This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Karate is a synthesis of indigenous Okinawan fighting methods and southern Chinese martial arts. Karate is primarily a striking art, featuring punching, kicking, knee/elbow strikes and open hand techniques; however, grappling, joint manipulations, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point striking are inherent in the finer points of the art. Karate is characterized by the use of the hips and stances to generate striking power, by the distinctive use of breathing to focus power, and by the practice of prearranged forms. The prearranged forms are called kata. A person who practices karate is sometimes referred to as a karate-ka. In Japanese, karate-ka means "karate practitioner". Karate is also called karate-dō. Karate Training Karate training is divided into three major areas: basics, forms , and sparring. Basic motion (Kihon) is the study of the fundamental techniques of the art. Forms (Kata) is a series of movements and techniques linked together by the physical/combative principles that the kata expresses, represented as a fixed sequence of moves against imagined opponents. The moves involved in a specific form may have multiple interpretations as self-defense techniques. Sparring may be constrained by many rules or it may be free sparring, and may be practiced both as sport and for self-defense training. Types of Karate There are several different karate styles. Many styles use specialized condition equipment. Some styles use traditional Okinawan weapons. Some common styles are: • Goju-ryu karate ○ ○ • Goju-ryu is the hard/soft school of Karate. Goju-ryu is one of the four original Okinawan styles of Karate, and was founded by Chojun Miyagi (1888-1953). Shotokan is one of the four main schools of Karate in Japan. Shotokan is best characterized by its long and deep stances and its use of more linear movements. Shotokan Karate has little of the circular movements found in Okinawan styles of karate, nor does it have the body conditioning and supplementary training exercises typical for Okinawan Goju-Ryu Karate. Tournaments and point-sparring are central to the Shotokan karate. Wado-Ryu Karate is one of the four main styles of Japanese karate. Wado-Ryu Karate was developed by Otsuka Hironori Wado-Ryu Karate is a combination of Shotokan karate, Jujutsu, grappling and Tai Sabaki. Wado-ryu karate does not practice many of the body toughening exercises common to other styles of karate, preferring rather to use Tai Sabaki to evade attacks. Shito-Ryu Karate was developed by an Okinawan karate master named Kenwa Mabuni (1890-1954).
Shotokan karate ○
○ ○ ○
Shito-ryu karate ○
Whereas most Karate styles use white gis (uniforms). Kali Iado Kendo . and blocking. Brazilian Jujitsu Shooto or shoot fighting Sambo Greco-Roman Wrestling ○ Throwing styles are styles that primarily start from a standup position but utilize throws. Characteristic for Shito-Ryu Karate are the square-on stances and linear strikes. Some of the more popular styles are ○ Stand-up styles place a lot of focus on punching. Karate Kung Fu Tae Kwon Do Boxing/Kick boxing Krav Maga Wushu San Shou ○ Ground Fighting or Grappling Styles have a large focus on the "wrestling" aspect of combat. Kenpo karate ○ ○ ○ ○ • Choose a style. trips. a visual characteristic of Kenpo is its use of black Gis for higher grades and sometimes mixing black Gi tops with white pants and vice versa. kicking. Kenpo places equal emphasis on the use of hands and feet and uses similar fighting techniques to other Okinawan fighting styles. locks and other means to disrupt the balance of an opponent. Traditional Okinawan weapons are also taught in the Shito-Ryu style of karate. Kenpo also practices Kata or forms like other martial arts. There are several different types of martial arts. Kenpo Karate is a complete fighting system that is particularly popular in the United States.○ ○ ○ • Shito Ryu is a combination of the kata and techniques of Gojuryu KArate and Shuri-Te Karate. Judo Aikido Shuai Jiao (Chiao) Hapkido ○ Weapons based styles focus the majority of their practice on the use of one or more weapons.
therefore. The modern art of Karate has developed out of a thorough organization of these techniques. The literal meaning of the two Japanese characters which make up the word Karate is "empty hands. Karate helps with the development of a strong character and builds a feeling of respect toward our fellow man." This. young and old alike. Tai Chi Ba Gua Chi Gong based style home Articles History of Karate Related articles can be found in: Martial Arts: History/Information home new articles section catalog keyword catalog title catalog author catalog Top of Form What is Karate? The art of Karate is a system of combat developed on the island of Okinawa. male and female. internal energy. This system consisted of techniques of blocking or thwarting an attack and counter-attacking the opponent by punching. The study of Karate. may be valuable to all people. striking or kicking. stress relief and a low impact form of martial arts training and exercise. of course. The students practice hard physical training to develop fighting skills. Karate may allow you to defeat an opponent by the use of striking and kicking.○ Low impact or Meditative Styles are heavily focused on breathing.This training requires strenuous physical and mental discipline. refers simply to the fact that Karate originated as a system of self-defense which relied on the effective use of the unarmed body of the practitioner. Karate as a means of self-defense has partner-pub-6909 ISO-8859-1 Search Bottom of Form .
