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Histology is The Study of Tissues

  • A. Tissues are composed of cells and the products of cells

  • B. Basic Tissues

    • 1. Epithelial Tissues Tissue that covers and lines organs and organisms, found on the surface

    • 2. Connective Tissues Tissue that Supports and connects, not found on the surface

    • 3. Muscle Tissue Tissue that contracts and produces motion and/or locomotion

    • 4. Nerve Tissue Tissue that respons to stimuli and conducts impulses, communication of information

Cell Membrane Structure and Function

  • A. Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell membranes

    • 1. Phospholipids are in two layers (fluid lipid) with cholesterol and other lipids depending on the tissue

    • 2. Hydrophilic heads are exposed to the extracellular fluid and the cytosol

    • 3. Cholesterol is dissolved in the phospholipid layer

    • 4. Proteins are associated with the inner surface (peripheral proteins)

    • 5. Proteins are embedded in the membrane (integral proteins, transport channels) and form channels for communication

    • 6. Specialized Membrane structures, including

      • a. Gap junctions

      • b. Tight Junctions

      • c. Desmosomes

      • d. Hemidesmosomes

      • e. Microvilli

      • f. Stereocilia

  • B. Cell Membrane Functions

    • 1. Boundry between cell contents and external environment

    • 2. Regulates communication between the two environments

      • a. Diffusion

      • b. Osmosis

      • c. Filtration

      • d. Pinocytosis

      • e. Pinocytosis

      • f. Receptors for regulation

  • C. Intercellular Communication (Cell Junctions)

    • 1. Functions:

      • a. Impermeable Junctions (tight junctions)

      • b. Communicating Junctions (gap junctions)

    • c. Adhering Junctions (zonula adherens, desmosomes, and hemidesmosomes)

    • 2. Types of Junctions:

      • a. zonula adherens - continuous bands of epithelial sheets to maintain structural stability.

      • b. desmosomes (macular adherens) - button like points of contact. braces to maintain structural stability.

      • c. tight junctions (zonula occludens) - barriers to prevent diffusion between cells

      • d. gap junctions - clusters of protein channels that allow small ions and molecules to pass between cells ex. synchronize contractions of heart muscle cells, rapidly spread action potentials (nerve cells)

      • e. hemidesmosomes - half desmosomes

      • f. Junctional Complex. = tight junctions, zonula adherens &/or desmosomes, gap junctions

    Nucleus

    • 1. Structure: Membrane bound region of the cell

    c. Adhering Junctions (zonula adherens, desmosomes, and hemidesmosomes) 2. Types of Junctions: a. zonula adherens -
    • 2. Chromosomes (DNA & Protein)

      • a. Site of genetic information coded in DNA (information molecule)

      • b. Seen only during cell division (Mitosis)

      • c. Interphase, thread-like, Chromatin

  • 3. Nucleolus (RNA) (Not shown)

    • a. Function: Site of Ribosome Synthesis

  • Internal Membranes Membrane structure, Fluid Mosaic Model

    c. Adhering Junctions (zonula adherens, desmosomes, and hemidesmosomes) 2. Types of Junctions: a. zonula adherens -

    1.

    GER - Granular Endoplasmic Reticulum, (Ribosomes), At Left

    a.

    Structure: Internal membrane system like SER only with ribosomes attached

    b.

    Function: Protein synthesis for export from the cell.

    c.

    • 1. SER -Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Not shown)

      • a. Structure: Foldings of double membranous channels in the cytoplasm

      • b. Function: lipid synthesis, detoxification

    Golgi body

    1. SER -Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Not shown) a. Structure: Foldings of double membranous channels in the
    • 1. Structure: Stacks of double membranes, droplets budding off edges

    • 2. Function:

      • a. Packages cell products for export from the cell

      • b. Extrcellular coat

      • c. Digestive enzymes

      • d. hormones,

    Membrane Bound Organelles

    Mitochondria - Power House of the cell

    • 1. Double membranous walls, Inner wall with many folds

      • 2. Matrix with DNA, RNA, ribosomes

      • 3. Functions: ATP production

        • a. Kreb Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation (Electron Transport)

        • b. Beta Oxidation

    1. SER -Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Not shown) a. Structure: Foldings of double membranous channels in the

    Membrane Bound Droplets

    • 1. Lysosomes - produced in the Golgi, Droplets of digestive enzymes Function:

    a.

    Used for Intracellular Digestion Used outside the cell, exocytosis

    Nonmembranous Organelles Ribosomes

    1. SER -Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Not shown) a. Structure: Foldings of double membranous channels in the
    • 1. Free in cytoplasm or on GER

      • 2. Structure: ribonuclear protein particle (r-RNA & protein)

      • 3. Function: Site of protein synthesis

        • a. Receives protein structure information from DNA (m-RNA)

    • b. Polysome, group of ribosomes making protein (Photo at left)

    Microtubules and Microfilaments

    Microtubules

    • 1. Small, hollow tubes

    • 2. Composed of the protein tubulin

    • 3. Lengthened or Shortened by adding or taking away tubulin subunits

    • 4. Found in:

      • a. Centrioles

      • b. Cilia & Flagells

      • c. Mitotic apparatus used to separate chromosomes during division

    Microfilaments

    • 1. Long, solid, fiber-like strands of protein

    • 2. Component of the Cytoskeleton (cell framework)

    • 3. Can be assembled and disassembled

    Centriole

    • 1. In most animal cells, not plant cells

      • a. Centrosome, region near nuclear membrane

      • b. Basil body, at base of Cilium or Flagellum

  • 2. Two sets of microtubules at right angles

  • 3. 9 microtubules in a ring

  • Cilia and Flagella

    • 1. Organelles of motion or locomotion

      • a. Cilia, short & many Example: Paramecium

      • b. Flagella, long & few Example: Euglena

  • 2. Microtubules in 9 + 2 arrangement

    • a. 9 microtubules in a ring + 2 microtubules in the center

  • Epithelium I Epithelial Components

    Basic Tissues

    • 1. Epithelial Tissues Tissue that covers and lines organs and organisms, found on the surface

    • 2. Connective Tissues Tissue that Supports and connects, not found on the surface

    • 3. Muscle Tissue Tissue that contracts and produces motion and/or locomotion

    • 4. Nerve Tissue Tissue that respons to stimuli and conducts impulses, communication of information

    Major Tissue Components

    • 1. Cells

    • 2. Fibers

    • 3. Matrix (ground substance)

    Epithelial Cell Organization

    Classification of epithelia based on cellular component

    • 1. Cell shape

      • a. Squamous cells Flat or thin cytoplasm, the nuclei bulge above the cytoplasmic thickness Functional characteristic: thin cytoplasmic adaptation for "diffusion "

      • b. Cuboidal cells Square cells with round centrally located nuclei Functional characteristic: Organelles for energy production and secretory activity

      • c. Columnar cells Tall or "column like" cells, normally oval shaped nuclei located near the attached surface. Functional characteristic: Organelles for energy production and secretory activity

  • 2. Cell layers

    • a. Simple Epithelium = Single layer Diffusion membranes

    • b. Stratified Epithelium = Two or more layers of cells Basal layer: generative (mitosis), Surface layer : mature cell type

  • Specializations of Epithelial cells:

    • a. cilia: contain microtubules, used to move materials across the surface of a cell

    • b. microvilli: increase surface area for absorption.

    • c. flagella: contain organized microtubules, used to move a cell from one area to another.

    • d. cellular junctions: gap, desmosomes, tight junctions etc.

    Fibers

    • 1. Reduced in Epithelium

    • 2. Basement membrane, fibers secreted by epithelial cells at their attached surface

    Matrix

    • 1. Extremely reduced

    Epithelium II Simple Epithelia

    Classification of Epithelia

    • 1. Simple Squamous Epithelium , Single layer of cells, mesothelium lining body cavities, endothelium lining blood vessels internal surface with friction: Simple Squamous epithelium can be found in Bow's capsule of the renal corpuscle in the kidney cortex and Henli's loop. All capillaries are Simple Squamous epithelium as well as the lining of the heart and blood vessels. The alveolar sacs of the lung are also lined with simple squamous. The nuclei bulging in to lumen of these structures can be clearly seen.

    Specializations of Epithelial cells: a. cilia: contain microtubules, used to move materials across the surface of

    They form the secretory epithelium and ducts of many glands such as the salivary glands and the pancreas. Note the rounded nuclei. A Brush border is found in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule of kidney. What is this brush border? Hint see specializations of cells.

    They form the secretory epithelium and ducts of many glands such as the salivary glands and
    • 3. Simple Columnar Epithelium Single layer of tall, column like cells. Note the oval shape of nuclei and their rather regular positions in respect to the length of the cell. Cell membranes are clearly distinct. In Intestinal epithelium, a striated border is found on free surface. The attached margin of each cell is irregular and meshes into the fibers of the underlying tissue of the basement membrane.

    They form the secretory epithelium and ducts of many glands such as the salivary glands and
    • 4. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar photo at top right on this page Columnar cells appear to be in layers but are not. all cells are attached to the basement membrane The layered appearance is due to the different positions of the nuclei of these cells.

      • 1. Basal cells are short and irregular with their nuclei near the basement membrane

      • 2. Pyramidal cells have their nuclei about in the center of the cell, midway between the base and the free epithelial surface

      • 3. Columnar cells extend from the basement membrane to the free surface; their nucleir are closest to the free surface. Only cells that reach the free surface have cilia.

    Some Pseudostratified epithelia have only 2 layers of cells. In Respiratory epithelium there are all three types of cells. Single mucous secreting gland cells are found scattered among these. The vas deferens contains two types of cells and the free surface contains stereocilia [branched microvilli, not true cilia].

    Glands - All Glands [exocrine and endocrine} are produces by epithelial tissue.

    1. Endocrine Glands = secret into tissue spaces & blood vessels, ductless glands, secrete hormones into
    • 1. Endocrine Glands = secret into tissue spaces & blood vessels, ductless glands, secrete hormones into the bloodstream

    • 2. Exocrine Glands secrete onto epithelial surfaces, ducts: carry exocrine secretions to surfaces Gland types

      • a. holocrine gland: cell breaks down completely, releasing cytoplasmic contents, produces a lipid, sebum, sebaceous glands are examples

      • b. merocrine gland: cell secretes through exocytosis; watery, electrolyte solution, eccrine sweat gland

      • c. apocrine gland: cell sheds distal cytoplasm; viscous, odorous secretion

    Secretions

    • d. serous secretions are watery and contain enzymes;

    • e. mucous secretions are viscous and provide lubrication

    • 3. Simple unicelinar glands These are found scattered among the epithelial cells. The goblet cells in intestinal epithelia and the mucous cells in the respiratory tract are simple Unicellular Glands. The goblet cells are nearly filled by a large mucous drop and the "stem" contains the displaced nucleus which extends to the basement membrane

    1. Endocrine Glands = secret into tissue spaces & blood vessels, ductless glands, secrete hormones into

    Note: Mucus in goblet cell from intestinal epithelium

    • 4. Multicellular Glands These glands result from the ingrowth of the epithelium into the underlying connective tissue and are connected to the epithelial surface by a duct. The cells in the lower portion of the

    gland become secretory in nature, producing either mucus or a watery secretion(serous).

    gland become secretory in nature, producing either mucus or a watery secretion(serous). The secretory portion may

    The secretory portion may be tubular or acinar, simple or branched, or a combination of these. Note the position of the nucleus and the staining reaction of the mucus in mixed glands (serous cells and mucous cells). Mucous and serous cells Note the difference in staining note the secretory granules in the cytoplasm of the differentiated secretory cells.

    Epithelial Cell Membranes (epithelium & underlying Connective tissue)

    • 1. Mucous membranes: viscous secretions, line passageways connected to the exterior. ex. GI tract, esophagus, trachea

    • 2. Serous membranes: watery fluid secretions, line internal cavities to reduce friction ex. pericardium, peritoneum, endocardium, endothelium, pleura

    Blood and Bone Marrow

    Connective Tissue functions

    • 1. Protection, connection, support

    • 2. Provide and maintain body form

    • 3. Functions through extracellular components

      • a. Fibers

      • b. Cells

      • c. Matrix

    Connective Tissue Composition

    • 1. Cells - diverse morphology of cell types, plastic!

    • 2. Fibers - protein fibers, produced by cells found in matrix

    • 3. Matrix - amorphous ground substance

    Connective Tissue Origin

    Blood and Bone Marrow Connective Tissue functions 1. Protection, connection, support 2. Provide and maintain body

    Connective Tissue Types

    • 1. Classified by Matrix

      • a. Fluid - Blood

      • b. Soft - Connective Tissue Proper (Loose Irregular, Dense Irregular, Dense Regular, Adipose, Reticular)

      • c. Semi soft - Cartilage

      • d. Solid - Bone

    TYPE

    CELLS

    FIBERS

    MATRIX

    • 1. Blood,Lymph

    blood cells,

    dissolved

    watery

    lymphocytes

    • 2. Loose irregular

    fibroplasts

    collagen elastin,

    hyaluronic acid

    connective tissue

    macrophages

    reticular

    mast cells

    plasma cells

    • 3. adipocytes

    Adipose

     

    collagen elastin, reticular

    hyaluronic acid

    • 4. fibroblasts

    Dense regular

     

    primarily collagen

    viscous due to

    connective tissue

    hyaluronic acid

    • 5. chondrocytes

    Cartilage

     

    collagen, elastin,

    chondroitin

    tissue

    reticular

    sulfate

    • 6. osteocytes

    Bone tissue

     

    collagen

    mineralized,

    calcium

    phosphate and

    calcium

    carbonate

    Blood and Lymph

    • 1. Blood contains red cells, white cell populations and plasma

    • 2. Lymph normally contains only one type of white cell, lymphocyte. Fluid passes from the blood into the tissues, and the lymphatic vessels return that fluid to the circulation

    • 3. Blood is a Connective Tissue with a Fluid Matrix (plasma)

    • 4. Ability to form fibers - Fibrinogen -> Fibrin

    • 5. Formed Elements (contains cellular component of tissue)

    • 6. Wrights Blood Stain [Eosin, RED acid stain, Methylene Blue, basic stain]

      • a. Erythrocytes

      • b. Neutrophilic Polynuclear cells

      • c. Eosinophilic Polnuclear cells

      • d. Basophilic Polynuclear cells

      • e. Large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes

      • f. Monocytes

      • g. Platelets.

