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Syntorial notes

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Chapter 1.1 Saw+Pulse
-Saw and pulse waves= most common.
-Saw wave = bright, edgy and used for a lot of different sounds.
-Pulse wave= more videogame-like, artifical sound.
-Pulse wave= heavy in low pitches.
-When designing heavy bass sounds, use pulse since it has heavy sound in low
pitches.

Chapter 1.2 Pulse width


-Pulse waves are special because the pulse width can be changed
-In default state the pulse width makes it a square wave
-Gets more saw like when you make pulse width very small/thin
-pulse width doesn't affect saw waves' sound
-square(default PWidth) sounds hollow and more "thick"
-medium Pwidth sounds inbetween
-thin Pwidth sounds childlike, silly, duck-like, voice like, sitar like
-medium and square pulses sound more voicelike and thick than saw wave

Chapter 1.3 on your own


-Initialize vst(primer in syntorial) and listen to its waveforms(pulse and saw)
Try changing the pulse width
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Chapter 2.1 Low pass filter


-Low pass filter determine brightness of synth.
-Control brightness with cutoff
-more cutoff= rounder and darker until fundamental pitch is eliminated,
making the sound disappear completely
-Less cutoff=sound gets brighter and edgier
-Reducing cutoff by a little bit doesn't change the sound much, but it
reduces the amount of sizzle(zzzzzzzzzzzzz) sound making it cleaner.
-Think of this sizzle as a noise osc seperate from the osc

Chapter 2.2 Cutoff+ main volume


-If cutoff is too low, volume of sound gets low
-to make up for this volume loss, we turn up the volume
-This is great for making bass patches and other round,dark sounds.

Chapter 2.3 on your own


-Check out your synths' low pass filter and cutoff knob
-Play notes in different ranges in different cutoffs and try different waveforms
-Try making some bass patches

Slyenth: Drive makes sound more analog and more 3d. Could make flat sound pop out
more and more noticable, and boost volume. When turned too high gets round and low
end is boosted.
Warm drive in filter control panel increase quality of drive. Subtle
effect. You decide whether you like it or not. Increase CPU load if turned on.

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Chapter 3.1 Amp envelope attack


-Determine synth's volume over time.
-Attack:begins when u press a key. How long it takes for sound to go from silence
to full volume.
Long attack good for pads. Short attack good for short plucks

Chapter 3.2 Amp envelope release


-Begins when you release a key
-Determine how long it takes for volume to go from current volume to 0 volume
-Good for attacks, ambients, and often in bass and leads too.
-0 release gives abrupt unnatural ending cutoff to a note which is undesireable

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Chapter 4.1 Doubling and Transposing
-By using 2 oscs at same time, you could mix them together and generate new sounds
-First, set mix knob which determines balance between osc1 and osc2
-If mix is set to 50, you hear half osc1, half osc2
-By playing osc1 at normal pitch with osc2's pitch altered, you can generate new
sounds
-Can't use any number for osc2 pitch be cause it can be dissonant
-several common ways: any#of octaves(12semitones), 1 fifth(7semitones), any#of
octaves+1 fifth
-When doubling and transposing oscillators waveforms should be the same.
-When reproducting a 2 osc sound, first set mix knob to 50, then make pitch the
same, look at
waveform, then figure out mix knob of oscs
-when reproducing 2 osc sound with wavetype, pulsewidth, mix, semitone control,
filter cutoff,
attack, release, volume, this is what to do:
look at amp envelope first,
then cutoff
then transposing of oscillators and mix knob
the volume etc
Just trust ears

