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LCC Jani Joseph1, Libi B George2, Shabna GU3, Dr. N. Santhi5, Associate professor
Susmi I4 Department of Electronics and Communication
UG Scholar1,2,3,4 Engineering
Department of Electronics and Communication Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil, Thuckalay, KK
Engineering District
Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil,Thuckalay, KK

rithms use the structural approach. That is, a given shape is

Abstract-- The morphological skeleton transform (MST) is a described in terms of its simpler shape components and the
leading morphological shape representation scheme. In the relationships among the components. The morphological skeleton
MST, a given shape is represented as the union of all the transform (MST) is a leading morphological shape representation
maximal disks contained in the shape. The concept of external algorithm [1]. In the MST, a given shape is represented as a union
skeleton points and external maximal disks has been used for of all maximal disks contained in the shape. The advantages of
shape description and characterization purposes. Dental the MST include that it has a simple and intuitive mathematical
biometrics has emerged as vital biometric information of characterization as well as an easy and efficient implementation.
human being due to its stability, invariant nature and However, one problem with the MST is that there is a great deal
uniqueness. The proposed work using SIFT algorithm for of overlapping among the maximal disks. Some shape matching
human identification and we work with canny detection algorithms have been developed based on the MST, but they were
algorithm for the analysis and comparison with the proposed only demonstrated to work on some simple geometric shapes.
SIFT algorithm. This system has six main stages as pre-
processing, feature extraction, feature matching and finalized In our paper we are comparing using SIFT algorithm for human
recognized person. Then we go for canny edge detection and identification using dental biometrics. Teeth are parts of human
comparison with database images. At the final step we organ that are not easily decayed and located inside mouth.
compare SIFT and canny algorithm detected values using the Human teeth has its own unique characteristics, based on a
Euclidian distance between the query image and database. number of distinctive features. Human teeth identification is one
Here the Euclidian distance between detected points and of the reliable tools for human identification. In general, human
matching points determines the accuracy of the algorithm for has 32 teeth each with 5 surfaces. Inside a mouth there are 160
human identification. The system is work for both types of tooth surfaces with various conditions. If we use dental features
dental images i.e. photograph and radiograph in which two as a tool of identification manual matching based on teeth
different datasets are required. The required database contains appearance needs a large amount of time and there may be some
50 images of dental photographs and 50 images of dental expertise. So we are going for computer aided identification.
radiographs so experimentation has done on total 100 images Teeth features consists of properties of teeth like shape ,size, root
and that are taken from dental clinic* and internet. While and crown morphology, pathology, dental restorations
comparing proposed SIFT algorithm with canny detection ,periodontal tissue features and anatomical features. Teeth feature
algorithm we can conclude that our SIFT algorithm can extraction means extracting various information such as contour,
provide more accurate result. artificial prosthesis ,shape, size etc. from dental image(dental
photograph and radiograph[9]).In our wok the teeth feature
Key points: MST, SIFT, Canny, Dental biometrics extracted is contour and shape because they remains more
invariant over time as compared to other features of teeth.
For identifying victims of massive disasters like terrorist attack,
Mathematical morphology is a shape-based approach to image tsunami, bomb blast etc. dental records have been used to identify
processing. It is only natural that a number of morphological shape the victims. Identification of a person based on dental records is
representation algorithms have been proposed. Many of these algo- an important concept of Forensic .Radiograph images are used

978-1-4673-9925-8/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE 802

since they are more permanent rather than fingerprints, iris and DENTAL RADIOGRAPH
facial features of an individual. The main advantage is, it will
remain available for several hours after death of an individual. It is an intra or oral image taken using X-ray radiation. Dental
Teeth identification involves three steps: image acquisition, radiograph consists of teeth, bones and surrounding soft tissues.
image enhancement and image segmentation. Periapical, Bitewing and Panoramic are the three types of dental
radiograph commonly used. In our work we are using bitewing
TOOTH ANATOMY radiographs because it will gives clear information of contour and
shape of teeth used for feature extraction.
A Tooth is a small calcified, whitish structure found in the
mouths (jaws). It is used to break down food. Its roots are covered
by gums. Teeth are not made up of bone, but rather of multiple
tissues of varying density and hardness. A typical healthy tooth
has number of layers and its internal structure. Each tooth relates
to the gum and surrounding jaw bone. The crown is the part of the
tooth that is visible above the gum and neck is the region of the
tooth at the gum line, between root and the crown. Root is the
(a) (b) (c)
region below the gum. Some teeth have only one roots, for
example, incisors and canine (eye) teeth, whereas molars and Fig.3 (a) Periapical radiograph (b) Bitewing radiograph (c)
premolars have 4 roots per tooth. Panoramic radiograph


There are certain techniques based on dental radiograph and

dental photograph are already exist. For each technique certain
algorithms are used for the identification of images. For that in
each technique any one or two of the teeth features are taken for
matching purpose.


In our proposed system we are using two algorithms for teeth

identification, for proving that morphological skeleton transform
is more efficient for identification purposes. SIFT-Scale Invariant
Fig.1 Tooth anatomy Feature Transform and Canny Edge Detection are the two
algorithms using in the proposed system. In SIFT algorithm
DENTAL PHOTOGRAPH identification is based on key points .SIFT is based on MST. In
Canny algorithm identification is based on edge detection.
It is the pictorial view of teeth structure. It is a image captured by
digital camera by stretching lower and upper lips. Dental DATA BASE INPUT
photographs gives the information of contour and size of upper
and lower jaw teeth.



