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Stainless Shrinkage

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Steel Pipe

to predict shrinkage

BY E. B R A N D O N

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a data and technique for predicting the rings were measured before and after

general method for developing the axial and diametral shrinkage asso- welding, and the shrinkage was

data to predict the shrinkage of cylin- ciated w i t h the girth welding of stain- determined and prepared statis-

drical weldments as a result of girth less steel cylinders. The resulting tically. The raw data for each coupon

welding. information permits the selection of were t h e n averaged and treated

Gas tungsten-arc welding was weld groove dimensions and welding using a multiple regression analysis

used to butt weld stainless steel parameters w h i c h w i l l result in min- technique.

rings. The resulting shrinkage values imum distortion. The design of the experiment was a

were operated on by a multiple re- Weldment configurations that fall full factorial of three variables at t w o

gression analysis technique to pro- w i t h i n the boundary conditions of this and three levels. One w e l d was made

duce an equation predicting diametral experiment include cylinders and at each of the 18 thickness/groove

and axial shrinkage. spheres 4 in. OD by V4 and Vz in. wall d e s i g n / h e a t input combinations (2 x

thickness. However, the value of this 3 x 3 = 18). In addition, six replicate

Introduction welds w e r e made. The test plan is

study is in the method of applying

The many variables associated statistical techniques to predict axial shown in Fig. 1.

w i t h welding make it generally diffi- and diametral shrinkage of girth

cult to predict the distortion caused by Independent Variables

welds in cylinders.

localized heating and cooling. W e l d - Certain parameters of weld groove The independent variables of this

ing parameters, type and history of size and heat input w e r e selected for study were:

materials, and configuration are each of t w o thicknesses of material. X v material thickness: Vi, V2 in.

some of t h e variables that signif- These independent variables w e r e X 2 , groove w i d t h : 0, 0.075, 0.1 5 0 in.

icantly affect weldment distortion. compared w i t h corresponding shrink- X 3 , heat input: 1 7 . 7 2 , 2 3 . 2 6 ,

For weldments of circular cross sec- ages to determine the likelihood of k J / i n . of weld per pass

tions such as pipe, tubing, and relationships, using Student's t test. The method of measuring X , and

spheres, a knowledge of predicted Using the techniques described X 2 is given under the heading,

axial (end-to-end) and diametral herein, groove w i d t h w a s found di- "Material."

shrinkage is essential for accurate rectly related to shrinkage and heat Note that the data used in this

design and fabrication. The designer input inversely related, Shrinkage study for heat input are in joules per

should be aware of the variables that was minimized by the use of thinner inch of w e l d per pass for the filler

affect distortion and h o w much distor- material, narrower grooves and high- passes, not the total heat input per

tion to expect. er heat input. Quantitative results are joint.

This investigation develops the given. All other factors of this experiment

E. BRANDON, formerly with Rocky Flats were held as constant as possible to

Division, Dow Chemical Company is now Experimental Procedure minimize random error and improve

Senior Welding Engineer, Aerojet Nuclear the validity of the results for the

Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Pairs of stainless steel rings were stated conditions.

Paper was presented at the 55th A WS butt welded w i t h zero root opening

Annual Meeting held in Houston during using specific combinations of con- Response Variables

May 6-10, 1974. trolled parameters. The assembled The response variables were:

Y r change in stack height (axial Y = B0 + B , X 1 + B 2 X 2 + B3X3 mensions of the groove were

shrinkage) as a result of the w e l d +

"*" BB44X 1 X 22"'"

+ BB65XX11 X 3 + B 6 X2X 3 maintained w i t h i n 0.005 in. and

filler passes + B7X2= + B8X32 angular dimensions w i t h i n 1 degree.