Slyenth: Set oscA2 voices amount to 1, then change wave to same as that of oscA1.
Then transpose it. This way
you can double and transpose in sylenth. You can also copy oscA1 by
clicking the small C button on top right
then click paste on oscA2 to copy and paste oscA1 to oscA2. This makes
doubling and transposing faster.
When you try to combine two saw waves 1 octave apart, it sounds like its 2
octaves apart because of problem
with phase. If this happens, change phase of one wave to 100(if it is
currently 0).
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Chapter 5.1 Filter envelope
-Filter envelope is similar to the amp envelope which modulate synth's volue over
time
-Unlike amp envelope, Filter ENV modulates a synth's cutoff overtime
-An amp envelope ATK makes sound louder overtime
-A filter envelope ATK makes sound brighter overtime
-Know that the sound will never get darker than the cutoff knob setting
-Filter envelope amount knob determines the brightest your sound will ever get
-Therefore: Filter Cutoff=Minimum brightness
Filter Envelope Amount=Max brightness
-First set cutoff to match the beginning darkness of sample sound(how dark the
sample sound begin with
-Then set filter Env amt knob to match the max amount the attack will raise the
cutoff(brightness) of sample
-By the way, if you bring the cutoff down, the brightness of filter envelope amount
will also go down which can be confusing
-this is because the filter env amt actually determines the distance between the
darkest and brightest part of your synth. Therefore,
if cutoff is lowered, the brightest part of the synth will darken along with it
even if you did not change the amount of filter env amt
-So, if you need to change cutoff, you probably need to change filter env amt along
with it so sound doesn't get too bright or dark
-Finally find out attack

Chapter 5.2 Filter envelope Attack


-You can make the filter envelope attack faster or slower
-You can create a very fat attack when you turn it to a very small value under 75
millisec
-A fat attack is a "horn attack" since it has the fat and roundness of a trumpet
-first set cutoff to match sample's starting/darkest point
-Then set envelope amount to match sample's brightest point
-Then set attack to match sample attack speed
-Lower cutoffs usually makes fatter horn attack

Chapter 5.3 Filter envelope release


-Starts when you release the key
-Determine how fast your sound will drop from current brightness(max brightness
which is filter env amt)
to cutoff knob's brightness(lowest darkness which is filter cutoff)
-Starts bright and darken overtime
-To replicate sample, first set cutoff to darkest/ending point
-then set env amt to the held/brightest point
-then set the release

Chapter 5.4 Filter envelope attack and release


-Set filter cutoff, filter env amount, filter atk, filter release all at same time
-cutoff=set to minimum brightness at beginning and end(after release) of note
-envelope=how bright sound is allowed to be
-first set cutoff to match minimum bright part at beginning of sound
-Then set envelope amount to max brightest part which the attack will bring us to
-Finally set the attack and release

Chapter 5.5 Filter and amp envelopes


-filter envelope and amp envelope can be used together to create new sounds
-first listen to amp envelope and copy, then do that to filter envelope
-Important thing is to know that filter env controls brightness of sound
amp env controls volume of sound
Look at each element(vol and bright) seperately to divide and conquer the task
If you do not hear a brightness gradual increase at start, do not add filter
attack
If you do not hear a volume gradual increase at start, do not add amp env attack
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Chapter 6.1 Delay
-delay creates echos
-delay mix knob=determine balance between wet and dry signals(think of wet=more
volume for )
when turned to 0 it is 100%dry, 0%wet
when turned to 50 it's 50%dry, 0%wet
do not turn above 50 in most cases since that would make delay more
prominent than original dry signal
When mix is turned to 50, get reduction in volume which can be
fixed by increasing main volume to make up for difference
create space(feel like in a big arena) around your sound acting
like a reverb, make sound bigger,
go along with other sounds better. Can also use to create rhythmic
patterns
dry=unaltered signal(original notes played on keyboard)
wet=altered signal(delay)
-think of wet=more volume for delayed note, less for original note
-think of dry=more volume for original note, less for delayed note
-Listen closely to volume difference between the original and delayed note(mix
knob) and the overall volume of the notes(overall volume knob)

Chapter 6.2 Delay time


-delay time determine how far echos are from each other(can be 1bar, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8,
1/16, 1/32 etc)
-when fast(1/32), can create vibrating sound since delay close to original note
-when slow(1bar), can have delay very far apart from original note
-know that 1/4= 1 beat in a bar(there are 4 beats in a bar)
1/8= half-beat in a bar(there are 8 half-beats in a bar)

Chapter 6.3 Delay feedback


-Determine how many echos are created. Increase=more delays. Decrease=less delays.
-When 0=one echo only (called a slap back delay which makes audio sounds like it is
in a basement with some echo).
-When 100=Infinite delays (avoid this setting)

