Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer

In many cases it's convenient to have simple equations for estimation of heat transfer coefficients. Below is a collection of recommended correlations for single-phase convective flow in different geometries as well as a few equations for heat transfer processes with change of phase. Note that all equations are for mean Nusselt numbers and mean heat transfer coefficients. The following cases are treated:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. • • Forced Convection Flow Inside a Circular Tube Forced Convection Turbulent Flow Inside Concentric Annular Ducts Forced Convection Turbulent Flow Inside Non-Circular Ducts Forced Convection Flow Across Single Circular Cylinders and Tube Bundles Forced Convection Flow over a Flat Plate Natural Convection Film Condensation Nucleate Pool Boiling List of Symbols References

1 Forced Convection Flow Inside a Circular Tube

All properties at fluid bulk mean temperature (arithmetic mean of inlet and outlet temperature). Nusselt numbers Nu0 from sections 1-1 to 1-3 have to be corrected for temperaturedependent fluid properties according to section 1-4. \

Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page, www.cheresources.com

cheresources.7 < Pr < 7 or if Re Pr D/L < 33 also for Pr > 7. hydrodynamically developed laminar flow (Re < 2300) Constant wall temperature: (Hausen) Constant wall heat flux: (Shah) 1-2 Simultaneously developing laminar flow (Re < 2300) Constant wall temperature: (Stephan) Constant wall heat flux: which is valid over the range 0. Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. Gnielinski) where Constant wall temperature: For fluids with Pr > 0. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page. 1-3 Fully developed turbulent and transition flow (Re > 2300) Constant wall heat flux: (Petukhov.1-1 Thermally developing. www.7 correlation for constant wall heat flux can be used with negligible error.com .

without subscript: at mean fluid temperature Gases.1-4 Effects of property variation with temperature Liquids. turbulent flow: Temperatures in Kelvin 2 Forced Convection Flow Inside Concentric Annular Ducts. laminar flow: Nu = Nu0 Gases. Turbulent (Re > 2300) Dh = Do .cheresources. outer wall insulated: (Petukhov and Roizen) Heat transfer at the outer wall.com . Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page. laminar and turbulent flow: Subscript w: at wall temperature.Di All properties at fluid bulk mean temperature (arithmetic mean of inlet and outlet temperature). www. inner wall insulated: Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. Heat transfer at the inner wall.

(Petukhov and Roizen) Heat transfer at both walls. Correction for temperature dependent fluid properties see section 4-4.com . 4-1 Smooth circular cylinder Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. www. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page. all properties at fluid bulk mean temperature. same wall temperatures: (Stephan) 3 Forced Convection Flow Inside Non-Circular Ducts. Turbulent (Re > 2300) Equations for circular tube with hydraulic diameter 4 Forced Convection Flow Across Single Circular Cylinders and Tube Bundles D = cylinder diameter. um = free-stream velocity.cheresources.

0 according to section 4-1 with instead of Rel.com .6 < Pr < 1000 4-2 Tube bundle Transverse pitch ratio Longitudinal pitch ratio Void ratio for b > 1 for b < 1 Nu0.bundle = fANul.cheresources. www. Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. Arrangement factor fA depends on tube bundle arrangement. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.(Gnielinski) where Valid over the ranges 10 < Rel < 107 and 0.0 (Gnielinski) Nul.

In-line arrangement: Staggered arrangement: Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page. www.com .cheresources.

cheresources.4-3 Finned tube bundle In-line tube bundle arrangement: (Paikert) Staggered tube bundle arrangement: (Paikert) Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. www.com . Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.

Gases: Temperatures in Kelvin. www.com .cheresources.6 < Pr < 10 Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr.4-4 Effects of property variation with temperature Liquids: Subscript w: at wall temperature. without subscript: at mean fluid temperature. constant wall temperature: (Pohlhausen) valid for ReL < 2·105. 5 Forced Convection Flow over a Flat Plate All properties at mean film temperature Laminar boundary layer. 0. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.

