1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 ORGANIZATION PROFILE Lucas-TVS is a company with distinguished lineage.

Lucas-TVS was set up in 1961 as a joint venture of Lucas Industries plc., UK and T.V.Sundaram Iyengar & Sons(TVS), India, to manufacture Automotive Electrical Systems. Lucas Industries plc., is a four billion dollar multinational company and a renowned supplier of automotive and industrial systems. Its manufacturing and sales activities span five continents. One of the top ten automotive component suppliers in the world, Lucas Varity was formed by the merger of the Lucas Industries of the UK and the Varity Corporation of the US in September 1996. The company designs, manufactures and supplies advanced technology systems, products and services to the worlds automotive, after market, diesel engines and aerospace industries. The combination of these two well-known groups has resulted in the establishment of a vibrant company, which has had a successful track record of sustained growth over the last three decades. TVS is one of India’s twenty large industrial houses with twentyfive manufacturing companies, a turnover in excess of US$ 1.3 billion and a workforce of over 27,000. The turnover of Lucas-TVS and its divisions in US$ 176 million during 1998-1999. The group has a product range that includes auto electrical, diesel fuel injection system, braking systems, automotive wheels and axles, fasteners, power metal components, radiator caps, two – wheels and computer peripherals, to mention the significant ones. It is the market leader in every one of these fields and is backed by five service and


distribution companies with branches and dealer network that straddle the country. Combining the strengths of Lucas UK and the TVS group, LucasTVS has emerged as a total automobile electrical system supplier. Lucas TVS reaches out to all segments of the automotive such as passenger cars, commercial vehicles, tractors, jeeps, two-wheelers and off-highway vehicles as well as for stationary and marine applications. With the automobile industry in India currently undergoing phenomenal changes, Lucas-TVS, with its excellent facilities, is fully equipped to meet the challenges of tomorrow. Today, Lucas-TVS operates from three plants located at Padi,Pondicherry, and Rewari. The electrical division of Lucas-TVS manufactures a complete range of auto electrical products, from starters to horns, making it one-stop shop for the automotive industry. Currently the company produces over half a million starters and alternators per annum, and has plans to double the quantity. The fuel Injection Equipment (FIE) division makes the state-of-the art rotary pumps, thus providing a welcome supply option for this vital component. 1.1.1 Technology Development It is significant that the automotive industry continues to fir Lucas-TVS products, not withstanding revolutionary changes in model and design. The secret lies in Lucas-TVS ability to respond to changing customer needs swiftly, effectively and consistently. For several years now, as the TVS has been in the forefront of the technology development. The company’s in-house Engineering center has been the key driving force in the design and development of new products. Equipped with the fine facilities and governed by the latest techniques, it has

helped engineer’s male a break through in technology and process. Moreover it has brought the company recognition from the department of science and technology, Government of India. Lucas-TVS has invested extensively in laboratories, machines tools, testing and measuring equipment, prototype shop and CAD. A team of highly qualified scientists, engineers and techniques who keep in constant touch with customers and new technological developments, backs these. This explains why 60% of the current turnover comes from new products developed by Lucas-TVS. It also explains why key customers continue to rely on LucasTVS for the development of products to meet the needs of their new generation vehicles. Lucas-TVS has given a new dimension to manufacturing by adopting the concept Cellular Manufacturing System. With this novel system the company has been able to restructure the shop floor into clear product units, which has enabled the company to raise its standards in flexibility, productivity quality and reliability. The product units use techniques like single piece flow, Just-in-Time, Nagare Cells. Quick Change Tooling, Maker Controls, SPC, Visual Controls, etc., In addition to sound in house capabilities, Lucas-TVS has strong alliances with leading international manufactures. This has further enabled the company to provide its customers products incorporating the most contemporary technology. 1.1.2 Quality Assurance “Lucas-TVS is committed to achieving levels of customer satisfaction through continuous improvements to the quality of the products and


Trust and confidence in their abilities are an important part of the Lucas-TVS philosophy.1. Small Group Activity (SGA) has become a vibrant force with about 85 groups functioning continuously with one group meeting every week to present its achievements. Employee participation takes place almost every level of the organization. The suggestion scheme has evoked tremendous response since its initiation in 1973. Quality Planning. It will be the company’s endeavor to increase trust and confidence in the label ‘Made in Lucas-TVS’. Process Capabilities Studies. The company’s next achievement was the QS 9000 Certification in 1997. 1. At Lucas-TVS. constant updating of knowledge is vital. its management style sets great store by employee involvement and actively encourages participation and commitment. employees are considered partners in progress.3 People Human resource is an asset never disclosed in a company’s balance sheet. Lucas-TVS was awarded the ISO 9001 Certificate by BVQI in December 1993. Preventive Maintenance.services. Producer Control and Small Group Activities forms the backbone of the system approach adopted. Lucas-TVS recognize that in a fast changing world. Quality Assurance methods like Advanced Product. quality is not just conformance to drawings or specifications but ensuring customer satisfaction. Statistical Process Control Techniques. Effective Tool Management System. Thus. 4 .” For the company. The company strives to optimize HRD contribution to its growth.

1. the company operates an equipped training center.5.5 Product range Over the years.1 DOMESTIC Starters Alternators Dynamos/Regulators Ignition Coils Head Lamps Fan Motor Mechanical/Electrical Distributors Wiper Motor Relays Window Lift Motor Horns Blower Motor Table 1 – domestic products 1.1. run by its subsidiary.To hone the skills of its employees. These companies between them have the backing of over thousands of sales and services outlets which dot the entire country. through a network of 100 branches. Contemporaneous in design and diverse in application as befit a company committed to total customer satisfaction. 1. 1.6 Major Customers CUSTOMER Cars 5 INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATOR .1. Lucas Indian Service and the TVS group of companies TV Sundaram Iyengar & sons. CNC trainer and computer facilities. a product knowledge center. which features a multi-skill workshop. They not only provide easy access to an entire range of spares. The various products manufactured at Lucas-TVS are. Individual skills are tuned fine through specialized courses. both within the country and abroad. but also offer warranty and post-warranty service. Madras Auto Service. vehicle manufactures as well as vehicle users.1. Sundaram Motors and India Motor parts and Accessories.4 Sales and Service Lucas-TVS. 1. reaches out to its customers. Lucas-TVS has been responding to the changing customer needs with a range of auto-electrical products.

UK Tractors and Farm Equipments Massey Ferguson. Japan TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company General Motors. UK 6 .. USA Ford India Ford. Ford. France Mahindra Nissan Nissan. Hino. Korea Light Commercial Vehicles TATA Engineering & Locomotive Company Bajaj Tempo Daimler Benz. USA Ruston and Hornsby Ruston & Hornsby. Italy Hyundai Motors. Germany Punjab Tractors Gujarat Tractors Zetor. USA Locomotive Company Ashok Leyland Iveco. Italy Ashok Leyland BLMC. Japan Tractors Mahindra & Mahindra International Harvestor Corporation. Japan. Czechoslovakia Eicher Tractors Good Earth. Japan Heavy commercial vehicles TATA Engineering & Daimler Benz. Germany Mahindra & Mahindra Peugeot. Japan Eicher Motors Mitsubishi. Italy. UK Kirloskar Oil Engines Greaves Lombardini. USA Greaves Tractors Same. India Daewoo. UK HMT Zetor. USA Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. USA Simpsons Perkins. India Hyundai Motors. Mitsubishi. Italy Earth Moving Equipment Hindustan Motors Caterpillar. Czechoslovakia L&T Tractors Johndeer. Japan Hindustan Motors Isuzu. Japan Swaraj Mazda Mazda. Poland. UK (TAFE) Escorts Ursus. Japan (BEML) Stationary / Marine Engines.Maruti Udyog Suzuki. Cummins. Korea Ind Auto Fiat. Komatsu. Germany. USA Tata Cummins Cummins. India General Motors. UK Daewoo Motors Co. Gensets Cummins India Cummins.

2 Lean manufacturing Concepts 7 . UK UK Delco Remy USA Prestolite Electric Ltd USA After Market USA / UK Table 2 – products and countries 1.EXPORT CUSTOMERS COUNTRY Helwan Diesel Engg Company Egypt Lucas Electrical.

The lean manufacturing process has lot of tools which can be used in order to reduce the cost and thus maximizing profit. from the time it takes to create the machinery to the speed of the delivery system.2. months or even longer.2 Takt time: Takt time can be defined as the maximum time allowed to produce a product in order to meet demand. 1.2. Some of the main concepts in the system of lean manufacturing. 1.1 Lead time: Lead time is the period between a customer's order and delivery of the final product. management and labor teams routinely hold meetings to discuss lead time improvements. Because of this. A small order of a pre-existing item may only have a few hours lead time. In a lean manufacturing environment. There is a logic therefore to setting the pace of production flow to this takt time. Manufacturers are always looking for ways to improve the lead time on their products. but a larger order of custom-made parts may have a lead time of weeks. It all depends on a number of factors. If a company can deliver the product weeks ahead of the competition. Product flow is expected to fall within a pace that is less than or equal to the takt time. Lead time can mean the difference between making the sale and watching a competitor sign the contract. it stands a better chance of receiving future orders. It is derived from the German word taktzeit which translates to clock cycle. Takt Time is defined as: 8 . the pace time is set equal to the takt time. Lead time may change according to seasons or holidays or overall demand for the product.