Chapter 6.4 Delay spread


-Delay spread spreads out echos to left and right sides of the stereo field.
-Won't be audible on computer speaker, only on good speakers and headphones.
-By default, echo(delayed notes) and dry signal(original note) are all in the
middle of stereo field
-When spread is increased to 50, dry signal will be heard on middle of stereo
field, while left and right echoes are on the outside
-When spread is increased to 100, we get seperation between left and right echoes
-spread increase width of sound, making it take more sound
-in 50%spread, sound is more rhythmically tight since echos come in exactly when
you want them to
-in 100%spread, sound is more sloppy and sticks out more. Rhythm may be off a bit.
-spread is commonly used on leads
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Chapter 7.1 Amp envelope sustain
-After amp envelope finishes attack stage, it stays at full volume til we release
the key, making it become the release stage.
-Amp envelope sustain allows you to change volume between attack and release stages
while you hold the key
-After amp envelope finishes attack stage, the volume becomes that set by the
ampenv sustain level.
-By default the ampenv sustain is 100(full volume), so once attack stage finish
gradually raising volume, volume stays at full volume while key is held.
-If you lower sustain level, attack raises volume to full level, then immediately
goes down to the volume set by the ampenv sustain,
it stays at that volume while you hold the key.

Chapter 7.2 Amp envelope decay


-Determines how fast the drop from full volume(at end of attack stage) to volume
set by sustain level is.
-Using a small decay, 0 attack and 0 sustain is good for short plucks.
-For short decays, it sounds quiet because it only stays at full volume for a very
short time. Therefore, it is often needed to boost its volume so it has equal
volume compared with a long normal sound/
-If small decay+sustain and 0 attack, you get a very short volume burst/spike then
drop at the start of the sound which is called a attack transient.
-Attack transient makes a sound more agressive and cut through the mix more.

Chapter 7.3 ADSR


-Combine ADSR together
-Recommended to start with attack, then decay and sustain, finally release
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Chapter 8.1 Doubling and detuning
-Two oscs. fine tune osc1 up by few cents(X), osc2 down by a few cents(-X)(X and
-x must have opposite directions, and must be equal numbers). Then change mix to
50/50 and play note.
-This is called detuning which gives a smearing, pulsating effect.
-Greater the # of cents(x and -x) is, the faster/more intense the vibration of
detuned note is.
-Hard rule to detuning: X and -x must have opposite directions, and must be equal
numbers.
-The exception to rule: Detuning one osc by 1 cent while leaving other one alone
gives flanging effect.
-Both oscs need to have same waveform and pulse width. Mix knob should be 50/50.

Chapter 8.2 Doubling and detuning pt2


-Oscillator start button is a control related to detuning and doubling
-When oscstart button is on while detuning/doubling, you will get a sharp and
pointy attack transient(tkkkk sound at beggining of note)
-on also gives you consistent pulsation(Same pulsate sound for every note you play.
Especially noticeble when you use 1 cent flanging effect)
-When oscstart button is off while detuning/doubling, you will only get a round and
soft attack transient
-off also gives you varying pulsation(Each note sounds different sort of like
random knob in serum)

Slyenth: Set voice of an osc to 2, then turn detune knob and stereo knob to change
amount of detune and stereo width.
If stereo is lower, means there will be pulsation. If high is no
pulsation. Retritg is same as start button
in syntorial. If retrig on there is atk transient, if no there is no atk
transient.
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Chapter 9.1 Filter env decay+sustain
-Once a note finishes attack stage, it drops down to sustain level and stays at
that level as long as you hold note.
-In filter envelope, Max sustain=note sound will stay at maximum brightness
determined by env amount knob.
-In filter envelope, Minimum sustain=note sound will stay at minimum brightness
determined by cutoff knob.
-Having a short decay in filter env will also result in attack transient. Help make
sound more noticable.

