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4. Supervision means overseeing the performance of a person or a group.

It consists of
developing skills and acknowledge of the employed workers. Supervision means to check the
performance of workers and to guide them accordingly. As compared to administration is used
to implement the policies, rules and techniques passed by management.
Administration is the process of overseeing a company’s overall performance . It is concerned
with managing different departments, ensuring that goals are achieved. Supervision is a
managerial process that involves monitoring a person’s performance. It is concerned with
managing a group of people towards delivery of specific goals. The administrator is responsible
for the supervisor while the supervisor answers to the administrator. Supervisor is the work
maintainer and processor if any employee ha a problem issue so they consult with supervisor
then the supervisor report to administrator and try to clear the problem , supervisor is the
responsible for employee and administrator is the responsible for all.
Administration involves follow up set procedures and processes in a system and supervision
involves to watching over those in the administration or any type of worker, administration is
what runs a school but also looks up to a supervisor.

The main differences between educational administration and supervision are related to their
scope and goals. Administrators organize and control the resources, represent and guide the
instructional communities. Supervisors visit, diagnose, evaluate and survey instructional
methods, teachers and learners, as well as overall climate.

Although educational supervision and administration differ in many ways and may vary for
different educational systems, there are some common features and goal they both share. Both
of them try to deliver and improve the education in general with the best conditions.
5. There are several advantages for teachers to conduct action research. First, it helps
educators use data, rather than preferences or hunches, to guide improvement efforts. This
makes the process of action research more scientific in nature, proposing ideas and theories
that can be back up by data. This gives teachers something more concrete to work with instead
of just relying on the principles that teachers have used in the past. Times change, and the way
we teach kids has to change along with the times. There have been a lot of changes to the way
things are taught in school as a result of the work of action research.

Another advantage of implementing action research lies in the fact it addresses the both the
quality of students� education and the professional growth of teachers. Logically, this would
be the ideal strategy in order for students to learn most effectively and for teachers to teach
most effectively. By actually reflecting on what a teacher is doing in the classroom, it becomes
easier to see what problems are there, and there is usually some indication of how to go about
solving the problem.

This leads into the third advantage of action research: it leads directly to actions that change

One example that illustrates how action research has changed a curriculum would be in the physical education program. but it takes a lot of time to conduct to be done well. the educator comes back and asks about what the students have gathered about the concepts and fills in any details the students may have missed. Action research is a very beneficial tool. soccer. there have been a lot of changes to the way subjects are taught in schools because of action research. several new techniques have developed which help increase the level of inquiry in the classroom. A fourth advantage of the use of action research is it plays an important role in improvement of specific pedagogical practices. break down the major concept into smaller concepts and link all these concepts together with the use of connecting words. One of these new techniques is concept mapping. quite different from what it was years ago. Hence. health and fitness. sit-ups. This technique involves introducing a concept by first giving students information on a concept and giving time for them to explore it on their own or in groups. at least in theory. action research has the advantage of developing a culture of inquiry in the school and reflective educational practice on the part of the classroom teacher. While concept mapping lends itself especially well to the sciences. and so on. It is also to note that not all problems can be solved overnight. so results are not as immediate as one might expect. where students take a major concept and. Action research is an ongoing process of reflection and action to produce the most effective learning environment possible. But the fact remains that action research is an essential process for education to evolve to meet the needs of the . action research can be thought of as responsible for many of the innovations in pedagogy we now have at our disposal as present and future teachers. a thoughtful educator will usually not waste much time in implementing actions based on the action research he or she conducted. it has equal merit in other subjects as well. They realized there was a need to implement social. It has changed through the work of action research. etc. Finally. affective. and cognitive domains into the physical education curriculum. and played games in sports like basketball. It now involves movement concepts. physical education in high school is. They are also more meaningful because students are actively engaged in the learning process instead of just a passive observer. push-ups. in a web or chart format. Then. The final stage involves further exploration of the concept. where educators realized that students were not getting enough just by playing sports.the environment. dance. Both these approaches have a higher level of inquiry that teacher-centred teaching techniques such as lecturing. The classic stereotype of physical education is a course where you did militaristic things like climbing a rope. Another technique (which incidentally has its origins in the sciences) that has raised the level of inquiry in the classroom is the learning cycle. hockey. Through action research. As mentioned earlier. Once a teacher begins reflecting on the classroom situation. laps. However.

Society crates educational institutions such as schools. The educational system may be viewed as a part of the total social system. Learning as a process refers to the internal development caused by acquiring new information and elaborating one’s own understanding of using it. For example. Similarly education is conditioned by the economic institutions. the balance between individual freedom and social control. society is what forms the basis of education. colleges and universities to perform certain functions in accomplishing its end. This view emphasizes learners’ active engagement in their own learning process and making sense of the content. Education is a sub-system of the society. In the same way. Various institutions or sub-systems are a social system because they are interrelated. . the power structure. Students are the object of instruction. Society's culture is what sets the curriculum along with the government's objectives and aims. There are also functional relations between education and other sub-systems. It is related to other sub-systems. At the same time education is also conditioned by the social structure.students of today and tomorrow. It reflects and influences the social and cultural order of which it is a part. It can be stated here that education performs certain role for the society. This view emphasizes the importance of instruction and information delivery. 6. the degree of urbanisation and industrialisation all these factors exercise a profound influence on school system of any society. Their choices and learner agency are very limited. the cultural values. most importantly. Learning as a product refers to meeting the external objective(s) of instruction with a measurable change in behavior. 7. Education as a sub-system performs certain functions for the society as whole. Interrelationship between man education and society Both influence one another in various ways. Students are subjects of their own learning. Education trains the individuals in skills that are required by economy. They have choices and learner agency is supported. however. education helps to transmit culture and develop the society. The class system.