Kanban is a signaling system to trigger action. 1.T = Ta / Td Where: Ta = Net Available Time to Work eg. As its name suggests.g. According to Taiichi Ohno. Team Briefings etc). other devices such as plastic markers (kanban squares) or balls 9 . kanban is a means through which JIT is achieved.4 Kanban: Kanban is a concept related to lean and just-in-time (JIT) production. [minutes of work / day] Td = Total demand (Customer Demand) eg. 1. [minutes of work / unit produced] Net available time is the amount of time available for work to be done.3 Inventory: Inventory is a list for goods and materials. The Japanese word kanban is a common everyday term meaning "signboard" or "billboard". However. kanban historically uses cards to signal the need for an item. or those goods and materials themselves.2.2. the man credited with developing JIT. Inventory are held in order to manage and hide from the customer the fact that manufacture/supply delay is longer than delivery delay. This excludes break times and any expected stoppage time (for example scheduled maintenance. and also to ease the effect of imperfections in the manufacturing process that lower production efficiencies if production capacity stands idle for lack of materials. [Units produced / day] T = TAKT Time e. held available in stock by a business.

or supply of a unit in a factory. Kanban became an effective tool to support the running of the production system as a whole. production. In addition. It was out of a need to maintain the level of improvements that the kanban system was devised by Toyota. which also contains a kanban card.(often golf balls) or an empty part-transport trolley or floor location can also be used to trigger the movement. The store then contacts the supplier and returns the now empty bin with its kanban card. one bin in the factory store and one bin at the suppliers' store. When the bin on the shop floor is empty. it proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvements because reducing the number of kanban in circulation highlighted problem areas. the bin and kanban card are returned to the store. Figure no 1 kanban system 10 . A simple example of the kanban system implementation might be a "three-bin system" for the supplied parts (where there is no in-house manufacturing) — one bin on the factory floor. The bins usually have a removable card that contains the product details and other relevant information — the kanban card. The store then replaces the bin on the factory floor with a full bin.

1. For this reason many people refer to TPM as "Total Productive Manufacturing" or "Total Process Management". use and transport that are inherent in the system. with only one spare so there will never be an issue of oversupply. This 'spare' bin allows for the uncertainty in supply. we must keep extra stocks to buffer against this uncertainty and flow through the process will be interrupted. If machine uptime is not predictable and if process capability is not sustained. In TPM the machine operator performs much.. zero work-related accident. or conversely. This auto maintenance ensures appropriate and effective efforts are expended since the machine is wholly the domain of one person or team. This consists of a board created especially for holding the kanban cards. and sometimes all. of the routine maintenance tasks themselves. One way to think of TPM is "deterioration prevention" and "maintenance reduction".2. The secret to a good kanban system is to calculate how many kanban cards are required for each product. Most factories using kanban use the colored board system (Heijunka Box). not fixing machines. TPM is a proactive approach that essentially aims to prevent any kind of slack before occurrence. TPM is a critical adjunct to lean manufacturing. and zero loss.The suppliers inbound product bin with its kanban card is then delivered into the factory store completing the final step to the system. providing the exact amount required. Its motto is "zero error. Thus the process will never run out of product and could be described as a loop. a reversion to old ways but on a mass scale." 11 .5 Total Productive Maintenance: Total Productive Maintenance is a new way of looking at maintenance.

defects. 1. ➢ Promote TPM through motivational management. or maintain equipment in implementing TPM. and can manage processes.TPM has five goals: ➢ Maximize equipment effectiveness. scheduling. to achieve maximum efficiency of resources. ➢ Develop a system of productive maintenance for the life of the equipment. equipment maintenance. 12 . and is an integral part of lean manufacturing systems. and other manufacturing issues more efficiently. design. Cellular manufacturing. ➢ Actively involve all employees. The goal of lean manufacturing is the aggressive minimization of waste. use.2.6 Cellular Manufacturing: Cellular Manufacturing is a model for workplace design. Properly trained and implemented cells are more flexible and responsive than the traditional mass-production line. or work cells. arranges factory floor labor into semi-autonomous and multiskilled teams. sometimes called cellular or cell production. called muda. ➢ Involve all departments that plan. who manufacture complete products or complex components.

which says changeovers can and should take less than 100 seconds. Toyota Production Systems. It provides a rapid and efficient way of converting a manufacturing process from running the current product to running the next product.1. because they make low cost flexible operations possible. and flow throughout the manufacturing and supply chain as single unit. The phrase "single minute" does not mean that all changeovers and startups should take only one minute. Performing faster change-over is important in manufacturing.2. Lean Manufacturing. (OTED). "single digit minute").8 Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED): Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of the many lean production methods for reducing waste in a manufacturing process. Buffer. Closely associated is a yet more challenging concept of One-Touch Exchange of Die. or accumulating parts in a bin for shipping or transferring 2 or more parts at the same time is opposite or contrasted to the definition of Single Piece Flow. transferred as customer’s order. or any process.7 Single piece flow: ➢ Single piece flow is the ideal state where parts are manufactured one at a time. and similar types of philosophies and systems 1. but that they should take less than 10 minutes (in other words. Rope). ➢ Manufacturing large batches of parts simultaneously. It is also often referred to as Quick Changeover (QCO). Theory of Constraints (Drum. 13 .2. This rapid changeover is key to reducing production lot sizes and thereby improving flow (Mura) which is a 'Lean' aim. ➢ Single Piece Flow (SPF) supports Just-in-Time.

1. it is known as "Material and Information Flow Mapping" Implementation: ➢ Identify the target product. Although Value Stream Mapping is often associated with manufacturing.2. At Toyota. supply chain. Where is it used? Value Stream Mapping is commonly used in Lean environments to identify opportunities for improvement in lead time. ➢ Draw a current state value stream map. ➢ Implement the future state. and information flows required to deliver the target product or service. ➢ Assess the current state value stream map in terms of creating flow by eliminating waste. software development. There are 'standard' symbols for representing supply chain entities. This may be a production flow (raw materials to consumer) or a design flow (concept to launch). where the technique originated. product family. or service. ➢ Draw a future state value stream map.9 Value Stream Mapping: Value Stream Mapping is a Lean technique used to analyses the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service to a consumer. service related industries. delays. and product development. 14 . which is the current steps. it is also used in logistics.

In a build to the standard form Shigeo Shingo suggests that the value adding steps be drawn across the centre of the map and the non-value adding steps be represented in vertical lines at right angles to the value stream. 15 . He calls the value stream the process and the non-value streams the operations. The thinking here is that the non-value adding steps are often preparatory or tidying up to the value-adding step and are closely associated with the person or machine/workstation that executes that value adding step. Thus the activities become easily separated into the value stream which is the focus of one type of attention and the 'waste' steps another type.

and will help in reducing lead time for the given process.3 NEED FOR THE STUDY This project deals with the objective of enhancing productivity by implementing lean manufacturing principles in auto components industry.1. 16 . Productivity can be increased for the given organization by implementing various lean manufacturing tools like ➢ Just in time production(KANBAN) ➢ Single piece flow ➢ Total Productivity Maintenance ➢ Value stream mapping ➢ Inventory cost reduction The Project will help in eliminating wastes like over production.

Cellular manufacturing (SPF). electronic and appliance manufacturing. Total productive maintenance (TPM).1. Single-minute exchange of dies (SMED). and Production smoothing through Value stream mapping have been widely used in discrete parts manufacturing sectors such as automotive. The tools and techniques of lean manufacturing have been widely used in the discrete (Auto components) industry starting with the introduction of the original Toyota Production System. it is difficult to use the cellular manufacturing concept in a process facility due to the fact that equipment is large and not easy to meanwhile it seems that some lean manufacturing tools are difficult to adapt in the process industry. 17 . Lean manufacturing is one of these initiatives that focus on enhancing productivity by eliminating non-value added activities. This research is driven by the fact that while researchers and practitioners have widely used lean manufacturing tools in the other industries. others are not.Applications of lean manufacturing to the continuous process industry have been far fewer. Tools including Just in time (Kanban). it has been argued that this is because such industries are inherently more efficient and present relatively less need for such improvement activities. In part.As an example.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT Major businesses in the India have been trying to adopt new business initiatives in order to stay alive in the new competitive market place.

In order to compete in today's global competitive market thecauto components industry also needs to look for more ways to gain a competitive edge and also to increase their productivity.nobody has systematically investigated how to apply lean tools and techniques to a auto components manufacturing industry due to the differences exhibited between the two manufacturing environments. 18 .

copied this remarkable system. at the lowest cost. particularly in the US. Lean is to manufacture only what is needed by the customer. ➢ To decrease the man power required to finish the process. The term "lean" denotes a system that utilizes less. and it is done with the highest quality. other companies and industries.1. to create the same outputs as those created by a traditional mass production system. in terms of all inputs.5 Primary Objective: OBJECTIVIES OF THE STUDY The primary objective of lean manufacturing is to assist manufacturers who have a desire to improve their company's operations and become more competitive through the implementation of different lean manufacturing tools and technique following the success of lean manufacturing in Japan. when it is needed and in the quantities ordered. The manufacture of goods is done in a way that minimizes the time taken to deliver the finished goods. while contributing increased varieties for the end customer. ➢ To Decrease delays due to walking and transportation delays 19 . and the floor-space required. In short it can be explained as productivity improvement using lean manufacturing tools and techniques in a auto components industry Secondary Objectives: ➢ To increase the productivity ➢ To decrease the Lead time ➢ To decrease the bottle neck time in production process ➢ To decrease the scrap produced ➢ To eliminate production processes which do not add any value to the final product. and usually. the amount of labor required.

