereas "-요" is for the addressee. make different sentences as seen in the key.) 안녕하다 (to be well): (verb) 하다 (to do) : 하세요? Do you do (it)? .만나다 (to meet). 싸요? 3. you may not want to use it when the subject is you. or "Does he/she go". 자다 (to sleep). "He/She goes". 짜다 (to be salty). He/she goes."to be well" (present tense) "안녕하" is a stem.)건강하다 (to be healthy) (verb)공부하다 (to study). 가다 (to 가요? go): 가요! 가세요. 일하다 (to work) <Key> 안녕하세요? Are you well (How are you)? (adj. For the added politeness by "-세-" is for the subject. 차다 (to be cold) <Key> 싸다 (to be cheap) : 싸요. Apart from the politeness of the style. "-세요" can be used you use "요". the base form of which is "안녕하다". Is it cheap? (adj. not the addressee. 사다 (to buy).비싸다 (to be expensive). 1.

"가다" for "to go". If there is no such thing as the English verb "to be". such languages use so-called 'copula'.하세요! Do (it)! Lesson 5: Nominal predicates : "--이에요" Sample Dialogues By 'nominal predicate'.) In order to relate two nouns (i." which can be used both in nominal predicates and adjectival predicates. "-이다" is of course the base form. the vowel harmony principle ('yang with yang. use -어요. Once again. ("I am a student" and "I am tall". '싸다'. we mean a predicate of a sentence that describes the subject by identifying it with another noun: "I am a student. etc. how are we going to say such sentences as "I am a student"? Many languages lack the verb like "to be. however.e." or "He/She is small. True stories of the present-tense suffix -요 and -세요 In Lesson 4. that copula is "-이다". should take either -아요 or 어요. (For yang/yin/neutral vowels. -요 and -세요 were introduced. which still has to be conjugated to be used in actual sentences. we are facing a new problem. we learned that there are base forms and stems. It was. In Korean. use -아요. the subject and the nominal complement). We thus get base forms. "구름이다" ("to be clouds"). If the stem has a yin or neutral vowel at the last syllable."? → (오아요) → 와요 "Come!" or "I come" or "He/She comes. '자다'.) 작다 to be small 오다 to come : 작 + -아요 : 오 + -아요 → 작아요 "It's small.. 1) Mid-polite suffix -아/어요 Verbs and adjectives that we practiced with for -요 suffix in Lesson 4 have something in common: they all have the stem ending in vowel ? without any patch'im followed ('가다'. The last vowel of the stem decides which of the two to take." . and "싸다" for "to be cheap". Now. "학생이다" ("to be a student").) Those whose stems end otherwise. Hence. not exactly everything that we should know about them. yin with yin') applies: If the stem has a yang vowel at the last syllable. etc." For verbs and adjectives. see Lesson 2.

일하다 to work 공부하다 to study 착하다 to be nice (person) → → → 일해요 공부해요 착해요 2) High-polite suffix -(으)세요 Although not so complicated as -아/어요." → 읽어요 [일거요] "Read!" or "I read. so are the others in Lesson 4.괜찮다[괜찬타] to be alright 주다 to give 먹다 to eat 읽다 [익다] to read : 괜찮 + -아요 : 주 + -어요 : 먹 + -어요 : 읽 + -어요 → 괜찮아요 [괜차나요] "It's OK. use -세요. If the stem ends with a patch'im." → (주어요) → 줘요 "Give (me." or "He/She eats." → 먹어요 "Eat!" or "I eat." In fact. This may sound quite overwhelming. 가다 웃다 to laugh 안녕하다 괜찮다 : : : : 가 + 세요 웃 + 으세요 안녕하 + 세요 괜찮 + 으세요 → → → → 가세요 웃으세요 안녕하세요 괜찮으세요 [괜차느세요] .)!" or "I give. -여요 is assumed instead of -아요. For them. 가다 → 가요 is a contraction [가 + -아요 → (가아요) → 가요]. (NB) -하다 verbs and adjectives are rather peculiar. but -하다 words are in fact easier. this suffix also has its own rules: If the stem ends without a patch'im. use -으세요." or "He/She reads. etc. All the -하다 stems with no exception appear as -해요.