Y v change in diameter (diametral The filler metal was Type 3 0 8 stain-

shrinkage) as a result of the weld where less steel, 0 . 0 3 0 in. diam.

filler passes Y = calculated shrinkage

The stack height of the coupons B x = constants determined by Welding Procedure

was measured at eight places around regression analysis (B 0 , B,, B 2 , etc.)

the circumference before welding, Xi = w a l l thickness (normalized) The welding procedure is given in

after the root pass, and after the filler X2 = groove w i d t h (normalized) Table 2. The procedure resulted from

passes. The average differences be- X3 = heat input (normalized) preliminary welding to develop suit-

tween the last t w o measurements Different B x values resulted for the able parameters. The root pass

were tabulated as axial shrinkage. t w o types of shrinkage, axial and di- parameters were chosen to produce

The diameter of each of the ametral. complete joint penetration of the

coupons was measured at four places 0.100 in. thick root face. Greater heat

In addition to the calculated shrink-

around the circumference before input w a s required for the B = O

age values, the significant indepen-

welding, after the root pass, and after grooves because of the higher heat

dent variables affecting the t w o re-

the filler passes. The average differ- sinking capacity of the narrow

sponses w e r e determined using Stu-

ences between the last t w o measure- dent's t test. The results of this anal- grooves.

ments w e r e tabulated as diametral ysis readily s h o w the significance of The heat input of the filler passes

shrinkage. the main effects, as well as inter- was chosen such that the low level

The root passes were made at a actions. (17.72 k J / i n . ) was the m i n i m u m heat

heat input necessary to achieve com- The six replicate welds were used that would produce a visually satisfac-

plete penetration. No filler metal was to determine the random error. tory w e l d w h i c h exhibited acceptable

used for the root passes. sidewall fusion, bead contour, and

Note that only the distortion as a Material uniformity. The high level (28.80

result of the filler passes w a s used in Type 3 0 4 stainless steel rings w e r e k J / i n . ) w a s the practical upper limit;

the analysis; the shrinkage resulting machined from a seamless extrusion, greater current caused "burn-

from the root pass is discussed sep- 4 in. OD by 3 in. ID. Mechanical and t h r o u g h " of the B = 0.1 50 joints.

arately under "Discussion." chemical values are given in Table 1.

For purposes of analysis, a quadrat- The rings w e r e machined to the Experimental Results

ic model w a s used to describe the final dimensions s h o w n in Fig. 2.

data. The coefficients were calculated After machining, the coupons were Tabulation of Data

by a multiple regression analysis inspected on a shadowgraph to as-

technique (Ref. 1). By this technique, sure adequate precision of the w e l d The values of the independent vari-

the main and quadratic effects groove d i m e n s i o n s . Linear di- ables and the averages of the corres-

caused by each independent variable ponding response variables are given

could be assessed. The calculated in Table 3. The shrinkage values

shrinkage was t h e n found by applying given in Table 3 are due to the filler

an equation of the form: passes only; shrinkage due to the root

B (Noted) »

2 pass was calculated separately.

1/2 in.-wall

AWN/

Analysis of Data

•§>/ 44 / 38 1 JNSNM

V S \ N \ M

0.100

The data of Table 3 w e r e used to

f determine multiple regression equa-

tions for Y, and Y 2 . The t w o sets of

OS 51 / 30 S *7 / coefficients w h i c h resulted are given

in Table 4.

Groove Width (in. )

As an indicator of degree of correla-

tion between the predicted and actual

1/4 in.-wall thickne s; values, the multiple correlation coeffi-

s/ 41 /

'"X"/ cients w e r e 0.982 for Y, and 0.901

for Y 2 (using nine degrees of

' ~"'/

43

7JT/ freedom).

The Student's t test was applied to

J9 determine the significance of the vari-

/ 3S /

*/"/ 50 ables in affecting the t w o responses.

0.075 0.150 The results are tabulated in Table 5.

Groove Kidth Ci"-) Fig. 2 — One-haIf of a ring assembly

Of significance here is the magnitude

showing joint design used for both 3 and

Fig. 1 — Test plan showing the three heat 3V2 in. ID rings. For the tightly butted as-

of the t-statistic. The greater the abso-

inputs and three groove width parameters semblies three values of the groove size lute value of the t-statistic, the more

used for each thickness. Numbers in cells parameter B (0, 0.075 and 0.150 in.) were certain that factor is to affect the re-

are weld numbers used for each wall thickness sponse.