Mon den. the Japanese approach believes that customers are the generator of the selling price. generate capital. The Japanese philosophy of doing business is totally different than the philosophy that has been long prevalent in the US. The traditional belief in the west had been that the only way to make profit is to add it to the manufacturing cost in order to come up with a desired selling price (Ono.6. The basic ideas behind the lean manufacturing system. The customer driven and highly competitive market has rendered the old-fashioned managerial style an inadequate tool to cope with these challenges. On the contrary. which have been practiced for many years in Japan. competitive.1. growing market. These factors present a big challenge to companies to look for new tools to continue moving up the ladder in a global. and remain 20 . many manufacturers have started to turn to lean manufacturing principles to elevate the performance of their firms. cost reduction. 1998). While some companies continue to grow based on economic constancy. other companies struggle because of their lack of understanding of the change of customer mind-sets and cost practices. 1997. bring in more sales. To get out of this situation and to become more profitable. and employee empowerment.1 What Is Lean? The new uprising in the manufacturing goods and service sector has created great challenges for US industry.6 Procedure -Methodology 1. The difference between the cost of the product and this price is what determines the profit . The lean manufacturing discipline is to work in every facet of the value stream by eliminating waste in order to reduce cost. The more quality one builds into the product and the more service one offers. are waste elimination. the more the price that customers will pay.

Inventory: Keep constant flow to the customer and to not have idle material. to create the same outputs as those created by a traditional mass production system. thus growing more profits. So the resounding principle of lean manufacturing is to reduce cost through continuous improvement that will eventually reduce the cost of services and products. the Japanese word for waste) and on maximizing or fully utilizing activities that add value from the customer’s perspective. 21 . This business philosophy goes by different names. world-class manufacturing. Agile manufacturing. synchronous manufacturing. Try to avoid excess raw materials and scrap. this could involve any of the following Material: Convert all raw materials into end products. The term “lean” denotes a system that utilizes less. while contributing increased varieties for the end customer. For industrial companies. order and provide a specific product or value” . So the elimination of waste is the basic principle of lean manufacturing. justin-time manufacturing. The value stream is defined as “the specific activities within a supply chain required to design. and continuous flow are all terms that are used in parallel with lean manufacturing.competitive in a growing global market. “Lean” focuses on abolishing or reducing wastes (or “muda”. in term of all inputs. value is equivalent to anything that the customer is willing to pay for in a product or the service that follows. From the customer’s perspective.

Space: Reorganize equipment. Waste sources are all related to each other and getting rid of one source of waste can lead to either elimination of. people. and unexpected machine downtime. Time: Avoid long setups. Complex solutions tend to produce more waste and are harder for people to manage.Overproduction: Produce the exact quantity that customers need. Reducing lot sizes however. and workstations to get a better space arrangement. Work-in-process and finished parts inventory do not add value to a product and they should be eliminated or reduced. or reduction in others. Energy: Utilize equipment and people in the most productive ways. hidden problems can appear and action can be taken immediately. Defects: Make every effort to eliminate defects. Labor: Get rid of unwarranted movement of people. and when they need it. Complexity: Try to solve problems the uncomplicated way rather than the complex way. Avoid unproductive operations and excess power utilization. Transportation: Get rid of transportation of materials and information that does not add value to the product. one of which is reducing production lot sizes. delays. When inventory is reduced. should be followed by a setup time reduction so as to make the cost per unit constant as 22 . There are many ways to reduce the amount of inventory. Unnecessary Motion: Avoid excessive bending or stretching and frequently lost items. Perhaps the most significant source of waste is inventory.

A cell consists of equipment and workstations that are arranged in an order that maintains a smooth flow of materials and components through the process. In the following sections a brief description of such tools is given. at a pace determined by the customer’s need. Arranging people and equipment into cells has great advantage in terms of achieving lean goals. setup times in large punch presses could be reduced from hours to less than ten minutes. This can be done by preventive maintenance. At Toyota. Extending the product mix is another advantage of cellular manufacturing. which states that each product moves through the process one unit at a time without sudden interruption. 1. Shingo developed the concept of single minute exchange of dies (SMED) to reduce set up times.3 Cellular Manufacturing Cellular manufacturing is one of the cornerstones when one wants to become lean. production smoothing. It also has assigned operators who are qualified and trained to work at that cell. This has a big effect on reducing lot sizes. Cellular manufacturing is a concept that increases the mix of products with the minimum waste possible. 1. just-in-time production. One of the advantages of cells is the one-piece flow concept.6.the famous-economic order quantity formula states. tools such as continuous improvement.6. and others will guide companies through corrective actions so as to eliminate waste.2 Lean Manufacturing Tools and Techniques Once companies pinpoint the major sources of waste. Another way to reduce inventory is by trying to minimize machine downtime. for instance. When customers demand a high variety of products as well as 23 .

faster delivery rates. which will encourage production in smaller lots. This flexibility can be achieved through grouping similar products into families that can be processed on the same equipment in the same sequence. Kaizen is a systematic approach to gradual. has become popular in the west as a paramount concept behind good management. 5S consists of the Japanese words Seiri (Sort). modular step toward serious waste reduction.4 Continuous Improvement Continuous improvement is another fundamental principle of lean manufacturing. orderly. Kaizen.6. 5S is a first. Seiton 24 . This will also shorten the time required for changeover between products. Other benefits associated with cellular manufacturing include: ● Inventory (especiallyWIP) reduction ● Reduced transport and material handling Better space utilization ● ● Lead time reduction Identification of causes of defects and machine Improved productivity ● ● Enhanced teamwork and communication ● Enhanced flexibility and visibility 1. and reduction of defective parts. continuous improvement. One of the most effective tools of continuous improvement is 5S. In manufacturing settings improvements can take place in many forms such as reduction of inventory. it is important to have flexibility in the process to accommodate their needs. which is the Japanese word for a continuous endeavor for perfection. which is the basis for an effective lean company.

Seiso (Sweep and Clean). Seiketsu (Systemize). items that will not be used for the next month or so) away from those that are. deals with moving those items that are not currently being used on a continuous basis (e. and Shitsuke (Standardize). excess raw material. and obsolete jigs and fixtures. detectable. A well-maintained workplace creates a healthy environment to work with. fixtures. The underlying concept behind 5S is to look for waste and then to try to eliminate it. This will make it easier to move those items that are not labeled from that area. Seiso deals with cleaning and sweeping the work place methodically. old broken tools..(Straighten). and resources noticeable. unneeded items. daily). If every area has people assigned to it then everyone has responsibility to maintain a high standard of housekeeping and cleaning.. Moving those items and tossing away needless items will make material flow smoothly. and easy to use. The first S. and workers move and work easily. For a given workplace area tools must be marked and arranged as belonging in that area. The workplace should look neat and clean and ready to use for the next shift. All tools and items should be in the right place and nothing should be missing.g. defects. Seiri. jigs. Seiketsu is maintaining a high standard of housekeeping and workplace arrangement.g. The work place should be maintained on a regular basis (e. Arranging items in the right place will make tools. A regular audit should be run and scores should be assigned for areas of responsibilities. Waste could be in the form of scrap. Seiton has to do with having the right items in the right area. Items that do not belong to a given area must not be in that area. 25 .

5S means good housekeeping and better workplace organization. and in the right quantities Moreover. defects. and poor scheduling of parts delivered Inventory and material flow systems are typically classified as either push (traditional) or pull (just-in-time) systems. However. explain what they want from people. benefits of implementing 5S will be described later.6. since it is a management idea that attempts to eliminate sources of manufacturing waste by producing the right part in the right place at the right time. This addresses waste such as work-in-process material. Kaizen tools such as 5S are not only a means to increase profitability of a firm but also allow companies to reveal potential strengths and capabilities that were hidden before have reported good results implementing 5S. It can 26 . Further. Just-in-time is a tool that enables the internal process of a company to adapt to sudden changes in the demand pattern by producing the right product at the right time. Customer demand is the driving force behind both systems. the major difference is in how each system handles customer demand. reward those who follow and instruct those who do not. Taken together. just-in-time is a critical tool to manage the external activities of a company such as purchasing and distribution.5 Just-In-Time Closely associated with lean manufacturing is the principle of just-in-time. 1. Management should walk the shop floor. Management should implement the housekeeping rules in a practiced fashion so that their people can buy into it.Shitsuke is management’s accountability to train people to follow housekeeping rules.

Lean manufacturing is about eliminating waste wherever it is. which is the generator of the order. As a result. and JIT purchasing. 1.5. One of the most important steps in the implementation of lean manufacturing is JIT. A kanban is used to manage these shipments. JIT utilizes what is known as a “pull system”.6. work in process or products than what are required for smooth operation. which specify the quantity that the succeeding process should pull from the preceding process. sends the first signal to production. which is shown in Figure shows that the 27 . and the production kanban. JIT distribution.be thought of as consisting of three elements: JIT production. More details are given for each in the following sections.1 Just-In-Time Production. The final assembly line goes to the preceding process and pulls or withdraws the necessary parts in the necessary quantity at the necessary time. Kanban is an information system that is used to control the number of parts to be produced in every process. Customer demand. frequent lots. Just-in-time production is about not having more raw materials. The process goes on as each process pulls the needed parts from the preceding process further up stream. Shipments under JIT are in small. The most common types of kanbans are the withdrawal kanban. which specifies the quantity to be produced by the preceding process. Monden and Levy both agree that JIT production is the backbone of lean manufacturing. The whole process is coordinated through the use of a kanban system. the product gets pulled out of the assembly process. The withdrawal kanban.

