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75. Exploration. Find the area of each of the four regions 76. Exploration. Find the area of each of the four regions

shown in the figure. What is the total area of the four re- shown in the figure. What is the total area of the four

gions? What does this exercise illustrate? regions? What does this exercise illustrate?

12 ft2, 3h ft2, 4h ft2, h2 ft2, h2 7h 12 ft2, a2, ab, ab, b2, a2 2ab b2, (a b)(a b)

(h 3)(h 4) h2 7h 12 a2 2ab b2

4 ft h

ft a b

h ft h ft b b

3 ft 3 ft a a

4 ft h

ft a b

section In Section 4.3 you learned the FOIL method to make multiplying binomials

● The Square of a Binomial simpler. In this section you will learn rules for squaring binomials and for find-

● Product of a Sum and a

ing the product of a sum and a difference. These products are called special

Difference products.

● Higher Powers of Binomials

● Applications to Area

The Square of a Binomial

To compute (a b)2, the square of a binomial, we can write it as (a b)(a b)

helpful hint and use FOIL:

sum, draw a square with sides a2 ab ab b2

of length a b as shown.

a2 2ab b2

a b

a a2 ab So to square a b, we square the first term (a2), add twice the product of the two

terms (2ab), then add the square of the last term (b2). The square of a binomial

occurs so frequently that it is helpful to learn this new rule to find it. The rule for

b ab b2 squaring a sum is given symbolically as follows.

The area of the large square is

(a b)2. It comes from four (a b)2 a2 2ab b2

terms as stated in the rule for

the square of a sum.

Find the square of each sum.

a) (x 3)2 b) (2a 5)2

226 (4-20) Chapter 4 Polynomials and Exponents

Solution

helpful hint

a) (x 3)2 x2 2(x)(3) 32 x 2 6x 9

You can mentally find the ↑ ↑

square of a number that ends Square ↑ Square

of Twice of

in 5. To find 252 take the 2

first the last

(from 25), multiply it by 3 (the product

next integer) to get 6, and

then annex 25 for 625. To find

b) (2a 5)2 (2a)2 2(2a)(5) 52

352, find 3 4 12 and annex 4a2 20a 25 ■

25 for 1225. To see why this

works, write CAUTION Do not forget the middle term when squaring a sum. The

(30 5)2 equation (x 3)2 x2 6x 9 is an identity, but (x 3)2 x2 9 is not an

302 2 30 5 52

identity. For example, if x 1 in (x 3)2 x2 9, then we get 42 12 9,

30(30 2 5) 25

which is false.

30 40 25

1200 25

1225. When we use FOIL to find (a b)2, we see that

2

Now find 45 and 552 mentally. (a b)2 (a b)(a b)

a2 ab ab b2

a2 2ab b2.

So to square a b, we square the first term (a2), subtract twice the product of the

two terms (2ab), and add the square of the last term (b2). The rule for squaring a

difference is given symbolically as follows.

(a b)2 a2 2ab b2

Find the square of each difference.

a) (x 4)2

b) (4b 5y)2

Solution

helpful hint

a) (x 4)2 x2 2(x)(4) 42

Many students keep using x2 8x 16

FOIL to find the square of a

sum or difference. However, b) (4b 5y)2 (4b)2 2(4b)(5y) (5y)2

learning the new rules for 16b2 40by 25y2 ■

these special cases will pay off

in the future.

Product of a Sum and a Difference

If we multiply the sum a b and the difference a b by using FOIL, we get

(a b)(a b) a2 ab ab b2

a2 b2.

The inner and outer products have a sum of 0. So the product of a sum and a differ-

ence of the same two terms is equal to the difference of two squares.