Table 1 — Mechanical Properties and Chemical Analysis (wt. %) of Type 3 0 4 Stainless Steel Rings

ksi ksi % ness, Rb

0.063 1.8 0.027 0.020 0.46 9.52 18.86 0.35 • 0.22

82 34.9 59 84/85

412-s I S E P T E M B E R 1 974

A negative t-statistic for the single

factors indicates an inverse relation- Table 2 — Welding Procedure

ship. A s the welding parameter is i n -

creased, t h e response decreases. A Process Automatic gas tungsten arc

Material Type 304 stainless steel tubing

product of t w o factors indicates an

Configuration Extruded and machined, 2 and 2Vi in. long rings, 4 in. OD

interrelationship. A squared single

*3and3VS in. ID(ViandVS in. wall). Single-U butt joint,

factor simply indicates a second- zero root opening (see Fig. 2)

degree curvilinear relationship be- Position Horizontal rolled

tween the welding parameter and the Filler metal 0.030 in. diam, Type 308 stainless steel, for all except

response. In this case, the positive or root pass

negative sign indicates the direction Electrode Vs in. diam, EWTh-2, truncated to 0.030 in. flat end,

of curvature. 10 deg included angle. Changed for each joint

Groove w i d t h w a s the factor most Torch gas 20 cfh argon

Trailing gas 50 cfh argon, shroud covering about VS the circumference

certain to affect both types of shrink-

No. of passes Determined by heat input and groove size (see below)

age. The relationship was direct, i.e., Preweld clean Wire brush and acetone rinse

an increase in groove w i d t h caused Part speed 6.5 ipm surface speed (11 6 seconds per revolution)

an increase in w e l d m e n t shrinkage. Axial force 50 lb, constant throughout welding

Heat input w a s the second ranking Wire speed See below

significant factor but in an inverse Arc voltage 12 V

relationship w i t h shrinkage. W a l l Arc current per pass:

thickness w a s also a significant Root 220A(B = 0); 115 A(B = 0.075 and 0.150)

factor affecting axial shrinkage but Filler See below:

not diametral shrinkage.

Heat input, Current, Wire speed,

Six replicate w e l d s w e r e made to kJ/in. A ipm

check the reproducibility (random

error) of the experiment. The esti- low 17.72 160 27

mate of random error for axial shrink- med, 23.26 210 65

age w a s 0.0045 and for the diametral high 28.80 260 103

shrinkage w a s 0.001 8.

No. of filler passes:

Graphs of the predicted shrinkage For groove sizes (B in.) of —» 0.075 0.150

0

values of this experiment are given in Wall thicknesses (in.) of - * Vi Vi V4 VS V* VS

Figs. 3 and 4. Heat input: low 3 10 6 12 8 15

Each of the plots shows shrinkage med. 2 5 4 7 5 10

as a function of heat input for a partic- high 2 3 2 5 3 ,6

ular w a l l thickness. Each line repre-

sents a particular groove width.

W h e r e the lines are relatively hori- Table 3 — Variables of Weldment Shrinkage Study

zontal, shrinkage is insensitive to

heat input. W h e r e the lines have a

substantial slope, shrinkage is strong- Experimental Shrinkage

Thick- Groove Heat

ly affected by heat input. W h e r e the Weld ness, width, input. Axial, Diametral,

lines are widely separated, shrinkage no. in. in. kJ/in. in. in.

is strongly affected by groove w i d t h .