0.00 "Length" L H D D For ideal gases: (temperature in K) (Churchill.com .cheresources. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.Turbulent boundary layer along the whole plate. Thelen) valid for 10-4 < Gr Pr < 4·1014. www.022 < Pr < 7640. and constant wall temperature Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr.36 2.67 0. constant wall temperature: (Petukhov) Boundary layer with laminar-turbulent transition: (Gnielinski) 6 Natural Convection All properties at L = characteristic length (see below) Nu0 Vertical Wall Horizontal Cylinder Sphere 0.

www.7 Film Condensation All properties without subscript are for condensate at the mean temperature Exception: = vapor density at saturation temperature Ts 7-1 Laminar film condensation Vertical wall or tube: (Nusselt) Tw = mean wall temperature Horizontal cylinder: (Nusselt) Tw = const.cheresources. 7-2 Turbulent film condensation For vertical wall Re = C Am Recrit = 350 turbulent film: (Grigull) Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr.com . Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.

8 Nucleate Pool Boiling Tw = temperature of heating surface Ts = saturation temperature Heat transfer at ambient pressure: (Stephan and Preußer) ' saturated liquid '' saturated vapor Bubble departure diameter Angle = rad for water = 0.cheresources. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.5 bar < p < 20 bar and 104 W/m2 < the following equation may be applied: (Fritz) List of Symbols cp D.com . d g h H k L specific heat capacity at constant pressure diameter gravitational acceleration mean heat transfer coefficient enthalpy of evaporation height thermal conductivity length Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr.611 rad for other liquids < 106 W/m2 For water in the range of 0. www.0175 rad for low-boiling liquids = 0.

Forschung im Ingenieurwesen 41.: Berechnung mittlerer Wärme. 8-16 (1975). Hb2. 4. S.5.W. Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page.: Neue Gleichungen für den Wärme. V. 2. Hemisphere (1983). www.und den Stoffübergang in turbulent durchströmten Rohren und Kanälen. Chapter 2. Gnielinski.7 of Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. Gnielinski. W.und Stoffübergangskoeffizienten an laminar und turbulent überströmten Einzelkörpern mit Hilfe einer einheitlichen Gleichung. V. Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr.: In VDI-Wärmeatlas.com . 3.T u heat flux temperature flow velocity thermal diffusivity coefficient of thermal expansion dynamic viscosity kinematic viscosity density surface tension Subscripts h i m o s w hydraulic inside mean outside saturation wall Dimensionless numbers Gr Nu Pr Re Grashof number mean Nusselt number Prandtl number Reynolds number References 1.: Free convection around immersed bodies. Düsseldorf (1963). 145-153 (1975). Forschung im Ingenieurwesen 41. Churchill. Fritz.cheresources.

www.-Ing. 14. 7th edition. K.-Tech. 49-57 (1942). Stephan. U. 773-778 (1959). H. Roizen: High Temperature 2. Hausen. 11. Allg. Preußer: Wärmeübergang und maximale Wärmestromdichte beim Behältersieden binärer und ternärer Flüssigkeitsgemische. 503-565 (1970). Bernhard Spang Presented at The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page. Stephan. 8. R. Petukhov. 75-79 (1959).: Heat transfer and friction in turbulent pipe flow with variable physical properties. 60. K.5. Math.S.S. Chem. 10.: Die Oberflächenkondensation des Wasserdampfes. Mech. Stephan. Z. 1. 65-68 (1964).I. E.-Tech.cheresources. Adv. 115-121 (1921). Vol. 9.-Ing. 34. 3rd Natnl. Technol Bombay.K. Petukhov. VDI Z. Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer By: Dr. B. 12.: Neue Gleichungen für die Wärmeübertragung bei freier und erzwungener Strömung. Wärmetechnik 9. 13. Nusselt. Heat Transfer 6. Heat Mass Transfer Conference. B. Chem. VDI-Wärmeatlas. 31. 6. 15. 7. Paper HMT-11-75 (1975).com . Düsseldorf 1994.: Wärmeübergang bei der Kondensation mit turbulenter Wasserhaut. Indian Inst. K.-Ing. 51.-Tech. and L. Grigull.: Wärmeübergang und Druckabfall bei nicht ausgebildeter Laminarströmung in Rohren und ebenen Spalten.: Thermal entry length solutions for the circular tube and parallel plates. Shah. 37 (1979). 207-212 (1962). Angew.: Der Wärmeaustausch zwischen festen Körpern und Flüssigkeiten mit kleiner Reibung und kleiner Wärmeleitung. W.: Chem. I. and P. Pohlhausen. Forschung im Ingenieurwesen 13. 541546 and 569-575 (1916). Proc.

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