Many girls and women in Japan have taken up Karate because. Western (non-Japanese) students may be interested to know that the Japan Karate Association emphasizes Karate's character-building aspects.the oldest history. As a sport. It is only in recent years that the techniques which have been handed down were scientifically studied and the principles evolved for making the most effective use of the various moves of the body. to defend himself successfully against any would-be assailant. it provides excellent all-around exercise and develops coordination and agility. the variety of techniques. Contest rules have been devised. in addition to its usefulness as self-defense. Training based on these principles and knowledge of the working of the muscles and the joints and the vital relation between movement and balance enable the modern student of Karate to be prepared. As a physical art. The maxims which are taught to the students can be summarized in the following five words: CHARACTER SINCERITY . Karate is almost without equal. and the split-second timing it calls for. many athletic-minded people have come to show an interest in competitive Karate and there is every indication that it will continue to grow in popularity. because of the speed. going back hundreds of years. both physically and psychologically. in which respect for one's opponent (sportsmanship) is the cardinal principle. It is widely practiced by both children and older people as a means of keeping in top physical condition. and it is now possible to hold actual matches as in other competitive sports. however. it is especially good for the figure. and many schools are promoting it as a physical art among their students. Karate has a relatively short history. Since it is highly dynamic and makes balanced use of a large number of body muscles.
" For example. "Chan Fa and Ken Fat" The meaning of "Kempo" in Japanese is "The Law Of The Fist" or "The Way Of Fist". So great was the influence by T'ang that the character "To" (also known as "Kara") was used as an adjective meaning "T'ang=China. As a custom. There were many buildings built imitating Chinese design. These forms were not found in Japan nor in China but many similarities were found in these countries.EFFORT ETIQUETTE SELF-CONTROL How The Word "Karate" Developed "TE" Prior to the 20th Century. not because these forms came from China but because of unknown factors. Government representatives had been exchanged during the Sui period but it was during the Tang period that the Japanese learned Chinese culture very deeply. . many terms were used to describe certain forms existing in Okinawa. It is understandable that either Japanese or Okinawans named the fighting forms developed in Okinawa as "Tode" (then also read as "Karate"). The ideographs (Tode) were standard in Okinawa at this time. Kara Ningyo=China doll and To Jin=Chinese people. 1905 In 1905 Karate was included in the physical education curriculum of Okinawa's intermediate schools (junior high). "Tode" The great mighty Tang Dynasty influenced Japan in many ways. they were pleased to believe that it must have come from China. In 1905 the Okinawa Master Chomo Hanagi first used the other (Karate) ideograph for his book Karate Soshu Hen. "Kempo" is read as "Chan Fa" in Mandarin and "Ken Fat" in Cantonese in China. when there was something unknown to Japanese people.
They would establish the new origin. Reasons For This Change 1. Here he became famous for teaching standards of Buddhism that were very strict physically as well as spiritually. The Beginnings In India According to legend. Miyagi. The new ideograph also represented the meaning of "Mu" "Ku" which has a stronger association with Zen philosophy than the old. This was the art of fighting methods using no weapons but only the "empty hand". To endure this arduous journey. The ideograph was used occasionally by people who were reluctant to use changes even in the early 1960's.D. Daruma developed the physical and mental powers for which he was later renowned. 2. 3. Yabu. Although there are many stylistic similarities in the fighting arts of India and China. there is no solid evidence that the Chinese fighting arts came from . the capital city of Okinawa and also the "Mecca" of the Karate world. In this meeting.. the Indian monk Daruma journeyed from India to China to teach the Liang dynasty monarch the tenets of Zen Buddhism.Meeting in 1936 In 1936 Ryukyu Shimpo. After delivering the tenets of Buddhism. the unification of writing was discussed and it was decided to change the name of the art to "Karate" meaning "empty hand". an Okinawan newspaper. Motobu. They believed Okinawan fighting arts could be independent from China even though they recognized that great influence by China that existed. Kiyamu. the letter was standardized and has remained unchanged to the present day. sponsored a meeting of Okinawan Karate masters to discuss the status of Karate in Okinawa. Daruma remained in China. and Hanagi were invited to Naha. in the sixth century A. staying in Shaolin Sze where he taught Buddhism to the Chinese monks. Standardization After the meeting.