    Red Blood Cells

    • 1. Enucleated, Biconcave Disk 7.2um Macrocyte diameter greater than 9um Microcyte diameter less than 6um

    • 2. Mature = Filled with hemoglobin, Transports Oxygen, No mitochondria, NO protein synthesis

    • 3. Flexable - to fit varible capillary diameter

    • 4. Normal count Female = 4.5-5 x 10 6 , Male = 5 x 10 6

    • 5. 120 day life span then Death of RBC, removed by spleen & bone marrow

    • 6. Produced in the RED Bone Marrow Embryonic mesenchyme cell -> Hemocytoblast! (stem cell) Adult, Flat bones (sternum, vertebrae, ribs, clavicles, bones of pelvis, skull) Newborn, all bone marrow is red

    • 7. Bone Marrow - Reticular connective Tissue (Reticular cells, sinusoidal capillaries, adipose cells, RBC maturation cells [FREE cells]], remain in groups, one cell predominates in different phases of development

    • 8. RBC maturation in Bone Marrow Myeloid element

    White Blood Cells - Leukocytes [7-9 X 10 3 ] Myeloid & Lymphoid elements

    • 1. Neutrophilic Polynuclear cells

      • a. 60% - 70% circulating WBC. diameter 12um

      • b. Lobed nucleus, 2-5 shape variable, drumstick [heterochromatin]

      • c. Granules,

    Red Blood Cells 1. Enucleated, Biconcave Disk 7.2um Macrocyte diameter greater than 9um Microcyte diameter lessg roups, one cell predominates in different phases of development 8. RBC maturation in Bone Marrow Myeloid element White Blood Cells - Leukocytes [7-9 X 10 3 ] Myeloid & Lymphoid elements 1. Neutrophilic Polynuclear cells a. 60% - 70% circulating WBC. diameter 12um b. Lobed nucleus, 2-5 shape variable, drumstick [heterochromatin] c. Granules, 1. purple with Wrights stain, [staining varies among mammals 2. [0.3-0.8um] size limit of light microscope 3. Formed by Golgi 4. azurophilic, 1st promyelocyte, lysosomal enzymes & peroxidase 5. neutrophilic, 1st myelocyte, alkaline phospahtase, bacterialcidal substances, Phagocytins d. Acute infection, highly mobile, highly phagocytic Spherical in the blood, amebiform [forms pseudopodia]on solid substrate e. both types of granules fuse with phagosome, granules decrease in number after phagocytosis f. Functions in anerobic enviroment of necrotic tissue g. Terminal cell, once it uses its proteins, can not be replaced h. Myeloid element " id="pdf-obj-11-41" src="pdf-obj-11-41.jpg">
    • 1. purple with Wrights stain, [staining varies among mammals

    • 2. [0.3-0.8um] size limit of light microscope

    • 3. Formed by Golgi

    • 4. azurophilic, 1st promyelocyte, lysosomal enzymes & peroxidase

    • 5. neutrophilic, 1st myelocyte, alkaline phospahtase, bacterialcidal substances, Phagocytins

    • d. Acute infection, highly mobile, highly phagocytic Spherical in the blood, amebiform [forms pseudopodia]on solid substrate

    • e. both types of granules fuse with phagosome, granules decrease in number after phagocytosis

    • f. Functions in anerobic enviroment of necrotic tissue

    • g. Terminal cell, once it uses its proteins, can not be replaced

    • h. Myeloid element

    • 2. Eosinophilic Polnuclear cells

      • a. 1% - 4% circulating WBC. diameter 9um

      • b. Bilobed nucleus

      • c. Granules,

        • 1. Ovoid

        • 2. Red with Wrights stain, Eosinophilic

        • 3. Larger than neutrophils

    2. Eosinophilic Polnuclear cells a. 1% - 4% circulating WBC. diameter 9um b. Bilobed nucleus c.
    • 4. No lysosome, acid phospahtase, ribonuclease, cathepsin

    • 5. Elongated crystalloid [phospholipids & unsaturated fatty acids] surrounded by unit membrane

    • d. Not highly mobile or phagocytic

    • e. Phagocytosis of Selective Antigen antibody complexes

    • f. Increses in number in allergic reactions and parasitic infections

    • g. Myeloid element

    • 3. Basophilic Polynuclear cells

      • a. 0% - 1% circulating WBC. diameter 12um

      • b. Large twisted s shaped nucleus

      • c. Granules,

        • 1. Irregular in size and shape

        • 2. Blue/metachromatic staining Basophilic

        • 3. Larger than other granuocytes

        • 4. Histamine & Heparin

        • 5. Released in the presence of certain antigens

        • 6. Surrounded by unit membrane

  • d. Not very active or phagocytic

  • e. Myeloid element

  • 4. Large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes

    • a. 25% - 40% circulating WBC. diameter 6-8um

    • b. Heterogenous population of cells, small, medium, & large

    • c. Round nucleus

    • d. Cytoplasm, some times small azurephilic granules

  • 2. Eosinophilic Polnuclear cells a. 1% - 4% circulating WBC. diameter 9um b. Bilobed nucleus c.
    • e. Origin Bone marow in later fetal and post natal life

      • 1. Become immunocompetant out side of the bone marrow

      • 2. Differentiate into B cells & T cells

      • 3. Colonize other organs

  • f. B Cell Funtions [matures in Bursa in birds]

    • 1. Activated by antigen

    • 2. Differentiates into Plasma cells

    • 3. Produces antibodies

    • 4. Produces Memory cells

    • g. T Cell Funtions [matures in thymus gland]

      • 1. Cell mediated immunity

      • 2. Binds to foreign cells

      • 3. Graft rejection

      • 4. Produces Memory cells

      • 5. T Helper & Surpressor cells

  • h. Lymphoid element

    • 5. Monocytes

      • a. Nucleus - oval, kidney, horseshoe; chromatine stains lightly, less condensed, 2-3 nucleoi

      • b. Basophilic cytoplasm with azurophilic granules (lysosome)

      • c. Highlt mobile, highly phagocytophilic

    g. T Cell Funtions [matures in thymus gland] 1. Cell mediated immunity 2. Binds to foreign
    • d. Major cell of chronic infections (100 bacteria per cell)

    • e. Moves into the tissues from the blood after a few days, becomes a histiocyte

      • 1. Mononuclear phagocytic system (reticuloendothelial system)

      • 2. Receptors on the plasma membrane for complement & immunogloublins

    • 6. Platelets "thrombocytes!"

      • a. Fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm

      • b. central zone - purple granule, granulomere

      • c. transparent zone blue stained, hylomere

      • d. Releases

        • 1. serotonin - constricks blood vessels

        • 2. thromboplastin - converts prothrombin -> thrombin

        • 3. thrombosthenin - causes contraction of the clot

    Bone Marrow and Hematopoiesis

    • 1. Yellow marrow, storage and reserve, rich in adipose (fat) cells

    • 2. Red marrow rich in RBC, Hematopoiesis

      • a. Newborn - all marrow is red

      • b. Adults - flat bones (sternum, vertebrae, ribs, clavicles, bones of pelvis, skull

  • 3. Structure

    • a. fixed cells, reticular cells, sinusoidal capillaries, macrophages, adipose cells

    • b. free cells, RBC & WBC maturation series remain in groups, one cell type predominates, in different phases of development

  • 4.

    Formed elements in the blood have a relatively short life span.

    • 5. Their constant disappearance from the blood is balanced by a continual production of new cells (Hematopoiesis).

    • 6. These begin with undifferentiated stem cells and go through the processes of differentiation and mitosis.

    • 7. The stem cell (hemocytoblast!) or CFU is formed only the bone marrow.

    • 8. The morphology of the developmental stage in the erythrocytic and granulocytic series in the bone marrow is diagramed in color (page xi) and black and white (page 294) of your text book, Basic Histology.

    • 9. Erythrocyctic series [RBC maturation ] = Intermediates in the developement of Red Blood cells (Erythrocytes)

      • a. Proerythroblast

      • b. Basophilic erythroblast

      • c. Polychromatophilic erythroblast

      • d. Normoblast

      • e. Reticulocyte

      • f. Erythrocyte

    • 10. Granulocytic series = Intermediates in the developement of granulocytic White Blood cells

      • a. Promyelocyte

      • b. Metamyelocytes - Neutrophilic Basophilic and Eosinophilic

      • c. Mature granulocytes.

  • 11. Platelet Production = Megakaryoblast (2n, 4n, 8n, 16n, ), develops into Megakaryocyte

    • a. (32n) in the bone marrow. Platelets are cytoplasmic fragments of the Megakaryocyte.

  • 12. Lymphocytic series

    • a. Originate mainly in Lymphatic organs and to a lesser extent in the bone marrow

    • b. Circulating stem cells are indistinguishable from nature Lymphocyte.

    • c. Lymphoblast, largest cell of series with 2 or 3 nucleoli,

    • d. Prolymphocyte, smaller nucleoli not easily seen.

  • 13. Monocytic series - Originates in bone marrow and terminates in connective tissue as a macrophage.

    • a. Promonocyte

    • b. Monoblast? cannot be identified accurately in the normal person but are clearly seen in the circulation of patients with monocytic leukemia.

  • Connective Tissue II

    Connective Tissue Proper

    • 1. The Matrix - soft

    • 2. Fibers

    • 3. Fixed & Wandering cells

    • 4. Types of connective tissue proper

      • a. Loose irregular connective tissue: mesentaries, lamina propria

      • b. Dense regular connective tissue:

        • 1. ligaments:connect bone to bone,

        • 2. tendons connect muscle to bone

        • 3. harness the contractile force generated by muscular contraction

  • c. Dense irregular connective tissue, dermis of skin, submucosa etc.

  • d. Specialized connective tissues

    • 1. Adipose connective tissues

    • 2. Elastic connective tissues

    • 3. Reticular connective tissues

  • Fibers

    • 1. Are synthesized by Fibroblasts

    • 2. Three types can be distinguished, morphologically and histochemically different

    • 3. Collagenous fibers (White)

      • a. 30% of body weight

      • b. Produced by the fibroblast

      • c. Tropocollagen - side to side, end to end

      • d. High in glycine 33.5%, hydroxyproline 10%, proline 12%

      • e. 1% hexose

      • f. Synthetic process, see text

      • g. Most mumerous

      • h. Thick wavy bundles, never branch

      • i. Striated

    Connective Tissue II Connective Tissue Proper 1. The Matrix - soft 2. Fibers 3. Fixed &
    • j. Acidophilic - blue, aniline blue; green in sometrichrome, yellow with safronin

    • 4. Elastic fibers (Yellow)

    Connective Tissue II Connective Tissue Proper 1. The Matrix - soft 2. Fibers 3. Fixed &
    • a. These are solid, single fibrotubules with amorphous center region Mature amorphous material predominates

    • b. Thinner than a collagenous fiber

    • c. Branch extensively and unite

    • d. Non-striated

    • e. Scleroprotein - elastin, hydrolyzed by elastase

    • f. Can stretch to 1 and 1 half its lenth and returns

    • g. Special stains (orcein, resorcin-fusin) are used

    • 5. Reticular Fibers

      • a. Produced by Reticular cells

      • b. Not visible in H & E preparations

      • c. Extremely fine, argyrophilic fibers (need silver preparations, right)

      • d. PAS+, high hexose content 6-12%

    c. Branch extensively and unite d. Non-striated e. Scleroprotein - elastin, hydrolyzed by elastase f. Can
    • e. Predominate in Lymphoid Organs ( Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow)

    • f. Abundent in embryo and replaced by Collagen in the adult

    Matrix.

    • 1. Fills space between cells and fibers

    • 2. Secreted by fibroblast

    • 3. Acid mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, water, minerals

    • 4. Stains, PAS+, metachromatic with Toluidine Blue

    • 5. Tissue fluid minimal, except in Edema (venous or lymphatic obstruction, starvation)

    • 6. See chart in text

    Cells

    • 1. General characteristics

      • a. Found in the spaces between the meshwork of fibers.

      • b. Many C.T. cells develope from the fibroblast of C.T. proper

      • c. Many different types of cells found in areolar (loose irregular) tissue

  • 2. Fibroblast.

    • a. Form fibers

    • b. Cytoplasm clear

    • c. Irregular cell shape

    • d. Nuclei, easily seen, slightly elongate lightly stained

  • 3. Histiocytes (macrophages)

    • a. Next most common cell.

    • b. They can be best seen in tissue

    • c. taken from experimental animals which have been injected with certain vital stains.

    • d. Related to monocytes (blood.)

    • e. Distinguished from fibrocytes by their more darkly staining nuclei

    • f. See table below

  • Cell type

    Fibroblast

    Histiocyte

    Cell shape

    Long, flat to spindle Processes 1-several

    Flat, round to spindle Sometimes branched

    Location

    Near collagenous fibers

    In groups or among fibroblasts. Near vascular areas.

