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Dual coding

Principles of Teaching Vocabulary Avoiding cross-association

Repetition / Recycling
Provide examples of the concept
Devout equall time to the
h four
f strands
Estimate learning burden
Teach underlying patterns

This is a girl. She is going to

school. Look at her bag. Is it
Dual Encoding: express the meaning twice open? Yes. What is this (pointing
(Paivio & Desrochers, 1981) at the pencil case). It is a
Linguistic encoding
pencil case. The pencil case is
Visual encoding: giving the meaning of a word on the ground. It is not in the
visually bag.
(e.g. objects, pictures, actions, etc.)

Linguistic encoding: giving the meaning of a

word through language
Visual encoding
(e.g. definitions, L1 translations, L2
synonyms and antonyms, L2 example words &

2. pictures & objects include too many details
Dual encoding is necessary because:
that distract the learner from the real meaning /
1. visually encoded words are more likely to
Tiryakioğlu (2006)
be remembered than linguistically encoded
teaching with pictures (6th grade)
g & translation tests
Chun & Plass (1996)
Learning conditions: text-only, text &
incorrect translations= incorrect focus on another
pictures, text & video
aspect of the picture
better learning in text & pictures than others
text & video didn’t result in better learning
than text-only

ground: aşağıda (3 learners) /

body: organlar (6 learners) in contrast to the cat on the tree

ground: çocuğun kalem kutusu yerde
/the whole scene

price: satmak, ucuz, etiket

patient: hastane, hasta ve ziyaretçi, hasta ve


(translation as a checking procedure might be


Cross-association occurs when words similar in form

and / or meaning are taught / learnt together.
Avoid Cross-Association
forming incorrect form-meaning correspondances odour-fragrance-smell
Teaching / Learning: cube-dice-chop-cut
tall: uzun
short: kısa Antonyms: tall-short,
tall-short poor-rich
(similar in meaning / extreme points along the same
Cross-association: dimension)
tall: kısa
Semantic Sets: colours, fruits, vegetables, vehicles
short: uzun
Advice: introduce the unmarked/ most general /most
frequent first

Synforms: words similar in form
(Laufer, 1988) Principle: Repetition

(similar form)
expect / except Repetition of words is necessary for:
quite / quiet
price / prize a. Consolidation of form
conceal / cancel b. Consolidation of form-meaning
available / valuable relationship
l h
cute / acute
c. Fluency of access in language use
d. Elaboration of word knowledge (aspects)
(similar morphology)
economic vs economical
industrious / industrial
reduce / deduce / induce

Consolidating Word Knowledge: explicit repetitions

Repetitions in stages of vocabulary teaching
1. Presentation (first encounter)
Mass repetition:spending a continuous period of time
-teacher’s own repetitions (modelling word form/
(e.g. 5 mins) giving repeated attention to a word
during teaching of meaning)
-learners’ repetitions (choral /individual)
(all repetitions at once/ only once)
-exercises and activities involving new words for
e.g. written
itt repetition
titi as homework
h k (write
( it 5 times)
ti )
e.g. study of a word list before an exam
2. Consolidation (subsequent encounters)
a. Explicit: revision sessions, homework, exams
Spaced repetition: spreading the repetitions across a
b. Incidental: coursebook recyling of words,
long period of time
teacher’s classroom talk, extensive reading, free
(not necessarily requires spending more time, i.e. =5

2. space between each repetition should become
Spacing of repetitions
1. The first repetition: soon after initial
Pimsleur (1967)’s memory schedule:
1 5 secs
2 25 secs
Anderson & Jordan (1928)
3 2 mins
immediate recall: 66% (44% forgotten)
4 10 mins
one week later: 48% (18% forgotten)
5 1 hour
three weeks later: 39% (9% forgotten)
6 5 hours
eight weeks later: 37% (2 % forgotten)
7 1 day
8 5 days
(Most forgetting occurs after initial learning,
9 25 days
then forgetting slows down)
10 4 months
11 2 yrs

The right timing for repetition (Nation, 2001):

A simpler schedule:
enough forgetting should occur to make
1. 10 minutes later repetition worthwhile
2. next day
3. a week later not too much forgetting should occur for a good
4. a month later chance of recalling
5. 6 months later

(computerized repetition)

Number of repetitions: Consolidating Word Knowledge: incidental repetitions

Crothers & Suppes (1967) (repetitions in the input/reading or listening material)

(vocabulary learning experiments)
most items learnt after 6/7 repetitions
giving attention to an item & recognize it as a useful
Tinkham (1993) language item
(6 paired associates)

5-7 repetitions (most learners) If the learner does not notice a word the first time,
over 20 repetitions (a few learners) subsequent encounters will not function as repetitions.

large individual variances in time required for

learning and no.of repetitions

Noticing involves decontextualisation Factors that affect the noticing of a word by the
learner from the input:
Decontextualisation: the word is removed from its
context to be focused on as a language item. a. Salience of the word in the input
b. Previous contact with the word
a. The learner notices a word in the input as new / c. Learner’s realisation that the word fills a gap in his
used in a new way, guess from context or looks up in knowledge of the language
a dictionary
Motivation & interest are enabling conditions for
b. The teacher highlights the word by writing it on noticing. If learners are motivated and interested:
the board, explaining the word, repeating the word or a. salience enhanced by better processed input
having learners repeat it, etc. b. previous contact will be remembered.
c. better awareness of gaps and stronger need to fill
c. Peers might highlight a word to one another. the gap
d.vocabulary exercises / homework

Types of Repetition (different depth of processing)
1. Rote-repetition: repetition of word form
1. rote-repetition (consolidation)
2. retrieval
3. generetiveness e.g. choral repetition
e.g. elicited individual repetition
e.g. oral self-repetition (i.e. saying aloud)
e.g. written repetition

Receptive retrieval: in listening / reading

Retrieval (meaning is retrieved)

subsequent recall of an item after the first Productive retrieval: in speaking / writing
encounter (form is retrieved)

memory of f the
h word
d is strengtened
d /subsequent
/ b
retrievals become easier Retriaval doesn’t occur if meaning and form is
presented simultaneously.

e.g. To practice house / choral repetition while

showing the picture of a house
(rote-repetition / not retrieval)

Generative / Creative Use e.g. Discuss

Previously met words are subsequently met / used They discussed the subject shortly yesterday.
differently from the previous encounters (first encounter)

e.g. cement They are discussing it over right now.

We cemented the path.
path (first encounter) (a new inflected form)
We cemented our relationship with a drink. (a
new meaning) The discussion went on for a long time.
(a new derivative)

e.g. flawless Degrees of Generation

She had a flawless complexion.

(first encounter) Low: if used slightly differently
e.g. chronic pain: very chronic pain (different
It was a flawless performance. grammatical context)
(a new collocation)
High: if used substantially differently
His French is almost flawless.
(a new collocation) e.g. chronic pain: chronic illness, chronic
He presents a flawless argument in his article.
(a new collocation)

Receptive vs Productive Generation

Receptive Generation:meeting a word used in new

ways in listening & reading

Productive Generation: using the word in new

Thank You!
ways in speaking or writing