Figure 2 Withdrawal Kanban Figure 3 Production Kanban A supplier kanban is another type of kanban that is used between the supplier and the manufacturer under JIT.subsequent machining process requests the parts from the preceding forging process. The part that must be made at the forging process is the drive pinion and it can be picked up at position B-2 of the forging department. Lean manufacturing requires 28 . A box of type B must contain 20 units of the part needed and this kanban is the fourth out of eight sheets issued. The kanban shown in Figure 2 is a production type kanban that shows that the preceding machine SB-8 must produce a crankshaft for the type of car specified. The part produced must be stored at shelf number F26-18.

For example. quality problem can be detected early. which is a signal to the supplier to produce the required quantity. ● ● Since inventory is reduced. suppliers have to adjust from the traditional run sizes to smaller lot sizes.m. 1. signaling the production of the parts. The kanban is delivered at predefined times from the manufacturer to the supplier. which results in reduction of inventory costs. the waste of storage space will be reduced. if parts were conveyed twice a day (8 a.quick deliveries and in order to achieve this. In order to achieve JIT delivery. Preventing excess production can uncover hidden problems.m. ● Since units are produced only when they are needed.). the truck driver would deliver the kanban at the supplier’s store at 8 a.2 Some of the benefits of JIT are: ● Eliminating unnecessary work-in-process.5. 29 . many manufacturers require their suppliers to deliver items just in time.m. and 10 p.m. These are the kanbans that would have arrived the previous night at 10 p.m. that morning along with the kanban attached to the boxes containing these parts. The supplier kanbans circulate between the manufacturer and the supplier.6. At the same time the driver picks up the parts that are completed at 8 a.

Heijunka. No matter who is doing the job the same level of quality should be achieved. the Japanese word for production smoothing.6 Production Smoothing In a lean manufacturing system it is important to move to a higher degree of process control in order to strive to reduce waste. A tool that is used to standardize work is what is called “takt” time. Another tool to accomplish this is production smoothing. Takt (German for rhythm or beat) time 30 . where in order to decrease production cost it was necessary to build no more cars and parts than the number that could be sold. At Toyota every worker follows the same processing steps all the time. the production schedule should be smooth so as to effectively produce the right quantity of parts and efficiently utilize manpower. is where the manufacturers try to keep the production level as constant as possible from day to day (Womack et al.. and the parts on hand. 1. Heijunka is a concept adapted from the Toyota production system. Standardized work basically ensures that each job is organized and is carried out in the most effective manner.6.1. unwarranted work-in-process inventory is minimized and non-value added activities are reduced. 1990).7 Standardization of Work A very important principle of waste elimination is the standardization of worker actions. the order of steps to follow for each job. This includes the time needed to finish a job. If the production level is not constant this leads to waste (such as work-in-process inventory) at the workplace. To accomplish this. By doing this one ensures that line balancing is achieved.6.

refers to how often a part should be produced in a product family based on the actual customer demand. An important tool that is necessary to account for sudden machine breakdowns is total productive maintenance. Corrective maintenance deals with decisions such as whether to fix or buy new equipment. As a result the machine will last longer and its uptime will be higher. Workers have to carry out regular equipment maintenance to detect any anomalies as they occur. which leads to improvement in the throughput of each machine.6. Takt time is calculated based on the following formula . Preventive maintenance has to do with regular planned maintenance on all equipment rather than random check ups. In almost any lean environment setting a total productive maintenance program is very important.8 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Machine breakdown is one of the most important issues that concern the people on the shop floor. By doing so sudden machines breakdown can be prevented. If a machine 31 . The target is to produce at a pace not higher than the takt time (Mid-America Manufacturing Technology Center press release). Takt Time ( TT ) = Available work time per day Customer demand per day 1. There are three main components of a total productive maintenance program: preventive maintenance. If a machine is always down and its components are always breaking down then it is better to replace those parts with newer ones. corrective maintenance. The reliability of the equipment on the shop floor is very important since if one machine breaks down the entire production line could go down. and maintenance prevention. Maintenance prevention has to do with buying the right machine.

is hard to maintain (e. Ljungberg . Researchers including Nicholls.6. 32 . and customers are all considered as powerful assets of the company. The big picture is to look at the interdependent segments of the company starting from raw materials to distribution and sales of finished goods. hard to lubricate or bolts are hard to tighten) then workers will be reluctant to maintain the machine on a regular basis. which will result in a huge amount of lost money invested in that machine.g. Suehiro . Further. To accomplish this. companies and managers should put more efforts to elevate the whole enterprise as opposed to focusing on the performance of persons. The first is to make the customer believe in the organization as a qualified provider of a product. managers. benefits of implementing TPM will be described later. the organization must focus on the critical main processes rather than concentrating on individual functions or departments. functions. These processes should serve two main objectives. and parts of the company. Managers have recognized that in order to deliver to the customer satisfaction and the best quality product.. Making an enterprise lean means that workers. By managing the whole system we are looking to manage the value adding activities holistically and not as a sum of separate parts. and the second “is to demonstrate a capability that will win an order”. Nakajima and others have reported good results implementing TPM. Womack and Jones define the lean enterprise as “a group of individuals. Taylor . suppliers. functions. and legally separate but operationally synchronized companies”. 1.9 From Lean Manufacturing to Lean Enterprise The elimination of waste is a process that examines the system as a whole.

one should ask if a customer would be willing to pay for the activity. There are three different types of activities that exist in almost all organization: 1) Value adding activities: These include all the activities that the customer envisions as valuable either in a product or as a service. All processes are continually examined against the customer's definition of value. lean enterprise goes further by concentrating on the firm. and painting a car body. These can be removed by changing the current layout of a line or organizing vendor items to be delivered unpacked. or unpacking vendor boxes. Examples include walking long distances to pick up parts. to bring value to the customer from his or her perspective. However. These steps can be perfectly accomplished by including all parties involved. Such waste is difficult to remove immediately and should be targeted for longer-term change. from order to delivery. and from raw material to final delivered product. its employees.Lean enterprise is an extension of lean manufacturing. To define a value adding activity. Examples include converting iron ore (with other things) into cars. and its suppliers. 2) Necessary non-value adding activities: These are activities that in the eye of the final customer do not make a product or service more valuable but are necessary under the current operating conditions. 33 . and non-value added activities and waste are forcefully and methodically eliminated. The lean enterprise tries to line up and coordinate the value creating process for a finished product or service along the value stream. forging raw material. its partners. It tries to thoroughly examine all the steps that are needed to bring a new product or service from idea to production.

So it might seem that when companies are still not capable of lean manufacturing they should not even look ahead to a lean enterprise. By evaluating current customers the company can gain insight into areas that need improvement and generate ideas for service and product satisfaction. This means that if one member becomes lean other members of the value stream will not share the benefits unless they all participate in the process. stacking of products and double transfers. Womack and Jones argue this point by noting that in order for any one member of the supply chain to keep up the momentum.3) Unnecessary non-value adding activities: These include all the activities that the customer envisions as not valuable either in a product or as a service. greater weight is given to customer value and satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the concept of how well the current customers are utilizing the company’s product and what their feelings are of its service. Examples include waiting time. it is important for all parts of the chain to pull together. and are also not necessary under the current circumstances. Basically. Customer value is how the customer perceives the whole spectrum of what the company offers in terms of products and services. These activities are pure waste and should be targeted for immediate removal. Companies today can no longer rely only on financial metrics to check their status but must also look for other metrics such as customer satisfaction and value.6. However. Another important concept is customer value. There are a lot of companies that are implementing lean manufacturing. many of these are still coping with mastering the idea due a lack of understanding of its core concepts. 1.10 Customer Integration In today’s flexible and speedy market. customers are 34 .

It is no longer enough to have a quality product. value-added services. FedEx was the first to use a tracking system where a customer can check on their package status at any given time. Permitting customers to have access to their order status can develop more trust between them and the company. Allowing customers to participate in the initial design process can also improve the customer value. One of the principles of supply chain management is the ability to respond to customer requirements in a fast and flexible way.11 Supplier Integration One of most important components of the lean enterprise is the 35 . one of the leading PC companies through its direct business model. A company can gain more insight into improving their service and support. Having good valueadded services can generate more revenue (e. This response includes the physical distribution of the product and the status of an order.g. more flexibility. and access to this information. and this is another benefit of value-added services. Support and maintenance are very important from a customer perspective especially those technical products that require constant service after purchasing. this should be followed by quality service. allows customers to build up their own PC systems. Access to information is one of the value-added services and we saw in the previous paragraph how FedEx allow its customers to track their packages. charging a small fee for customer service support) and in addition. and sometimes they value that even more than a reduced lead time.always looking for better product quality. Dell. it closes the gap between the company and its customers. 1. lower prices. Value-added services could play a big role in relationships between customers and companies..6. Customers are always concerned with their order status. and shorter lead time.

