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Auto-identification of engine fault acoustic signal through inverse trigonometric instantaneous frequency analysis

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2016, Vol. 8(3) 1–8

Ó The Author(s) 2016

Auto-identification of engine fault DOI: 10.1177/1687814016641840

aime.sagepub.com

acoustic signal through inverse

trigonometric instantaneous frequency

analysis

Changle Sun

Abstract

The acoustic signals of internal combustion engines contain valuable information about the condition of engines. These

signals can be used to detect incipient faults in engines. However, these signals are complex and composed of a faulty

component and other noise signals of background. As such, engine conditions’ characteristics are difficult to extract

through wavelet transformation and acoustic emission techniques. In this study, an instantaneous frequency analysis

method was proposed. A new time–frequency model was constructed using a fixed amplitude and a variable cycle sine

function to fit adjacent points gradually from a time domain signal. The instantaneous frequency corresponds to single

value at any time. This study also introduced instantaneous frequency calculation on the basis of an inverse trigonometric

fitting method at any time. The mean value of all local maximum values was then considered to identify the engine condi-

tion automatically. Results revealed that the mean of local maximum values under faulty conditions differs from the nor-

mal mean. An experiment case was also conducted to illustrate the availability of the proposed method. Using the

proposed time–frequency model, we can identify engine condition and determine abnormal sound produced by faulty

engines.

Keywords

Instantaneous frequency, engine, abnormal sound, faulty, time–frequency

cannot achieve the target of real-time online diagnosis.

Engines are important apparatuses in most machineries, In engineering practice, experienced technicians hear

which work at high speeds and heavy loads under severe abnormal sounds when engines are in faulty

environmental conditions.1 When engines become faulty,

fault diagnosis systems should promptly distinguish the

engine conditions of fault engines to prevent engine dete- Transportation Equipment and Oceanographic Engineering College,

rioration and to ensure proper machinery functioning for Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China

a long period. Faulty mechanical systems are often diag-

Corresponding author:

nosed on the basis of acoustic and vibration signals that Yongjun Gong, Transportation Equipment and Oceanographic Engineering

contain large data regarding the operating parameters College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China.

and physical conditions of engines.2–4 However, existing Email: 65857637@qq.com

Creative Commons CC-BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

(http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without

further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/

open-access-at-sage).

Downloaded from ade.sagepub.com by guest on June 4, 2016

2 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

diagnosis system can automatically identify engine condi-

tions and whether engines remain functional under

faulty. Several methods are used to detect engine or

machine conditions. Tan and colleagues8–10 investigated

unsteady flows in a centrifugal pump volute under non-

cavitation and cavitation conditions using a computation

fluid dynamics framework. The main methods of engine

fault diagnosis based on sound signals include wavelet Figure 1. Example of a shocking acoustic signal.

transform and mode decomposition.11–13 Similar to

Fourier transformation technology, wavelet transforma-

tion technology can provide information regarding fre-

quency domain, some characteristics can be extracted in

the frequency domain.5,14–16 Shirazi and Mahjoob17

diagnosed the condition of a four-cylinder internal com-

bustion (IC) engine using discrete wavelet transform to

decompose vibration signals and to obtain appropriate

wavelet layers. Nevertheless, fault diagnosis in wavelet

transformation is complex, and the characteristic fre-

quency should be initially extracted. Wavelet function

also varies in different faults. Mode decomposition has Figure 2. Relationship between the maximum value ratio of

been proposed by Huang, and his colleagues proposed pure shocking signal to background noise and hearing clarity

and used empirical mode decomposition (EMD); in this degree.

process, any complicated signal can be decomposed into

a collection of intrinsic mode functions based on local

timescale characteristics of the signal.18 Yadav and may be masked by background noise when a faulty

Kalra19 decomposed an engine signal through EMD and component signal is small. The relationship between

applied a feature technique to diagnose an IC engine. the maximum value ratio of pure shocking signal to

Despite these advantages, wavelet transformation and background noise and hearing clarity degree is shown

mode decomposition based on sound/vibration signal in Figure 2. The ration was obtained through a hearing

analysis exhibit several weaknesses.20 Wavelet transfor- experimentation in Coolpro software. When the hear-

mation results highly depend on the ability of the selected ing clarity degree reaches 40%, abnormal sound can be

wavelet basis function to yield high coefficients, while all heard obviously.

other features are masked or completely ignored.21 EMD Differences in function can be described as the

mainly depends on experience and is associated with sev- change rate. The acute change position can be acquired;

eral problems, such as end effect and mode confusion. therefore, the differential value at the moment when an