    Nucleus

    Large, oval, slightly folded and delicate membrane lightly stained

    Smaller, heavy membrane slightly folded Irregularly oval or kidney shaped, darkly stained.

    Chromatin

    Dust-like

    Coarse & dark

    Nucleoli

    One or many, large

    No Large

    Cytoplasm

    Poorly staining

    R Stains dark

    • 4. Mast cells

      • a. Centrally located nucleus

      • b. Basophilic granules (similar to Basophil of circulating blood)

        • 1. Heparin (redish purple stain with toluidine blue)

        • 2. Histamine, release triggered by membrane binding of IgE from plasma cell

        • 3. Contraction of smooth muscle, mostly in bronchioles

        • 4. Dilates blood vessels, increases premeability of capillaries

        • 5. SRS-A, slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis, release triggered by membrane binding of IgE from plasma cell contraction of smooth muscle

        • 6. ECF-A, eosinophil chemotactic factor, release triggered by membrane binding of IgE from plasma cell attracks eosinophils

  • 5. Plasma cells, antibody producing

    • a. Oval cell

    • b. Nucleus, :clock face", off center, toward one end

    • c. Basophilic cytoplasm

    • d. Few in number, increases in chronic infection

  • Cell shape Long, flat to spindle Processes 1-several Flat, round to spindle Sometimes branched Location Near
    • e. Area of bacterial penetration

    • f. Develops from activated B lymphocyte

    Cell shape Long, flat to spindle Processes 1-several Flat, round to spindle Sometimes branched Location Near

    6.

    Adipose cells, fat cells

    • a. Fibroblast cytoplasm becomes filled with fat(triglycerides).

      • 1. White fat - unilocular, contain a single large fat droplet.

      • 2. Brown fat - multilocular, contains many smaller fat droplets

    • 7. Leukocytes

    6. Adipose cells, fat cells a. Fibroblast cytoplasm becomes filled with fat(triglycerides). 1. White fat -
    • a. Lymphocytes small B & T cells found in lamina propria, migrate into lumen life days to weeks, some months to years

    • b. Eosinophils

    • 8. Chromatocytes, pigment cells

    Connective Tissue Types

    • 1. Embryonic Connective Tissue

      • a. Mesenchyme.

        • 1. Embryonic tissue from which most of the mature connective tissues develop.

        • 2. Three dimensional network of stellate cells.

    • b. Mucoid Connective Tissue in Umbilical Cord

      • 1. Wharton's jelly

      • 2. Matrix - chiefly of hyaluronic acid,

      • 3. Fibers-collagen, with few elastic or reticular fibers.

      • 4. Cells - mainly fibroblasts.

  • 2. Connective Tissue Proper.

    • a. Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue

      • 1. Flexable

      • 2. Not very resistant to stress

      • 3. Mostly amorphous ground substance (Matrix)

      • 4. All connective tissue compounents , cells & fibers, found here

      • 5. Supports epithelial tissue, serosal linings of peritoneal and pleural cavities, encircles blood vessels & lymphatics, between muscle fobers and sheaths

  • b. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

    • 1. Stress resistant in all directions

    • 2. Less flexable than loose areolar C.T.

    • 3. 3d network of fibeers

    • 4. Fewer cells than loose areolar C.T.

    • 5. More collagen fibers

    • 6. Fibroblast, most common cell type

    • 7. Dermis of skin, submucosa if intestines, capsules around Spleen, Lynpg nodes, and Ganglia

  • c. Dense Regular Connective Tissue

  • 2.

    Coarse collagenous fibers all running parallel with the fibrocytes in a linear arrangement

    • 3. Stress in ONE direction

    • 4. Great resistance to traction forces

    • 5. Tendons: Primary bundles bound into larger bundles, surrounded by loose C. T. with blood vessels & nreves

    • 6. Sheath of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

    • d. Elastic Tissue

      • 1. Yellow, highly elastic

      • 2. Bundles of parrallel elastic fibers, fibroblasts between fibers

      • 3. Similar to tendon, but the collagenous fiber bundles are replaced by coarse elastic fibers.

      • 4. Aorta, Ligamentum nuchae, yellow ligaments of vertebral column

    • 3. Connective Tissue with Special Properties

      • a. Reticular tissue.

        • 1. Framework of many organs, particularly glands.

        • 2. Characteristic fiber, argyrophil reticular fiber

        • 3. Reticular fibers produced by Reticular cells (specialized fibroblasts)

        • 4. Stellate cells with long processes, large nuclei, fine chromatine, 1 or more nuclei

        • 5. Cytoplasmic processes resemble those of primitive mesenchymal cells

        • 6. Free cells characteristic of the organ found in the reticular framework

        • 7. Bone marrow, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Framework of hematopoietic tissue

  • b. Adipose tissue.

    • 1. Function

      • 1. Storage of neutral fat (triglycerides)

      • 2. Energy reservation, thermal insulation

      • 3. Body shape, subcutaneous connective tissue

      • 4. Shock absorbers, pads on palms & soles

  • 2. Color; white to dark yellow

  • 3. Reticular fiber network around each cells

  • 4. Tissue metabolically active, continously renewed

  • 5. Highly vascular, not apparent

  • 6. Distribution density determined by age and sex

  • 7. Lipid sources

    • 1. Fatty acids in chylomicrons

    • 2. Fatty acids in in triglycerides synthesized in the liver

    • 3. Synthesized from glucose in the adipose cell

    • 4. From neutral fats from adiposecyte metabolism

  • 8. Mesenchyme -> Lipoblast -> adipose cells

  • 9. White Fat Tissue

    • 1. single large vacuole filled with triglyceride,

    • 2. signet ring cell,

    • 3. "hairnet"

    10. Brown Fat Tissue

    • 1. Polygonal cells, smaller than "signet ring" cells

    • 2. Resembles endocrine gland, closely packed masses of cells

    • 3. hibernating animal(heat generation), new born infant

    • 4. No formation after birth

    • 5. One type not transformed into the other

    Cartilage

    • 1. The Matrix semi-solid

    • 2. Fibers Collagen & Elastic

    • 3. Cells, Fibroblasts of perichondrium, Chondroblasts and Chondrocytes

    • 4. Types of Cartilage

      • a. Hyaline Cartilage

      • b. Elastic Cartilage

      • c. Collagenous/Fibrocartilage

  • 5. Characteristics of Cartilage

    • A. Highly perfected for Support and Protection

    • B. Only bone has more weight bearing capacity

    • C. Support for soft tissues

    • D. Sliding surface for bones

    • E. Smooth and resilient

    • F. composition

      • a. Devoid of blood vessels

        • 1. nutrition by diffusion through the matrix

      • b. hardness: glucosaminoglycans

      • c. See hyaline cartilage below

      • d. Special properties:types of fibers (Collagen, elastic)

    • 6. Embryology

     
     

    0.

    Precartilage develops from mesenchyme

    1.

    Cells are packed together due to rapid Mitotic activity

    2.

    Embryonic skeleton

    • 7. Adult

     

    0.

    Tracheal rings,

    1.

    Costal cartilage

    2.

    Articulating surface of long bones

    • 8. Types of cartilage based on matrix & fiber type

     

    0.

    Hyaline

    1.

    Elastic

    2.

    Collagenous

    General Structure

    • A. Perichondrium, outer layer of similar to connective tissue proper

      • 1. Outer layer, fibrous layer

      • 2. Layer next to cartilage, chondrogenic (cartilage forming) layer, contains chrondrobasts

        • a. Fibroblasts are chondrogenic (apositional growth)

        • b. Chondrocytes, mature cartilage cells found in lacuna (space in semi-solid matrix)

        • c. Chondroblasts, developing Chondrocytes, from fibroblasts of perichondrium

  • B. Growth and repair of cartilage

    • 1. Apositional growth,

      • a. Fibroblasts of the perichondrium differentiate into chondroblasts, flat cells, rounded ends

      • b. Chondroblasts secrete cartilagenous matrix and becom "trapped" in lacunae

  • 2. Interstitial growth by mitosis of mature chondrocytes

  • Types of cartilage

    A. Hyaline Cartilage

    • 1. Matrix "Glassy"

      • a. Collagen Fibers, (40% of dry wt)same refractive index. index as matrix, not seen!

      • b. Sulfated Proteoglycans protein core

        • 1. with short, unbranched mucopolysaccharides, "bottle brush like"

        • 2. chondroiten 4-SO 4

        • 3. chondroiten 6-SO 4

        • 4. keratin sulfate

    General Structure A. Perichondrium, outer layer of similar to connective tissue proper 1. Outer layer, fibrous
    • c. Hyaluronic acid - long unbranced chains

    • d. Gucosaminoglycans cross linked with Collagen fibers provides rigidity

    • 2. Chondrocyters

      • a. Chondrocytes synthesize all matrix components (B in Photo at right)

      • b. Located in Lacunae (C in Photo at right)

      • c. Capsule, matrix area around the lacuna (A in Photo at right)

        • 1. Collagen poor

        • 2. Glucosaminoglycan rich

        • 3. More basophilic

        • 4. PAS+

        • 5. Metachromatic

  • d. Note: histological preparation causes shrinkage of chondroctes

    • B. Elastic Cartilage

      • 1. Yellow

      • 2. Elastic fibers in matrix

      • 3. Higher cell density

    2. Chondrocyters a. Chondrocytes synthesize all matrix components (B in Photo at right) b. Located in
    • 4. External ear, epiglottis, a few larynegeal cartilages

    • 5. Orcein elastic stain to "see" fibers (photo, top of page)

    • 6. Degenerates less than Hyaline cartilage

    • C. Collagenous/Fibrocartilage

      • 1. Coarse Collagen fibers embedded in matrix

      • 2. No perichondrium

      • 3. Lacuna with chondrocytes

      • 4. Seems a mixture of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue

    Bone

    • A. The Matrix - Solid

      • 1. Osteoid, organic matrix, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, collagen

      • 2. Minerals, calcium & phosphate, hydroxyapatite [CA 10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2 ]

      • 3. ppt from blood based on solubility product of calcium & phosphate

      • 4. Highly vascular

  • B. Fibers Collagen type I

  • C. Cells, Fibroblasts of periostium, osteoblasts osteocytes and osteoclasts

    • 1. osteoblasts, derived from fibroblasts,

      • a. synthesize organic matrix,

      • b. cuboidal to columnar shape when producing matrix,

      • c. basophilic cytoplasm

  • 2. osteocytes, mature bone cells,

    • a. flattened, oval with filopodial processes (in canaliculi) that extend through matrix

    • b. maintain matrix, if the die matrix is resorbed

  •  

    a.

    b.

    c.

    d.

    e.

    • D. Types of Bone

    1.

    Structure

    a.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    b.

    1.

    2.

    2.

     

    a.

    b.

    • B. Organs: Bones

    • C. Functions:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    Bone Structure

    1.

    2.

    1.

     

    a.

    b.

    c.

    2.

     

    a.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    b.

    c.

    produced by fusion of blood monocytes,

    acidophilic cytoplasm,

    secrete acid, collagenase, proteolytic enzymes,

    liberate calcium from matrix,

    found in Howships lacunae

    Primary, Immature or woven

    1 st formed in embryo or during bone repair

    ramdom deposition of collagen,

    less mineral content

    replaced in adults,

    Mature or lamellar

    Collagen fibers arranged in lamallae/layers

    Layers around a central canal (haversian system, osteon

    Osteogenesis

    Membranous Bone, Intramembranous

    Endochondral Bone, Intracartilagenous

    Characteristics of Bone

    • A. Highly perfected for Support and Protection

    Support & Protection for soft body parts

    Points of attachments for muscles (Makes movement possible)

    Red & Yellow marrow -> Blood cell production

    • A. Membranous Bone

    Ossification directly from C. T. Membranes

    Bones of the Skull

    • B. Endochondral Bone, Long Bones

    Medullary (marrow) Cavity

    a. b. c. d. e. D. Types of Bone 1. Structure a. 1. 2. 3. 4.