Suppliers are an important factor contributing to the success of going lean.12 Auto components industry and Lean A big part of the success of lean manufacturing has come from the automotive industry. Toyota structured its suppliers into different functional tiers with suppliers in each tier having different responsibilities.front end of the supply chain. 36 . auto electrical followed the footsteps of the automotive industry by implementing lean concepts. The challenge today is to adapt the ideas of lean and implement them in a auto components industry. The Toyota philosophy was to encourage all the first-tier suppliers to communicate and share information with each other so as to improve the design process. Suppliers were not reluctant to share information with each other because each supplier specialized in different types of components. and if the product worked as specified the suppliers would get the production order. Most of these companies have also succeeded in implementing lean. The suppliers were told to develop a specific product in a car to meet given performance specifications. In 1950 Toyota started a new move toward development of components supply. and thus they did not have to compete with each other. especially in the assembly line type process. Toyota then asked its suppliers to present a trial product for testing. Toyota’s first-tier suppliers were assigned the task of working with the product development team. rather they should be viewed as a part of the team.6. companies cannot view their suppliers as strangers. Supplier integration was introduced first in the automotive industry and one of the pioneers in this was Toyota. Other discrete manufacturing companies such as auto components like power steering systems. Given that material costs account for over half of the cost of goods sold for most firms. 1.

One of the lean tools that have been implemented in the process industry is Just-in-time. almost always. In the process industry. Ultimately however. At DuPont’s May plant in Camden. one is left with the distinctive and difficult issues for each industry. The results were promising: 96% reduction in WIP. The idea is to take those practices that are used to eliminate waste in discrete manufacturing and apply them to the constraints that are common to the process industry. and product quality improvement of 10%. discrete parts are produced. South Carolina where textiles are produced JIT was used to fix the problem of product shortages. working capital decline of $2 million. and lost or misplaced yarn at the spinning area. environmental issues)’. One should then keep an eye on these by trying to minimize their impact while gradually trying to get rid of them. while difficult technically. After those constraints are eliminated.g. ‘Some of the unique constraints. A pull system was utilized using a kanban like approach. distribution and storage. Managers have been slow to adapt the ideas of lean into these processes. within a continuous process manufacturing environment. Dow 37 . excessive backlogs.High volume. The lean manufacturing concept can be applied to those processes where discrete parts are produced. The lean manufacturing principles adopted by the DuPont plant can be utilized by many auto components industries. The fear comes from the inflexibility of the process where it is more difficult to reduce the lot size. JIT principles can focus more on the no production activities such as material movement. low variety products. may not be difficult from a JIT perspective (e. and inflexible processes characterize the auto components industry.

First they identified JIT demand and JIT vendors. Roy and Guin developed a cost-effective algorithm for this task. To reduce the inventory and lead time and to have better demand forecasts. One of the problems that existed between the company and one of its customers was excess inventory and long lead time. Taking the value stream viewpoint means working on the big picture and not individual processes. average distribution lead time decreased 25%. and in the right quantity and quality. and then they developed a freight consolidation model (FCM) that can be utilized to transport these items from the supplier to the buyer. from raw material to the arms of customers The goal is to identify all types of waste in the value stream and to take steps to try and eliminate them.6. At the customer site more tank carloads were there than what was actually needed. JIT principles were used between Dow and its customer. recently there has been work done in JIT purchasing in the process industry. A significant amount of saving was demonstrated in FCM. at the time of their use. They define JIT in purchasing to broadly mean regular ordering and regular deliveries in smaller lots from local and quality certified vendors. As a result.13 Value Stream Mapping A value stream is a collection of all actions value added as well as non-value added that are required to bring a product or a group of products that use the same resources through the main flows. 1. at the point of consumption. and inventory was reduced from sixteen to six tank carloads. However. JIT has traditionally been associated with the manufacturing process. and improving 38 . Roy and Guinn discuss the implementation of JIT in purchasing at a steel plant in India. demand forecast accuracy increased 25%.Chemical is a company that supplies chemical products to different customers.

most of these tools fall short in linking and visualizing the nature of the material and information flow in an individual company. it was apparent that there was a need to understand the entire system in order to gain maximum benefits. however. In many of these cases firms have reported some benefits. steel.. ● It provides a common language for talking about manufacturing processes. thus facilitating more thoughtful decisions to improve the value stream. While researchers and practitioners have developed a number of tools to investigate individual firms and supply chains. 39 . etc.. assembly. It creates a common language for production process.the whole flow and not just optimizing the pieces. You can see the entire flow. and in particular over the last few years a number of companies have utilized value stream mapping. So in order to attain noteworthy improvements they decided to use value stream mapping to visualize the entire flow and select lean tools that yielded maximum benefits. Other benefits of value stream mapping as follows: ● It helps you visualize more that just the single process level (e. TPM. welding) in production.g. The application crosses over different types of industries and organizations such as automotive. and even non-manufacturing industries including information technology Value stream mapping can serve as a good starting point for any enterprise that wants to be lean. Lately. ● Mapping helps you not only see your waste but also its source in the value stream. At the level of the individual firm many organizations have moved toward becoming lean by adapting different lean tools such as JIT. aerospace. setup reduction. 5S.

● It ties together lean concepts and techniques. avoid “cherry picking. which is created using a predefined set of icons. rather than being restrained to a computer. There are a lot of benefits to drawing value stream maps by hand with paper and pencil. By helping you design how the whole door-to-door flow should operate a missing piece in so many lean efforts value stream maps become a blueprint for lean implementation. which help you. Value stream mapping is a pencil and paper tool. Customers care only about their products and not all products so that it is unrealistic to map everything that passes through the shop floor. The first step in value stream mapping is to choose a product family as the target for improvement. 1. Identifying a product family can be done either by using the product and process matrix to classify similar process steps for different products or by choosing products that use the highest volume.” ● It forms the basis for an implementation plan. the process of quickly drawing and redrawing a map acts as a plan-do-check-act cycle that deepens our understanding of the overall flow of value or lack thereof. 40 . Drawing all of the product flow in one company would be too complex. Also. Manual mapping lets us see what is actually happening in a shop floor value stream.

The material flow is drawn at the lower portion of the map. After choosing a product family the next step is to draw a current state map to take a snapshot of how things are being done now.Figure 4 Icon used for value stream mapping 2. etc. cycle time. which in most cases is the shipping department. The information flow 41 . This is done while walking along the actual pathways from the actual production process. At each process all the critical information including lead-time. and then working ones way up to the upstream processes. are documented. The inventory levels on the map should correspond to levels at the time of the actual mapping and not the average because it is important to use actual figures rather than historical averages provided by the company. changeover time. The next aspect of the current state map is the information flow that indicates how each process will know what to make. Drawing material flow on the current state map should always start with the process that is most linked to the customers. inventory levels. 3.

is drawn on the upper portion of the map. The future state map is nothing more than an implementation plan that highlights what kind of lean tools are needed to eliminate the waste and where they are needed in the product value stream. Creating a future state map is done through answering a set of questions with regards to issues related to building of the future state map. employee management. After the completion of the map a timeline is drawn below the process boxes to indicate the production lead-time. and technical implementation related to the use of lean tools.6.14 Simulation and Value Stream Mapping The decision to implement lean manufacturing is a tough one. Based on the answers to these questions. A second time called the value added time is then added. It is hard because of differences between the traditional and lean manufacturing systems in a number of aspects including raw material procurement. For traditional manufacturers. and production control. 1. inventory management. The purpose of value stream mapping is to highlight the sources of waste and help make target areas for improvement visible. which is the time that a particular product spends on the shop floor from its arrival until its completion. 4. The next step in value stream mapping is to create the future state map. one should mark the future state ideas directly on the future state map. This time represents the sum of the processing times for each process. The information flow is drawn from right to left on the map and is connected to the material flow previously drawn. the difficulty of implementing lean arises because its 42 . especially for companies that rely on traditional manufacturing systems. After creating the future state map the last step is to carry it out by trying to implement the different ideas generated by the future state map on the actual value stream.

whereas many other cases this might not be easy. at the planning and evaluation stage. For example. and rules of thumb on the expected payback. This tool is simulation. this is too little justification to make them buy into implementing lean. lead-times. and machine utilization of the process for a giving future state. This brings us to the next question of how we can make value stream mapping a more viable tool. reported results of others who have implemented lean. while remaining flexible to the details of the organization. It can also assist organizations considering lean manufacturing to quantify. the decision on whether or not to implement lean manufacturing often comes down to one’s belief in lean manufacturing. predicting the levels of inventory through the production process is not possible with only a future state map because with a static model one cannot observe how the level of inventory will be affected for different scenarios. simulation can be used to explore alternative future state maps generated by different responses to design questions. In many situations the future state map can be evaluated without much difficulty. For many companies. This enables the quantification of payback derived from using the principles of lean manufacturing and their impact on the total system. As a result. the benefits they can expect from applying lean 43 . Moreover. which is capable of generating resource requirements and performance statistics.distinctive requirements make it hard to predict the magnitude of the gains that can be achieved by implementing lean. Simulation can be used to reduce uncertainty and create dynamic views of the inventory levels. In order to help an organization consider lean techniques a supplementary tool for value stream mapping is needed that can quantify the gains during the early planning and assessment stages.

just-in-time inventory management. total preventive maintenance. transport and conveyance requirements. some of the very important benefits from applying lean manufacturing principles do not readily lend themselves to quantification by simulation. effectiveness of production control. and is capable of generating resource requirements and performance statistics for both the proposed future state map and the existing operation. and level production scheduling. and system response to market.g. The information provided by the simulation would enable management to assess the performance of the lean system in absolute terms and. and 5S. e.manufacturing. Simulation can quantify the performance improvements that can be anticipated from applying the lean manufacturing principles of continuous flow. most importantly. those that are the result of employee empowerment. continuous improvement. On the other hand. It has the capability of demonstrating the gains of lean through the whole manufacturing system including warehousing and WIP levels. relative to the well understood. 44 . setup reduction. Simulation is adaptable to the specific circumstances of the organization.. existing system it is designed to replace.

