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# PID Controller Tuning

## Rationale of Controller Tuning

• The purpose of tuning a controller to a process is to match the gain
and time functions of the controller with the rest of the elements
the control loop.
• The time response of the entire loop is made up of the response of
the primary element, the transmitter, controller, final controlling
element and the process itself.
Methods of Tuning Process Controllers
1) Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method
2) Ziegler-Nichols Close Loop Method
1] Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method
Steps:
1. Set the controller to manual mode.
2. Initiate change in the controller output to produce at least 10%
change in the MV.
3. Monitor the response curve and determine the Process Reaction
Rate (R), Unit Reaction Rate (R1) and Effective Dead Time (D)
4. Calculate tuning parameters using formula below:
Mode Proportional Gain (Kc) Reset Time (Ti) Derivative Time (Td)
P Kc = 1/R1D N/A N/A
PI Kc = 0.9/R1D Ti = 3.33D N/A
PID Kc = 1.2/R1D Ti = 2D Td = 0.5D
1] Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method
Steps:
5. Enter the newly calculated tuning parameters to the controller.
6. Initiate disturbance by changing the Set Point (10% max) and
observe the reaction curve.
1] Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method
Calculating Process Reaction Rate:

R = B/A
Where
R = Process Reaction Rate
A = Time in minutes
B = % change in MV
1] Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method
Calculating Unit Reaction Rate:

R1 = R / X
Where
R1 = Unit Reaction Rate
R = Process Reaction Rate
X = % change in controller output
2] Ziegler-Nichols Close Loop Method
Steps:
1. Set the controller to automatic mode.
2. Switch off integral and derivative actions.
3. Slowly increase controller gain until measured value oscillates
uniformly.
4. Monitor the response curve and determine the Ultimate Gain (Gu)
and Ultimate Period (Pu).
2] Ziegler-Nichols Close Loop Method
Steps:
5. Calculate new tuning parameters using the formula below:
Mode Proportional Gain (Kc) Reset Time (Ti) Derivative Time (Td)
P Kc = 0.5Gu N/A N/A
PI Kc = 0.45Gu Ti = Pu/1.2 N/A
PID Kc = 0.6Gu Ti = 0.5Pu Td = Pu/8

## 6. Initiate disturbance by changing the Set Point (10% max) and

observe the reaction curve.
2] Ziegler-Nichols Close Loop Method
• Ultimate Gain (Gu)
- it is the value of the gain of a controller that results in the measured variable
oscillating uniformly.

## Ultimate Period (Pu)

- it is the time period where the measured variable oscillates uniformly.
Reaction Curves in Tuning
Reaction Curves in Tuning
• To determine if a controller is tuned, the reaction curve of a process
to a disturbance is monitored.

## • Generally there are two accepted reaction curves that determines if

a controller is tuned:
• Quarter Amplitude Decay
• Minimal Overshoot
Quarter Amplitude Decay vs Minimal Overshoot
• The Quarter Amplitude Decay reaction curve is characterized by
overshoot decay where each overshoot is approximately a quarter
in magnitude of the last.
Quarter Amplitude Decay vs Minimal Overshoot
• The Minimal Overshoot reaction curve is characterized by a slow
and steady approach to the setpoint without any overshoots.
Quarter Amplitude Decay vs Minimal Overshoot
• An advantage of QAD over MO is that it has a faster response and is
able to settle at the setpoint more quickly.
• The disadvantage of QAD, however, is that it is dangerous to apply
for processes that cannot afford to have overshoots such as
temperature and level. For these applications, MO is used.
• QAD may be applied to Flow and Pressure applications since both of
these variables in their system have overshoot compensation
mechanism (e.g. Pressure - Pressure Relief Valve)
Control Valve
Control Valve
• A control valve is a final controlling element that manipulates
flowing fluid in response to a controller signal.
Control Valve Flow Characteristics
• The flow characteristic of a valve
determines how much fluid is
permitted to flow per valve stem
travel.
• There are four basic control valve
flow characteristics:
1. Quick Opening
2. Linear
3. Modified Parabolic
4. Equal Percentage
Control Valve Flow Characteristics
• Quick Opening
➢ provides a large change in flow for a very small change in valve stem travel.
• Linear
➢ flow capacity increases linearly with valve stem travel.
• Modified Parabolic
➢ provides fine throttling at low flow capacity and approximately linear
characteristics at higher flow capacity
• Equal Percentage
➢ flow capacity increases exponentially with valve stem travel
Inherent vs Installed Flow Characterisctics
• Inherent Characteristic
• is the characteristic of a valve published by the manufacturer, based on
tests performed in a system where the pressure drop accross the test valve
is held constant at all valve openings and flow rate.
• Installed Characteristic
• is the characteristic of a valve is the relationship between valve position and
flow in the specific system installed, taking into account any changes in
pressure differential.
• Usually the change in the characteristic of a valve from Inherent to
Installed depends on the pressure drop present in the system. As an
example, a linear (inherent) may become quick opening (installed) if
the pressure drop of the installed is lower than the inherent testing
and vice versa.
Control Valve Sizing
• To determine the size of valve that is needed for a system, valve
sizing is performed.
• Control Valve sizing is done by determining the Cv of a valve.
• The Cv of a valve is the number of GPM (Gallons per Minute) of
water which will flow through a valve a full-open position with a
pressure drop of 1 psid.
• Determining the Cv means that a customer may know at full
opening how much flow goes through a valve and thus knowing if
that flow capacity is enough for their process.
• Factors that affect Valve Size
➢ Pipe Size
➢ Port Size