Although this field has been extensively investigated, an abnormal sound is produced is larger than that

efficient method that can resolve EMD-related problems obtained at other moments. However, the background

has yet to be established. In some instances, faults in exhibits randomness, and large values may be present.

engines are determined, but fault type is not identified. As such, the difference function cannot be used to iden-

This chapter focuses on identifying whether an engine is tify engine conditions. Therefore, the instantaneous fre-

good or defective. Therefore, an instantaneous frequency quency technique was proposed to solve this problem.

technique was proposed. The instantaneous frequency technique was derived

from a simple inverse triangle algorithm; in this algo-

rithm, a unique frequency value can be obtained at any

Instantaneous frequency technique time. In this method, the instantaneous frequency can

Engines experience two types of fault. The first type be extracted from a time domain model, which was then

occurs when two or more parts of an engine scrape one used as the basis for the construction of a new time–

another. The other type ensues when an engine is frequency model.

exposed to shock. Figure 1 illustrates a typical shocking A fixed amplitude (amplitude = 3) and a variable

acoustic signal with an acute change at the starting frequency sine function were used to fit a pair of adja-

point. Most shocking acoustic signals exhibit the same cent points gradually (Figure 3). The sine function fre-

features. quency of the two points can be determined as the

A faulty component is possibly large when an abnor- frequency of the former point. One frequency is

mal sound is produced; otherwise, abnormal sounds detected at one point.

Ning et al. 3

w

~ ri =

w where i = 1, 2, . . . , n; fs is the sampling rate

whose values are x and y, are used. The fitting function fs

is sin(wp + q). w and q can be calculated using the ð6Þ

known x and y in the fitting function

The acoustic signal of the faulty engine (Fn) is com-

x = sinðwp1 + qÞ posed of background noise (Fbn) and malfunction

ð1Þ

y = sinðwp2 + qÞ sound (Fmn)

frequency of point X, q is phase of point X, and p1 and

p2 are a pair of adjacent given sampling points. where n is sampling point.

Inverse sine transformation is applied to equation (1) The acoustic signal is Fbn when the engine is in good

condition. However, the acoustic signal is Fn when the

engine malfunctions; extremely high Fn is even detected.

wp1 = arcsinx q

ð2Þ Consequently, the instantaneous frequency range of the

wp2 = arcsiny q

high extreme point and the time–frequency model

where p2 2 p1 = 1; w, which can be expressed in equa- change; thus, the engine condition can be detected.

tion (3), can be calculated using equation (2) The instantaneous frequency value between two

adjacent sampling points is relative to the signal inten-

w = arcsin x arcsin y ð3Þ sity. Therefore, the two time–frequency models of two

signals which have the same waveform and the different

w can be substituted into Equation (2) and the phase q signal intensity are different. A normalization method

can be calculated as follows was proposed to solve the above problem. The calcula-

tion process is described as follows:

q = arcsin x wp1 ð4Þ

1. Find the global maximum value from time–

We can use this method to calculate the instanta-

frequency model

neous frequency at any time (at any sampling point).

The instantaneous frequency is single value which is

~ max g = max (~

w wri ) where i = 1, 2, . . . , n ð8Þ

related to other points.

No negative values are found in the frequency 2. Normalize the time–frequency model

domain; therefore, w should be considered as an abso-

lute value ~ ri

w

~ nor i =

w where i = 1, 2, . . . , n ð9Þ

~ max

w

~ i = jwi j = jarcsin xi + 1 arcsin xi j

w where i = 1, 2, . . . , n:

ð5Þ

In this study, a simply auto-identification of engine

The parameter w ~ i is the frequency of the sampling conditions was proposed. The process of this method is

point, and the real frequency is defined as follows described as follows:

4 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Figure 4. Value range of (a) v and (b) S9c and (c) comparison.

0

1. Find all local maximum value points from the can be denoted as Sc = Sc (n + 1) Sc (n), where n is a

time–frequency model sampling point. The instantaneous frequency function

of Sc can be denoted as v = |arcsin[Sc(n + 1)] 2

~ max lj = l max (~

w wi ) where w ~ i .~ wi1 arcsin[(Sc(n))]|. The relationship between v and the val-

and w wi + 1 , i = 1, 2, . . . , n,

~ i .~ ð10Þ ues of two adjacent points is shown in Figure 4(a).