    Cavity in Shaft of bone filled with marrow (diagram=pink)

    Red Marrow - Blood forming connective tissue

    Yellow Marrow - Fatty connective tissue

    Epiphysis (Ends of Long Bone)

    Spongy Bone

    Meshwork of bone, spaces filled with marrow

    (diagram=Black & white)

    Osteocytes in lacunae connected by canaliculi

    No Osteons/Haversan Systems

    Epiphyseal Plate (Closure of Growth region, diagram=Black Line)

    Covered with Hyaline Cartilage (diagram=red)

    • 3. Diaphysis (Shaft of Long Bone)

      • a. Medullary Cavity (see above)

      • b. Compact Bone (diagram=Blue, photo=pink)

        • 1. Osteons (Haversan Systems)

          • a. Rings of Osteocytes (Lamella)

          • b. Central Canal (Blood vessels, nerves)

    3. Diaphysis (Shaft of Long Bone) a. Medullary Cavity (see above) b. Compact Bone (diagram=Blue, photo=pink)
    • c. Osteocytes in lacunae connected by canaliculi Transfer of nutrients from Haversian canal and cell to cell

    • d. Lamellar Layers of Collagen Fibers up to 5 Rings

    3. Diaphysis (Shaft of Long Bone) a. Medullary Cavity (see above) b. Compact Bone (diagram=Blue, photo=pink)

    Ground bone, Low Magnification left, High Magnification, right (note osteocytes)

    • 2. Volkman Canals, no rings of oteocytes

    • 3. Interstitial lamellae fill the spaces between Haversian systems

    • 4. Periosteum (osteogenic)

      • a. Tough connective tissue membrane around shaft of bone

      • b. Cells, fibroblasts, are osteogenic

      • c. Sharoy's fibers penetrate bone

  • 5. Endosteum (osteogenic)

    • a. Tough connective tissue membrane lining marrow cavities of bone

    • b. Cells, fibroblasts, are also osteogenic

  • Bone Development

    A. Intramembranous Osteogenesis

    • 1. most of the cranial/flat bones, increase in diameter of long bones

    • 2. develop directly out of mesenchyme

    • 3. Primary Ossification centers (starting point)

    • 4. Fibroblast - Osteoblast - Osteocyte

    • 5. Matrix is produced and calcified

      • a. Matrix sysnthesis results using 3 H- glycine

        • 1. 30 min in osteoblast

        • 2. 4 hours in osteoid

    3. Diaphysis (Shaft of Long Bone) a. Medullary Cavity (see above) b. Compact Bone (diagram=Blue, photo=pink)
    • 3. 35 hours in calcified bone

    • b. Calcification is dependent on the blood levels of calcium and phosphate

    3. 35 hours in calcified bone b. Calcification is dependent on the blood levels of calcium
    • 6. bone spicules formed

    • 7. Cuboidal osteoblasts along the outer surface

    • 8. Osteoclasts sculpture the bone [found in large depressions (Howslip's Lacuna) ]

    3. 35 hours in calcified bone b. Calcification is dependent on the blood levels of calcium
    • 9. Ossification centers expand and fuse to form completed bone

    • B. Endochondral Osteogenesis

      • 1. Bone preformed in embryo as hyaline cartilage

      • 2. Cartilage is replaced by bone in the following steps

      • 3. The low power magnification of the developing long bone at the right is from the lower leg of a mouse. It gives an overview of the whole process

        • 1. Zone of Proliferation

          • a. Mitotic division of chondrocytes

          • b. Area of bone growth in length by increase in cell number

          • c. small size and arrangement of the cells

          • d. In the magnified view of the bone below, note the Area of bone growth. The cells are very flattened.

    3. 35 hours in calcified bone b. Calcification is dependent on the blood levels of calcium
    3. 35 hours in calcified bone b. Calcification is dependent on the blood levels of calcium
    • 2. Zone of Maturation

    .

    Chondrocytes are arranged in columns parallel to

    the long axis of the bone

    • a. Growth occurs by increase in cell size

    • b. In the enlarged photo above maturation is taking place darker blue area above the light blue area.

    • 3. Zone of Hypertrophy(and cartlaginous calcification)

    .

    Chondrocytes enlarge and become vacuolated

    • a. Lacunae enlarge

    • b. In the enlarged photo above (maturation) note the light blue area of hypertrophy

    b. In the enlarged photo above maturation is taking place darker blue area above the light
    • c. In the high magnification photo at the right. Note: the hypertrophy in the lower cells compared to those at the top of the photo

    • 4. Zone of Calcified Cartilage

    .

    Cartilagenous matrix becomes calcified

    • a. Blocks flow of nutrients

    • b. Chondroncytes die, leaving spicules of calcified cartilage

    • c. Connective tissue from periostium growths in

    • d. Blood vessels and capillaries grow in

    b. In the enlarged photo above maturation is taking place darker blue area above the light
    • 5. Zone of Ossification

    .

    Osteoblasts form along the trabeculae of calcified cartilage

    • a. Osteoblasts secretion bony matrix over the calcified cartilage

    • b. Detail show in photo at the right. Dark blue spicules in the center of the cavity

    • 6. Periosteal Bone Formation

    .

    Periosteum forms a bony collar around the central portion of the developing bone

    • a. Periosteal collar supports the developing bone structure

    • b. Periosteal collar detail in photo at right. note light blue bone and the red of the osteoblasts

    b. In the enlarged photo above maturation is taking place darker blue area above the light
    • 7. Secondary Ossification Center

    .

    Starts in one of the epiphysis

    • a. Starts in the other epiphysis

    • b. Epiphyseal plate (proliferating cartilage ) forms

    • c. Growth zone between the epiphysis and the shaft

    Muscle Tissue

    • A. Types of muscle tissue

    1.

    2.

    3.

    • B. Functions:

    1.

    2.

    Breathing

    3.

    • C. Organs:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    1.

    Actin

    a.

    b.

    2.

    Myosin

    a.

    b.

    c.

    strands

    Skeletal Muscle cells, Striated, voluntary

    Cardiac Muscle Cells striated, involuntary, only in the heart.

    Smooth Muscle Cells, nonstriated, involuntary

    Contraction, Locomotion

    Body form & shape

    Skeletal, voluntary muscles of the body

    Cardiac, only in the heart.

    Smooth Muscle, walls of blood vessels, organs, G.I. tract etc.

    • D. Contractile Molecules - Actin and Myosin System

    G-actin - monomer, binding site for myosin, polimerizes into

    F-Actin - long polymer, two strands of twisted G-actin,

    Muscle Tissue A. Types of muscle tissue 1. 2. 3. B. Functions: 1. 2. Breathing 3.
    Muscle Tissue A. Types of muscle tissue 1. 2. 3. B. Functions: 1. 2. Breathing 3.

    Found in all Eukaryotic Cells

    Actin and myosin inside plant cell (cyclosis)

    Invertbrate Muscle

    • 1. Coelenterates - Myoepithelial Cells (Myoneme Arrow, right)

    • 2. Round Worms - Longitudinal Muscles ONLY, whip like motion!

    • 3. Earthworms - Circular and Longitudinal muscle layers

    • 4. Arthropods - muscle attached inside skeleton

    • E. Relaxing Molecules

      • 1. Troponin

        • a. inhibits actin myosin interaction

        • b. binds calcium

    • 2. Tropomyosin

      • a. thin filaments, 2 polypeptide chains (40nm)

      • b. Found between the 2 twisted strans of actin

      • c. bind 1 Troponin complex

    Skeletal Muscle tissue

    • A. Connective Tissue Support

      • 1. Composition

        • a. Endomysium - Reticular fibers and delicated C.T. surrounding individual muscle fibers

        • b. Perimysium - Dense irregular C.T, bindin groups of fibers into Fascicles

        • c. Epimysium - Dense irregular C.T, bindin groups of Fascicles into a muscle (organ)

  • 2. Functions

    • a. Unites forces generated by all the cells

    • b. support for blood vessels and nerves (capillaries between fibers)

    • c. Collagen fibers insert into foldings of the sarcolemma, juntion with tendons

    • d. Series Elastic Component - Connective Tissue, tendons, muscle sheath etc

  • B. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Organization

    • 1. Motor Unit - all muscle fibers innervated by a single neuron

      • a. Innervation ratio (motor neuron:muscle fibers, 1:100 to 1:2000)

      • b. Eye motor neurons 1:23, Gastrocnemius 1:1000

  • 2. Myoneural Junction

  • E. Relaxing Molecules 1. Troponin a. inhibits actin myosin interaction b. binds calcium 2. Tropomyosin a.
    • a. Synapse between motor neuron & muscle fiber

    • b. Neurotransmitter - acetylcholine

    • c. Motor end plate - specialized area of sarcolemma under axon terminal (Arrow in Photo at right)

    • C. Skeletal Muscle Fiber

      • 1. Fiber = Long multi nucleated cell

        • a. Sarcolemma = cell membrane, plasmalemma

        • b. Nucleus located Under Sarcolemma (see x section at right)

        • c. Sarcoplasm = cytoplasm of the muscle cell

        • d. Sarcosome = mitochondris of the muscle cell

        • e. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum = smooth endoplasmic reticulun

    E. Relaxing Molecules 1. Troponin a. inhibits actin myosin interaction b. binds calcium 2. Tropomyosin a.
    • f. Transverse Tubule System (T tube)

    • g. Myofibrils (long filamentous cylinders)

    • 2. Striations: Myofibril banding, tandem arrangement

    • 3. Myofibril Organization

      • a. Parallel to length of the muscle cell

      • b. Banding Pattern

        • 1. I Band (isotropic, do not alter polarized light) light band

        • 2. Dark line in mid I band = Z line ( seen with EM)

        • 3. A Band (anisotropic, birefringent in polarized light), dark band

        • 4. H band = lighter zone in center of A Band

    f. Transverse Tubule System (T tube) g. Myofibrils (long filamentous cylinders) 2. Striations: Myofibril banding, tandem
    • c. Sarcomere

      • 1. Extends from Z line to Z line

      • 2. Basic unit of contraction

      • 3. Composed of of Thick & Thin filaments

        • 1. Thick filaments - myosin (A band)

        • 2. Thin filaments - actin (I band) with "relaxing protein" troponen & tropomyosin

        • 3. Z line - Thin filament attachment point

  • 4. Sarcoplasmic reticulum wrapped around sarcomere of myofrbril, sequesters calcium

  • 5. T tube form triad with sarcoplasminc reticulum at A I band junction (mammals)

  • D. The sliding filament theory of contraction

    • 1. Sliding filaments produced by cross bridge formation

      • a. Actin / myosin not attached at rest (Binding blocked by troponen tropomyosin complex)

      • b. Globular heads of myosin, act as myosin ATPase, ATP => ADP + Pi

        • 1. ADP + Pi remain bound to myosin, required before binding with actin

      • c. Myosin heads bind to specific binding site on Actin

        • 1. ADP & Pi are released

        • 2. Conformational change in myosin producing POWER stroke

    i.

    Motor Nerve Impulse initiates an End Plate Potential

    ii.

    (EPSP of muscle cell) Impulse travels across the sarcolemma & down the t

    iii.

    tubes to SR Action Potential stimulates the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    iv.

    to release sequestered Ca ++ Ca ++ binds to Troponen and displaces Tropomyosin, unblocking binding sites

    v.

    Actin myosin cross bridges occur and muscle contracts.

    Cardiac Muscle tissue (Myocardium)

    • A. Branching, tightly knit fibers

    • B. Rich blood supply, capillaries between cells

    • C. Single cells with 1 or 2 nuclei, centrally located

    • D. High concentration of mitochondria around nucleus, and between myofibrils

    • E. Striations similar to Skeletal Muscle

      • 1. A and I bands and sarcomere as in Skeletal Muscle

      • 2. T tube forms Diad with sarcoplasminc reticulum at Z-line

      • 3. High concentration of glycogen

  • F. Intercalated disks

  • i. Motor Nerve Impulse initiates an End Plate Potential ii. (EPSP of muscle cell) Impulse travels
    • 1. Junction between two cells

    • 2. Junction has both a vertical and horizontal plane (along length of cells)

      • a. horizontal plane

        • 1. contains Gap junctions, ionic continuity, signals pass from cell to cell

      • b. vertical plane

        • 1. anchors actin filaments

        • 2. has Desmosomes to keep cells from pulling apart

    • G. Involuntary Muscle (initiates its own contractions)

    Smooth Muscle tissue

    • A. Cellular Organization

      • 1. Single, non striaed cells that taper at their ends

        • a. Contracted - short and fat with folds in membrane

        • b. Relaxed - long and thin

    • 2. Wrapped in a network of reticular fibers (helps to combind contraction force)

    • 3. Single, centrally located nucleus

    • 4. No T tubes

    • 5. some Sarcoplasmic reticulum

  • B. Contractile Elements

  • 2.

    Ratio of thick filaments to thin filaments 16:1

    • 3. Long myosin filaments have heads along the whole lenth with clear regions at the ends (reverse of skeletal muscle)

    • 4. Ca ++ binds calmodulin (No troponen)

      • a. Activates myosin light chain kinase

      • b. Latch state, maintains contraction (low energy) not well understood

      • c. Graded depolarization

    • C. Single unit - large number of Gap junctions, function as a single unit

    • D. Multiunit - innervation of a group of cells

    Nerve Tissue I Neurons

    • I. Neural Tissue Types

      • A. Neuroglial cells, supportive cells of the nervous system.

      • B. Neurons, functional cells of the nervous system. (Photo CNS

    II.

    pyramidal cells)

    Human Nervous System

    • A. Anatomical Organization

    1.

    Central Nervous System (CNS) Organization

    Embryonic

    Adult

    Cavities

    Brain

    Forebrain

    Cerebral hemispheres

    Lateral

    Thalamus/Hypothalamus

    Ventricles

    Third

     

    Ventricle

    Midbrain

    Midbrain

    Acquiduct

    Hindbrain

    Pons

    Fourth

    Cerebellum Medulla oblongata

    Ventricle

    Neural tube

    Spinal Cord

    Spinal

    Canal

    2.

    NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION (Review) A. CNS Protection

    • 1. Bones of the Skull

    • 2. Cranial Meninges: Dura mater, Arachnoid Space, Pia mater

    • 3. Cerebrospinal Fluid

    • B. Anatomical Organization CNS

    • a. Brain - Five Regions (See Chart)

    • b. Spinal Cord - Cervical, Thoracic,

    Lumber (Level of Vertebras) Photo right

    PNS

    • c. Cranial Nerves [12]

    B. Anatomical Organization CNS a. Brain - Five Regions (See Chart) b. Spinal Cord - Cervical,
    • d. Spinal Nerves

      • 3. HISTOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

      • 0. CNS - Gray Matter [Nerve cell bodies], Brain Peripheral, Central "H" of

    Spinal Cord (#2 in Photo above) Below Arrow points to Motor neuron in the grey matter

    B. Anatomical Organization CNS a. Brain - Five Regions (See Chart) b. Spinal Cord - Cervical,
    • 1. CNS - White Matter [Axon bundles, tracts], Brain Central, Spinal cord

    Peripheral (#1 in Photo above) Below Arrow 1 points to the axon and Arrow 2 points to the myelin (blue), both in the white matter.