1 Research methodology 2.1 The study of background The organizations in today’s competitive world must do the manufacturing process in such a way that the goods must have good quality. starter assembly line. 45 .3 Sources of data The information related to this study was collected from Lucas TVS Ltd. low cost and earning maximum profit.CHAPTER 2 ANALYSIS 2.2 Research design The main purpose of this study is to achieve maximum profit for the auto components starter motor assembly line by using lean manufacturing principles. 2.1. websites and books. 2.1.4 Data collection The data used for the present study is primary and secondary data.1. The best way to achieve all the above said characteristics is my implementing lean manufacturing in the organization. The organization must ensure that it produces only the required amount of the product in the given period of time as per the requirement of the customer.1. 2.

2 Process layout for various operations: Master Layout for manufacturing starters: Figure 5 main layout 2.2 Process flow for the yoke line: 46 .2.

3 Process flow for armature line: 47 .Layout for yoke line 2.2.Figure 6 .

2.Figure 7 Layout for armature line 2.4 Process flow for shaft line: 48 .

Figure 8 Layout for shaft line 2.5 Process Flow for switch assembly: 49 .2.

2.Figure 9 Layout for switch line 2.6 Process Flow for main assembly line: 50 .

The target product is SM76 car starter manufactured for maruthi omni . 800 and hyundai santro .Figure 10 Layout for starter assembly line 2. alto. hyundai i10 ( cars having below 1300 cc displacement 51 .3 Value stream mapping of the starter motor line STEP 1 -Identify the target product. product family. or service.

51 version ( add on to visio) Data’s collected (present state) Factor Lead time Bottleneck time Transportation time Overproduction time Searching time Setting change time Machine down time Man power Armat.75 days  Value added time as % of total time = 923 mins 13.75 * 16 *60 = 7.Shaft Yoke Comm.09 % 52 .Fixing Switch Field assembly ure utator bracket coil 288 36 24 15 36 54 30 75 72 24 54 15 12 72 12 24 288 36 54 15 12 144 24 23 72 18 0 7 15 24 0 15 72 24 6 7 0 30 0 11 45 12 15 4 5 20 6 24 30 18 8 3 2 10 10 8 4 6 5 5 12 15 0 32 Now by using the above given data’s the current state map is drawn Calculations  Value added time = 923 mins  Non value added time = 13.STEP 2 -Draw a current state value stream map  The current state value stream map was drawn using the data’s collected  Softwares used – Microsoft visio 2000 professional  Evsm 3.

Value stream mapping – existing: Figure 11 Existing system VSM 53 .

1 Product Costing – For starter manufacturing line: Material cost Variable cost 60% 20% Fixed over head cost 10% interest 2% Depreciation 2% Profit 6% Table 3 – Product cost .2.3.existing Product Costing For starter manufacturing line 6% 2% 2% 10% Material cost Variable cost Fixed over head cost interest Depriciation Profit 60% 20% Figure 12 Product cost .For starter manufacturing line 54 .

existing Lead Time For starter manufacturing line 350 300 Time in mins 250 200 150 100 50 0 Armature Shaft Yoke commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly Components Figure 13 Lead time .3.2.existing 55 .2 Lead time: Armature 288 Shaft 72 Yoke 288 commutator Fixing bracket Switch 72 72 45 Field coil 30 assembly 4 Table 4 – Lead time.

For starter manufacturing line bottle neck time .For starter manufacturing line 40 35 36 36 Time taken in mins 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Armature Shaft Yoke commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 24 18 24 18 12 6 Components Figure 14 .bottleneck time for starter manufacturing line 56 . Bottleneck Time: Armature 36 Shaft 24 Yoke 36 commutator Fixing bracket Switch 18 24 12 Field coil 18 assembly 6 Table 5 – bottleneck time .2.

3.18 Figure 15 WIP Inventory 57 .65 65.28 115.28 89.2.5 Table 6– WIP Inventory WIP Inventory in lakhs 9.65 16.5 115.48 222.34 WIP WIP Indirect components Raw Scrap Consu shop ware material materials mebles floor house 222.50 89.34 37.6 16.18 16.48 72 16.5 72 Sub contract WIP store WIP shop floor WIP ware house Indirect material components Raw materials Scrap Consumebles 65.60 WIP store 9.4 WIP Inventory – For starter manufacturing line: Sub contract 37.

1 Transportation time: Armature 24 Shaft 54 Yoke 54 commutator Fixing bracket Switch 0 6 15 Field coil 8 assembly 5 Table 7 – Transportation time Transportation time For starter manufacturing line 60 50 54 54 Time in mins 40 30 20 10 0 Armature Shaft Yoke 24 15 6 0 commutato r Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 8 5 Components Figure 16 .Transportation time 58 .3.3.5 Wastes: 2.2.5.

For starter manufacturing line 16 14 15 15 15 Time in hours 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Armature Shaft Yoke commutato r Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 7 7 4 5 3 Components Figure 17 .2 Over Production time: Armature 15 Shaft 15 Yoke 15 commutator Fixing bracket Switch 7 7 4 Field coil 3 assembly 5 Table 8 – Over Production time Over Production time .5.3.Over Production time: 59 .2.

5.Searching time 60 .2.3.3 Searching time: Armature 36 Shaft 12 Yoke 12 commutator Fixing bracket Switch 15 0 5 Field coil 2 assembly 12 Table 9 – Searching time Searching Time For starter manufacturing line 40 35 36 Time in mins 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Armature Shaft Yoke commutator 15 12 12 5 0 Fixing bracket Switch 12 2 Field coil assembly Components Figure 18.

Setting change time 61 . Setting change time: Armature 54 Shaft 72 Yoke 144 commutator Fixing bracket Switch 24 12 20 Field coil 10 assembly 15 Table 10 – Setting change time Setting Change time For starter manufacturing line 160 140 120 144 Time in mins 100 80 60 40 20 0 Armature Shaft Yoke commutat or Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 72 54 24 12 20 10 15 Components Figure 19 .

Machine down time 62 .2.5 Machine down time: Armature 30 Shaft 12 Yoke commutator Fixing bracket Switch 0 0 Machine down time 6 24 Table 11 – Field coil 10 assembly 0 Machine down time for starter manufacturing line 35 30 25 20 15 10 30 24 time in mins 12 6 10 5 0 Armature Shaft Yoke 0 commutat or 0 Fixing bracket Switch Field coil 0 assembly Components Figure 20 .5.3.

Man Power utilized:

Armatu Shaft re
75 24

23 Table 12 –


Fixing bracket

Switch Field coil assembly
8 32

15 11 24 Man power utilized existing

Man power utilised
80 70 60


No of men

50 40 30 20 10 0 Armature Shaft Yoke Comm- Fixing utator bracket Switch Field coil assembl y

32 24 23 15 11 24 8

Components Figure 21 - Man power utilized existing


2.4 Proposed changes in the starter manufacturing system: STEP 3 - Assess the current state value stream map in terms of creating

flow by eliminating waste.
 Data’s collected for each line in the manufacturing process is assessed  Scope for improvement and eliminating wastes is found out.  The various ideas generated can be used to get the future state map for the particular line  The action plan was derived at.

2.4.1 Action Plan to achieve the Target:

Lead time

Action taken

Responsib ility

Expected benefits

1.Bottleneck 1.Single piece flow for cycle time the system to be more implemented 2. Kanban system to be implemented

SKN/NSK 1. Throughput time is reduced. 2. Maximum space efficiency obtained 3.Productivity can be improved 4.Profit can be increased BVK/SKN 1. Throughput time is reduced 2. Transportaion and material handling cost can be reduced.

Transport -ation time

1.island cell i.e group of operations distances more

1.Continous improvement activities to be done 2. Kanban system to be implemented

Bottleneck Single piece 1. Single piece flow and BVK time not followed SMED to be implemented Over Production 1.follow scheduled 64

1. lead time is reduced.