6. Filipinos realize their potential. Cite 3 measures which can be part of the program for human research development. 5. “…enable them to realize their full potential and contribute meaningfully to building the nation…” 9. arts. “We dream of Filipinos…” 2. 10.centered public institution…” . a wish. 3. Mission and Core Values 1. 2. and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism. 8. DepEd's New Vision. Because as a learner-centered institution we want them to know how to improve themselves and realize their dreams. 12. 11. but to contribute to building a nation every Filipino deserves. It is a dream. 1. accelerate social progress. “…and whose values and competencies…” 7.8. 10. 9. culture. Schoolís Mission The mission represents the overall raison díetre of the school. The schoolís statement of its mission. Our vision is more than just the end-goal of a plan. while keeping in mind the state of their country and the welfare of their people. 6. “…who passionately love their country…” 5. 8. We need to do two things: inculcate the values deemed necessary and desirable and train students to make sure they have the necessary competencies. who have a strong desire to serve their country and work for its development. It outlines general principles and is aspirational in nature. In turn. and what it considers to be the fundamental purpose of education. “As a learner. By envisioning we begin to fulfill our mandate and responsibilities stated in Republic Act No. not for selfish gain. what it wants to create. 9155 and do our duty as Filipinos. Section 17 under Article II of the 1987 Constitution mandates the State to give priority to education. human liberation. 4. 11. 7. vision and fundamental aims articulates why the school exists. a prayer – what we fervently hope for and what we diligently work towards. 12. 4. science and technology. and development. The mission statement comprises a core message: ♦ Schoolís original purpose ♦ The values that the school stands for ♦ The reason for the schoolís continued existence Schoolís Vision The vision represents the desired future. 3. We want to develop learners who are true citizens and patriots.

“…the DepEd continuously improves itself…” 16. Through time. our learners have changing needs and the Department must adapt and be better to serve them better. both as an institution and as individuals. Conducting direct observation in private or closed settings -. we do not stop learning. 18. the direct observer strives to be unobtrusive and detached from the setting  Direct observation is not necessarily an alternative to other types of field methods. public settings where anyone has a right to be or congregate. 15. such as participant observation or qualitative interviews. 13.  Direct Observation  Participant Observation  Qualitative Interviews  Helpful Links Direct Observation  Data is gathered primarily through close visual inspection of a natural setting  Rather than actively engaging members of a setting in conversations or interviews. and qualitative interviews. .is more likely to raise ethical concerns. 14. 19. Rather.formal basic education. and complete basic education where:” Kinds of research FIELD RESEARCH Qualitative research is concerned with understanding and interpreting another person's social world through accessing their lived experiences. 15. Three types of qualitative field research methods are described here that focus on capturing lived experiences: direct observation. we put the Filipino learner first. “To protect and promote the right of every Filipino to quality. programs. 17. culture- based. a group of individuals. participant observation.” 18. 19. We constantly seek to be better. plans. In all our decisions and actions. or forms of behavior prior to interacting with members or developing interview protocols Direct observation as a research method is most appropriate to open. 16. Just like our students. implements. equitable. “…to better serve its stakeholders. 14. 13. and projects in areas of formal and non. 17. and coordinates policies. it may be an initial approach to understanding a setting.without the knowledge or consent of members -. The DepEd is the government agency that formulates.

many will speak and behave in a natural manner in the presence of the ethnographer Qualitative Interviews Qualitative interviews are a type of field research method that elicits information and data by directly asking questions of members. There are three primary types of qualitative interviews: informal. The ethnographer. conversational. a list of predetermined questions or probes. As the ethnographer gains the confidence and trust of the members. and open-ended. semi-structured. often spontaneously. attempts to build trusting relationships so that he or she becomes part of the social setting.Participant Observation  A field research method whereby the researcher develops an understanding of the composition of a particular setting or society by taking part in the everyday routines and rituals alongside its members  Originally developed in the early 20th century by anthropologists researching native societies in developing countries. who often lives among the members of the society for months or years. or society. As the conversation unfolds. Open-Ended Interviews . now employed by researchers studying a range of issues  The principal research method used by ethnographers -. community. Conversational Interviews  Frequently occur during participant observation or following direct observation  The researcher begins conversing with a member from a setting. the researcher formulates specific questions. standardized. are devised so that each interviewee will respond to a similar series of questions  Questions should be of an open-ended nature to elicit as much detail and meaning from the interviewee as possible  The researcher is free to pursue and probe other topics as they emerge during the interview Standardized. and begins asking them informally  Appropriate when the researcher wants maximum flexibility to pursue topics and ideas as they emerge during the exchange Semi-Structured Interviews  Involves formally recruiting a member from a setting for the specific purposes of conducting an interview  Prior to the interview. also known as an interview guide.specialists within the fields of anthropology and sociology who focus on recording the details of social life occurring in a setting. Informal.

 Similar to a survey since questions are carefully scripted and written prior to the interview. which serves to minimize variability in question wording  The researcher asks a uniform series of questions in the same order to each interviewee.  The questions are open-ended to capture individual differences across interviewees  Particularly appropriate for qualitative studies involving multiple interviewers .