좋아요 ? 좋으세요. and ended in -이에요." "Is it good?" "He/She is good. -이어요 had gone through a certain phonological change in modern Seoul speakers' speech." "Is he/she working?" 좋다 "to be good" (A) . 학생: 학생이에요 "I am / You are a student" or "He/She is a student" 기차: 기차이에요 "It's a train. 오영균 이다 →오영균 이 + -어요 → 오영균이에요 "I am Oh Young Kyun." Similarly. Also. -어요 is added. As far as we are concerned. Please give at least one possible translation for each sentence. we use the nominal-predicate copula. we arrive the detail structure of "안녕하세요. 일하세요? <Words> "It is good. mark each word whether it is a verb (V) or an adjective (A)."오영균이에요" Finally." "Do you work?" "He/she works. 일해요? 일하세요. -이다. XXX(name)이에요. <Key> 좋아요." Since personal names are the same as nouns. For 이 is a neutral vowel. make sentences with -아/어요 and -(으)세요 conjugation. just -이에요 suffice. Using the following words. In order to make it into a real sentence. 좋으세요? 일하다 "to work" (V) 일해요." "Is he/she good?" "I work." There are two forms to spell this -이에요: -예요 and -이에요. Practice 1. we need to add either -아요 or -어요 in place of the base-form making -다 after -이-.

바지 (pants) 바나나 (banana) 아기 (baby) 나비 (butterfly) 별 (star) 모자 (hat) 차 (car) 곰 (bear) Lesson 6: Subject marker: -이/가 As mentioned in Lesson 1. make dialogues.e. it is a duck.네. you will know that it must be a . put on) 비싸다 (to be expensive) 편안하다 (to be comfortable) 웃다 (to laugh) 2. Using the following nouns." In each case. Only nouns can be subjects in Korean. Assuming that a state of being can also be treated as an action. Korean attaches either 이 or 가 to it. A subject of a sentence is the agent (doer) of the action described by the sentence. English is not an agglutinating language. or a nominal predicate. employing rather a fixed word order and prepositions in order to specify the role of each part. 오리이에요. Korean is an agglutinating language. i. To mark this subject. Think of "S goes. <Nouns> 나무 (tree). S is the subject. Yes. (And translate them. when you see a part of a sentence attached with -이 or -가. whereas -가 is for those ending without a final consonant.보다 (to see) 작다 (to be small) 읽다 (to read) 차다 (to be cold) 건강하다 [겅강하다] (to be healthy) 싫다 [실타] (to be hated) 사다 (to buy) 괜찮다 (to be OK) 많다 [만타] (to be many/much) 공부하다 (to study) 입다 (to wear. It means that Korean uses little grammatical devices attached to words to specify their roles in a sentence. In other words.. -이 is used when the subject word ends without a final consonant (patch'im). a subject can take any kind of predicate. a verbal." "S is bad. such is the case in English. an adjectival.) <Key> 오리: a duck A-오리이에요? Is that a duck? B." and "S is a man.

" Now. 학교이에요.noun. It is because the sentences were simple and a conversational reality is presumed. and to translate each sentence. For these sentences. we get a sentence meaning. as given in the above examples. predicate 편안해요. 와요. you might hear sometimes people say sentences without using subject markers -이/가 for subjects. subject 이 사람 (this person) 장미 (rose) 물 (water) 나무 (tree) predicate 친구 (friend) 비싸다 (to be expensive) 차다 (to be cold) 좋다 (to be good) . In sentences the structure of which is complex. 웃으세요. Don't forget to use subject markers. The train is coming. Finally. let's look at some more examples. subject markers can be replaced by a short pause. However. 4. 1. The teacher is laughing. These pants are comfortable. subject 이 바지 가 기차 가 선생님 이 저것 이 이것 이 연습 <practice> Use the following pairs of words to make sentences in mid-poite style. 3. This is a bear. "The embassy is far. or in written forms. 곰이예요. the markers should be specified. That (over there) is a school. 2.