.Ming period 8.Ming period 6. 1. Fan Chuan...... As a corollary of Daruma's training.. Ch'Uen Yuan Most Chan Fa systems are descendants of the one hundred-seventy hand and foot positions of Ch' Uen Yuan and they can be traced back to Bodhidharma's influence. In weak physical condition one will never be able to perform the rigorous training necessary to attain true enlightenment......India as is told in legends......... There are Chinese texts documenting the existence of several Chinese martial art forms prior to Daruma's journey in the 6th century......... and that no known record either verifies or denies this contention. The Chinese Influence "Although the goal of Buddhism is the salvation of the soul..... Erh-Lang Men. Hon Chaun... the monks at the Shaolin Temple won the reputation of being the best fighters in China... Shaolin Chan Fa.Sui period or before 2.. Branching Out The Shaolin Chan Fa is listed as one of nine Wai Cha (external schools) of fighting systems and is regarded to be the first established system in China. Tau Tei Yu Tan Tui..Ching period(1699-1911) .. Cha Chuan....... Hung Chuan." So Daruma taught student monks Icchin which is regarded as the tool through which is necessary rigorous physical and mental training may be endured.. the body and soul cannot be separated..Sung period (1127-1279) 3....Ming period 7.Sung period 4.Ming period (13681644) 5... Mi Tsung Yum..... I merely wish to affirm that the organized origins of Karate came into being during this time period...
). and only the members of the samurai class were allowed to use weapons for fighting or train in the martial arts. Through .. Tai Chi Chuan 3. In 607. the first official Japanese ambassador was sent to China. there was a very strong status system in Japan much like the caste system in India.. The earliest legends tell of two god figures.D. Tzu Fan Men 6. and this exchange was maintained through the T'ang Dynasty... Liu He Pa Fa Japan Sumo is perhaps the oldest known form or system of weaponless fighting in Japan and dates back beyond the mythological era (before 500 A.. Many forms of martial arts already existed in Japan during this time period which might carry the influence of Chan Fa in their fighting styles....9. Takeminakata No Kami and Takemikazuchi No Kami.. During this time Chinese influence flourished in Japan. They were expected to behave in a respectful and courageous manner. Wu Tang Pai 2.Ching period In comparison there were the Nei Cha (internal schools). 1.. who engaged in power contests. during the Sui Dynasty. all from the Sung or post Sung Dynasties. At that time. This lack of development was due to the structure of Japanese society. Pa Kua Chaun 4.. The samurai were respected because they protected the commoners. these Chan Fa systems were never developed by the Japanese martial artists of the day. Hsin Yi Chua 5. Pa Chuan. Another story relates the wrestling contests between Nomino Sikune No Mikoto and Taima NoKehaya. and it is believed that Chan Fa was introduced along with many other things of Chinese origin. However.. These contests are known to be the first between demi-gods and similar mythological beings.
the monks were untouchable by either the samurai or the government. the role of the samurai became a sacred trust. carrying "this burden of pride. he and his family would lose their jobs permanently. In that case. many Buddhist monks were well trained in fighting methods and were used to maintain local law and order. Early Stages During the Sui and Tang Dynasties. some forms of martial arts were developed like Torite and Ashikeri. but the art of fighting systems was practiced and developed by the Buddhist monks. Interestingly. Many became security guards for wealthy individuals in Kyoto. And because of the popularity of Buddism. during the Heian period between 7941184. It is easy to see how weaponless fighting systems developed at that time would never gain enough popularity to be properly recognized. Toyotomi Hideyoshi In 1592. many Japanese and Chinese representatives traveled with relative freedom between the two countries. Even so.strong government control. This is also when Buddhism came to Japan and gained popularity. Many temples became independent and secretive in their administration of religious matters due to the political intrigues. and later Yawara and Jujitsu did exist among the lower class police forces. An interesting note is the similarities in the weapons (kobudo) developed in Japan and in Okinawa during this time period." Being a member of the samurai class meant lifelong employment unless a samurai was found guilty of wrong doing. this great general decided to . Wars and battles were still decided by the samurai. Samurai constantly practiced weaponry to better themselves and had time for little else. The popularity of Buddism made some temples so powerful that they became involved in many political upheavals. This is believed to be the time when many martial arts developed in Japan.
