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MOBILE PHONE AND TOWER RADIATION: A CHALLENGE TO ALL LIVING ENTITIES

Article · June 2018

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but a lot of damages population is about 7. and AM broadcasting towers. greater the danger. staying within 10 meters from Mobile Towers receiving In India. microwave ovens etc. grandparents were. We are now exposed 5 . 2016). We are exposed to all these to hundred million times more EMR than our radiations. many persons are .2 billion.Explor Anim Med Res. laptops.77 billion and expected to reach about 5 billion in 2019. 2018.2500 MHz in Wi-Fi. the number of mobile MHz (GSM 900) and 1810 – 1880 MHz (GSM 1800) in subscribers has already exceeded the number of world Second Generation (2G). many other such radiations - like radiations from computers. Living entities connection.27% and in rural than the requirement (Akbal et al. So. 2300 population (Statista 2013-2019)! So. 2016). TV towers.org Editorial MOBILE PHONE AND TOWER RADIATION: A CHALLENGE TO ALL LIVING ENTITIES Use of mobile phone is increasing at a great speed every day. ISSN 2277.470X (Print). People living area 33. 2012). World Economic Forum done by the non thermal effects (Kour et al. closer to people near the towers. 5-10 Website: www.2400 MHz in 4G. It is now becoming like a body part to many individuals. Cellular phone technology has revolutionized the global telecommunication scenario with exponential increase in cell phones and mobile towers. 2014). Millions of people residing within high radiation zones Living in the sea of electromagnetic radiations in our country and our environment is highly exposed to Flora and fauna including human beings are flooded electromagnetic waves by many sources. Issue . frequency range of 869 . 2110 – 2170 MHz in 3G. The thermal effect economic and social affairs (2017). 935 . Blue Tooth accustomed with use of more than one mobile phone and 3400 . Cell Towers emit high-frequency 2014).animalmedicalresearch. In the year 2017.960 As per the available data. are encountered everyday by us. Health hazards by As per the prediction of United Nations department of EMR may be thermal and non-thermal.894 MHz (CDMA). In addition to the continuous radiation from mobile towers and mobile phones or wireless phones. These towers continuously transmitting radiation on the exposing residents in proximity to 104 to 107 times stronger signal (Ghildiyal et al. As it is also a very good scope for business. which are additive in nature (Ghildiyal et al. FM Source: Ericsson. Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR). 2012). 8. et al.3600 MHz in 5G services. ISSN 2319-247X (Online) Vol. the mobile phone users are in Mobile Phone Tower’s antennas transmit in the 4. the telephone subscribers using wireless form 10 thousand to 1 lakh times stronger signal (radiation) of communication in urban area is 63. Both base stations (BS) and the mobile phones (MP) Population growth and increase in mobile phone use regularly waste 70% of the energy. 2400 . p. majority of mobile phone towers are mounted near the residential area on the residential and office buildings to provide good coverage to the users. microwaves (about 1900 MHz) and spread in biosphere. especially of younger generations.1. United Nations (Statista Chart).20% of population as per the report of Telephone within 50 meters of towers having more health problems Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) (Saravanamuttu than those living outside (Pachuau and Pachuau 2014). world’s present is like cooking in microwave oven. including with massive amounts of powerful wireless mobile devices (Akbal et al. mentioned that the mobile industry is now in explosive growth worldwide with an ever-growing demand for data Radiation Frequencies traffic.