We will be as plain as possible while discussing it. cap) 학교 작다 (to be small) 싫다 (to be dislikable) 오다 (to come) 일하다 (to work) 어디 (where) 누구 (who) 싸다 (to be cheap) 멀다 괜찮다 (to be okay) 자다 (to sleep) 많다 Lesson 7: Object marker -을 / -를 [Not many people are fond of talking about grammar.5. 9. 13. 18. As we know. the subject is the doer (agent) of the action that the verb describes. 저 사람 (that person) 돈 (money) 아기 (baby) 이것 (this [thing]) 여기 (here.] An object in a sentence is the thing or a person that receives the action (described by the verb) from the subject. 10. 6. 12. this place) 바지 공부 (studying) 차 (car) 친구 집 (home) 저 사람 책 (book) 미국 (America) 이 컴퓨터 (this computer) 동생 (a younger sibling) 숙제 (homework) 건강하다 (to be healthy) 많다 (to be many/much) 건강하다 모자 (hat. 8. However. . 19. 14. 11. 15. 17. 7. 16. this is the least bit of the Korean grammar that you should know. 20.

. (What these verbs have in common is that you can say "to [verb] something / someone.. Only those sentences containing verbs that take objects will. therefore. you have a group of verbs that are transitive and another that are intransitive.. You handle an object in an English sentence simply by placing it AFTER the verb. as long as you keep them together. In English grammar. drink. and such change of meaning depending on the word order is less likely to happen. i..e. the doer of eating is "friend ('my' is assumed). What clarifies the meaning." -이 and -를 are subject and object markers. Since the subject and object are labeled with markers. you get a completely different meaning. the verbs that take objects are called 'transitive verbs. A person subject bites verb predicate a dog. not every sentence will have both subject and object. choose. A dog subject bites verb predicate a person.In this sentence. verb predicate "bite" . Such verbs as "love." As you might have noticed already. Similarly. stay. buy. there is no possibility of confusion. is the particle. We know that the predicate must be placed at the of a sentence. receives the action). let's go back to Korean. "to eat" is a transitive verb.' For example. see. A subject does not necessarily come before the object in a Korean sentence. 물어요. Thus. in order to understand this grammatical terminology. Let us think about English for a moment. subject/object markers.. understand. since there must be something that is eaten (that is. both subject and object should come before the verb (predicate).) 사람이 subject "a person" 개를 object "a dog" "A person bites a dog. find. die. respectively. object Now. come. sit. (Linguists usually call them Case markers." are intransitive.") Such verbs as "go. object If you switch the positions of the subject and the object." are transitive." and the recipient of the action ("eating") is "lunch.

(friend) 텔레비. -어요. use -를. with a vowel (no patch'im). 사람을 object "a person" 개가 subject "a dog" "A dog bites a person. verb predicate "bite" The meaning can only change when you switch the markers. the difference between -을 and -를 is purely phonological: when the previous syllable ends with a consonant (patch'im). use 을.) As you might have noticed. 1. A: 개가 누구를 물어요? (Who does the dog bite?) B: 사람을 물어요. ([It] bites a person. (television) 보다 → (watch.) 친구가 텔레비를 봐요. verb predicate "bite" 연습 <practice> answer You are given two nouns and one transitive verb in each line. a subject is simply not said in Korean when it is understood. Be sure to conjugate the verb with -아요. when needed. 남자친구 (boy friend)." 물어요." Oftentimes.개를 object "a dog" 사람이 subject "a person" "A person bites a dog. 물어요. -(으)세요. Key 친구. 책 (book). 사다 (buy) . see) ([My] friend watches TV. Combine them into a sentence. assuming that the first noun is the subject and the second is the object.