4.4 Special Products (4-21) 227

(a b)(a b) a2 b2

Find each product.

a) (x 2)(x 2) b) (b 7)(b 7) c) (3x 5)(3x 5)

Solution

helpful hint a) (x 2)(x 2) x2 4

You can use b) (b 7)(b 7) b2 49

(a b)(a b) a2 b2 c) (3x 5)(3x 5) 9x2 25 ■

to perform mental arithmetic

tricks like Higher Powers of Binomials

19 21 (20 1)(20 1)

400 1 To find a power of a binomial that is higher than 2, we can use the rule for squaring

399 a binomial along with the method of multiplying binomials using the distributive

What is 29 31? 28 32? property. Finding the second or higher power of a binomial is called expanding the

binomial because the result has more terms than the original.

Expand each binomial.

a) (x 4)3 b) (y 2)4

a) (x 4)3 (x 4)2(x 4)

Correct answers often have

(x 2 8x 16)(x 4)

more than one form. If your

answer to an exercise doesn’t (x 2 8x 16)x (x 2 8x 16)4

agree with the one in the back x3 8x 2 16x 4x2 32x 64

of this text, try to determine if

it is simply a different form of

x3 12x2 48x 64

the answer. For example, 1x b) (y 2)4 (y 2)2(y 2)2

2

and x look different but they

2

(y2 4y 4)(y2 4y 4)

are equivalent expressions. (y2 4y 4)(y2) (y2 4y 4)(4y) (y2 4y 4)(4)

y4 4y3 4y2 4y3 16y2 16y 4y2 16y 16

y4 8y3 24y2 32y 16 ■

Applications to Area

E X A M P L E 5 Area of a pizza

A pizza parlor saves money by making all of its round pizzas one inch smaller in ra-

dius than advertised. Write a trinomial for the actual area of a pizza with an adver-

tised radius of r inches.

Solution

A pizza advertised as r inches has an actual radius of r 1 inches. The actual area

is (r 1)2:

(r 1)2 (r 2 2r 1) r 2 2r .

So r 2 2r is a trinomial representing the actual area. ■

228 (4-22) Chapter 4 Polynomials and Exponents

WARM-UPS

True or false? Explain your answer.

1. (2 3)2 22 32 False

2. (x 3)2 x 2 6x 9 for any value of x. True

3. (3 5)2 9 25 30 True

4. (2x 7)2 4x 2 28x 49 for any value of x. True

5. (y 8)2 y2 64 for any value of y. False

6. The product of a sum and a difference of the same two terms is equal to the

difference of two squares. True

7. (40 1)(40 1) 1599 True

8. 49 51 2499 True

9. (x 3)2 x2 3x 9 for any value of x. False

10. The square of a sum is equal to a sum of two squares. False

4. 4 EXERCISES

Reading and Writing After reading this section, write out the Square each binomial. See Example 2.

answers to these questions. Use complete sentences. 19. (a 3)2 20. (w 4)2

1. What are the special products? a2 6a 9 w2 8w 16

The special products are (a b)2, (a b)2, and 21. (t 1)2 22. (t 6)2

(a b) (a b). t 2 2t 1 t 2 12t 36

2. What is the rule for squaring a sum? 23. (3t 2)2 24. (5a 6)2

(a b)2 a2 2ab b2 9t 2 12t 4 25a2 60a 36

3. Why do we need a new rule to find the square of a sum 25. (s t)2 26. (r w)2

when we already have FOIL? s2 2st t 2 r 2 2rw w2

It is faster to do by the new rule than with FOIL.

27. (3a b)2 28. (4w 7)2

4. What happens to the inner and outer products in the product 9a 2 6ab b2 16w2 56w 49

of a sum and a difference?

29. (3z 5y)2 30. (2z 3w)2

In (a b)(a b) the inner and outer products have a sum

9z2 30yz 25y2 4z 2 12wz 9w 2

of zero.

Find each product. See Example 3.