Chapter 9.2 Full Filter env (ADSR envelope for filter)


-First step should be cutoff knob and env amount, then adjust adsr
-try to remember where minimum brightness occurs in sound(that sound determines
cutoff knob amount)
1.beggining of attack stage
2.end of release stage
3.minimum sustain
-try to remember where maximum brightness occurs in sound(that sound determines env
amount knob amount)
1.end of attack stage
2.maximum sustain
-Remember these tips:
Be methodical and logical, do it step by step not all parts at once. Divide and
conquer.
Imagine a graph of the filter(brightness of sound) as a visual representation in
your head. Draw it out in head and imagine how to turn knobs so graph will look
like that.
If doing several things(group), apply the same concept to several envelopes(Amp
envelope, filter envelope etc.)
Look at the keyboard's highlighted notes to understand when is the key released,
when is it played. This is paramount!
Listen to brightest part and darkest part in song to know the cutoff and env
amount
Listen to the entire clip, not just first note!
Do NOT use hints!
Slyenth: Set mod envelope destination to cutoff and you can modify filter envelope.
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Chapter 10.1 Sub oscillator part 1
-a third oscillator known as sub-osc. Simple. Pitch is fixed one octave below first
osc. Can only set it's waveform and volume. Adds bottom end and weight to your
sound.
-Can only be a square wave or triangle wave.
-A triangle wave is a new waveform. Has a round sound. Sounds like a pulse wave
with the cutoff turned down. Quieter than pulse wave. Adds a subtle weight to your
sound.
-You need to turn volume of triangle wave up for it to be more noticable, However,
If you turn volume of triangle wave high, you get a pop sound at start of each
note.
It is sort of like an attack transient but is shorter and usually undesirable. To
eliminate this sound, turn up attack a bit, around 2ms.

Chapter 10.2 Sub oscillator part 2


-Set osc 1 waveform first by listening to high end
-Then set sub osc waveform. If bottom end is round=triangle wave. If bottom end is
bright=pulse wave
-If pop sound is not present in example, make attack go up by 2ms.

Chapter 10.3 Sub oscillator part 3


-A common use of sub osc is to mix it with 2 other oscs that are doubled and
detuned
-Adding a Sub oscillator can sometimes slow down or speed up the pulsations caused
by detuning. Therefore, first do a rough guess of detuning amount(no need to be
accurate
now), then add the sub oscillator, then readjust the detuning amount until it is
satisfactory
-Sub oscillator triangle waveform's pop sound at start cna become random when you
have detuning. Therefore, before you add a 2ms attack to sound, make sure you
listen to a
bunch of notes until you can hear whether the pop sound is present or not present.
Chapter 10.4 Sub oscillator part 4
-A common use of sub osc is to mix it with 2 other oscs that are doubled and
transposed
-Gives you a tall sound, stretching through an array of high and low notes
-First listen to high end of sound to figure out osc2 waveform(and 1)
-Then listen to bottom end to figure out sub osc waveform

Slyenth: To make sub osc use a osc in part 2 of slyenth OR just use an empty osc in
part 1. The syntorial vid on slyenth in this chap is very important since it talks
about
putting filters and other stuff on both AB sections of slyenth, and how
the AB system works internally! It is KEY to how to use slyenth well!
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Chapter 11.1 LFO Destination
-LFO creates repeating movement of a parameter in your synth. Does this by using
shape of a waveform to modulate parameter.
-Examples include: pitch, volume, filter cutoff, pulse width(only works on pulse
wave), panning.

Chapter 11.2 LFO Amount


-Determines max and min amount of modulation applied to selected destination
-Note played is at mid point between max modulation and min modulation. LFO brings
parameter from mid pt to highest point, then mid, then low, then mid again, and the
cycle continues.
-If amount is reduced, both max and min modulation amount is reduced, so range of
motion allowed on turning that parameter is reduced.

Chapter 11.3 LFO Waveform


-Triangle: Value quickly goes to top then goes down quickly.
-Saw: Value instantly jumps to top then goes down quickly. Often used on volume.
Gate effect is when you use this on volume, so when you hold a key it sounds
like you are playing one note over and over again.
Reducing amount in gate effect makes note still held, but attack transient
occurs over and over again.
-Pulse(square): Value instant jump to top, then instant jump to bottom. Often used
on volume.
Also makes gate effect more abrupt than saw.
-Sample and Hold: Random values one after another. Often used on cutoff.