    B. Anatomical Organization CNS a. Brain - Five Regions (See Chart) b. Spinal Cord - Cervical,
    • 2. PNS - Ganglia [Nerve cell bodies]Isolated &mp in organs

    • 3. PNS - Nerves [Axon bundles]Cranial &mp Spinal

    III.

    Nerve Tissue

    • A. Supportive Cells = Neuroglial (GlialCells) Next class

    • B. Neurons = Functional Cells of the Nervous System

      • 1. Receptor - receives the stimulus, generates Action Potential

      • 2. Cell Body (Cyton, Perikaryon )supports the cell

      • 3. Dendrites receives the Action Potential

      • 4. Axon - Transmitts the Action Potential

      • 5. Terminal Knob end of axon with Neurotransmitters (Chemical that crosses synapse)

     

    7.

    Functional Types of Neurons

    .

    Sensory - impulses to the CNS

    • a. Motor - impulses away form the CNS

    • b. Interneurons - between other neurons

     

    8.

    Morphology of neurons

    • 0. Multipolar - one axon, many dendrites

    • 1. Bipolar - one axon, one dendrite

    • 2. Pseudounipolar - one process containing both axon & dendrite

     

    C.

    Neuronal organization

     
     

    1.

    Neurotransmitter to Muscle (Motor Neuron)

     
    7. Functional Types of Neurons . Sensory - impulses to the CNS a. Motor - impulses
     

    2.

    Autonomic NS neurotransmitters

     
    7. Functional Types of Neurons . Sensory - impulses to the CNS a. Motor - impulses
     

    D.

    Neuronal Cytology

     
     

    1.

    Nucleus

     

    finely dispersed chromatin, nucleolus

    . (female, Barr body) pale staining

     

    2.

    Cytoplasm

     

    Nissl substance - RER & Free Ribosomes, varies with neuron and functional state

    .

    • 0. RER highly developed, free

    ribosomes in "rosettes (polysomes)

    • 1. structural proteins, proteins for transport

    • 2. extends into dentrites

    1.

    reduced amount -

    Injury/Exhaustion, nucleus migrates to perifery

    a.

    Golgi - arround nucleus, only

    in perikaryon

    • b. Mitochondria - in perikaryon, concentrated mostly in Teerminal Knobs

    • c. Neurofilaments, Microtubules - abundent in karyon, criscrossing

    isolates RER, free ribosomes into Nissl substance

     

    3.

    Dendrites

     

    .

    Normal distribution - 3D arborization

    • a. Receptor areas - 200,000 in purkinje cell

    • b. Size & Shape - short & many, tapered toward end

    • c. contain

     
     
    • 0. Nissl substance

    • 1. Mitochondria

    • 2. Neurofilaments and microtubules (more than axons)

    • 3. Thorny spikes (gemmules) for synaptic contact

     

    4.

    Axon

    One per cell, long process from thickened

    . Hillock

    • a. short to 40 inches long

    • b. constant diameter, does not taper

    • c. Few organelles, low synthetic activity, almost NO ribosomes

    • d. Mitochondria

    • e. Neurofilaments, Microtubules

    • f. Do not branch profusely, collaterals at right angles

    • g. Terminal Knob

      • 0. Mitochondria

      • 1. Neurotransmitter vessicles that fuse with the presynatic membrane to

    release

    • 5. Synapse Types

      • 0. Axon to Dentrite - Axodendritic

    • 1. Axon to Perikaryon - Axosomatic

    • 2. Between axons - Axoaxonic

    • 3. Between dendrites - Dendrodendritic

    • 4. Between Axon and Effector (muscle or gland)

    • 5. Electrical Synapse = Gap Junctions join neurons

      • 0. Gap Junctions allow ions & small

    molecules to move from cell to cell

    • 1. Coordinates contractions of large masses of muscles (heart, smooth

    muscle)

    • 2. Embryonic tissues - disappear after specialization occurs

    • 3. Neurons of the Brain - possible 2 way transmission!!

    • 4. Neuroglial cells - No impulses!!

      • 6. Chemical Synapse

      • 0. Components:

        • 1. Presynaptic membrane, with neurotransmitter vessicles

      • E. Neuron types (examples)

        • 2. Space

        • 3. Postsynaptic membrane 1. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse

      • 1. Pyramidal cells (Motor) of the cerebral cortex

      • 2. Spinal motor neurons in the grey matter of the spinal cord

    One per cell, long process from thickened . Hillock a. short to 40 inches long b.

    spinal motor neuron from spinal smear

    • 3. Spinal Sensory ganglion (Posterior root ganglion)

    • 4. Purkinji Cells of the Cerebellum

    • F. Receptors of Sensory Neurons

      • 1. Pacinian (Lamellated) corpuscle

      • 2. Meissner's corpuscle (skin)

      • 3. Tactile nerve ending in ground mole(above) Sister Anna Catherine doctoral research slides

      • 4. Autonomic Ganglion [Auerbach, Meissners plexus in small intestine] or other tissue.

    3. Spinal Sensory ganglion (Posterior root ganglion) 4. Purkinji Cells of the Cerebellum F. Receptors of

    Pacinian (Lamellated) corpuscle

    IV.

    Myelinated nerve fiber

    • 1. Central axis cylinder = Axon

    Meissner's Tactile nerve corpuscle endings (skin)
    Meissner's
    Tactile nerve
    corpuscle
    endings
    (skin)
    • 2. Periodic contrictions = "nodes of Ranvier"

    • 3. Oblique cuts in medullary sheath = incisures of Schmidt-Lantermann

    (telescope effect to the sheath)

    • 4. Surface membrane = neurilemma

    • V. Meninges Membranes covering the CNS

      • 0. Dura mater

        • 1. Dense Connective tissue Layer

        • 2. In the skull, Continous with the periosteum

        • 3. In the spinal cord, Separated from the periosteum of the Vertebrae (Epidural space)

  • 1. Arachnoid

    • 1. Connective Tissue, without Blood vessesl

    • 2. Sub Arachnoid Space with Cerebral Spinal Fluid

    • 3. Arachnoid villi or granulations, push through the Dura mater

    • 4. pass Cerebral Spinal Fluid into veins

  • 2. Pia mater

    • 1. Loose connective tissue, highly vascular

    • 2. Follows the convolutions of the brain

    • 3. Neuroglial processes separate brain tissue from Pia mater

  • Neuroglea & Nerves

    ORGANIZATION OF NEURAL TISSUE ---- Cells of the Nervous System

    • I. Neuroglia (nervous System Support Cells)

    Developmentally related to neurons Carry no nerve impulses Accessory cells to the neurons.

    • A. Central Nervous System

      • 1. Oligodendrocytes:

        • a. Long processes Form myelin around Axons in the CNS

        • b. Myelin: layers of glial cell membrane around an axon

        • c. Small glial cells in between nerve fiber bundles in white matter.

        • d. One cell myelinates many axons

  • 2. Microglial Cells

    • a. Originate in the mesenchym

    • b. Are phagocytes, remove pathogens & or debris

  • 3. Astrocytes

    • a. "star shaped" Long processes with feet on blood vessels

    • b. Control ionic and chemical environment of neurons

    • c. Nutrition of neurons

    • d. Neurotransmitter breakdown

    • e. Feet help the Blood brain Barrier

      • f. Gap junctions between Astrocytes

    • g. Secrete neuroactive molecules (angiotensin peptides, enkephalins etc.)

  • Neuroglea & Nerves ORGANIZATION OF NEURAL TISSUE ---- Cells of the Nervous System I. Neuroglia (nervous
    • 1. Protoplasmic Astrocytes found (mossy cells)in the In Grey matter processes are numerous, short and lumpy

    Processes are numerous, longer and smoother than mossy cells

    "feet" at the end of their long processes inserted along blood vessels.

    • 4. Ependymal cells

      • a. Columnar cells, sometimes ciliated

      • b. Line spinal central canal & ventricles

      • c. Form choroid plexi

    • B. Neuroglia of the Peripheral Nervous System

      • 1. Schwann Cells

        • a. Produced myelin: layers of glial cell membrane around PNS axons

        • b. Many cells around one axon

        • c. Increases the velocity of action potential conduction

        • d. Schwann Cells run from node to node.

        • e. Periodic contrictions = "nodes of Ranvier"

  • 2. Satellite cells (Amphicytes)

  • Circulatory System

    • a. Support cytons in ganglia

    CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    • 1. Organs: Heart, blood vessels, blood)

      • A. Functions:

        • 1. Transportation of substances: Nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, minerals, etc.

        • 2. Second defense against microbial invasion. WBC = phagocytosis, antibody formation

  • 2. Vessels of the Circulatory System

    • A. Vascular Tissue = Three layered structure

      • 1. Tunica Intima

        • a. Endothelium (processes that extend into the muscle layer)

        • b. Loose Connective Tissue with occasional smooth muscle cell

        • c. Internal elastic membrane (Arteries only)

  • 2. Tunica Media

    • a. Variable amounts of Collagen, Proteoglycans, and elastic fibers

    • b. Circular Smooth Muscle cells

    • c. thickness, number of layers and type of tissue varies with the diameter of the vessel and its distance from the heart.

    • d. External elastic membrane, thiner than Internal, found in some (Arteries only)

    • 3. Tunica Adventitia

      • a. Connective tissure support, fuses with CT of organ

      • b. Vasa vasorum (small vessels for nutrient supply of vessel walls),

      • c. Nerves, myelinated, sensory fibers reach to intima Nonmyelinated vasomotor, network in adventitia. end amonug muscle cells

    • B. Arterial system

      • 1. Elastic (Conducting)

        • a. Major arteries leaving the heart

        • b. Elastic recoil = diastolic pressure

    d. External elastic membrane, thiner than Internal, found in some (Arteries only) 3. Tunica Adventitia a.
    • c. Tunica Intima - [A in photo] post mortum changes, folded endothelium highly active endothelial cells, microvilli, pinocytotic vessicles constant turnover by mitosis Subendothelium - thick, ;ongitudinally arranged CT fibers. Internal elastic usually not seen due to elastic tissue of Media.

    d. External elastic membrane, thiner than Internal, found in some (Arteries only) 3. Tunica Adventitia a.
    • d. Tunica Media - 40(newborn) - 70 (adult) layers of elastic membranes Some smooth muscle cells, Few collagen fibers, chondroitin sulfate Fibers and amorphous material

    • e. Tunica Adventitia - [B in photo] relatively underdeveloped, elastic and collagen fibers

    • 2. Muscular (Distributing) medium to small Note:Internal elastic membrane in photo

      • a. Large vessels that carry blood from the aorta

      • b. Nutrient arteries to organs, Directs flow, controls volume & pressure

      • c. Tunica Intima - Internal Elastic Membrane

      • d. Tunica Media - Thick muscular layer, to 40 layers of smooth muscle cells

    d. External elastic membrane, thiner than Internal, found in some (Arteries only) 3. Tunica Adventitia a.
    • e. Tunica Adventitia - External elastic Membrane may be present (larger)

    • 3. Arterioles (Resistance vessels)

      • a. Control blood flow to capillary beds.

      • b. Regulate volume and pressure in the arterial system

      • c. Tunica Intima - no sub endothelial layer No (rarely) Internal Elastic Membrane

      • d. Tunica Media - 1 - 5 layers of smooth muscle

      • e. Tunica Adventitia - NO External Elastic Membrane

  • 4. Metarterioles

    • 1. Branch into capillaries

    • 2. Discontinous layers of smooth muscle

    • 3. Sphincter at junction of capillary

      • C. Capillary (exchange vessels)

        • 1. Diffusion membrane = simple squamous epithelium (endothelial tubes), with basal lamella

        • 2. 7,000 sq meters in the adult, Not found in cartilage, hair, nails, cuticle, or cornea of the eye

  • 0. Tunica Intima, endothelium only

  • 1. Tunica Media - None

  • 2. Tunica Adventitia - None

    • 3. Number and type vary with tissue type and metabolism

  • .

    Continuous (closed) blood brain barrier (brain, thymus, testicular,

    ocular) No pores through cells Occluding (tight) Junctions, (zonula occludens)

    • a. Perforated (continuous with pores) = most capillary beds Pores through cells Some with sieve-like diaphragms

    • b. Sinusoidal capillary (discontinuous) = maximal exchange (Liver, bone

    marrow, spleen) Large diameter, discontinous vessel gaps without cells, without basal lamella, with phagocytic cells

    • 4. Pericyte = supportive cell of capillaries and small arterioles with long cytoplasmic processes, undifferentiated connective tissue cells

    • 5. Endotheliun, possible contractility, microfillaments within cells, opens cell junctions

    • 6. pinocytotic vessicles cross cells in 2 - 3 minutes

    • 7. Permeability varies, in kidney 100 times more permeable than muscle capillaries

    • D. Venous system

      • 1. Veins (Capacitance vessels) = Contain 75% of total blood volume

    2.

    Venous return due to contraction of skeletal muscle

    • 3. Large Veins

    • 0. Tunica Intima - well developed

    • 1. Tunica Media - Thin

    • 2. Tunica Adventitia - Thickest, may contain longitudinal smooth muscle

      • 4. Small & Medium Veins

    .

    Valves, 2 semilunar folds,

    elastic tissue lined with endothelium, Most numerous in limbs prevent backflow of blood

    a.

    Tunica Intima - thin endothelium

    b.

    Tunica Media - few muscle cells

    c.

    Tunica Adventitia - well developed collagenous layer

    • 5. Venules thin walls

    .

    Formed by coalescence of capillaries (Exchange vessels)

    a.

    Tunica Intima - endothelium

    b.

    Tunica Media - small bundles of smooth muscle cells mixed with

    collagen

    c.