5. What is the rule for finding the product of a sum and a

difference? 31. (a 5)(a 5) 32. (x 6)(x 6)

(a b)(a b) a2 b2 a2 25 x 2 36

6. How can you find higher powers of binomials? 33. (y 1)(y 1) 34. (p 2)(p 2)

Higher powers of binomials are found by using the distrib- y2 1 p2 4

utive property. 35. (3x 8)(3x 8) 36. (6x 1)(6x 1)

9x2 64 36x 2 1

Square each binomial. See Example 1. 37. (r s)(r s) 38. (b y)(b y)

7. (x 1)2 8. (y 2)2 r2 s2 b2 y 2

x 2x 1

2

y2 4y 4

39. (8y 3a)(8y 3a) 40. (4u 9v)(4u 9v)

9. (y 4) 2

10. (z 3)2 64y2 9a2 16u2 81v 2

y 8y 16

2

z2 6z 9

41. (5x 2)(5x 2)

2 2

42. (3y2 1)(3y2 1)

11. (3x 8) 2

12. (2m 7)2 25x 4

4

9y 4 1

9x 2 48x 64 4m2 28m 49

Expand each binomial. See Example 4.

13. (s t)2 14. (x z)2

s2 2st t 2 x 2 2xz z2 43. (x 1)3 x 3 3x 2 3x 1

15. (2x y) 2

16. (3t v)2 44. (y 1)3 y3 3y 2 3y 1

4x 4xy y

2 2

9t 2 6tv v2 45. (2a 3)3 8a3 36a2 54a 27

17. (2t 3h) 2

18. (3z 5k)2 46. (3w 1)3 27w3 27w2 9w 1

4t 12ht 9h

2 2

9z2 30kz 25k 2 47. (a 3)4 a4 12a3 54a2 108a 81

4.4 Special Products (4-23) 229

48. (2b 1)4 16b4 32b3 24b2 8b 1 82. Square lot. Sam lives on a lot that he thought was a

49. (a b)4 a4 4a3b 6a2b2 4ab3 b4 square, 157 feet by 157 feet. When he had it surveyed, he

50. (2a 3b)4 16a4 96a3b 216a2b2 216ab3 81b4 discovered that one side was actually 2 feet longer than

he thought and the other was actually 2 feet shorter than he

Find each product. thought. How much less area does he have than he thought

51. (a 20)(a 20) 52. (1 x)(1 x) he had? 4 square feet

a 2 400 1 x2 83. Area of a circle. Find a polynomial that represents the area

53. (x 8)(x 7) 54. (x 9)(x 5) of a circle whose radius is b 1 meters. Use the value

x 2 15x 56 x 2 4x 45 3.14 for . 3.14b2 6.28b 3.14 square meters

55. (4x 1)(4x 1) 56. (9y 1)(9y 1) 84. Comparing dart boards. A toy store sells two sizes of cir-

16x 2 1 81y 2 1 cular dartboards. The larger of the two has a radius that is

57. (9y 1)2 58. (4x 1)2 3 inches greater than that of the other. The radius of the

81y 2 18y 1 16x 2 8x 1 smaller dartboard is t inches. Find a polynomial that repre-

59. (2t 5)(3t 4) 60. (2t 5)(3t 4) sents the difference in area between the two dartboards.

6t 2 7t 20 6t 2 7t 20 6t 9 square centimeters

61. (2t 5)2 62. (2t 5)2

4t 2 20t 25 4t 2 20t 25 t + 3 cm

63. (2t 5)(2t 5) 64. (3t 4)(3t 4) t cm

4t 2 25 9t2 16

65. (x2 1)(x 2 1) 66. (y3 1)(y3 1)

x4 1 y6 1

67. (2y3 9)2 68. (3z4 8)2

4y6 36y 3 81 9z8 48z4 64

69. (2x 3 3y2)2 70. (4y 5 2w 3)2

4x 6 12x 3y 2 9y 4 16y10 16y 5w 3 4w6

FIGURE FOR EXERCISE 84

3 y 2

1 1 2 2 1 2

71. x 72.