Chapter 11.4 LFO Rate


-How fast the invisible hand turns the modulated knob's parameter. Basicly how many
times you turn from high to low point in an amount of time.
- Vibrato
Destination: Pitch
Waveform: Triangle
Amount: Low
Rate: Med~fast
- Tremolo
Destination: Volume
Waveform: Triangle
Amount: Low
Rate: Med~Fast
- Gate
Destination: Vol/Cutoff
Waveform: Saw/pulse
Amount: Med~high
Rate: Med~fast
- Vibrato
Destination: Pitch
Waveform: Triangle
Amount: Low
Rate: Med~fast
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Chapter 12.1 Filter Resonance
-Boost sound near brightest point
-Cutoff to 1.00: When resonance turned up, more sizzley but everything beneath it
gets lower in volume.
-Cutoff to 0.81 or lower: No more sizzle, high end boosted forward, rest pulled
back.
-Different setting can change resonace's effect greatly. Overall, it tightens our
sound, give it more focus, Add point to sound.
-When Resonance 100, you get ringing sound, and cutoff knob determines pitch of
that sound. This is called self-oscillation.
-Set cutoff knob first, then resonance when programming exercise in syntorial.

Chapter 12.2 Filter Resonance & Envelope


-When add Resonance to Filter Envelope, makes envelope "juicier"
-Has a "Wah effect" like in Wah pedals
-When you have a filter envelope and self-oscillation(Resonance set to 100), you
can hear the pitch shift since the cutoff is modulated by filter envelope.

Chapter 12.3 Filter Resonance & LFO


-Adding Resonance to LFO still just makes envelope "juicier"
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Chapter 13.1 Mono and Poly voice modes
-Mono=Can only play 1 note at same time
-Poly=Can play more than 1 note at same time
-Mono help keep things clean with basses and leads, and can create cool effect when
you try to play 2 or more notes simultaneously consecutively.
-There is noise when you play notes consectuively in poly because there is a slight
overlap between notes. That is non existant in mono.

Chapter 13.2 Poly Mode & Amp Release


-If amp envelope release is long, mono mode cuts off tail of notes.
-If in poly2mode, you play two chords(each chord with 2 notes) in quick sucession,
cut off will occur again. So you need to change poly2 to poly4 to make cut non
existant.
-Same goes for other situations.
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Chapter 14.1 Unison
-Unison takes idea of doubling and detuning and maginifies it. Same pulsating and
smearing effect but more extreme. Gets a big sound.
-Increasing Unison voice count gives you a bigger sound.
-Start button: Enable=attack transient added. Disable=No attack Transient.
-more voices added in voice count= more volume boost, so turn volume down if added
lots of voices.

Chapter 14.2 Unison Detune


-Same effect on sound as tuning oscillator fine knob when you were detuning.
-Makes sound more aggressive and stick out

Chapter 14.3 Unison Spread


-Takes all Unison sounds and spreads them across the stereo field
-Common setting is to put spread in middle
-When spread is up to 100, sound is wider but no pulsation added. can be great for
just widening sound.

Chapter 14.4 Unison & Multiple Oscs


-When applied to multiple Oscs, gives you huge sound.
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Chapter 15.1 Reverb
-Makes sound sounds like it is played in a room.
-Mix knob determine balance between dry and wet signal.
-Higher mix knob is turned up, the further away sound is from you
-Imagine you are in a church, and a synth is played far away from you

Chapter 15.2 Reverb Size


-Determine size of room
-Smaller=bedroom, studio
-Bigger=arena,church
-Very Big=Concert hall, Canyon
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Chapter 16.1 Legato voice mode
-Envelope does not start over again when new note is played. If you overlap a
number of notes, the envelope continues moving forward instead of starting over
with each new note.

Chapter 16.2 Portmento


-When portmento turned on, you get slide between notes played one after another.
-If turned very low, you do not get an actual sliding of pitch, but get a wheeedd
sound to note, giving sound more attitude.
-Portmento often used with leads