Because of its strategic location. He had conquered Japan and sought to continue his quest by marching on to China. but also his dynasty. the indigenous Okinawan fighting forms were heavily influenced by Chan Fa. the Japanese used the name "kempo". Through a constant influence of Chinese sailors and merchants. Once again the peace of the entire nation was in shambles. Japan and Taiwan. The failure of this conquest cost Toyotomi not only his life and his fortune.fulfill his dream of conquering the world. The conflict between the remainder of the Toyotomi clan and the rival clan of Tokugawa Dynasty began and was to last for the next three hundred years. Okinawa is the main island of the Ryukyu Islands. the name it held before it became known as Karate. located in the East China Sea between Kyushu. meaning "hand". the climate was against them. which means "fist way". and resistance was much stronger than expected. Te later was renamed Tode. The art of Karate as it is widely practiced today can be traced back to Okinawan martial arts systems called "Te". Okinawa was invaded several times by both China and Japan. the generals in Korea were not familiar enough with the terrain to plan strategic advances. But as history has revealed. and the similar term in Chinese is Chan Fa. Each country sought to use okinawa as a . and it soon proved to be a disaster as the Japanese faced too many disadvantages. It is oral history that many warriors came back from the failed conquest of China with some kind of hand-to-hand combat system. The dream was ended with the death of Hideyoshi in 1598 without a single Japanese soldier ever setting foot on Chinese soil. Okinawa The basic form of self-defense are perhaps as old as mankind. Many of his generals were against this plan. Ships were not powerful enough. Okinawa has maintained cultural contact for centuries with both China and Japan. the warriors reached only Korea and not China.
Three Sanchin. Okinawa. square. front and back. and the tragic battles of World War II proved to the world that the Okinawans would rather die than live in disgrace. absolute. He was gone for many years. fate.Soon many people wanted to become his students. These people soon formed into a community known as the ThirtySix Families. This was the start of the Sakugawa style of Karate. it is not surprising that the Okinawan people developed high levels of proficiency in self-defense. Okinawans have long been known as fierce fighters.military and diplomatic base. top-middle-bottom. objects Eight Multiple directions. Thirty Six Families The emperor of China sent Okinawa an imperial gift of skilled artisans and merchants. One day to everyone's surprise. Chinese Numbering One Whole. The Legendary Sakugawa In 1724. many. He possessed a mysterious physical strength and a complex form of Chan Fa. first Two Pair. Sakugawa returned home a much changed man. plenty Thirty-Six Great many Sho Hassi In 1429. Mother Nature Four Directions. a man named Sakugawa journeyed to China from his home in Shuri. etc. and his friends and relatives thought him lost or dead. With these two powerful countries vying for control. comparison. The spirit of the samurai was well developed in the hearts of these people. It should be noted that "thirty-six" often means "a great many" and may not mean thirtysix numerically. top and bottom. This community was responsible for the rapid spread of Chan Fa throughout Okinawa. Sho Hassi united the kingdom of Okinawa under his rule and renamed .