The t-statistic indicated that groove 46 V4 0 17.72 0.049 0.011

48 17.72 .048 .010

width and heat input were signif-

34 23.26 .043 .014

icant. The effects of these parameters 28.80 .049 .009

41

and the combinations at w h i c h they

are most significant are s h o w n graph- 35 1

/4 0.075 17.72 .105 .023

ically in these plots. 43 23.26 .081 .016

Axial shrinkage (Fig. 3) was 33 28.80 .051 .016

strongly and directly affected by 39 V4 0.150 17.72 .145 .022

groove w i d t h . Shrinkage w a s inverse- 50 17 72 .150 .019

ly related to heat input; this effect 40 23.26 .102 .018

was especially significant at B = 45 28.80 .058 .017

0.075 and 0.150 inch. Shrinkage w a s 52 28.80 .060 .016

slightly greater w i t h 1 /2-inch material. 31 Vl 0 17.72 .080 .014

Diametral shrinkage (Fig. 4) was in- 49 17.72 .089 .018

versely related to heat input. The rela- 36 23.26 .062 .014

tionship between shrinkage and 44 28.80 .047 .012

groove width w a s not linear, although

30 VS 0.075 17.72 .121 .019

the lowest shrinkage occurred w i t h 42 23.26 .096 .016

the narrowest groove (B = O). For B = 38 28.80 .082 .016

0.075 and 0 . 1 5 0 in., the regression

lines are w i t h i n one standard devi- 47 vs 0.150 17.72 .188 .020

ation. The conclusion is that there is 53 17.72 .177 .017

no significant difference in shrinkage 32 23.26 .152 .016

37 28.80 .134 .014

in this range of groove w i d t h . 51 28.80 .131 .016

The values of shrinkage predicted

by the regression equations and the

charts of Fig. 3 and 4 should not be dard deviation of the difference in cor- Diametral: °~A = 0.0011

considered exact. The variability be- responding values. The standard devi- Therefore, 95 % of the observed

tween the predicted and the observed ations were: values would be w i t h i n 0.009 in. of

values can be estimated by the stan- Axial: <rA = 0.0045 the predicted values for axial shrink-

Table 4 — Values of Regression Analysis Table 5 — Significant Factors Contribut-

ing to Responses (Student's t Test Anal-

Regression equation: ysis)(a)

Y = B o + B , X 1 + B 2 X 2 + B3X3 + B 4 X 1 X 2 + B 2 X l X 3 + B 6 X 2 X 3 + B 7 X ; + B X

Axial shrinkage

Regression coefficients: t-

Y, Y2 Variable statistic

Axial Diametral

shrinkage shrinkage x?, groove width 11.809

heat input -7.202

Bo 0.08711108 0.01755555 x„

X , , wall thickness 5.794

B, 0.01488888 0 X?x X 3 -3470

B2 0.03716666 0.002333333 x X2 2.648

B3 -0.02266666 -0.001833333

x,

Diametral shrinkag e

B4 0.008333330 -0.001166667 X , groove width 4.038

BB 0.001666656 0.0001666664 Xa heat input -3.173

Be -0.01337500 -0.0002500005 -2.831

* 2

B, 0.003333347 -0.002833333

B8 0.003333337 0.0001666664 (a) 0.05 level of significance = 2.2622

ndependent variables:

x X2 X3

Material thickness Groove width Heat input

Real, Normal- Real, Normal- Real, Normal- age and w i t h i n 0.002 in. for diametral

in. ized in. ized kj/in. ized shrinkage.

B=0 17.72 -1 The charts s h o w the combinations

-1

VA -1 =0.075 0 23.26 1 of primary variables w h e r e the m i n -

Vi 1 =0.150 1 28.80 1 imum and maximum shrinkages oc-

cur. The regression equation provides

a tool for calculating the amount of

shrinkage. Using these t w o inputs,

1/2-inch wall the predicted m i n i m u m and maxi-

O.20 Hz. thickness 0.020 • 0.075 mum axial and diametral shrinkages

0.150 .^^ 0.150 —.

resulting from welds made w i t h i n the

c n boundary limits of this experiment

0.075 w e r e calculated and a r e given in

0.010

M 0.10 . Table 6.

c 0 The axial shrinkage ranged from

1/2-inch vail

J-

thickness 0.039 to 0.189 in. The m i n i m u m axial

0 shrinkage occurred at high heat input

0

17.72 23 26 28.80

17.72 23.26 28.80 w i t h a narrow groove. Conversely,

Heat Input (kJ/in.) the maximum axial shrinkage oc-

Heat Input (kJ/inO curred at low heat input w i t h a wide

groove.