여자친구. It's Sun-i. 먹다 (eat) 7. 만나다 Lesson 8: Who. A: 사과이에요. 아버지 (father). 어머니 (mother). 점심 (lunch). 삼촌 (uncle). 만나다 (meet) 8. A: 순이를 만나요. 여자친구 (girl friend). I meet sun-i. 친구.2. 할머니 (grandmother). 학생 (student). What. 읽다 4. Where? Q: 누구 세요? Who is it? Q: 누구를 만나요? A: 순이이에요. A: 서울에 있어요. 공부하다 (study) 9. 책. 영어 (English). 돈 (money). 친구. A: 사과를 좋아해요. 공부하다 10. Whom are you meeting? Q: 무엇이에요? What is it? Q: 무엇을 좋아하세요? What do you like? Q: 어디에 있어요? . 좋아하다 (like) 5. I like apples. 읽다 (read) 3. 주다 (give) 6. 신문 (newspaper). 한국어 (Korean). 아이 (child). It is an apple. 남자친구. 영화 (movie).

object markers. -을 is used when there is a final consonant (patch'im) preceding.Where is it? Q: 어디에 가요? Where are you going? It is in Seoul. 무엇을 (=뭐를) 누구를 어디를 what who where E. <English> in Seoul <Korean> 서울 에 (Seoul + in) = . 무엇이 (= 뭐가 ) 누구가 (>누가) 어디가 obj. object. -에 is a marker that functions like the preposition ('in' or 'to') in English. -에 is needed after 어디 in the above dialogues. Although we have not discussed it in detail.g. though they are placed after the noun they work with. while "where" in English is not. 누구 무엇 (often > 뭐 ) 어디 who what where These words are pronouns. Note that 어디 (where) is also a noun (pronoun). They need particles to be specified for their functions. etc. sub. A: 서울에 가요. let us learn -을 and -를. I go to Seoul. such as subject. adverbial. 무엇이 어려워요? 누가 와요? 어디가 아파요? 무엇을 배워요? 누구를 만나요? 어디를 때려요? What is difficult? Who is coming? lit. Where is hurting? (Which part of your body is hurting?) What do you learn? Whom are you meeting? Where do I hit? For similar reasons. whereas 를 is for elsewhere.

If it is rather distant from both parties. 그--. Using 사람 ('person') is not polite enough to refer to an older person. 저-- 이.We will discuss this in detail later. 이것이 무엇이에요? 저것은 무엇이에요? 그것은 무엇이에요? 이 사람은 누구이에요? 저 사람은 누구이에요? 그 사람은 어디 가요? 여기는 어디이에요? 저기는 어디이에요? 거기는 어디이에요? 그것은 한국 책이에요. You replace 사람 with 분 in such cases. The only thing that is different from the case in English would be that what is referred to with 저-. 저 사람은 내 동생이에요. 저기는 우리 집이에요. it is referred to 저--.should be in the sight of the speaker. it is referred to as 그--. 그 사람은 내 친구이에요. 저것은 미국 신문이에요. . 이것은 일본 잡지이에요. 저분은 박 선생님이세요. 그. this 이 that over there 저 that 그 Q-word +thing 이것 저것 그것 무엇(what) +person 이 사람 저 사람 그 사람 누구 (who) +place 여기 저기 거기 어디(where) When the referent (an object or a person) is close to the speaker. 이 사람은 학교에 가요. 여기는 학교이에요. the predicate will have to change accordingly into highpolite (with honorific infix -시-) style. here 'n there 이--. Lesson 9: This 'n that. Then. 여기는 미국이에요. When it is closer to the listener than to the speaker. 이 분은 누구세요? 저 분은 누구세요? 그분은 김 선생님이세요. it is referred to as 이--. and 저 are demonstrative modifiers for nouns.