2 3

1 2 1 1 4 2 2 1 85. Poiseuille’s law. According to the nineteenth-century physi-

x x y y cian Poiseuille, the velocity (in centimeters per second) of

4 3 9 9 3 4

blood r centimeters from the center of an artery of radius R

73. (0.2x 0.1)2

centimeters is given by

0.04x2 0.04x 0.01

74. (0.1y 0.5)2 v k(R r)(R r),

0.01y2 0.1y 0.25 where k is a constant. Rewrite the formula using a special

75. (a b)3 product rule. v k(R2 r2)

a3 3a2b 3ab2 b3

76. (2a 3b)3

8a3 36a2b 54ab2 27b3

77. (1.5x 3.8)2

2.25x2 11.4x 14.44

78. (3.45a 2.3)2

11.9025a2 15.87a 5.29

79. (3.5t 2.5)(3.5t 2.5)

12.25t2 6.25 r

R

80. (4.5h 5.7)(4.5h 5.7)

20.25h2 32.49

In Exercises 81–90, solve each problem.

81. Shrinking garden. Rose’s garden is a square with sides of

length x feet. Next spring she plans to make it rectangular

by lengthening one side 5 feet and shortening the other side

FIGURE FOR EXERCISE 85

by 5 feet. What polynomial represents the new area? By how

much will the area of the new garden differ from that of the 86. Going in circles. A promoter is planning a circular race

old garden? x2 25 square feet, 25 square feet smaller track with an inside radius of r feet and a width of w feet.

230 (4-24) Chapter 4 Polynomials and Exponents

polynomial P(1 r)10 to predict the value in 10 years of a

w client’s investment of P dollars with an average annual re-

turn r. The accompanying graph shows historic average an-

r

nual returns for the last 20 years for various asset classes

(T. Rowe Price, www.troweprice.com). Use the historical

average return to predict the value in 10 years of an invest-

ment of $10,000 in U.S. treasury bills? $20,230.06

20

16.7%

16

12 10.3%

8 7.3%

FIGURE FOR EXERCISE 86

4 3.4%

The cost in dollars for paving the track is given by the 0

Large Long-term U.S. Inflation

formula company corporate treasury

C 1.2[(r w)2 r 2]. stocks bonds bills

Use a special product rule to simplify this formula. What is FIGURE FOR EXERCISES 89 AND 90

the cost of paving the track if the inside radius is 1000 feet

and the width of the track is 40 feet? 90. Comparing investments. How much more would the in-

C 1.2[2rw w2], $307,624.75 vestment in Exercise 89 be worth in 10 years if the client

87. Compounded annually. P dollars is invested at annual in- invests in large company stocks rather than U.S. treasury

terest rate r for 2 years. If the interest is compounded annu- bills? $26,619.83

ally, then the polynomial P(1 r)2 represents the value of

the investment after 2 years. Rewrite this expression with- GET TING MORE INVOLVED

out parentheses. Evaluate the polynomial if P $200 and

r 10%. P 2Pr Pr 2, $242 91. Writing. What is the difference between the equations

88. Compounded semiannually. P dollars is invested at an- (x 5)2 x 2 10x 25 and (x 5)2 x2 25?

nual interest rate r for 1 year. If the interest is compounded The first is an identity and the second is a conditional

2 equation.

semiannually, then the polynomial P1 represents

r

2 92. Writing. Is it possible to square a sum or a difference with-

the value of the investment after 1 year. Rewrite this ex- out using the rules presented in this section? Why should

pression without parentheses. Evaluate the polynomial if you learn the rules given in this section?

P $200 and r 10%. A sum or difference can be squared with the distributive

Pr 2 property, FOIL, or the special product rules. It is easier with

P Pr , $220.50

4 the special product rules.

You multiplied polynomials in Section 4.2. In this section you will learn to divide

In this polynomials.

section

Dividing Monomials Using the Quotient Rule

● Dividing Monomials Using

the Quotient Rule In Chapter 1 we used the definition of division to divide signed numbers. Because

● Dividing a Polynomial by a the definition of division applies to any division, we restate it here.

Monomial

● Dividing a Polynomial by a

Division of Real Numbers

Binomial If a, b, and c are any numbers with b 0, then

abc provided that c b a.

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