DIMENSION FINITA

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DIMENSION FINITA

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1. a) Define what it means to say that vectors ~v1 , . . . , ~vp in a vector space V are linearly independent.

b) Consider the following polynomials

1 + 2t2 , 4 + t + 5t2 , 3 + 2t

in the vector space P2 of all polynomials of degree ≤ 2. Do they form a basis for P2 ? Explain your

answer as carefully as you can.

Solution. (i) They are linearly independent if

c1~v1 + · · · + cp~vp = 0

implies c1 = · · · = cp = 0.

(ii) Write the given vectors in terms of the basis 1, t, t2 . This gives the columns of the matrix:

1 4 3

0 1 2

2 5 0

If the vectors are linearly independent, this matrix should be invertible, i.e. have rank 3. Probably

the quickest way to check is to compute its determinant:

1 4 3 1 4 3

0 1 2 = 0 1 1 2

2 =

= 0.

2 5 0 0 −3 −6 −3 −6

Hence, the matrix is not invertible, so the vectors do not form a basis for P2 .

2. Let

B = {1, t, t2 },

C = {1 + t, 1 + t2 , t + t2 }.

So B is our favorite basis for the vector space P2 of all polynomials of degree ≤ 2.

a) Explain carefully why C is also a basis for the vector space P2 .

b) Write down the coordinates of the polynomial 6 + 3t − t2 relative to the basis B.

c) Compute the change of basis matrices

d) Using your answers to b) and c), write down the coordinates of the polynomial 6 + 3t − t2

relative to the basis C.

Solution. a) By the same argument as the previous question, C is a basis if the matrix

1 1 0

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 0

1 0 1 = 0 −1 1 = −2 6= 0.

0 1 1 0 1 1

Hence they do

form a basis.

6

b) 3 .

−1

−1

1 1 0 1 1 0

c) PB←C = 1 0 1 . Hence, PC←B = 1 0 1 . To compute this inverse matrix, use

0 1 1 0 1 1

Gauss-Jordan elimination:

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0

1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 → 0 −1 1 −1 1 0 → 0 −1 1 −1

1 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 −1

1 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 −1/2

→ 0 1 −1 1 −1 0 → 0 1 0 1/2 −1/2 1/2

0 0 1 −1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1 −1/2 1/2 1/2

Hence:

1/2 1/2 −1/2

PC←B = 1/2 −1/2 1/2

−1/2 1/2 1/2

d) Finally,

1/2 1/2 −1/2 6 5

[6 + 3t − t2 ]C = PC←B [6 + 3t − t2 ]B = 1/2 −1/2 1/2 3 = 1 .

−1/2 1/2 1/2 −1 −2

a) The vector space P3 of polynomials of degree ≤ 3 is isomorphic to the vector space R3 .

b) If B is the standard basis for Rn , then the coordinates of a vector ~v ∈ Rn with respect to the

basis B is ~v itself.

c) If T : V → W is a linear transformation between two finite dimensional vector spaces, and

dim ker T = 0, then dim V ≥ dim W .

d) A vector space is infinite dimensional if it is spanned by an infinite set.

Solutions a) False. A basis is 1, t, t2 , t3 . So it is four dimensional, hence isomorphic to R4 .

b) True. This is a tautology, so more confusing than it should be!

c) False. If dim ker T = 0, then dim im T = dim V . But im T is a subspace of W , so dim im T ≤

dim W . Hence, dim V ≤ dim W .

d) False. A vector space is finite dimensional if it is spanned by finitely many vectors. But finite

dimensional vector spaces can also be spanned by infinitely many vectors – e.g. R2 is infinite and it

is certainly spanned by all its elements!

2 0

[T ]B,B =

0 3

2 3

where B is the basis , for R2 .

3 2

a) Describe the transformation T geometrically (e.g. draw a picture!).

b) Compute the standard matrix of T .

Solution.

a)I would draw a picture if I could. But its really a stretch

scale factor 2 parallel to

2 3

the vector and a stretch scale factor 3 parallel to the vector .

3 2

b) We need to compute the images of ~e1 and ~e2 . Note

1 3 3 2 2

= − .

0 5 2 5 3

Hence,

1 3 3 2 2 3 9 2 4 19/5

T = T − T = − = .

0 5 2 5 3 5 6 5 6 6/5

Similarly:

0 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 9 −4/5

T = T − T = − = .

1 5 3 5 2 5 6 5 6 6/5

19/5 −4/5

.

6/5 6/5

5. Let ~b1 , ~b2 , ~b3 , ~b4 be a basis for a 4-dimensional vector space V . Consider the linear transformation

T : V → V which satisfies

b) Find bases for im T and ker T .

c) What is dim

im T + dim ker T?

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

Solution. a)

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

b) Note the matrix has rank 3, so the image has dimension 3 and the kernel has dimension 1.

Now just look at the above matrix: ~b1 is a basis for the kernel, ~b1 , ~b2 , ~b3 is a basis for the image.

c) Of course it is 4. It has to be, by the rank-nullity theory.

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