that person you are talking about can also be older or younger than you are. Throughout these categories applies a supervening category of formality. and people in private relationship. they can either be different or identical). Chon-dae mal concerns the proper handling of both these criteria in speech. verb/adjective differentiation. army. rank in various social relations also dictates proper use of these speech styles. However. In addition to age. etc. the consistency of formal/informal speech style is not really strict. When you talk to someone. In other words. This category concerns the occasion where the conversation occurs. in many cases. etc. public speech.그 분은 어디 가세요? 이분은 학교에 가세요. We can summarize the above: ABOUT formal ending informal ending -아/어요 -(으)세요 -아/어 -(으)셔 TO TO seniors ABOUT juniors or self -ㅂ/습니다 (polite) ABOUT seniors -(으)십니다 TO juniors ABOUT juniors or self -다 (plain) ABOUT seniors -(으)시다 This is a simple outline of endings. the formal style will be adopted more in work place. family members. when you talk about a person to someone (of course. . as long as you keep the consistency of politeness.Politeness is achieved by -아요/-어요 or -ㅂ니다 (2) whom you talk about -. Lesson 10: Styles of speech--a broad classification 1. For example. whereas the informal would better be used among close friends. that person you are talking to could be older or younger than you are. As we will learn later. you may feel free switch back and forth between formal and informal style within a conversation. 존댓말 (polite style): the style in which you speak to your superiors or seniors.Politeness is achieved by infix -시-. Politeness of style can be demarcated into two criteria: (1) whom you talk to -. There . there are other grammatical details that may be needed according to tense. 존댓말 or Polite speech 반말(non-polite style): the style of speech in which you speak to your friends (of your age) or to people younger than you are.

) 2. such as self-effacing pronoun for the first person (저 instead of plain 나 for 'I'). (Talking to my younger sister) My friend is coming to our house. The following is in informal style. (In fact. lexically honorific words (말씀 instead of 말 for 'speech. 문어체 or written style 문어체 literally means "written-language style. . as much as it is hard to foreigners. (Talking to my friend) The teacher is coming to our house. It is known to be more complicated than in Japanese. which will also be discussed later. . As there are polite and non-polite styles. announcement) aiming at actual readers. polite formal ending -. and so on. we have polite formal style and non-polite formal style. are written in these styles. In fact.-ㄴ다/는다 (present-tense verb) or -다 (elsewhere) Newspaper articles. Now let us see how we can make variation for same sentences. (Talking to my mother) The teacher is coming to our house. the non-polite is preferred in most written documents over the polite. it is not an easy matter to native speaker. words'). articles. unless the document is by nature a dialogue (i. Compared to traditional families where more than three generations lived in one house or neighborhood. e. Extensive variety in speech style is often the most overwhelming part when a foreigner begins to learn Korean. 친구가 우리 집에 와. and so forth. 선생님이 우리 집에 오셔. 선생님이 우리 집에 오세요. However.are also other supplementary devices. academic papers. etc. People in younger generations in Korea also experience difficulty with proper use of speech style. Speech style is a product of layers of social/kinship relationship. (Talking to my mother) My friend is coming to our house. . public announcement. They both have -다 at the end. 친구가 우리 집에 와요.-ㅂ니다/습니다 non-polite formal ending -. papers in classes. modern 'nuclear' families offer very few opportunities for the children to practice different speech styles. this is somehow related to the shifts that happened in the Korean social structure." in which you write formal documents.