    Tunica Adventitia - well developed collagenous layer

    • 6. Heart Anatomy

    .

    Two hearts (pumps in one): Right heart, Left heart

    a.

    Heart Structure = Atria and Ventricle,

    b.

    Heart Layers = Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium

    • 1. Endocardium (intima) endothelium with subendothelial layer

    • 2. Myocardium Heart (cardiac) muscle 2 populations of cells

    • 1. Contractile cells, major myocardial contractions

    • 2. Conducting cells, (Purkinji cells )

    reduced myofibrils, full of glycogen, gap junctions at discs Conduction System = Controls Heart Beat

    • 3. Epicardium, serous membrane with subepicardial connective tissue(adipose tissue accumulates

    c.

    Fibrous Skeleton

    • 1. Fibrous central region for attachment of myocytes

    • 2. Thick collagenous fibers in various directions

    • 3. Nodules of fibrocartilage

    d.

    Valves (Control direction of Blood Flow)

    Tricuspid valve, Bicuspid valve (Mitral), Semilunar valves

    Lymphoid Organs

    • Organs/Tissues of the Immune System/Lymphatic

      • A. Function

        • 1. Potection of the Internal Environment

        • 2. Distinguish Self from Non Self

        • 3. Distroy or inactivate Foreign or Non Self

  • B. Lymph vessels - One Way Transport

    • 1. Begins in Lymph capillaries (porous)in the tissues, carry excess fluid

    • 2. Thin vessel lined by endothelium

    • 3. With valves as in Veins

    • 4. No clear cut separation between, tunica inta ma, media and adventitia

    • 5. Lymph Vessels in Intestines form from Lacteal (Lymph capillary) in villus, carry lipids

    • 6. Fluid filtered by Lymph nodes (below)

    • 7. Vessels empty into the subclavian Veins

  • C. Lymphatic Ducts

    • 1. similar to large veins

    • 2. Media - longitudinal and circular muscle

    • 3. Adventitia - underdeveloped, vava vasorum, rich neural network

  • D. Lymphoid Tissue

    • 1. Loose Lymphoid Tissue - Fixed cells predominate

    • 2. Dense Lymphoid Tissue - Free cells predominate (mainly lymphocytes)

    • 3. Nodular Lymphoid Tissue - Free cells predominate Found in all lymphoid tissue except Thymus

  •  

    a.

    Mobile Cells - lymphocytes and free macrophages

    b.

    Fixed Cells - reticuloendothelial (RE) cells, fixed macrophages, plasma cells

    • E. Lymphoid Organs

     
    • 1. Lymph Nodes/Gland

    • 2. Tymus

    • 3. Spleen

    • 4. Oganization:

    • 1. Encapsulated in connective tissue

    • 2. Network of reticular cells

    • 3. Lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, & small #'s of

    immunocompetent cells

     
    Histology of Lymphoid Organs and Tissues

    Histology of Lymphoid Organs and Tissues

    • A. Lymph Nodes/Glands

     
     
    • 1. Function

    a.

    Divided into Nodules filled with lymphocytes and Macro phages

    • b. Filters Lymph fluid

    • c. Macro phages remove infectious organisms and debris

    • 2. Location

      • a. throughout the body, along lymph vessels

      • b. In axillary and groin regions, along great vessels in the neck

      • c. in thorax and Abdomen, especially in the messentaries

  • 3. Shape

    • a. Kidney shaped

    • b. Smooth surface where lymph vessels enter (afferent)

    • c. Hilum - arteries, veins, nerves enter; Lymph vessels leave (efferent)

    • d. Cortex and medullary regions with paracortical region inbetween

  • 4. Histology

    • a. Connective Tissue organization

      • 1. Dense connective tissue capsule

  • b. Filters Lymph fluid c. Macro phages remove infectious organisms and debris 2. Location a. throughout
    • 2. Partitioned by connective tissue trabeculae extending from capsule through the cortex to the hilum

    • 3. Reticular framework (stroma) "Filtration apparatus" retucular cells, reticular fibers

    • 4. Forms system of Lymphatic sinusus from sub capsular sinus

    • b. Free Cells [proportions depend on antigenic stimuli]

      • 1. lymphocytes - part of circulating pool, lymphopoietic activity (minimal under normal circumstances)

      • 2. macrophages - relatively stable, not in efferent lymph

      • 3. plasma cells - Static, not in efferent lymph Not in blood, lymph, only a few in bone marrow precursors in efferent lymph stimulate plasmcytopoiesis in other nodes

      • 4. Infection = node increases in size due to increase in number of cells

    • 5. Organization

      • a. Subcapsular region - large number of free cells

    • b. Cortex - Primary and seconday lymph nodules, B cells (see lymphoid nodules below)

    • c. Paracortical region Thymus dependent zone

    • d. Medulla (photo right)

      • 1. Medullary sinuses, loose lymphoid cells

    b. Cortex - Primary and seconday lymph nodules, B cells (see lymphoid nodules below) c. Paracortical
    • 2. Reticular cells and fibers bridge sinuses

    • 3. Medullary cords rich in plasma cells, & fixed macrophages

    • B. Lymphoid Nodules

      • 1. Function

        • a. Filtration of lymph

        • b. 99% of antigens and debri removed by macrophages

        • c. Antigens recognized by immunocompetant cells

        • d. Active cell proliferation enlarges nodules

        • e. Plasma cells (antibody producing) produced

  • 2. Location

    • a. Scattered through many areas of the body, neck, groin etc.

    • b. Scattered through lamina of digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary passages

    • c. Peyer's Patches (Ileum) and Appendix (aggregates of nodules)

    • d. Tonsils (aggregates of nodules)

    • e. Some temporary structures - may disappear then reappear in the same place

  • 3. Histology

    • a. No connective tissue capsule

    • b. Primary Lymphoid nodule

      • 1. Spherical mass of small lymphocytes

      • 2. No germinal center

      • 3. Found only in new born, aseptic conditions

  • c. Secondary Lymphoid nodule

    • 1. Periferal ring of small lymphocytes, dense population, highly basophilic

    • 2. Germinal Center

      • 1. Less densly stained, antibody producing

      • 2. Activated lymphocytes (lymphoblasts/immunoblasts) large active nucleus, large pale staining cytoplasm

      • 3. Mitotic Figures, intense proliferation

      • 4. Large macrophage population

      • 5. Plasma cells

  •  

    C.

    Thymus

     
     

    1.

    Function

     

    a.

    b.

    c.

    d.

     

    2.

    3.

    Histology

     

    a.

    b.

    c.

     

    D.

    Spleen

     

    1.

    Function

    .

    Complex Filter

    a.

    b.

    Tissue)

     

    c.

    d.

    differentiation of primitive lymphocytes into immunocompetent T-cells

    Produces a hormone, thymosin (Aides in T cell

    maturation)

    expansion of antigen-stimulated T-cells

    Larger in children than adults

    Location - Mediastinum at the level of the great blood vessels

    Capsule

    • 1. Connective tissue, arteries, veins

    • 2. NO afferent lymphatics

    • 3. NOT a filter

    Cortex

    • 1. Partitioned by connective tissue "trabeculae" into "Lobules"

    • 2. Incomplete separation of "Lobules"

    • 3. NO Lymphoid Nodules

    • 4. No reticular fibers

    • 5. Mostly small lymphocytes in comtinous layer

    • 6. Epithelial reticular cells around blood vessels forming Blood Thymic Barrier (cortex only)

    • 7. Epithelial reticular cells, long thin processes, linked by desmosomes (make up for no reticular fibers)

    C. Thymus 1. Function a. b. c. d. 2. 3. Histology a. b. c. D. Spleen

    Medulla

    • 1. Hassell's corpuscles, concentric layers of Epithelial reticular cells (light stain), inner cells degenerate (right photo)

    • 2. Fewer lymphocytes than cortex

    • 3. Lymphoblasts and young lymphocytes

    • 4. NO Blood Thymic Barrier

    • 5. No reticular fibers

    Antibody forming organ

    Defense against infection in the blood (Largest mass of Lymphoid

    Production of RBCs (fetal)

    Distruction of RBCs

    • e. Blood Reservoir (assists in Blood pressure maintenance)

      • 2. Location in mesentary, abdominal cavity

    .

    • 3. Histology

    Capsule of dense connective tissue

    e. Blood Reservoir (assists in Blood pressure maintenance) 2. Location in mesentary, abdominal cavity . 3.
    • 1. "trabeculae" of connective tissue divide organ into compartments

    • 2. Nerves and arteries carried into the splenic pulp by "trabeculae"

    • 3. Few small smooth muscle cells

    • 4. Veins from "trabeculae", leave through the hilum [medial, posterior surface (human)]

    • a. Splenic Pulp (fresh = red "Red Pulp" R; with white spots "White Pulp"

    W) right photo

    • b. Complex blood circulation

      • 1. Splenic Artery (hilum) branches into trabecular arteries to

      • 2. Central Artery (actually eccentric in nodule) White pulp artery surrounded by lymphocytes (periarterial lymphatic sheath, PALS)

      • 3. Branches through the lymph nodule like lymphoid tissue, leaves white pulp

      • 4. Penicillar(straight) arterioles to arterial capillaries to

      • 5. Sinusoids between Red Pulp cords (possibly open circulation)

      • 6. to Red Pulp Veins to Trabecular Veins to Splenic Vein

  • c. White Pulp

    • 1. Nodular like sheaths around "Central Artery" (periarterial sheath) NOTE: central artery in enlarged white pulp nodule.

  • e. Blood Reservoir (assists in Blood pressure maintenance) 2. Location in mesentary, abdominal cavity . 3.
    • 2. Lymphoid cells directly around artery - T Cells

    • 4. Marginal zone, between Red & White pulp Many active macrophages, Dendritic cells trap and present antigens to immunocompetent cells Remove B cells & T cells from blood

    • 5. Activate B cells move to center of the nodule & differentiate into Plasma cells and memory cells

    • 6. Plasma cells move to the splenic cords and release antibodies into the blood

    • d. Red Pulp

      • 1. Splenic cords

        • 1. Elongated structures of cells between sinusoids

        • 2. reticular cells and fibers

        • 3. Lymphocytes, Plasma cells

        • 4. Blood elements (RBCs, platelets, granulocytes)

    4. Marginal zone, between Red & White pulp Many active macrophages, Dendritic cells trap and present
    • 2. Sinsoids

      • 1. Note: Red blood Cells free in Sinsoids of ren pulp

      • 2. Long endothelial cells supported by reticular fibers

      • 3. Hoop like rings of basement membrane

      • 4. Macrophages present, as in Liver sinusoids

      • 5. Large lumen with 2-3 µ spaces for flexable cells to pass through.

    E.

    Tonsils

    • 1. Aggragations of incompletely encapsulated lymphoid tissue associated with the gut

    • 2. Lie beneath the epithelium

    • 3. Densely packed lymphocytes, (most B cells)Produce lymphocytes become plasma cells

    • 4. Mouth and Pharynx ( forms "ring" of lymphoid tissue)

    Palatine Tonsils, nodules with germinal centers, numerous (10-20)

    . crypts, posterior walls of oral cavity

    stratified squamous may be infiltrated by lymphocytes from here.

    Pharyngeal Tonsils, diffuse lymphoid tissue and nodules, back of nasopharynx

    a.

    b.

    Lingual Tonsils, base of the tongue, small and numerous

    • 5. Gut: Intestinal tonsils

    .

    Peyer's Patches in lamina propria of the Ileum

    a.

    Vermiform appendix

    F.

    Bone Marrow

    • 1. Function (Storage organ, hematopoietic tissue)

    .

    Original site of all Blood cells

    a.

    Stem cells that produce all blood cells

    b.

    Production of RBC, Granulocytes, Monocytes.

    c.

    Development of immature T cells (migrate to thymus) & B cells that

    migrate to non thymus lymphoid tissue

    d.

    RBC distruction

    e.

    Storage of iron (ferritan & hemosiderin) in Reticular cells and

    macrophages

    Iron also stoered in hepatocytes, spleen macropgages, skeletal muscle fibers

    f.

    Rich in adipose cells (Yellow marrow)

    • 2. Histology

    .

    Reticular cells & fibers form "sponce" transversed by sinusoids

    a.

    Sinusoids, lined by endothelium, basement membrane

    b.

    Free cells: RBC, moncytes, granulocytes, platelets, developmental

    stages of all, and some plasma cells

    Remian in groups, one cell type predominates in different stages of maturation

    c.

    Digestive System I

    Oral Cavity

    • I. Organs and Function of the Digestive System

      • 1. Organs

        • A. Mouth: tongue, teeth

          • B. Digestive Tract: esophagus, stomach (cardiac, fundic, body, pyloric), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ilium), large intestine (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, appendix, rectum) anus

          • C. Glands: Salivary glands, Pancreas, Liver

      • 2. Functions:

        • A. Preparation of food for absorption - mechanical and chemical break down, (digestion, hydrolysis)

          • B. Absorption of nutrients

          • C. Elimination of undigested & unabsorbed food

    II.

    Histology of the Digestive System - Oral cavity

    • 1. Teeth : histoloty of the enamel, dentine, and cementum.

      • A. Enamel

        • 1. Produced by ameloblasts (epithelial)

        • 2. Enamel prisms or rods. Perpendicular to tooth surface.

        • 3. No collagen

        • 4. Calcified ground interprismatic substance makes up the thinner layer between adjacent prisms.

    II. Histology of the Digestive System - Oral cavity 1. Teeth : histoloty of the enamel,
    II. Histology of the Digestive System - Oral cavity 1. Teeth : histoloty of the enamel,
    • B. Dentine (D)

      • 1. Produced by odontoblasts

      • 2. Calcified ground substance.