or government by culture not military force. the Shimazu clan instituted numerous rules of martial law. these two powers met head-tohead at Sekigahara Field to decide the control of Japan. At this time all weapons were banned except for those used by military forces. During the era of his grandson Sho Shin. This time. The objective was to restore peace and to disarm rival clans. however. who were the invaders and conquerors of Okinawa. Japan was split into two massive forces. Tokugawa allowed the Satsuma-Shimazu family to retain their territories under the edict of unconditional loyalty to Tokugawa. The methods used by the Satsuma for enforcing the weapons ban were ruthless. Any weapons found in an Okinawan's possession were immediately . Civil War In Japan And The Satsuma After Toyotomi died. Only the Satsuma samurai. was put into effect.North and South. the policy of "BunjiKokka". the Tokugawa forces won. It was also a useful way to smooth the honor of the frustrated Satsuma warriors by giving them a new target while keeping them too busy to make any further plays against Tokugawa. One force was the remainder of the Toyotomi clan from the West and the other was controlled by the new leader Tokugawa from the East. In 1600. one of which was a ban on all weapons. Although most of the Western generals and the Satsuma clan controlled most of Kyushu joined the Toyotomi. A Ban On All Weapons Upon seizing control of Okinawa. So instead Tokugawa took the Shimazu family as his allies and sent them to punish Okinawa for refusing to send supplies during the Japan-China war of 1592. The reason he allowed the Shimazu family to keep their lands was that they were so powerful that trying to destroy them might have proven selfdefeating and was not in the best interest of Tokugawa. the ban was on a much larger scale than that instituted by Sho-Shin. were allowed to have weapons.
Karate. primarily developed to maim or kill opponents. but Karate did not become popular or even well known as being an Okinawan art until around 1903. there was a gradual but steady unveiling and interaction of this magnificent art. As part of the ban. This ban had a number of serious effects on the Okinawan martial arts. the ban made Karate one of the most practical and effective handto-hand combat systems ever developed. All study and participation was forced underground. The fighting attitudes in the martial arts schools became very violent due to the suppression of civil liberties and the general sentiment of the times. some schools were not as attached to secrecy as others. And above all. This has led to the creation of many false legends due to the inability to document facts. Officially. the Satsuma's control ended in 1875. was no longer needed . the Shimazu also prohibited the Okinawans from participating in the study or practice of the martial arts.confiscated and the owner was severely punished. as in the changing or hiding of moves in kata. The Secret Revealed It is impossible to pinpoint when the secrets of Karate began to be revealed long after rules were changed. However. The need for practical application kept Karate from degenerating to a mostly theoretical art or a simple or obscure form of exercise. Secrecy became such an obsession that instructors hid true techniques from rival schools.No written records exist which would allow us to trace the development of the Okinawan arts during this time period. this eventually led to the development of new and unique fighting techniques and systems including the modification of farming and work tools into weapons for combat use. and all teaching was done by word of mouth only. and slowly the major schools of Karate became less suspicious and more open. Luckily. Intense rivalry within Karate schools did not help to promote the discovery of the art.
Karate developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom prior to its 19th century annexation by Japan. where it evolved through a variety of distinct forms of practice. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in Japan and by 1932. Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there. karate was exported to Japan. Karate Imp History Karate is an ancient Oriental martial art. It was brought to the Japanese mainland in the early 20th century during a time of cultural exchanges between the Japanese and the Ryukyuans. major Japanese universities had karate clubs. The national WKF organisations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees. • • Karate developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom prior to its 19th century annexation by Japan. or schools. After the Second World War. with millions of participants organized into clubs around the world. became the best known and the most influential form of karate in the world. The World Karate Federation (WKF) is the largest sport karate organization. In this era of escalating Japanese militarism. and it is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic games. In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration. The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles. the name was changed from 唐手 ("Chinese hand") to 空手 ("empty hand") – both of which are pronounced karate – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style.in actual combat as conquering Satsuma samurai had departed for Japan. meaning "the empty hand. It was brought to the Japanese mainland in the early 20th century during a time of cultural exchanges between the Japanese and the Ryukyuans. Karate. After Japan captured Okinawa from China in 1895. catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art." is a fighting system that was influenced by both the practices of the Zen Buddhist religion as well as a variety of older Chinese forms of combat that were present in the Okinawa Island culture in the period after AD 1500. The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to greatly increase its popularity and the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Oriental martial arts. as popularized by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957). Karate schools began appearing across the world. . The Shokotan form of karate. In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration.
" The third rule provided that to be true to karate." The final Funakoshi rule stated that "the ultimate aim of karate lies not in victory or defeat.The first rule was: "Be deadly serious in training. the practicioner "must avoid deceit and dogmatism. body and spirit that exists at the heart of karate in all of its forms. karate cannot be learned without theory alone." The fourth rule specified that one must "see yourself as you truly are." These five rules underscore the relationship between mind. . Your opponent must always be present in your mind. each of us as good qualities and bad." The second rule provided that "train with both heart and soul without worrying about theory. but in the perfection of the character of its participants.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.