but keeps toxic research workers reported that radiation from both mobile substances out. discomfort. depression. 2018). a single two- phone and towers causes adverse health effects. The radiation emitted by mobile phones may damage Epidemiological studies among MP radiation exposed the delicate parts of the inner ear. lymphoma. bone weakening. lipids DoT. city is beyond the permissible limits prescribed by the damaging of cellular components such as proteins. changing blood pressure. the body is lifetime may permanently damage the blood-brain barrier. The problem generally starts spasms. agitation. more than 18 . It can interfere 10°C when mobile phones are used for 20 minutes normal works of implanted Cardiac Pacemakers. the fluids of eyes. continuously and prolonged use of it can cause auditory implantable Cardiovascular Defibrillators (ICDs) and disturbance in terms of hearing loss (Sharma et al. nausea. like the brain which margin of safety 3 . 2011). where the water radiation absorbed by living organisms including people. Issue 1. of it and using mobile phones throughout almost the entire So. including causing deterioration in large from almost 50% of the mobile towers installed in Kota molecules in cell. As human height is much greater health problems (Kumar 2010). As per available reports. or a ringing sensation. Exploratory Animal and Medical Research. 2018 Time limit for mobile phone use electromagnetic radiation. (Sharma and Lamba 2017). Microwave absorption measured in units of watts per kg (w/kg) of tissue. drying up of the fluids around eyes. 2014). blood etc. 2015).24 minutes consists of about 90% water. Bansal 2017). abdomen. nervousness. visual system in different ways and may also cause uveal How it works? melanoma i.4 times. Effects on human Effect on blood-brain barrier leading to cancer The Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (EMF) radiation from mobile towers and their health heart. Vol. tumours. Increase in temperature As human body consists of 70% liquid. brain. of India (Vijay and Choudhary 2017). Persons using cell people revealed sleeping disturbances. neuroma. heart) and on ear (closer to brain) for a specific time (Mitra et al. The effect is much more significant by the body parts. sleep of cancers following prolonged exposure to mobile phone/ disorders. heart.e. testicular and breast cancer etc are important rate when mobile phones are placed on chest (closer to (Sharma and Lamba 2017). (Kumar 2010. there is also increased risk of several other types Morgellon’s disease. 2016). It has been noticed that EMF radiation effects also. concentration with a pain in the ear that gradually develops into tinnitus difficulties. Jain and loss and / or ear tumour (Sharma and Lamba 2017). joints etc. Tinnitus. joints etc. installation. tumours at the eyes and facial nerve. It is similar The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value is the to that of cooking in the microwave oven. Impulse Generators (Ghoshdostidar et al. irritability. neurodegenerative diseases and even high tower radiation continuously. Several studies reported irregular heart beat and pulse skin. heated internally and causing damage to various organs. muscle deafness over 3 to 5 years. besides increase in brain tumour and acoustic High exposure can also instigate Alzheimer’s disease. After hour continuous exposure to a cell phone just once during absorption of electromagnetic radiation. This A study on the quantification of electromagnetic field results in boils. So. it absorbs due to the effect of electro-magnetic radiation close to 6 . abdomen. which limit is 1. That may finally lead to hearing cardio-vascular problems etc. blood. in the food content is heated first. Frequent use of mobile phones can also damage the with much greater exposure (Soju et al. Occupational health hazards found much more in Telecom workers working closely with Causing problems of eyes equipments for testing. maintenance. brain. salivary gland cancer risk (Ghildiyal et al. tumour of the eye.). imbalance in ionic equilibrium. than the wavelength of the cell tower transmitting frequencies. Govt. Effect is more noticeable per day use is not safe. when it is exposed. 2014). appetite loss.8. Millions of people are not aware where the movement of the fluid of the organs is less. Due to this.6W/Kg for 6 minutes per day usage and the contain more fluid (water. Among these. phones 2-3 hours every day are inviting the risk of partial headache. visual disorders. so multiple resonances in the body happens Reports from India which creates localized heating inside the body. Indian The blood-brain barrier selectively allows nutrients to Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and many other pass from the blood to the brain. June. Significant effects were observed on Causing hearing loss and ear tumour heart rate and blood pressure due to exposure of mobile Temperature of ear lobes increases by approximately phone radiation (Aghav et al. and DNA (Elfide 2017). etc. non-sleeping period daily without realizing its associated are affected much more. impacts on human beings have been carried out in Kota Electromagnetic radiations are having various other city of Rajasthan.