    3.

    Dentinal

    tubules. .

    (Black arrows, Enlarged photo

    at right ) What occupies the tubule ?

    • 4. Granular layer of Tomes. An area of dentine just under the cementum where the canal system is very irregular.

    • C. Cementum, hardest tissue, essentially bone, but lacks Haversian systems, blood vessels, cementocytes

    • D. Pulp

      • 1. Loose C.T with many blood vessels

      • 2. Rich in nerves (myelinated)

      • 3. Unmyelinated fibers (some) extend into dentine tubules

    • E. Peridondal membrane

      • 1. Special type of Dense ConnectiveTissue

      • 2. Fibers penetrat cementum and bind to bone wall (periostium of alveolar bone)

  • F. Alveolar bone

    • 1. Immature bone structure, (Not lamellar)

    • 2. forms socket, blood vessels, nerves penetrat into pulp cavity

    • 3. Bundles of Collage penetrate bone and cementum

  • G. Gingiva

    • 1. Mucus membrane

    • 2. Cells bound to basement membrane by hemidesmosomes

    • 3. Bound firmly to bone and tooth enamal (cuticle)

    • 4. Epithelial attachment of Gotlieb (cuticle)

  • H. Summary Table

  • Enamal

    Dentine Cementum

    ameloblasts (Enamal organ0 Thin columnar => Cuboidal cells => Atrophy Lost before tooth erruption No Collagen

    odontoblasts Line pulp cavity Procollagen => collagen Mineralizes (Tomes fibers in dentine tubules) Nerve fibers in dentine, a few Collagen

    Cementoblasts from mesenchyme Cementocytes in lacunae, canaliculi Bone W/O Haversian systems & blood vessels

    2.

    Tongue

    • A. Mucosa - Upper surface

      • 1. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

      • 2. Papillae, some with taste buds

    Enamal Dentine Cementum ameloblasts (Enamal organ0 Thin columnar => Cuboidal cells => Atrophy Lost before tooth
    • a. Filaform - cone shaped, Keratin, NO taste buds

    • b. Fungiform - mushroom shaped, scattered taste buds on the surface

    • c. Foliate - Closely packed folds, numerous taste buds, lateral margins

    • d. Circumvallate - Large circular, taste buds on lateral margins

      • - serous and mucous galnds at base

      • - wash food out of taste buds

      • - 7-12 in V position, posteror of tongue

    • 3. Lamina propria, very dense ( connects to muscle layers.)

    • B. Mucosa - Lower surface

      • 1. Non-keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

      • 2. NO papillae

      • 3. Lamina propria connects to sub mucosa

    C.

    Submucosa.

    • 1. Not on the upper surface

    • 2. well developed on the under side (layer of loose fibroelastic connective tissue)

    • 3. Glands, mucous and serous

    4.

    Lingual tonsils - single grypt at base of tongue, numerous lymphoid nodules

    • D. Muscularis externa.

      • 1. Skeletal muscle fibers

      • 2. Muscle bundles which run in three planes. (Major characteristic)

    4. Lingual tonsils - single grypt at base of tongue, numerous lymphoid nodules D. Muscularis externa.Esophagus , Stomach A. Mucosa 1. epithelium 2. lamina propria 3. muscularis mucosa 4. function 1. Permeability barrier 2. Mucus production for lubrication 3. Enzymes for digestive processes 4. Absorpyion membrane 5. Lymph nodules prevention of bacterial invasion 6. Independent movement of mucosa (muscularis mucosa), keeps incontact with food B. Submucosa 1. Dense irregular connective tissue, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics 2. Sub mucosal glands 3. Meisner's nerve plexes (parasympathetic ganglia) C. Muscularis externa. 1. Smooth muscle 2. 2 layers, inner circular, outer longitudinal 3. Auerbach's plexes (myenteric) D. Serosa, Adventitia 1. Mesothelium 2. Simple squamous & C.T. 3. Rich in blood vessels, lymph and some adipose 4. Adventitial - loose irregular C.T. " id="pdf-obj-50-13" src="pdf-obj-50-13.jpg">
    • 3. Salivary glands - Later, with Digestive System

    Digestive System I Esophagus & Stomach

    4. Lingual tonsils - single grypt at base of tongue, numerous lymphoid nodules D. Muscularis externa.Esophagus , Stomach A. Mucosa 1. epithelium 2. lamina propria 3. muscularis mucosa 4. function 1. Permeability barrier 2. Mucus production for lubrication 3. Enzymes for digestive processes 4. Absorpyion membrane 5. Lymph nodules prevention of bacterial invasion 6. Independent movement of mucosa (muscularis mucosa), keeps incontact with food B. Submucosa 1. Dense irregular connective tissue, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics 2. Sub mucosal glands 3. Meisner's nerve plexes (parasympathetic ganglia) C. Muscularis externa. 1. Smooth muscle 2. 2 layers, inner circular, outer longitudinal 3. Auerbach's plexes (myenteric) D. Serosa, Adventitia 1. Mesothelium 2. Simple squamous & C.T. 3. Rich in blood vessels, lymph and some adipose 4. Adventitial - loose irregular C.T. " id="pdf-obj-50-19" src="pdf-obj-50-19.jpg">

    Digestive Tract Basic Plan Basic Tissue organization [see specific organs for variations] Esophagus, Stomach

    • A. Mucosa

      • 1. epithelium

      • 2. lamina propria

      • 3. muscularis mucosa

      • 4. function

        • 1. Permeability barrier

        • 2. Mucus production for lubrication

        • 3. Enzymes for digestive processes

        • 4. Absorpyion membrane

        • 5. Lymph nodules prevention of bacterial invasion

        • 6. Independent movement of mucosa (muscularis mucosa), keeps incontact with food

  • B. Submucosa

    • 1. Dense irregular connective tissue, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics

    • 2. Sub mucosal glands

    • 3. Meisner's nerve plexes (parasympathetic ganglia)

  • C. Muscularis externa.

    • 1. Smooth muscle

    • 2. 2 layers, inner circular, outer longitudinal

    • 3. Auerbach's plexes (myenteric)

  • D. Serosa, Adventitia

    • 1. Mesothelium

    • 2. Simple squamous & C.T.

    • 3. Rich in blood vessels, lymph and some adipose

    • 4. Adventitial - loose irregular C.T.

    • Summary of Digestive Tract Anatomy

      • A. Oral Cavity (Mouth)

    Tongue, gums, teeth, lips Salivary Glands (Parotid, Sublingual, Submaxillary)

    • B. Pharynx 3 openings mouth, nose, middle ear

    Ring of lymphoid tissue - Palatine, Lingual, pharyngeal tonsils

    • C. Esophagus - muscular tube 23-25 cm long

    Penetrates the diaphragm & joins stomach in Abdominal cavity (level of xiphoid process) Collapsed until distended by food

    • D. Stomach - J shaped when empty

    Cardiac, Fundic, Pyloric divisions Rugae, gastric crypts, no villi Glands (branched tubular) with Parietal cells (HCl) and Chief Cells (Pepsinogen)

    • E. Small intestine - 7 meters (~20 feet) long

    Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum (Peyer's Patches) Circular folds, villi, glands (simple tubular)

    • F. Large Intestine - 1.5 meters (5 feet) long 6.3 cm wide

    Caecum with Appendix Ascending, Transverse, Descending, & Sigmoid Colon, Rectum Haustra, no villi, no folds

    • G. Abdominal Accessory structures

    Mesentery - covers all abdominal organs, carries blood vessels & nerves Omentum - fatty apron

    • H. Accessory Glands

    Pancreas - Endocrine gland (Insulin, Glucagon) Exocrine gland (digestive enzymes) Liver - gall bladder, bile

    • Digestive Tract - Esophagus

    Function food transport to Stomach

    • A. Mucosa

    Function food transport to Stomach A. Mucosa 1. Epithelium = Stratified Squamous 2. lamina propria 3.
    • 1. Epithelium = Stratified Squamous

    • 2. lamina propria

    • 3. muscularis mucosa

    • B. Submucosa

      • 1. Small mucus secreting, submucosa. esophageal glands

      • 2. Human = numerous compound mucous glands

      • 3. [cat, the horse and rodents usually do not have them these]

  • C. Muscularis externa

  • Function food transport to Stomach A. Mucosa 1. Epithelium = Stratified Squamous 2. lamina propria 3.
    • 1. Top third Voluntary, striated muscle tissue for swallowing

    • 2. Lower third smooth muscle

    • 3. Middle third mixed smooth and striated meshed with connective tissue fibers.

    • D. Adventitia

      • 1. Areolar Connective tissue and binds the esophagus to other organs.

      • 2. Replaced by a thin serosa in abdominal cavity connective tissue covered by mesothelium.

    Function food transport to Stomach A. Mucosa 1. Epithelium = Stratified Squamous 2. lamina propria 3.

    Digestive Tract - Stomach Three main regions Cardiac, Fundic and Pyloric stomachs

    Fundic Glands

    Function food transport to Stomach A. Mucosa 1. Epithelium = Stratified Squamous 2. lamina propria 3.

    Pyloric Glands

    Function food transport to Stomach A. Mucosa 1. Epithelium = Stratified Squamous 2. lamina propria 3.
    • A. Mucosa, very thick

      • 1. Surface folds - Rugae

    goblet cells Mucous nect (MN) cells eextend into branched tubular glands

    • 3. Lamina propria, scanty, loose, areolar connective tissue.

    • 4. Thick layer of gastric (principal) glands (surface covered with "Gastric Pits"

      • a. Glands: simple, branched tubular glands

      • b. Cardiac Glands

        • 1. Mucous glands

        • 2. Lysozyme production

    goblet cells Mucous nect (MN) cells eextend into branched tubular glands 3. Lamina propria, scanty, loose,
    • 3. Ferquently coiled terminal portion,

    • c. Fundic Glands produce digestive enzymes and HCl

      • 1. Ismus mucous cells

      • 2. Mucous neck cells

      • 3. Parietal cell

        • 1. Scattered rounded or Pyramidal cells

        • 2. Eosinophilic

        • 3. Produce HCl, Intrinsic Factor

        • 4. found more numerous near top of gland

    goblet cells Mucous nect (MN) cells eextend into branched tubular glands 3. Lamina propria, scanty, loose,
    • 4. Chief cells - (Zymogen) pepsinogen, more in lower region of glands

    • 5. Argentifine Cells, enterochromaffin

    • a. Found throughout stomach

    • b. Few in number

    • c. Abundent dense granules

    • d. Release Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophane) into lamina propria

    • e. Stimulates smooth muscle motility

    • f. Affinity for Chromium and Silver salts

    .

    • 6. Paneth cells

    Found throughout stomach

    • a. Enteroendocrine Cells

    • b. Base of Gastric glands

    goblet cells Mucous nect (MN) cells eextend into branched tubular glands 3. Lamina propria, scanty, loose,
    • c. Large eosinophil granules

    • d. Serous cell - Complex protein, carbohydrate, lysozyme

    • e. Lysozyme present

    • f. May control Intestinal flora

      • d. Pyloric Glands -

        • 1. Deep gastic pits

        • 2. Mucus and some Lysozyme

        • 3. Gastrin (G) Cells

    • 5. Muscularis Mucosae: trilaminar

    • 1. two layers of muscle, sometimes a third an inner circular, outer

    longitudinal.

  • C. Muscularis externa

  • Three layers of smooth muscle

    • 0. inner oblique

    • 1. middle circular

    • 2. outer longitudinal.

      • D. Serosa

        • 1. mesothelium

        • 2. thin connective tissue

    • E. Endocrine Production of Gastric Mucosa

      • 1. Pyloric Mucosa

    .

    Gastrin

    • a. Stimulated by Amino acids(tryptophane & phenylalanine) and peptides

    • b. Stimulates Parietal cells [HCl] and Chief cells {Pepsinogen]

    • c. Maintains gastric mucosa

    • d. Inhibited when pH falls below 2.5

      • 2. Paneth cells ( See cell description above)

    Digestive System II Intestines

    • I. Digestive Tract - Small Intestine

      • A. Three main regions Duodenum, Jejunum, & Ileum

        • a. General Histology of the small intestine is presented first.

        • b. Followed by specific Modifications found in each region

      • 2. Intestinal Cell Types

    • 1. Absortive Cells

      • a. Striated borderMicrovilli

      • b. About 3,000/cell

      • c. 20 fold increase in absorptive surface

      • d. Disaccharidase bound to microvilli

      • e. Terminal Bar forces absorption through membrane

        • f. Active transport of amino acids & monosaccharides

      • g. Pinocytosis in new born, not adults

      • h. In SER, monoglycerides, long chain fatty acids glycerol = Lipid synthesis

        • i. In GER Chylomicrons formed from Proteins and Lipids

        • j. Released into lacteal

  • 2. Goblet Cells

    • a. Mucous Cells

    • b. Increase in number toward Ileum

  • 3. Argentifine Cells

    • a. Release Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophane) into the blood (More in stomach)

  • 4. Paneth Cells

    • b. Silver "loving"

    • a. Basal portion of crypts

    • b. Serous cell - Complex protein, carbohydrate, lysozyme

  • 5. Ganglion cells

    • a. Plexi of Parasympathetic Nervous system

    • b. Auerbach & Miesners

    • 3. Mucosa [ photo 1 M]

    .

    Semi circular folds Placae circularis

    • a. Goblet cells in the epithelium

    • b. Villi are characteristic of all small intestinal

    mucosa

    • c. Lacteal or lymph capillary, and capillaries.

    • d. Lamina propria (loose connective tissue)

    core of the villi and the tissue between the crypts.