NRG/SKN 1. Throughput time is


Action taken

Responsib ility

Expected benefits reduced. 2. Wastes due to over production is eliminated

production qty planned adherence time without customer requirements. Searching 1.Tools not 5S system to be time arranged in a implemented organized manner AKS

1. Throughput time is reduced. 2. proper arrangement of tools and materials. 3. Cleanliness can be improved. 1. Setting changeover time is reduced. 2. worker fatigue is reduced . OEE improved

Setting change time

1. More time QCT using SMED taken for setting changeover


Machine Planned TPM to be implemented PS down time maintenance

Table 13 a – Action plan

2.4.2 Process Improvement: What process improvement will be needed to achieve the future state design? In order to accomplish the material and information flow envisioned by lean tools, improvement and actions must take place to implement the future state. It is unrealistic to expect to obtain the benefits of the supermarkets, kanban control, takt time, the pitch, production leveling, continuous improvement, and other changes without process improvement steps involving specific lean tools. 2.4.3 TPM One of the major causes of machine breakdowns is the lack of a

In the future state design was determined to release kanbans to the system. If a machine is down due to breakdown. Many Auto components industries do not have the luxury of replacing equipment. Auto components industries often load their equipment to maximum capacity. leaving long times between necessary regular maintenance longer the time interval between scheduled maintenance. in a lean manufacturing environment machine down times becomes an intolerable situation requiring a different approach for maintenance. and a scheduled maintenance period of say 10 hours is going to disturb the flow of the system. this would be very costly in a Auto components industry where orders have to be backlogged and there will be no metal flowing through the system which means that the operations are placed in a very expensive overhaul position. Another problem that exists in Auto components industries is the length of the down periods. we would like to accomplish the same amount of work in 4 hours done 66 . Therefore. Having extensive down times due to scheduled maintenance will cause disruption to the whole process. Split scheduled maintenance. the higher the probability of having machine failures. The success of the kanban pull system heavily depends on the reliability of the equipment.total productive maintenance program. and thus the higher the expected number of quality defect. In order to avoid all the havoc that can be caused by machine failure and long down times the following TPM activities are suggested: 1. Splitting the scheduled maintenance time means separating the maintenance process into small portion that are done more often. For example. instead of scheduling one 16 hour maintenance down period for a machine every two months.

Schedule unplanned down time as needed. First. a simple visual observation during machine run time at predetermined time period can be done at each workstation. 67 . This can be done through constant monitoring. By doing this we would eliminate minor abnormalities in the equipment conditions that are usually overlooked and delayed for a long time. condition measurement implies attaching sensors and devices such as vibration analysis equipment and calibration devices on each object. reliability analysis can be done by collecting data on machine failures and downtime and analyzing failure frequencies for each machine. 3. For example. For example. improve machine uptime and eliminate costly overhauls. maintenance is then performed on the armature. reliability analysis. we should examine the 'vital signs' and infer what the equipment is trying to tell us. and machine speed can be done. Second. Each individual unit requiring maintenance must be sequenced such that the inventory shortages created by shutdowns flow down through the process. we would have less frequent failures.every three weeks. roll wear. permitting the shaft line to replenish the supermarket ahead of the armature line. Therefore. and condition measurement. Can help us to deduct down time. Checking a list of items such as machine cleanliness. Maintenance is then done on the other lines. Lastly. 2. and so on. Rather than looking at a calendar and assessing what attention the equipment needs. maintenance on the shaft line causes the kanbans in the supermarket ahead of the armature assembly to be depleted. if the shaft line is not running at its normal speed the line must be stopped and the problem must be investigated. Also.

The kanban system is based on utilizing a pull system for the products. but a moving picture and the simulation model offers outputs that are hard to obtain with only value stream mapping. The basic idea is that we are only responding to actual customer demand for the product family. The procedures necessary to implement the kanban pull system are simple yet powerful in maintaining efficiencies with minimum inventory. The following steps are required to implement JIT: 1. Control is maintained by adding and removing kanbans from the load leveling box thereby controlling the amount and type of WIP held between work centers.2. TPM.4 JIT: In order to achieve the full benefits of the kanban system we should utilize the just-in-time pull system. The future state map will no longer be just a snap shot. 68 . A work center may produce a part only when a “downstream” work center signals its need. the kanban signal released from the assembly line pulls parts through the system. The simulation will provide the level of inventory and lead-time for the future state map. 2. Small amounts of work will be released from the shaft line according to the kanbans in the load leveling box and at the end of The day all actual customer demand is satisfied. If any given supermarket has the right amount required by the pitch then for the process upstream to produce. JIT) simulation will be used to evaluate the benefits gained by implementing them. Effectively. 3. For the above three there is no need tools (setup reduction.4. The pitch will control this signal.

To analyze the situation on hand and evaluate different scenarios for the future state map. Simulation can help supplement value stream mapping by (a) Evaluating the impact of the proposed map. (c) For documenting areas of improvement. . We decided to use two primary performance measures: leadtime and work-in-process inventory. namely the production system. The analysis will involve the three factors the production system. a full factorial design was used with the simulation. Focus is on three lean manufacturing techniques that can be quantified.5 Simulation in support of value stream mapping In order to evaluate the future state map and the impact of lean manufacturing tools addressed in the future state map simulation is used. total productive maintenance. The reason for selecting these two measures became apparent when looking at the current state map.4. and setup reduction. where leadtime compared to value added time is huge and WIP inventory is also very 69 . TPM.2. and single minute exchange of dies. and improvement for different scenarios of the future state map. (b) Analysis. evaluation. By a full factorial design it is meant all possible combinations of these levels of these factors are investigated and replicated using the simulation model.

By reducing lead-time and WIP inventory considerable savings and quality improvement will be automatically gained. 2.4.large.6 KANBAN SYSTEM: 70 .

71 .

72 .

73 .

74 .

75 .

lean manufacturing helps companies retain. ➢ It is because time and efforts are principally targeted by lean manufacturing processes. maintain and significantly increase their earnings. behaviors and unnecessary and disturbing objects in the work place will surely and practically help workers get on to their tasks with much smooth pacing and comfort. ➢ When the manufacturing lead-time is significantly lowered. elimination of wastes. practices. it follows that the operational costs incurred from the use of energy.2. 76 . ➢ Space is another area where lean manufacturing advantages are clearly and effectively exhibited. ➢ Labour and human resource experts estimate that adoption of good and effective lean manufacturing techniques and strategies will likely help companies reduce their physical floor space requirements by as much as 5% to 30%. ➢ It is found that in general. is one of the primary and basic factors that keep operations of businesses going. Thus.5 Need for change in system: ➢ The first need for the change as identified by experts by implementing lean manufacturing techniques and strategies are the reduction of manufacturing time. widen their margins and help them generate savings from lower costs. Working space. it is understood. companies implementing and adhering to lean manufacturing practices significantly boost and increase their manufacturing productivity by as much as 75% to 125%. utilities and wages from labor's time will also be significantly reduced ➢ Thus.

when customer satisfaction is achieved. the cultures are standardized. In lean manufacturing. Thus it becomes very important to adopt the new system due to its various advantages as stated above. thus. 77 . objects. unfavorable practices and behaviors of both the employees and the management are reduced. It is usually a cause of problems. above all is that. The best way to establish a good relationship with customers is to improve the products and services offered to them. ➢ Advantage on culture improvement various companies around the world are practicing and implementing different cultures. conflicts and issues around and within the organization. Lean manufacturing would be of great help to achieve a good customer or client relations. ➢ The advantage of that. if not eliminated.➢ It follows that elimination and reduction of wastes will gradually and efficiently help boost and rise up earnings and profits in companies. ➢ The greatest advantage of lean manufacturing in terms of cultures adopted by companies is that lean manufacturing makes the differences between management and personnel reach to a verging point. Thus. sales will surely rise. Thus the change in system can bring a number of refreshing tinges in the industrial atmosphere. elimination of wastes and unproductive activities. tasks and behaviors in the work place will surely help the company and its personnel focus on the requirements and demands of the customer.

41 % 78 .6 Proposed starter manufacturing System after applying lean Tools & techniques: STEP 4 -Draw a future state value stream map  The future state map is to be drawn from calculations and assumptions done  The future state can be obtained by implementing the lean tools systematically Data for future state after lean manufacturing Factor Lead time Bottleneck time Transportation time Overproduction time Searching time Setting change time Machine down time Man power Armat.Fixing Switch Field assembly ure utator bracket coil 250 30 20 12 30 45 25 65 50 20 45 12 10 60 10 20 252 30 45 12 10 120 20 22 60 15 0 6 12 20 0 13 60 20 5 6 0 10 0 8 45 10 12 3 4 18 6 23 30 15 6 3 2 10 8 8 4 6 4 4 8 14 0 30 Based on the future data’s value stream map is drawn Calculations  Value added time = 691 mins  Non value added time = 2.2.531* 16 *60 = 27.Shaft Yoke Comm.5 days and 45mins  Value added time as % of total time = 691 mins 2.

Proposed system: value stream mapping Figure 22– Future state VSM 79 .2.

if the variable cost & fixed over head cost was reduced by 8% and 4 % respectively.2 Product Costing: Direct cost 60% Indirect cost 12% Table 14 – Fixed over interest Depreciation head cost 6% 2% 2% Product costing after applying lean Tools Profit 18% Product Costing after applying lean tools 18% Direct cost Indirect cost 2% Fixed 2% over head cost interest Depreciation 6% Profit 60% 12% Figure 23 Product Costing after applying lean Tools INFERENCE It is inferred from above table Shows the profit will increase by 27%.2. 80 . This can be achieved by using the various tools of lean manufacturing techniques.6.

fixing bracket lines lead time reduced by single piece flow practicing. non value added activities reduced by lean manufacturing tools like continuous improvement activities.3 Lead time: Armatu Shaft re 250 50 Yoke 252 Commutator 60 Fixing bracket 60 Switch Field coil assembly 45 30 4 Table 15 – Lead time after applying lean Tools Lead Time 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Armat-ure Shaft Yoke Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 250 252 Time taken in mins 50 60 60 45 30 4 Components Figure 24 Lead time after applying lean Tools INFERENCE It is inferred from above table Shows the Lead time will decrease by 8 % if the Armature assly . 81 . This can be achieved by using Bottle neck cycle time. shaft. single piece flow or cellular manufacturing.6. yoke .2.

