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36

Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2014

Design of a Hybrid Controller using Differential Evolution and MIT Rule for

Magnetic Levitation System

Priyank Jain*, M. J. Nigam**

*Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

**Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

In various industrial systems, parameters variation is one control system which results in good performance where

of the major problems faced by control engineers now nonlinearities and disturbances are inherent part of the

days. To overcome the problem of parameter variations, system [4].

this paper proposes the hybridization of MIT rule based Another approach to automatically tune the parameters

online tuning of classical PID controllers with of conventional controller is Differential Evolution Soft

Differential Evolution algorithm. The hybridization of Computing Algorithm widely known as DE algorithm

two techniques results in the offline as well as online [5]. This technique uses a population based search

tuning of PID controllers at the same time. The algorithm to estimate the controller parameters so as to

developed hybrid controller is then applied on magnetic minimize the integral square error (ISE) and this

levitation system using MATLAB and Simulink. The estimation is done automatically through writing a

paper also describes the basic steps involved in program using MATLAB [5-8]. DE based PID tuning

Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and a comparison comes under offline tuning methods which sets the

between designed hybrid controller and the simple DE values of PID parameters based on a performance index

algorithm based controller has been carried out. The [6].Literature suggests that the performance of DE based

results depict that the performance of the hybrid controller is better than MIT based controller. This paper

controller is better than the offline tuned PID controller proposes the hybridization of above two techniques and

in terms of transient parameters such as peak overshoot the performance of the hybrid controller has been

and settling time. evaluated on magnetic levitation system. Section II-IV

explains strategies, simulations and results with

Keywords–Differential evolution, hybridization, MIT necessary graphs.

rule, PID controller, soft computing.

II. MIT RULE

I. INTRODUCTION

There are various approaches used to design the

Inherent disturbances and inaccuracies lead to adjustment mechanism for an adaptive controller and

parameter variations in any physical system which may gradient theory based MIT rule is one of them. MIT rule

result in degradation in the performance and sometimes uses the alteration of controller parameters in the

damage the system. To solve the problem of parameter negative direction of gradient of a cost function [4]. This

variation, one needs to design the control system with cost function is defined in terms of the error between the

more powerful and advanced techniques so as to actual behavior and ideal behavior of the plant.

maintain the satisfactory performance of the overall Defining the cost variable,

system. 3Adaptive Control is one of the widely used J(k) = e2 / 2 (1)

advanced control strategies, in which one needs to

design an adjustment mechanism to alter the adjustable In (1), e is the error between plant output and reference

parameters of controller [1]. Gradient theory based MIT model output, and k is the adjustable parameter of the

rule is one of them, which uses the concept of altering controller.

the adjustable parameters of conventional PID controller Applying gradient theory [4],

in the direction so that the error between plant output dk ∂J

∝− (2)

and reference input can be minimized [1-3]. This type of dt ∂k

control is also called online tuned PID control. Online

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 – 0882,

37

Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2014

Using the gradient theory, one will get the following (ii) Initialize parameter vectors over lower and upper

equation which depicts the relationship between the limits

change in parameter k with error e(t) [3]. xi,G = [x1,i,G , x2,i,G , . . . xD,i,G] ;

dk/dt = −γ′ e y (3) i = 1, 2, . . . ,N.

Hence the adjustment law developed by the equation

given above using Laplace transform will be, Step 2. Mutation:

γ′ (i) For a given parameter vector xi,G randomly select

k(s) = − ℒ {e(t). y (t)} (4)

three vectors xi,p, xi,q and xi,r such that the indices ‘i’, ‘p’,

s

In (4), ℒ represents the Laplace transformation and ‘s’ ‘q’ and ‘r’ are distinct.

represents the Laplace variable. The adjustment (ii) Add the weighted difference of two of the vectors

mechanism developed by the eq. (4) will be as shown in to the third,

Fig. 1 [4]. vi,G+1 = xp,G + F(xq,G – xr,G) (5)

The mutation factor F is a constant from [0, 2] and vi,G+1

is called the donor vector.