Chapter 16.3 Portmento and Legato


-1: In mono mode, portmento slide happens everytime you play a note. The amount of
time between the 1st and 2nd note does not affect whether there is portmento slide
or not.
Also in mono mode, every time a note begins there is an abrupt UMMF sound at
beginning while legato mode gives a smoother portmento slide.
-2: In legato mode, portmento slide only happens with connected/overlapped notes.
IN legato mode,portmento bend does NOT occur when you play non-connected notes.
-what 2 is good for is it allows you to control at which part the note bends. This
gives you creative freedom so legato is commonly used with portmento mode.
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Chapter 17.1 Triangle waveform
-Triangle wave can be used together with pulse and saw waves to make a whole new
palette of sound.
-Turn mix knob to 70,30 instead of 50/50 when combining triangle wave with another
waveform because triangle wave is quieter, so make it 70 so it is loud enough.
-This makes overall volume lower,so you need to compensate for volume drop by
turning up the main volume a bit.
-Triangle adds weight and body to a sound.
-Triangle adds a pop sound at start of note(like an attack transient). Turn up amp
envelope by 2ms to get rid of this noise.
-Can also use other types of mix knob settings for triangle wave, another common
setting is 50/50. You do not get pop sound at 50/50 but main volume still goes down
so turn it up.
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Chapter 18.1 Chorus
-Chorus pulsates, smears and widens your sound. Chorus Mix determine balance
between dry and wet chorus signal.
-Turning up Chorus rate increases speed of chorus' pulsation and also makes it more
intense.
-My own(Daniel's) advice based on own experience with it: Use mix to set up the
"tone" of your sound, then use rate to set up the speed of pulsation

Chapter 18.2 Types of Pulsation


-We have learned 4 ways of creating pulsation:
1.doubling+detuning
2.Pulse width modulation(PWM)
3.Unison
4.Chorus
-DoubDetun and PWM can be easy to tell apart from Unison and Chorus since...
DoubDetun and PWM: Sound like 1 single waveform right down the middle
Unison and Chorus: Widen sounds, multiple oscillators
-It is hard to tell doubdetun from PWM and Unison from Chorus.
-Here are some tips to help you
-PWM can only be applied to a pulse width, whereas DoubDetun can be applied to any
waveform
-Unison sounds more aggressive and big, whereas Chorus sounds softer and more
subtle
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Chapter 19.1 Modulation Envelope
-Same as amp and filter env, but it allows you to modulate any parameter you
choose.
-You only have attack and decay stages

Chapter 19.2 Modulation Envelope Amount


-Determines how high destination is modified at end of the attack stage before it
falls back during the decay stage. Same as filter env amt.
-eg if modulating pitch, if amt high, atk takes C note to G. If amt low, atk only
takes C note to D.
-Higher amount also means more noticable transient if you are using a 0 atk, low
decay pluck sound.
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Chapter 20.1 osc sync
-osc sync makes a metallic grinding sound
-Essentially, osc 1(master), which forces osc 2(slave) to change the shape of its
waveform over and over again creating a grinding sound
-osc1 sound doesn't change, it just changes osc2 sound.
-even with sync turned on, the effect does not happen until you turn semi knob on
osc2
-osc2's grinding sound gets even more noticable if osc2 is set as a
pulse(especially square) wave
-osc2 is commonly a square wave
-Higher semi settings increases the feeling of having 2 notes at same time,
creating a sense of seperation. Higher semi knob, heavier the second note will
sound.
-Avoid octave and fifths since they will not give u the sync effect.
-Ignore osc1 waveform since the wave form type of osc1 does not affect the sync
metallic grinding sound of osc2

Chapter 20.2 osc sync and mod env


-first set up sync
-then route mod env to osc2's pitch(basicly like having an invisible hand turn the
semi knob)
-set osc 2's semi knob to 9 since the effect does not happen when at zero. 9 allows
env to start at 9, goes up from 9, then go back to 9 at end.

Chapter 20.3 osc sync and LFO


-Instead of using mod env, u can use LFO to automate osc2 pitch.
-first set up sync
-set osc 2's semi knob to 19, right in the middle.
-then route LFO to osc2's pitch

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Chapter 21.1 High pass filter
-Previously you learned the low pass filter
-With high pass filter, you turn cutoff knob up to make sound thinner and lighter,
gives a bright sizzling old radio station like sound.
-With really high pitched notes in osc, you need to turn high pass cutoff knob
higher than for lower sounds for the high pass effect to be noticable.