probably with Chinese writing system. from a native speaker's intuition. Korean lessons: Lesson 11 Numbers (I) Two Sets of numbers Two sets of numbers are in use in Korean: native Korean and Chinese-based sets. Japanese ichi ni san shi go Korean il (일) i (이) sam (삼) sa (사) o (오) one two three four five yi er san si wu In fact. The Chinese-based set transmitted to Korea long time ago. For the sake of our convenience. reflect old phases of Chinese language. gives the impression of selfaddressing. as we saw in the chart above. It is also the case in Japanese. let us call these two sets 'Korean numbers' and 'Chinese numbers. The style is also used frequently by a speaker toward others in the same or younger age. and we see certain phonological similarity among Chinese numbers and Chinese-based sets of Japanese and Korean numbers.The non-polite formal. and therefore we can call it 반말. The Chinese remnants in Japanese and Korean. to settle in the language.' Here are the two sets of 1 to 10. which may explain why it is also used in diaries--something that can be most informal. along with other Chinese dialects. the Japanese and Korean sounds of Chinese numbers are quite similar to those in many modern Chinese dialects. sometimes even more similar than modern Mandarin to them. Korean numbers 하나 둘 셋 넷 다섯 여섯 일곱 여덟 Chinese numbers 일 이 삼 사 오 육 칠 팔 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .

000 7.000 50.000 40. 10.000 80. First.000 60. 12 is made of 10 and 2--there are other ways of making it.000 6.000 9. Thus.000 .9 10 아홉 열 구 십 There is no semantic difference between the two sets.000 4.000 8.000 90.000 200. thousands . . Both '하나' and '일' means one. Take "12" and "20" for example.000 20. let us learn more about the Chinese numbers. but this is what the number stands for--.000 천 천 이천 삼천 사천 오천 육천 칠천 팔천 구천 10 thou.000 600. Counting more than ten observes the arithmetic principles. .000 700. We will discuss this in the next lesson. 100.000 3. hundreds. 20 stands for two tens.000 30.000 800.000 400.000 900.000 2. They differ according to when and how they are used.000 300. the Chinese number has them: 12 = 10 + 2 십이 20 = 2 x 10 이십 Chinese numbers under 100 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 십 십일 십이 십삼 십사 십오 십육 십칠 십팔 십구 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 이십 이십일 이십이 이십삼 이십사 이십오 이십육 이십칠 이십팔 이십구 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 삼십 삼십일 삼십이 삼십삼 삼십사 삼십오 삼십육 삼십칠 삼십팔 삼십구 Tens. On the other hand.000 만 만 이만 삼만 사만 오만 육만 칠만 팔만 구만 100 thou.000 70.000 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 영 일 이 삼 사 오 육 칠 팔 구 tens 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 십 십 이십 삼십 사십 오십 육십 칠십 팔십 구십 hundreds 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 백 백 이백 삼백 사백 오백 육백 칠백 팔백 구백 thousands 1.000 500.

구백만 90 mil. 오천만 500 mil. etc. 이백만 20 mil. 팔백만 80 mil. Money: 만 이천 원 (12.892: 칠천 팔백 구십 이 980. let us see how these work. Although they used to have a complete system of native numbers that can go up to three digits (or more). 육천만 600 mil. possibly stemmed through a different route from that of the Chinesebased set. 천만 십만 1 mil. 억 억 이십만 2 mil. 'one thousand'. 육억 칠십만 7 mil. 팔억 구십만 9 mil.500 dollar) Phone number: 238-7834 (이삼팔에 칠팔삼사) Room/APT Number: Room 305 (삼백오 호) Lesson 12: Numbers (II) Native Korean Numbers Another set of numbers are of native Korean numbers. Now. Numbers and formation . '일천'. 사억 오십만 5 mil. 오백만 50 mil. are not '일백'. 칠천만 700 mil. etc. 삼억 사십만 4 mil. 168: 백 육십 팔 250: 이백 오십 7. 팔천만 800 mil. they now only use the numbers up to two digits (99). 삼천 오백 달러 (3. 천만 100 100 mil.543: 구억 팔천 칠십 육만 팔천 오백 사십 삼 Some examples in the usage of Chinese numbers. 백만 10 mil. 육백만 60 mil.십만 millions 백만 10 mil. 칠억 팔십만 8 mil. 사백만 40 mil. 구천만 900 mil. mil. 사천만 400 mil.000 won).768. 오억 육십만 6 mil. 이억 삼십만 3 mil. They are indigenous in Korean. 삼천만 300 mil. 구억 Notice that 'one hundred'. 삼백만 30 mil. 이천만 200 mil. 칠백만 70 mil. The formation of numbers is quite similar to that of English numbers in the sense that you have a set of numbers for single digits (1-10) and another set for tens (10-90).