Step 3. Recombination:

(i) Recombination incorporates successful solutions

from the previous generation. The trial vector ui,G+1 is

developed from the elements of the target vector, xi,G,

and the elements of the donor vector, vi,G+1

(ii) Elements of the donor vector enter the trial vector

with probability CR

Fig. 1: Adjustment Mechanism of Model Reference v,, ; rand , <

Adaptive Controller using MIT rule ui,G+1 = (6)

x , , ; rand , >

i = 1, 2, . . . ,N; j = 1, 2, . . . ,D

III. DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION Step 4. Selection:

The target vectorx , is compared with the trial vector

Differential Evolution (DE) is a recently introduced

vi,G+1 and the one with the lowest function value is

population search based soft computing algorithm which

admitted to the next generation.

uses heuristic optimization. DE algorithm was first

u, ; f( u , ) < (x , )

introduced by Storn and Price in 1996 to solve the xi,G+1 = (7)

Chebychev Polynomial fitting problem used in filter x, ; otherwise

designing [13]. The decisive idea behind DE is an

arrangement for producing trial parameter vectors and IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

the selection of these vectors is based on heuristic

optimization [14-15]. Linear model of Magnetic Levitation system has been

Typical parameters used in DE are listed below; used in the paper taken from [9] for simulations on

D – problem dimension MATLAB and the transfer function of the system is

N –No. of Population shown below, where Ex(s) is the position of the ball in

CR – Crossover Probability terms of voltage and Ei(s) is the applied input voltage

[9].

F – Scaling Factor

G(s) = Ex(s) ⁄ Ei(s)

G – Number of generation/stopping condition

L,H – boundary constraints

G(s) = 77.8421 (8)

(0.0311s 2 − 30.52)

Storn and Price have shown some rules in selecting the

control parameters in their first research paper published Table 1 shows the performance of magnetic levitation

in 1996 [5 & 8]. Theses rule are described with details in system using Differential Evolution based offline tuned

[13] and shown below with brief description; PID controller in terms of transient performance

Step 1. Initialization: parameters along with integral square error (ISE) for

(i) Define upper and lower boundaries [L, H] and various trials. The performance of the overall system is

initialize all DE parameters very satisfactory while considering linear approximated

model of the system in simulations as shown in Table 1.

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 – 0882,

38

Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2014

From table 1, one can observe that in every trial there algorithms.The performance of DE based controller with

is an overshoot of around 25-35% present in the appropriately chosen range for various parameters is

response. Although the settling time is much lesser for satisfactory as shown by the results. Selection of this

every trial but such a large overshoot in the system is range is very critical in DE algorithm and is carried out

undesirable and may cause the actuator breakdown. carefully. The limitation of DE based controller is that it

Integral square error (ISE) is well under the desirable does not have the ability to alter the controller

range and the overall performance is satisfactory. parameters during the run time. To overcome this

Fig. 3 shows the Simulink model of the proposed limitation, hybridization of DE algorithm with MIT rule

hybrid controller, in which a PID controller is generating has been proposed in the paper.

the control input for the system. The integral gain of PID Performance of the proposed hybrid controller is

controller is an adjustable gain which is being adjusted evaluated on MATLAB and the designed controller has

by MIT rule based adaptive mechanism as shown in Fig. been applied on magnetic levitation system. The

4. The performance of the designed controller for performance of hybrid controller very much depends

various trials, in terms of transient parameters and ISE, upon the value of adaptation gain and selection of this

is shown in table 2 and the corresponding responses are gain is very critical in designing the controller.

shown in Fig. 5. These trials have been performed to Effectiveness of the hybrid controller also depends upon

calculate the values of PID parameters in offline mode the efficient programming for DE algorithm carried out

using DE algorithm and fine tuning in the value of by an expert. Results carried out and shown in the paper

parameter KI has been carried out by MIT mechanism clearly shows that the performance of hybrid controller

with adaptation gain of 23.5 in online mode. is much better than the DE based controller. Results also

For a particular trial, different responses and depict the reduction in peak overshoot from 30% to 15%

corresponding adjustable parameter for various values of and in settling time from 0.4 sec to 0.3 sec, which proves

adaptation gain have been obtained and are shown in the better performance of proposed hybrid technique.

Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. From Fig. 6, one can observe that for

smaller values of adaptation gain, response of the system REFERENCES

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value of adaptation gain, the response of the system (2nd edition), Dover Publications Inc., New York,

becomes better. But after a certain limit of adaptation 1995, ch. 5, pp. 185–234.

gain the response of the system starts deteriorating. [2] P. Swarnkar, S. K. Jain and R. K. Nema, “Effect of

Hence, selection of a range for adaptation gain is very adaptation gain on system performance for model

critical factor. reference adaptive control scheme using MIT rule”,

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obtained for various trials are shown in Fig. 5 and the Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology,

performance of the system has been tabulated as shown Paris, pp. 70-75, 2010.

in table 2. On comparing the performances of the system [3] P. Swarnkar, S. Jain, R. K. Nema,“Application of

with DE controller and DE+MIT hybrid controller, one Model Reference Adaptive Control Scheme To

can observe that the performance of the hybrid controller Second Order System Using MIT Rule”, presented

is better in terms of peak overshoot and settling time. at International Conference on Electrical Power

The overshoot and settling time has been reduced to and Energy Systems (ICEPES-2010), MANIT,

15% and 0.30 sec respectively. Results given in the Bhopal, India, 2010.

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improved to a large extent with the proposed of Ball and Beam System with Model Reference

hybridization of DE algorithm and MIT rule. Adaptive Control Strategy using MIT Rule”,

presented at 2013 IEEE International Conference

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Research (ICCIC), Madurai, pp. 305-308, 2013.

A brief overview on MIT rule and Differential [5] R. Storn, K. Price, “Differential evolution-a simple

Evolution soft computing algorithm has been carried out and efficient adaptive scheme for global

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techniques.DE algorithm is very simple and effective Global Optimization, Vol.11, pp. 341-359, 1997.

population based generation algorithm which takes very [6] Rainer Storn, “Differential Evolution for

less computation time than other soft computing Continuous Function Optimization,

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2005. Arlington, TX, pp. 78-83, 2007.

[7] K. Price, “An introduction to differential [12] K. S. Narendra and A. M. Annaswamy, Stable

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[8] R. Storn, “On the Usage of Differential Evolution M. Darus “PID Controller Tuning Using

for Function Optimization”. in Proceedings of the Evolutionary Algorithms, WSEAS Transactions on

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CA, USA, 1996. [14] K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, “Automatic Tuning

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TABLE 1: Various values of PID parameters, transient parameters and respective value of ISE on different trials of

DE based controller for Magnetic Levitation system

Overshoot

Trial Time Square Error

KP KI KD (%)

(sec) (ISE)

I 2.9900 0.0443 15.7818 25.5 0.478 0.0498

II 2.8700 0.0685 18.0636 29 0.32 0.0227

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 – 0882,

40

Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2014

IV 2.7650 0.0673 17.8495 30 0.31 0.0282

V 2.1150 0.0422 19.0800 33 0.35 0.0337

Fig. 3 Simulink diagram of magnetic levitation system with DE and MIT rule based hybrid controller

TABLE 2: Various values of PID parameters, transient parameters and respective value of ISE on different trials of

hybrid controller for Magnetic Levitation system

PID Parameters Settling Integral

Overshoot

Trial Time Square Error

KP KI KD (%)

(sec) (ISE)

I 2.9732 0.0899 15.3613 16.6 0.23 0.0087

II 2.8635 0.2234 18.6812 15.49 0.30 0.0095

III 2.9989 0.4981 16.2816 14.74 0.34 0.0082

IV 2.9006 0.3649 16.2532 15.33 0.26 0.0086

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 – 0882,

41

Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2014

Fig. 5 Response of Magnetic Levitation system with DE-MIT hybrid controller for different trials with adjustable

parameter k=23.5

Fig. 6 Response of Magnetic Levitation system with DE-MIT hybrid controller for different values of adaptation gain:

Position of the ball

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 – 0882,

42

Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2014

Fig. 7 Response of Magnetic Levitation system with DE-MIT hybrid controller for different values of adaptation gain:

Adjustable parameter

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