Chapter 22.2 Band pass filter


-cut off both high and lows, leaving only parts near and around your cutoff knob

Chapter 23.3 Fitler type and resonance


-Res works same way for each filter type, bounces up sound near cutoff.
-Difference is in how this relates to each filter sound
-For Low pass, resonance boost brightest point
-For High pass,resonance boost lowest part of sound
-For Band pass,resonance boost in the dead center/middle part of sound

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Chapter 24.1 FM/Frequency Modulation
-FM adds a metallic quality to sound.
-Osc2(modulator) mutates sound of osc1(carrier)
-First set both osc1 and 2 to sine
-sine is pure, round no edge tone. New wave we haven't learned before.
-set mix to 0(so no sound comes out from 2 since osc1 is carrier, osc2 is
modulator)
-Then turn up FM knob. More you turn up FM knob, the more you get a metallic
rounded edge sound instead of sine. More metallic than osc sync but not as edgy.
-You get a bit of click(not as noticable as with triangel wave) at start too, just
put amp attack up to 2 so it is not noticable

Chapter 24.2 FM tuning


-You can turn osc2(modulator/mutator)'s semi knob to bring out more metallic or
bell like qualities(a method called FM tuning)
-In higher semi settings, you get a bell like sound
-In some semi settings you get a dissonant sound
-In syntorial we are going to only use the nicer sounding bell tones but of course
in real music production u are free to use any semi setting
-When semi is 0 it sounds like 1 note, but as you turn up semi note, you get 2
notes created. You have pure sine wave at bottom, and a second metallic tone at the
pitch of the semi knob.
-Turning semi knob will change the pitch of that second metallic tone.

Chapter 24.3 FM tuning and amount


-Amount=how much metallic edge your sound has
-Tuning(osc2's semi knob)=pitch of that fm metallic edge
-First approximate fm amount(don't need to be accurate)
-Then go to tuning to change pitch
-If fm amount feels wrong go back and adjust
-Go back and forth until sound is right

Chapter 24.4 FM and mod envelope


-FM can be modulated by mod envelope
-remember FM mod envelope start at your FM setting, then ends at your FM knob
setting
-Therefore, listen to start and end of envelope
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Chapter 25.1 Layering Noise
-White noise sounds like air/radio static. Has no pitch.
-You can stack noise on top of oscs
-however, most common way to use noise in your sound design is to use it in
conjunction with a resonated filter envelope
-Noise is bright so it can overpower the brightest part of your sound, so you do
not know what is peak of the actual waveform, making it hard to know the waveform's
brightest point
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Chapter 26.1 High pass envelope
-In low pass envelope, cutoff knob sets darkest point of sound, while env amt sets
brightest point of sound.
-In high pass envelope, cutoff knob sets fullest point of sound, while env amt sets
thinnest point of sound.
-In high pass, lower cutoff settings give you fuller sound, higher cutoff makes
sound get thinner.
-Therefore in high pass, you start with full sound then to thin sound then back to
full.
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Chapter 27.1 Distortion
-Adds grunge and dirt to your sound
-If you just turn up distortion amt knob on your regular waveform, you get a more
nasty buzziness on top of your sound
-You need to perepare your waveform doe dist to truly work well
Lowpass(gives nice round sound good for a distorted bass):
-You should give waveform a low pass,then lower cutoff by half way, then add
distortion. This gives you the nice warm edge you are looking for with distortion
effect.
-You could also move cutoff up and down a bit to change brightness/darkness. You
could increase dist amt knob more if you want more edge.
Bandpass(Gives more shaped and narrower sound for lead):
-To really crank up distortion, turn up res.
Highpass(Do NOT use cuz gives nasty buzz)

Chapter 27.2 Programing distortion


-Distortion can be unpredictable at times.
-We are only going to stick to medium width pulse waves in syntorial because these
behave most predictabily so good for learning distortion.
-First low cutoff to half way, then raise distortion to half way.
-Then listen to find if it's band or low pass.
-Finally turn res knob.
-Then back and forth of tweaking cutoff knob, res, filter pass type(low or band),
distortion amount etc.
Chapter 27.3 XXX
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Chapter 28.1 XXX

Chapter 28.2 XXX

Chapter 28.3 XXX

Chapter 28.4 XXX


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Chapter 29.1 XXX

Chapter 29.2 XXX

Chapter 29.3 XXX

Chapter 29.4 XXX


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Chapter 30.1 XXX

Chapter 30.2 XXX

Chapter 30.3 XXX

Chapter 30.4 XXX