2015). It affects Electromagnetic radiations can damage the placental navigation. etc. 2015. Scientists warn that the period exposures due to use of mobile phones. it gets heated up very fast and the more than adults due to smaller and thinner skull. Children may suffer from disruption of Effects on bees and insects memory. Cell phone may fly at any direction. beetles and Effects on animals other insects close to MP towers. 2017). natural navigation and physical damage of sperms is another effect. Damage to sperm “unseen enemy”. Pigeons. More use of potential health hazards due to prolong mobile phone mobile phones during pregnancy in women may give birth tower radiation (Taye et al. the American Society for Reproductive Effects on birds Medicine stated that decrease in semen quality by Millions of migratory birds die each year from affecting the sperm count and motility. It may cause Several workers reported the sharp declining honey bee early spontaneous abortions due to effect on fetal populations i. which protect fetus in the disruption of biological clocks (El Halabi et al. Since fluid content is small mentioned that mobile phone radiation affects children due to less weight. Cammaerts and Animals staying near mobile towers are prone to Johansson (2014) reported that 900 MHz radiation have various dangers including still births. decline of animal populations including free-tailed bats (Tadarida teniotis) in bat colony (Rafiqi et al. degeneration of the nervous structures of the Electromagnetic radiation affecting the life cycle of brain etc. 2016). sparrows. Numerous studies have been pointed mobile eye lens and this damage seems to accumulate over time phone towers as a potential cause of health hazards and and may not heal afterwards (Sharma and Lamba 2017). decline of attention. decline of amphibian populations with some deformation. more elastic ears. The they lose the power of orientation. 2014). diminishing learning and Bees are important to pollinate about 90 commercial cognitive abilities. 2015). honey-bees may cause pollination disturbance. 2016). reproduction. EMR from MP towers on wildlife birds (The Hindu In sperm count. Studies revealed sharp decrease in population of ants. effects on stress hormones. The radiation absorption is more in Effects on children and pregnant women birds than human or animal due to more body surface National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) area to body weight ratio. It may navigation. (2015) reported cell volume. the hazards includes depressive more crisis in future than global warming. soft magnetic field affects their navigational skills (Soju et skin. nervous and circulatory system (Rafiqi et lead to both macroscopic and microscopic damage to the al. (Kumar 2010). more radiation penetration and for more in longer life time exposure. behavioural problems and on their physiology. 2016). effects abortions. It is rare to notice that birds like sparrow. viability and collisions with telecom masts. orientation and declining overall health status (Vijoy et al. swan and radiation can cause breaks in DNA of sperm cells and others may be affected due to interference from the cause cancer through that mutation. Vijoy et al. honey production ability and barrier of pregnant woman. interferences Effects on plants Electromagnetic radiation emitted from MP towers 7 . be due to changes in intracellular ionic concentration. lower blood al. Rafiqi et al. Ministry of Environment normal morphology of the sperm is related to the duration and Forests has ordered further study on the impact of of cell phone use. spontaneous some impact on nervous system of exposed ants. staying or flying near the MP towers (Vijoy et al. smaller brain size. the risk of developing cataracts. Prolonged exposure may reproductive. genotoxic effects. greater conductivity of nerve cells. increased irritability in the shorter agricultural crops worldwide. In longer steady decline in bees and other pollinators could trigger period exposures. it appears that 30% sperm decrease in 2012). social behavior. Mobile phone and tower radiation: a challenge to all living entities the eye lens may result in lens opacities and thus increase with immune system. number among intensive mobile phone users. the mobile phone masts (Vijoy et al. of child with behavioral problems (Sharma and Lamba Insects are the key species of ecosystem and found 2017). higher that electromagnetic pollution may be possible cause for cell division rate. cellular proliferation. syndrome. birth deformities. Kaur 2016). pigeon subsequent generations (Sharma and Lamba 2017). mother’s womb (Sharma and Lamba 2017).e Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) with development (Mahmoudabadi et al. very sensitive to electromagnetic radiations. more susceptibility to genetic damage. 2015. DNA is dangerous as it can pass such genetic changes to 2015). Causing irreversible infertility In one report. Birds when exposed to any electromagnetic field.