The diametral shrinkage ranged

1/4-inch wall

from 0.010 to 0.021 in. The combina-

0.20

thickness tions of parameters resulting in m i n -

imum shrinkage differed, depending

on the thickness of material. For both

thicknesses, m i n i m u m shrinkage oc-

curred at high heat input and max-

1/4-inch wall

thickness imum shrinkage occurred at low heat

input. The net effect of groove w i d t h

.72 23.26 28.80 was quadratic, as confirmed by the t-

17.72 23.26 28.80

statistic of Table 5. Diametral shrink-

Heat Input (kJ/in.)

age was lower at both narrow and

Heat Input (kJ/in.)

wide groove widths.

Fig. 4 — Chart of predicted diametral

Fig. 3 — Chart of predicted axial shrinkage shrinkage

Discussion

Table 6 — Predicted Minimum and M aximum Shrinkage Values The validity of the regression equa-

tions derived in this experiment w a s

Thick- Groove Heat Resulting tested by w e l d i n g four coupons at

ness, width. input, shrinkage, intermediate parameters. The result-

Direction in. in. kJ/in. in. ing experimental values of shrinkage

Axial Vn. 0 28.80 min. (0.039 w e r e compared w i t h those predicted

Vn 0.150 17.72 max. (0.145) by the regression equations. The stan-

Vi 0 28.80 min. (0.056) dard deviation of the difference be-

Vi 0.150 17.72 max. (0.189) t w e e n the predicted and the experi-

Diametral Vi 0 28.80 min. (0.010) mental values (estimate of error) was

Vi 0.120 17.72 max. (0.021) calculated as a measure of correla-

Vi 0 28.80 min. (0.012) tion. Those values are as follows:

Vi 0.100 17.72 max. (0.020) &(axial)= 0.0029

A (diametral) = 0.0006

414-s I S E P T E M B E R 1 974

The above values can be compared S u m m a r y and C o n c l u s i o n s The validity of the regression equa-

w i t h the standard deviation of the tions derived in this experiment was

raw data from the validity test about tested by welding four coupons at

the regression line (standard error of An experiment was designed and intermediate parameters. The check

estimate). Those values were: conducted to develop the data neces- data w e r e w i t h i n one standard devi-

o- (axial) = 0.0109 sary to quantify the shrinkage result- ation of the predicted values.

o-(diametral) = 0.0020 ing from the girth welding of stain-

The validity test data are w e l l less steel rings. The independent vari-

w i t h i n one standard deviation of the ables were wall thickness of the rings Reference

regression line. Therefore, the equa- (Vi and Vi in.), w e l d groove w i d t h (0, 1. N. R. Draper and H. Smith, Applied

tions are assumed to be valid. 0.075, and 0.150 in. — see Fig. 2), Regression Analysis, John Wiley and

Shrinkage due to the root pass was and welding heat input (1 7.72, 2 3 . 2 6 , Sons, Inc., New York, 1966.

ignored in the preceding analysis. and 28.80 k J / i n ) . The measured re-

The total weldment shrinkage would sponses w e r e axial (end-to-end) Acknowledgments

be calculated by summing the root shrinkage and diametral shrinkage.

I wish to thank my advisor, Dr. S. B.

pass shrinkage and the shrinkage due A multiple regression analysis tech- Thayer, and committee members, Drs. M.

to the filler passes. In this investiga- nique was applied to the experimen- C. Bryson, H. O. Rennant, and F. W. Smith

tion, the root pass caused an average tal data to produce a quadratic equa- for their guidance in the preparation of

axial shrinkage of 0.015 in. and a tion to predict, w i t h i n certain boun- this thesis.

diametral shrinkage of 0.006. Shrink- dary conditions, the t w o types of I am also indebted to Dow Chemical

age due to the filler passes can be shrinkage. U.S.A. and especially to Yvonne Ferris,

determined by reference to Figures 3 The reproducibility of the experi- Lowell Hines, Jerry Kaes, Sue Mette,

and 4 or by the regression equation ment was checked by evaluating the Cindy Morrison, Loren Shuler, and Eldon

given in Table 4. Thus cylinders of Vi Webb for their much appreciated advice

results of six pairs of replicate welds.

and valuable service during this investi-

in. wall and 0 groove w i d t h welded at Good correlation was found; the repli- gation.