. . Does this mean that they have different counters for all nouns and that you have to memorize all of them? Probably. this is applied to all nouns.' 'coffee. When you speak of a thing with its amount. and you could strat by learning them and then move on to the rest. It may remind you of such expressions as "two bottles of wine" in English. In Korean.' etc. It is necessary in English to specify the measure unit when it comes to uncountable nouns. such as 'water. the proper formation should be the following: **Noun + number + counter** noun 새 (bird) + number 다섯 (five) + counter 마리 (counter for animals) Thus. an expression like "다섯 새" is not used in Korean." however. Do not panic. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Native numbers 열 스물 서른 마흔 쉰 예순 일흔 여든 아흔 백 The formation is quite simple: 15 = 10+5 열 다섯 21 = 20+1 스물 하나 87 = 80+7 여든 일곱 Using with counters and measure words Such formation as "five birds.. for there are a certain number of counters that are more frequent and common than the others. thirty.Single digits 1 Native 하나 numbers 2 둘 3 셋 4 넷 5 다섯 6 여섯 7 일곱 8 여덟 9 아홉 10 열 Ten.. twenty. though. is not directly applicable in Korean.

에서 indicates the place of an action (하다.There is yet another issue of when to use Chinese numbers and when to use native Korean numbers.) . 2.에 indicates the place of a state of being (있다. The meaning of . This will be discussed in the next lesson. for the ease of pronunciation.에서 and . when before counters.에 and . 먹다.에 So far. used after a noun. We now have a new location marker: . etc.에서 is 'in'. For example: 나는 은행에서 일해요 . numbers 1. Now it becomes quite puzzling how . like a postposition (the opposite concept to English 'preposition').에서 are different.에서 . Slight changes when used before counters Also. and 20.) . 계시다. (1) Meaning of 'in (or at/on)' . 일하다. 3. 공부하다. we have used . change their shape slightly.에 as a marker indicating a place. 4. 없다. I work at a bank. etc. numbers 하나 → changes 한 examples 새 한 마리 "a bird" (마리: counter for animals) 학생 두 명 "two students" (명: counter for people) 사과 세 개 "three apples" (개: counter for countable objects) 책네권 "four volumes of books" (권: counter for books) 나이 스무 살 "age of twenty" (살: counter for age) 둘 → 두 셋 → 세 넷 → 네 스물 → 스무 Lesson 13: Locative markers .

보다 .NB) 살다 is rather peculiar. etc. 오다 . being used with both . Kim came from Korea. although Mr.) 은행에서 일해요 in ( at ) x 집에 있어요 to 학교에 가요 from 한국에서 왔어요 in ( at ) .에서 with 살다 induces more vivid image of 'life' than simple 'dwelling'. . We may understand that .) . .에 and . 다니다. The following table summarizes what we have discussed above. Mr. -에 state ( 있다 .에 because these verbs are recognized to be directional.에서 x indicates that the respective marker is not used with the predicates. In the above example.에서 . etc. except that . his action of 'coming' must have started in Korea. 계시다 ) directional ( 가다 . No apparent semantic difference is noticed. NB) 넣다 (to put) and 앉다 (to sit) also use . (2) With directional predicates (가다. 김 선생님은 한국에서 오셨어요 .에서 means 'from'. 다니다 ) action x ( 먹다 .에서 still keeps the meaning of 'in' and that it is the directionality implied by the predicate that produces the sense of 'from'. Kim may not be in Korea at the time that the sentence is spoken. 오다. 일하다 .에 means 'to'. 없다 .

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