As no conclusive evidence of carcinogenesis was 7.nic. school.8. 2017). Dariusz maintained with regular monitoring of radiation levels. growth and by devices such as mobile phone. Mobile phone is station emissions. More number of mobile phone towers along with Role of WHO less transmission power facilities are to be provided. In India. coordinated through any nodal agency. FM radio against Non-Ionizing Radiation) are accepted most towers etc. Base station antenna sites should be prohibited to the year 2014. It also affects vegetables of Telecommunication has ordered the mobile phone and crops in its vicinity. Ministry of Environment and Forests now one of the booming industry and its usage increasing engaged an expert group to study the possible impacts of day by day among people with addiction and without communication towers on wildlife including birds and considering darker side of this technology. radiation norms. Sign boards or warning signs to be provided at base finalized by mobile phone and towers exposure. increases the risk of certification by the operators.45 watts per square meter at 900 MHz. mentioned that long term average of 30 independent and trustworthy third party. 2018 may affect plants. a long. Cell phone towers should be installed far from the sad. microwave ovens. entrance of such zones. Vol. vegetables. Recently. have issued mobile phone and towers Cumulative effect of electromagnetic radiation: exposure standard.e ‘possibly 4. whose activities from mobile phones and towers can interfere the include determining exposure limits for EM fields used morphological and biochemical process. rather than self- minutes daily radiation exposure. June. where dismissed the adverse health hazards access by general people. MP towers are permitted to what next? emit at 0. 2. even for the exposure effects to the people and environment (Hardell maintenance personnel. More numbers bees. slow growth with illness (Debnath public place. even it utilize about 10 times more power than decided to limit one-tenth of the existing level of base wired technologies (Baliga et al. includes the following basic points: Trees located around 50 meters of Mobile towers look 1. Different countries like USA. and regulations to protect health of its citizens. The Parihar (2014) reported that electromagnetic radiations ICNIRP is an international commission. India Govt. to be has classified electromagnetic radiation from wi-fi. less Actually wireless technologies are not environmental- than international standard. Laptops. brain tumour and cancer. 2011). These all are working together. The service provider will be liable for penal action. 8. New Zealand. A warning sign should be placed at the understand actual effects worldwide. residential. a scientist of IARC expert 5. mobile phone and towers as category 2(B). Belgium. inhibit germination and growth companies to follow all the guidelines of ICNIRP and as of roots etc. Exploratory Animal and Medical Research. many recommendations are of Mobile phone towers and amplifiers are added day by forwarded by the members to reduce EM radiation (http:/ day worldwide considering havoc demand. World Health Organization (WHO)’s International 3. but guidelines radiation comes from different appliances like mobile of ICNIRP (International Commission for Protection phones and towers. crops etc. agricultural. A study found that the production of betel nuts Rules and regulations and coconuts have been decreased after the installation For a long time the Government is forming new rules of mobile tower (Debnath and Bora 2015). has friendly. 1986 the rules face the MP tower antennas (Sathishkumar et al. mentioning a proposal for re-evaluation of longer stay in the zone of base station. feeble. Public should be discourage by radiation. Issue 1.in). WHO again launched a draft in 6. 2015).moef. hospital and Bora 2015). Radiation measurements must be done by committee. Canada. In India. should sharing of a common tower infrastructure. 2017). Safe distance between towers and residences to be carcinogenic to human’(Hardell 2017). 8 . Therefore. i. Top of the trees tend to dry up when directly per the Environment (Protection) Act. Researchers. station / tower sites. worldwide (Non-ionizing radiation protection standards policy makers should be active enough to form strict and policies 2010). Many international guidelines We are exposing continuously to uninterrupted published and adopted by many countries. industrial people. must be clearly visible and term exhaustive research study is perhaps required to identifiable. /www. Guideline to install mobile tower if the guidelines are violated. (Vijoy et al. Department nodule formation in the plants. In their report. Leszczynski. dried tops. Italy etc. areas etc. In multiple transmission sites at specific locality Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in the year 2011.

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