Fig.2 Typical dental photograph
Fig 4: block diagram of proposed system

Input Image: Here the input images are dental photograph and
radiograph in JPEG format. First user has to select database Human teeth identification using canny algorithm consists of five
type, either dental photograph or radiograph. After that input steps,
image is selected from that database type for further processing.
The input image is then resized to 150*150 in pre-processing step 1. Image Classification
2. Pre-Processing
3.2 RGB TO GRAY CONVERSION 3. Segmentation
4. Feature Extraction
It is necessary step because the processing takes place on gray 5. Dental Image Matching And Human Identification
scale image. It is carried out by eliminating hue and saturation
information while retaining luminance information of image. 4.1 IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

3.3 SEGMENTATION Here phase collection of various dental radiographs are done.
These images are stored in template and used as database. The
Here each tooth is segmented in rectangular region using information about the person such as name and address to which
mathematical approach like noise filtering, it will isolate the teeth the radiograph belongs is stored separately. Then it is classified as
from background. Specify colour range, intensity and hue map, periapical, panoramic and bitewing dental images. Among these
creating binary image from hue intensity map and return binary bitewing images has certain features like upper and lower jaws
image are the four steps used in segmentation signifying bite. Peiapical has features like a nasal area, sinuses
.Here we used bitewing images. Dental radiographs can be
3.4 FEATURE EXTRACTION divided into teeth areas, bone areas and background area.

In feature extraction SIFT is used to extract key points from the  Teeth area - high intensity.
input image and comparing with database images for feature
 Bone area - average intensity
matching. SIFT is an algorithm in computer vision to detect and
 Background area - lowest intensity
describe local features in images. Here we used skeleton image to
extract highly distinctive features. There are four steps involved 4.2 PRE-PROCESSING
in SIFT feature extraction. Scale –space Extreme Detection, Key
point Localization, Interpolation of nearby Data for Accurate In pre-processing the unwanted noise in radiographs are removed.
Position, Orientation Assignment. First dental radiograph are converted into gray scale image. From
the histogram unwanted intensities can be seen and filter out from
3.5 FEATURE MATCHING the image.

Here key points in feature extraction step are used for matching 4.3 SIZE MATCHING
of database image with input image on the basis of their
thresholding. SIFT features are first extracted from a set of The size of image in matching reference and input images are
reference images and stored in a database. A new image is same initially. In the matching the images will be subtracted. So
matched by individually comparing each feature from the new we get intensity matrix for all the images. Size matching is
image to this previous database and finding candidate matching important parameter in our work.
features based on Euclidean distance of their feature vectors. If
Euclidean distance is 0.8 times less than secondary least 4.4 SHAPE MATCHING
Euclidean distance then two feature points are match. After
repeated experiment when dist ratio=0.65, there reflect matching The shapes of the crowns of the segmented teeth are used to find
points and remove mismatch points in addition the matching ratio a match between the query case and the cases in the reference
is the best. More match points help to achieve high accuracy; this database. The matching is performed by finding features like
is calculated by using following formula rotation scale and translation. It results in a minimum matching
𝐸(𝑥, 𝑦) = √∑(𝑥𝑖 − 𝑦𝑖 )2 … … … … … … … . . (1)
Radiograph is segmented into regions such that each region
contains only a single tooth. There are three steps consists in
E – Eucledian distance, x, y – feature vectors segmentation.

1. Filtering of noise is different for dental photograph and radiograph even they have
same experimentation. Output results of 20 persons with 10
2. To isolate the teeth from the background thresholding is photograph and 10 radiograph are shown below.

In canny edge detection is used. Edge is a point in the image From this average matching ratio and average matching time can
where intensities are changing rapidly. It refers to the various be calculated,
mathematical and algorithmic methods by which a computer is
able to map out the edges. Table 1: Dental photograph


Thresh Key points Match Misma Matchi Matchi
Name old points tch ng ng
We can derive the optimal edge operation to find step edges in the
value points ratio time
presence of white noise. (sec.)
Sujeeth 0.0349 317 317 317 00 100% 5
 Good detection- minimum the probability of detecting
false edges and missing real edge. Reeja 0.0349 227 188 38 84% 6
 Good localization- detected edges must be close to the 1175
true edges. Abin 0.0349 244 182 61 75% 7
 Single response- return only one point for each true
Girija 0.0349 529 529 529 00 100% 5
edge point. George 0.0349 319 345 257 55 81% 4.4
Leny 0.0349 359 359 359 00 100% 5
IMAGE Sarath 0.0349 156 158 156 00 100% 4
SMOOTHIN Sinu 0.0349 279 345 253 25 92% 4
G Ajith 0.0349 310 392 275 24 91% 5
GRADIENT COMPUTING Ardra 0.0349 445 703 380 74 87% 5

sum of all matching ratio(%)

Average matching ratio =
NON MAXIMA SUPPRESSION 𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠

= = 94%

𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒(𝑠𝑒𝑐)

Average matching time =
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠
>threshold = = 5.33 sec


END 600
500 key
Fig. 5 flowchart of canny algorithm 400 points
key points

4.8 IMPLEMENTATION 300 match

200 points
Here the reference images are stored in a program. Input image
are new image which is match with all the reference images. 100
0 5 10 15
number of persons
The experiment is done on 50 persons dental radiograph and 50
persons dental photograph. The matching ratio and matching time Fig.6 Graphical representation of key points and match

5.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF DENTAL human teeth for identification due to its stable and unique features
RADIOGRAPH rather than finger prints, face etc. in future work, the million order
data set can be selected and image identification can be done on
Table 2: Dental radiograph large dataset.

Thresh Key Match Mism Matchi Mat REFERENCES

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