28.80 k J / i n . w o u l d show total axial cate values of shrinkage were w i t h i n Work performed under the U.S. Atomic

shrinkage of 0.054 in. and diametral one standard deviation of the pre- Energy Commission Contract AT(29-1)

shrinkage of 0.01 6 in. dicted values. 1106(RFD-2118).

Calibrating Magnetic Instruments

To Measure the Delta Ferrite Content

Of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal,

AWS A4.274

in austenitic stainless steel weld metals. In a few special situations, it

can be detrimental to corrosion resistance and to mechanical properties if

it transforms to sigma phase due to exposure to temperatures above 900 F

(480 C). Within a weld pad, the ferrite content is variable, and it is even

more so from pad to pad or when the welding conditions are changed.

Quantitative measurement of the delta ferrite content of austenitic

stainless steel weld metal is desirable to allow the determination of the

amount of ferrite present. This standard provides instrument calibration

procedures to insure that reasonable reproducibility of such measure-

ments can be obtained from one laboratory to another and from one in-

strument to another. $3.00.

Discounts: 25% to A and B members; 20% to bookstores, public li-

braries and schools; 15% to C and D members.

Send orders to the American Welding Society, 2501 N.W. 7th St.,

Miami, FL 33125. Florida residents add 4% sales tax.

WRC Bulletin

No. 194

May 1974

"Fatigue Behavior of Pressure-Vessel

Steels"

by J. M. Barsom

The regulations governing the design of pressure vessels are based on expe-

rience gained over many operational years and have evolved, primarily, to

prevent failure under static load conditions. This design philosophy has been suc-

cessful in ensuring adequate service behavior because pressure vessels are not

usually subjected to large numbers of load fluctuations during their expected ser-

vice life. However, the need to effectively utilize materials and to provide the

utmost in safety and reliability has made it imperative to determine the fatigue

behavior of these structures.

The fatigue life of structural components is determined by the initiation of

cracks and their propagation to critical dimensions. This report presents fatigue-

crack-initiation and fatigue-crack-propagation data for pressure-vessel steels oper-

ating in a benign environment and at temperatures below the creep region.

Data obtained by testing pressure vessels and pressure-vessel components,

and the results of surveys of pressure-vessel failures are discussed. It is concluded

that the probability of fatigue failure of properly designed and fabricated

pressure vessels is very low and that the most effective approach to keep this

probability low is to minimize the magnitude of the stress (strain) concentration

factors. This can be accomplished through proper design of details and through

proper fabrication.

This paper was prepared for the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the

Welding Research Council. The price of WRC Bulletin 194 is $4.50. Orders should

be sent to the Welding Research Council, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y.

10017.

WRC Bulletin

No. 196

July 1974

by M. M. Schwartz

WRC Bulletin 100 in 1964, covered the early pioneering stages of the process and the men

who refined theories, described their principles and finally built laboratory equipment. In

addition, the authors covered the materials (steel and aluminum), the limited applications

and the equipment which were available during the process's growing infancy.

This new report, prepared for the Interpretive Reports Committee of the Welding

Research Council, covers the advancements made in understanding the process, new equip-

ment with numerical control, tooling improvements and simplicity, wider use of the process

in no and/or medium vacuum applied to practically all metals and ceramics, and finally

sophisticated and economic applications in a number of industries.

The price of WRC Bulletin 196 is $7.00. Orders should be sent to the Welding Research

Council, United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.

416-s I S E P T E M B E R 1 9 7 4

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