5S.2. SMED. fixing bracket bottle neck cycle time to be reduced This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools like single piece flow. 82 . yoke .Bottleneck Time after applying lean Tools INFERENCE It is inferred from above table Shows the Bottleneck time will decrease by 20 % if the Armature assly .Shaft ure 30 20 Yoke 30 Table 16 – Commutator 15 Fixing bracket 20 Switch Field coil assembly 10 15 6 Bottleneck Time after applying lean Tools Bottle neck time 35 30 30 30 Time( in mins) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Armat-ure Shaft Yoke Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 20 15 20 15 10 6 Components Figure 25 . shaft.6.4 Bottleneck Time: Armat.

34 WIP shop floor 177.5 9.50 components 88.72 WIP ware house 109.22 Indirect material 16. subcontract.54 109.5 Figure 26 WIP Inventory after applying lean Tools & Techniques INFERENCE It is inferred from above table Shows the WIP Inventory will decrease by 18.5 % if the WIP-shop floor.48 WIP ware house Indirect material components Raw materials Scrap Consumebles 88. ware house .5 WIP store 9.5 Table 17 – WIP Inventory after applying lean Tools WIP Inventory after applying lean tools WIP Inventory 13.5 Days to 2.5 16. and continous improvement activities.22 16. Components no of days to be reduced This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools like Kanban System (JIT ).48 72 16.34 (1 day =36 lacs) 72 177.6.5 days 36.72 Sub contract WIP store WIP shop floor 65.54 Raw Scrap Consu materials mables 65.2.5 WIP Inventory: Sub contract 36. 83 .

6. and auto feeding arrangements can be made to reduce corporation time. 84 . Material handling systems.6.6.6 Wastes: 2. In house kanban.Shaft ure 20 45 Yoke 45 Table 18 Commutator 0 Fixing bracket 5 Switch Field coil assembly 12 6 4 Transportation time after applying lean Tools Transportation time 50 45 40 45 45 Time (in mins) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Armature Shaft Yoke 20 12 5 0 Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembl y 6 4 Componenets Figure 27 INFERENCE Transportation time after applying lean Tools It is inferred from above table Shows the Transportation time will decrease by 8 % if the Manufacturing relayout. and continuous improvement activities. This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools like Kanban System (JIT).1 Transportation time: Armat.2.

.6.Shaft ure 12 12 Yoke 12 Commutator 6 Fixing bracket 6 Switch Field coil assembly 3 3 4 Table 19 over Production time after applying lean Tools Over Production Time 14 12 12 12 12 Time (in hours) 10 8 6 4 2 0 Armat-ure Shaft Yoke Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 6 6 3 3 4 Components Figure 28 over Production time after applying lean Tools INFERENCE It is inferred from above table Shows the Over production will decrease by 20 % if the customer monthly.6. weekly. daily plan manufacturing tools like two bin Kanban System (JIT).2.2 Over Production time: Armat. This can be achieved by using lean 85 . schedule adherences to be maintained. Searching time:

Armat- Shaft ure
30 10



Fixing bracket

Switch Field coil assembly
4 2 8

Table 20 Searching time after applying lean Tools

Searching time
35 30


Time (in mins)

25 20 15 10 5 0 Armat-ure Shaft Yoke Commutator



12 8 4 0
Fixing bracket Switch

Field coil assembly


Figure 29

Searching time after applying lean Tools


It is inferred from above table Shows the Searching time will decrease by 20% if work place management system to be implemented. This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools 5S (Japanese work place management system).

86 Setting change time:

Armat- Shaft ure
45 60



Fixing bracket

Switch Field coil assembly
18 10 14

Table 21 Setting change time after applying lean Tools

Setting change time
140 120


Time (in mins)

100 80 60 40 20 0 Armat-ure Shaft Yoke Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly

60 45 20 18 14





Setting change time after applying lean Tools

It is inferred from above table Shows the Setting change time will decrease by 10% if Quick changeover tooling’s, setting procedure, SOP are implemented .This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools like SMED.

87 Machine down time:

Armat- Shaft ure
25 10



Fixing bracket

Switch Field coil assembly
6 8 0

Table 22

Machine down time after applying lean Tools

Machine down time
30 25
25 20

Time (in mins)

20 15 10 5 0 Armat-ure Shaft

8 6






Fixing bracket


Field coil



Figure 31

Machine down time after applying lean Tools


It is inferred from above table Shows the machine down time will decrease by 5% if the Downtime losses reduce by PM(preventive maintenance) , autonomous maintenance , Mean time between failures , mean time between repair . This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools like TPM concepts..

89 .2. .Shaft ure 65 Yoke Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 30 20 22 13 8 23 8 Table 23 Man power untied after applying lean tools and Techniques: Man power utilised 70 60 65 Number of men 50 40 30 20 10 0 Armat-ure Shaft Yoke Commutator Fixing bracket Switch Field coil assembly 30 20 22 13 8 23 8 Components Figure 32 Manpower utilized after applying lean Tools INFERENCE It is inferred from above table Shows manpower will reduce by 2% if single piece flow is implemented in all the lines. This can be achieved by using lean manufacturing tools like single piece flow and automation.6.7 Man power utilized: Armat.

conclusion and suggestion 3. TPM. the literature suggests that value stream mapping is a good startup tool for companies that want to become lean. The preceding literature review suggests that JIT. In order to adapt lean manufacturing tools to the auto components industry.Chapter – 3 Summary. The various steps like JIT Kanban system. SMED. The various changes to be implemented where suggested to Lucas TVS Ltd.1 Summary of the system It is clear that lean manufacturing is a powerful tool for a auto components industry that when adopted can create superior financial and operational results and thus enhances production. Lucas TVS is willing to implement the above actions to achieve productivity improvement and operational benefits. continuous improvement activities were suggested to the organization as it will increase their productivity by about 27%. Also. one needs to thoroughly examine different characteristics of the same and develop a systematic approach to best utilize these techniques at a process facility. because it unveils wastes in the value stream. 90 . On the other hand. cellular manufacturing.5S. Simulation can be used to support value stream mapping for companies that want to become lean by predicting the results before lean is implemented. the literature suggests that nobody has systematically examined the use of lean manufacturing tools and techniques at a process facility. Single piece flow. kanban and value stream mapping approaches have been applied at some process facilities and good results have been reported.

The project helps in improving the profit of the given organization. Chennai .3. when it is needed and in the quantities ordered. the amount of labor required. while contributing increased varieties for the end customer. and it is done with the highest quality. Lean is to manufacture only what is needed by the customer. Thus it helps in decreasing the loads due to the various overheads occurring in the manufacturing process. and the results are shown in detailed manner. at the lowest cost. Primary Scope: The primary objective of lean manufacturing is to assist manufacturers who have a desire to improve their company's operations and become more competitive through the implementation of different lean manufacturing tools and techniques. The manufacture of goods is done in a way that minimizes the time taken to deliver the finished goods. This project was carried out in LUCAS TVS Padi. In short it can be explained as productivity improvement using lean manufacturing tools and techniques in auto a components manufacturing industry 91 . As the burden is reduced the organization can use the profits to invest it any other product or field which can provide employment for few more people. in terms of all inputs.2 Scope of the system The system will help in increasing productivity and which will in turn reduce the costs and thus increases the profit for the given organization. to create the same outputs as those created by a traditional mass production system. and usually. The term "lean" as Womack and Jones (1994) define it denotes a system that utilizes less. and the floor-space required.

5 days and 45 mins 3.75 days AFTER LEAN MANUFACTURING Value added time = 691 mins Non value added time = 2. Single piece flow. The various changes to be implemented where suggested to the organization. Result BEFORE LEAN MANUFACTURING Value added time = 923 mins Non value added time = 13. The various steps like JIT Kanban system.5S.3. The organization is willing to implement the above actions to achieve productivity improvement and operational benefits.3. It is clear that lean manufacturing is a powerful tool for a auto components industry that when adopted can create superior financial and operational results and thus enhances production. cellular manufacturing. 92 . SMED.1 Conclusion Thus the lead time for manufacturing SM76 starter has been reduced which in turn will increase productivity. continuous improvement activities were suggested to the organization as it will increase their productivity by about 27%. TPM.3.

3. 93 .3. improving productivity.2 Suggestions The above said advantages make the lean manufacturing system a must for all the organizations. The other tools if used in the auto components industry can increase the productivity and in turns of maximize profit. and thus in turn maximizing profit in the auto component industry. Along with the various tools applied in this project there are others tool which were not used. These tools are ● Customer integration ● supplier integration ● Production smoothing The above said techniques can be used for lean principles and this can bring in more advantages like lead time reduction.

” Production and Inventory Management Journal. Second Quarter. 2. Third Quarter.. Brunt. J. “Applying Lean Production Principles To A Process Facility.. 30-35. 1994. “From Current State to Future State: Mapping the Steel to Component 94 . 5. “Gulfstream V Value Stream Tour. PP. 4. and B. Abbett. and V.T.S. “The Potential Benefits of Just-In-Time Purchasing 3. Payne..” Production and Inventory Management Journal.” (Presentation at 1999Lean Summit). D. PP. Ansari. 40-44. For U. A. Manufacturing. Modarress. D.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.. 1999. 1986. Billesbach.

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