    Digestive System II Intestines I. Digestive Tract - Small Intestine A. Three main regions Duodenum, Jejunum,
    • e. Simple tubular intestinal glands, crypts of Lieberkuhn, at base of the

    villi.

    • f. Two 2 types of epithelial cells

    • g. Mitotic cells in base of glands/crypts

    • h. Paneth Cells are common in the crypt base (lacking in some mammals

    including dog and, cat.)

    • i. Muscularis mucosa (crypts rest on this thin layer) an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer.

    The GastroIntestinal Barrier: Link coontains histology and histophysiology of both the stomach and intestinal lining.

    e. Simple tubular intestinal glands, crypts of Lieberkuhn, at base of the villi. f. Two 2http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/dige stion/stomach/parietal.html 4. Submucosa [ photo 1 SM] Dense Irregular Connective Tissue . a. Ganglia of the submucosal plexus of Meissner . 5. Muscularis externa. [ photo 1 ME] Smooth Muscle Layers, an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer. a. Between these two layers - Ganglia of the mesenteric plexus of Auerbach . 6. Serosa Thin: compact layer of connective tissue a. Covered by mesothelium, outer surface (simple squamous epithelium) B. Duodenum 1. Mucosa . Sphincter of Oddi. [ photo 3 S] pushes from outside through layers and opens into lumen a. Entrance of the common Bile Duct (Liver, Pancreas) . 2. Submucosa Brunner's Glands [ photo 2 B] a. Alkaline Mucous Glands b. Urogastron, hormone that prevents HCl secretion c. Compound tubular glands extend down into the submucosa. d. Found no where else in Intestines C. Jejunum 1. Mucosa . Large Plicae a. Large, long slender villi b. More goblet cells. c. NO submucosal glands D. Ileum . 1. Mucosa Many more goblet cells " id="pdf-obj-56-22" src="pdf-obj-56-22.jpg">
    • 4. Submucosa [ photo 1 SM]

    Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

    .

    • a. Ganglia of the submucosal plexus of Meissner

    .

    • 5. Muscularis externa. [ photo 1 ME]

    Smooth Muscle Layers, an inner circular and an

    outer longitudinal layer.

    • a. Between these two layers - Ganglia of the mesenteric plexus of Auerbach

    .

    • 6. Serosa

    Thin: compact layer of connective tissue

    • a. Covered by mesothelium, outer surface (simple squamous epithelium)

    B.

    Duodenum

    • 1. Mucosa

    .

    Sphincter of Oddi. [ photo 3 S] pushes from outside through layers and

    opens into lumen

    • a. Entrance of the common Bile Duct (Liver, Pancreas)

    .

    • 2. Submucosa

    Brunner's Glands [ photo 2 B]

    • a. Alkaline Mucous Glands

    • b. Urogastron, hormone that prevents HCl secretion

    • c. Compound tubular glands extend down into the

    submucosa.

    • d. Found no where else in Intestines

      • C. Jejunum

    e. Simple tubular intestinal glands, crypts of Lieberkuhn, at base of the villi. f. Two 2http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/dige stion/stomach/parietal.html 4. Submucosa [ photo 1 SM] Dense Irregular Connective Tissue . a. Ganglia of the submucosal plexus of Meissner . 5. Muscularis externa. [ photo 1 ME] Smooth Muscle Layers, an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer. a. Between these two layers - Ganglia of the mesenteric plexus of Auerbach . 6. Serosa Thin: compact layer of connective tissue a. Covered by mesothelium, outer surface (simple squamous epithelium) B. Duodenum 1. Mucosa . Sphincter of Oddi. [ photo 3 S] pushes from outside through layers and opens into lumen a. Entrance of the common Bile Duct (Liver, Pancreas) . 2. Submucosa Brunner's Glands [ photo 2 B] a. Alkaline Mucous Glands b. Urogastron, hormone that prevents HCl secretion c. Compound tubular glands extend down into the submucosa. d. Found no where else in Intestines C. Jejunum 1. Mucosa . Large Plicae a. Large, long slender villi b. More goblet cells. c. NO submucosal glands D. Ileum . 1. Mucosa Many more goblet cells " id="pdf-obj-56-86" src="pdf-obj-56-86.jpg">
    • 1. Mucosa

    .

    Large Plicae

    • a. Large, long slender villi

    • b. More goblet cells.

    • c. NO submucosal glands

      • D. Ileum

    .

    • 1. Mucosa

    Many more goblet cells

    • a. Peyer's patches or intestinal tonsils (aggregates of lymph nodules)

    • b. Nodules disrupt the overlying epithelium

    • c. NO submucosal glands

    II.

    Digestive Tract - Large Intestine Main Regions Ascending Colon, Transverse Colon, Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon, Appendix attached to Ascending Colon

    • A. General Histology of the Large Intestine Colon

      • 1. Mucosa

    No Villi in any part of the large

    a. Peyer's patches or intestinal tonsils (aggregates of lymph nodules) b. Nodules disrupt the overlying epithelium

    .

    intestine.

    • a. Many MORE Goblet cells

    • b. Deeper intestinal cryptsthan in the

    small intestine.

    • c. Abundent Lymph nodules

      • 2. Submucosa as in small intestine

      • 3. Muscularis externa.

    .

    Tenia coli. 3 thick bands of Longitudinal Muscle

    • 4. Serosa as in small intestine

    • B. Histology of the Appendix.

      • 1. Mucosa

    Large number of lymph nodules push into

    . the lumen of the organ

    • a. Lumen almost if not actually blocked

    • b. Human appendix = Paneth Cells at the

    bottom of the intestinal crypts.

    a. Peyer's patches or intestinal tonsils (aggregates of lymph nodules) b. Nodules disrupt the overlying epithelium
    • c. Acidophilic granules in their cytoplasm. (function not been determined)

      • C. Endocrine Production of Intestinal Mucosa

    .

    • 1. Secretin

    Produced by upper small intestine mucosa

    • a. Stimulates release of secretion #1 from pancreas (water & bicarbonate)

      • 2. CCK (cholecystokinen)

    .

    Produced by small intestine mucosa

    • a. Stimulates contraction of gall bladder,

    • b. Secretion #2 from pancreas (enzymes)

    Digestive System III Glands

    Glands Associated With The Digestive Tract

    Summary Table

    Salivary Glands

    Pancreas

    Liver

    Parotid

       

    Serous secretion 100%

    Sublingual

    Exocrine gland

    Bile

    80% Mucous secretion

    Serous secretion

    Metabolic Waste

    5% Serous secretion

    Digestive enzymes

    Stored in Gall Bladder

    Submaxillary

    60% Serous secretion

    Endocrine gland

    30% Mucous secretion

    Insulin

    Glucagon

    A. Salivary Glands

    • 1. Capsule rich in Dense Connective tissue

    • 2. Divided into Lobules

    • 3. Connective tissue septa with blood vessels and nerves

    • 4. Ducts (Photo, right, top)

      • a. Conducting ducts (intercalated ducts) Low cuboidal, enter at hilum of gland

      • b. Striated ducts (interlobular) Tall cuboidal cells, similar to kidney tubules

      • c. Extralobular ducts (in septa)

  • 5. Secretory Portion

    • a. Serous Acinus, (top, right) central located nucleus

    • b. Myoepithelial cells

  • Sublingual Exocrine gland Bile 80% Mucous secretion Serous secretion Metabolic Waste 5% Serous secretion Digestive enzymes
    • c. Mucous Acinus, (bottom, right) clear cytoplasm, nucleus compressed at bottom of the cell

    • d. Mucous Acinus with Serous Demilune (half moon) [sublingual]

    Parotid

    • 5. Produces 25% of Saliva

    • 6. Branched Acinous gland

    • 7. Lumen not conspicous

    • 8. Striated ducts, very

    apparent

    • 9. Serous secretion 100%

    Sublingual Exocrine gland Bile 80% Mucous secretion Serous secretion Metabolic Waste 5% Serous secretion Digestive enzymes

    Submaxillary

    Sublingual

    1.

    Produces 70%

    4.

    Produces 5%

    of Saliva

    of Saliva

    2.

    80% Serous

    5.

    60% Mucous

    secretion

    secretion

    • 3. 5% Mucous

    secretion

    3. 5% Mucous secretion 6. 30% Serous secretion C. Liver. 1. Lobule 0. Hepatic cords of
    • 6. 30% Serous

    secretion

    3. 5% Mucous secretion 6. 30% Serous secretion C. Liver. 1. Lobule 0. Hepatic cords of
    • C. Liver.

      • 1. Lobule

    • 0. Hepatic cords of liver cells radiating single large central vein.

    3. 5% Mucous secretion 6. 30% Serous secretion C. Liver. 1. Lobule 0. Hepatic cords of
    • 1. Cords separated by hepatic sinusoids

    • 2. Kupffer cells found in sinusoids

    3. 5% Mucous secretion 6. 30% Serous secretion C. Liver. 1. Lobule 0. Hepatic cords of
    • 2. Triad (at corners of Lobule) - Branches of Hepatic artery, Hepatic Portal Vein & Hepatic duct interlobular arteries, interlobular veins and interlobular bile ducts

    • D. Gall bladder.

      • 1. Pear-shaped organ that Stores and concentrates bile from the liver.

      • 2. Mucosa, Epithelium

    • 0. Extensively folded into rugae. ( depends on amount of distension)

    • 1. Large simple columnar cells with oval nuclei.

    3. 5% Mucous secretion 6. 30% Serous secretion C. Liver. 1. Lobule 0. Hepatic cords of
    • 2. Covered with stereocilia

    • 3. Post mortum changes easily breakes it down

     

    3.

    Lamina Propria

    3. Lamina Propria

    0.

    Alveolar glands ( simple cuboidal

    epithelium)

     

    1.

    Loose and Dense connective tissue

    4.

    Muscularis externa.

    0.

    Three irregular layers of smooth muscle.

    5.

    Adventitia (or serosa)

    0.

    Dense connective tissue.

     

    6.

    ducts

    0.

    Hepatic ducts

     

    1.

    Cystic duct

    2.

    Common Bile Duct

     
    • 1. gall bladder to the duodenum

    • 2. Sphinctor of Oddi in duodenum

     

    E.

    Pancreas

    E. Pancreas
     

    1.

    Exocrine glandular tissue.

    0.

    Serous acinar gland

    1.

    Produce Enzymes

    2.

    Pyramidal shape cells

    3.

    Centro-acinar cells

    4.

    Wall of the intercalated duct

    [characteristic of the pancreas]

     

    2.

    Interlobular ducts, simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium,

    0.

    Secret Primary Pancreatic secretion (neutralizes acid chyme)

    3.

    Endocrine glandular tissue.

    3. Endocrine glandular tissue.

    0.

    Islets of Langerhans (clusters of 5 to 50

    cells), randomly scattered

    1.

    Surrounded by Reticular fibers

    2.

    cords of polygonal cells surrounded by

    capillaries

     

    3.

    Stain lighter than acinar cells

    4.

    3 types of cells, alpha, beta and delta cells (need special stains to see

    differences)

     
    • 1. Beta Cells 60-80% (Proinsulin => Insulin + C protein) Hemtoxylin and Phloxine Blue Granules

    • 2. Alpha Cells 20% (Glucagon), cells larger, less numerous, perfiery of Islet Hemtoxylin and Phloxine Red Granules

    • 3. Delta and "F" cells few

    5.

    Capillary networks in the Islets

     

    6.

    control, blood glucose levels, Sympathethic and Parasympathethic

    nerve ending

    • 4. Pancreas (Endocrine Function)

    .

    Insulin (Pancreas, Ilets of Longerhans, Beta cells)

    • 1. Promotes cellular uptake of glucose and synthesis of glycogen

    • 2. Promotes cellular uptake of amino acids & protein synthesis

    • 3. Stimulates fat storage, Promotes lipogenesis

    • 4. Stimulates lipoprotein lipase activity (Depressed in Obesity)

    • A. Glucagon (Pancreas, Ilets of Longerhans, Alpha cells)

      • 1. Stimulates Glucogenolysis

      • 2. Stimulates Gluconeogenesis (use amino acids)

  • B. Pancreatic (Secretion)Enzymes

    • 1. Pancreatic Secretion #1 Increase of pH Stimulated by hormone, CCK (cholecystokinen)

    • 2. Pancreatic Secretion #2 Enzymatic Stimulated by hormone, Secretin

      • a. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin secreted as Trypsinogen and Chymotrypsinogen (Inactive)

      • b. Trypsin activated by Enterokinase from intestinal Glands

      • c. Chymotrypsin activated by Trypsin

  • C. Digestive Tract Short Summary of Digestion

  • Food

    Enzyme

    Products

    Starch

    Amylase

    Maltose

    Protein

    Trypsin

    Polypeptides

    Protein

    Chymotrypsin

    Polypeptides

    Lipid

    Lipase

    Glycerol, Mono &

    Diglycerides

    Nucleic

       

    Acids

    Nucleases

    Nucleotides

    Respiratory System

    • Respiratory System Function

      • 1. Gas exchange between organism & air/water

      • 2. Requires a Moist Internal Membrane

  • Upper Respiratory Track

  • A. Nasal and Nasopharynx,

    • 1. Nares,

     

    a.

    Sebaceous and sweat glands

    b.

    Short thick hairs (vibrissae)

    c.

    Transition from Stratified Squamous to Respiratory epithelium

    • 2. Nasopharynx, Respiratory epithelium

    • 3. Nasal septum & Conchae (3 bony projections)

     

    a.

    "swell bodies" in lamina propria contain venous plexi (swell every 20 to 30 minutes)

    b.

    Cut air flow

    c.

    Releave desication