0

Figure 4(b) illustrates Sc .

j = 1, 2, . . . , m

Figure 4 shows that v is larger than Sc when the

2. Calculate the mean value of all local maximum sampling points are the same. As the sampling point

values value increases, the increase in v is higher than that of

0

Sc . Figure 2 illustrates that the maximum value of a

X

n shocking component is larger than that of the back-

~ mean =

w ~ max lj

w where j = 1, 2, . . . , m ð11Þ ground at the same time. Therefore, v at the moment

1

an abnormal sound occurs is larger than that at other

The value at the moment an abnormal sound signal moments.

occurs is larger than that at other moment. Therefore,

the mean of all local maximum values of the abnormal

Simulated experiment

sound signal is higher than mean of all local maximum

values of the normal sound signal in the normalized A simulated experiment was conducted to verify the

time–frequency model. The computer automatically validity of the time–frequency domain method. The test

detects the abnormal sound when the mean decreases. data of background noise are acquired from a serve

The following section describes the advantage of the motor. The fault data are generated using an aluminum

instantaneous frequency technique over the difference wire to scratch the bulge of a roundel mounted on the

method. We defined Ss as the shocking component, Sg output end of the motor (Figure 5).

as the background noise, and Sc as the mixed signal, The sound signal comprises the sound of a running

where Sc = Ss + Sg and the maximum value of Ss is serve motor and a scratching sound, which is an alias-

greater than that of Sg. The difference function of Sc ing signal (Figure 6(b)). The signal without a scratched

Ning et al. 5

acoustic sensor is 44,100. When the serve motor is run-

ning at an operating speed of 180 r/min, the aluminum

wire periodically scratches the bulge mounted on the

rim of the roundel, and the acoustic sensor collects the

sound signal in real time. The data of the normal sound

and the scratching sound are then processed in a per-

sonal computer and the corresponding time–frequency

model (Figure 6(c) and (d)) is established. The moment

of scratching is distinguishable from other moments

(Figure 6(d)) because the value is larger than that

obtained at other moments, which is indicated by red

circles. The normalized time–frequency models of the

normal signal and the scratched signal are shown in

Figure 6(e) and (f). The normalized frequency can be

used to create a statistical model and to identify

whether an abnormal sound is produced.

The means of a non-scratching sound signal and a

scratching sound signal in the normalized time– Figure 6. Original signal, time–frequency model, and

frequency model are expressed as follows normalized time–frequency model of non-scratching and

scratching sound signals: (a) non-scratching sound signal, (b)

~ mean normal signal = 0:2966

w scratching sound signal, (c) time–frequency model of non-

~ mean scratched signal = 0:0917

w scratching sound signal, (d) time–frequency model of scratching

sound signal, (e) normalized time–frequency model of non-

On the basis of two parameters, we can distinguish scratching sound signal, and (f) normalized time–frequency

model of scratching sound signal.

the scratching sound signal from the non-scratching

signal.

Experiment

Experiments were conducted in a 34-kW four-stroke

three-cylinder gasoline engine using a Sennheiser E945

acoustic sensor placed on the outer engine block

(Figure 7). Table 1 lists the engine specifications and

Table 2 lists the sensor parameters.

Data were acquired from the gasoline engine

(BYD371QA) when one of the cylinder bores marked

with a red-cross was scuffing. The experiments were

performed at a speed of 800 6 30 and 1800 6 30 r/

min. The acoustic sound was detected by the sensors,

whose sampling frequency was 44,100 Hz. Two acoustic

sensors were used in case one sensor interfered with the Figure 7. Experimental apparatus.

6 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Displacement 998.00 mL

Compression ratio 10.50:1

Charged method Naturally aspirated

Sensitivity (free field) (1 kHz) 2.0 mV/Pa

Normal impedance 350 Ohm

Minimum end impedance 1000 Ohm

normal cylinder and a scuffing cylinder at a speed of

1800 6 30 r/min: (a) normal signal at an engine speed of

1800 6 30 r/min, (b) scuffing cylinder bore signal, (c) normalized

time–frequency model of a normal signal, and (d) normalized

time–frequency model of a scuffing cylinder bore signal.

nal with a speed of 800 6 30 r/min are shown in Figure

8(a) and (b). The two signals did not evidently differ.

The corresponding time–frequency models are shown

in Figure 8(c) and (d). However, the faulty engine of

one model could not be distinguished from the other

model. When listening to the sound signal with a speed

of 800 6 30 r/min, we could not also identify the faulty

signal between the normal signal and the scuffing cylin-

der bore signal.

Figure 8. Original signal and time–frequency model of a The normal signal and the scuffing cylinder bore sig-

normal cylinder and a scuffing cylinder at a speed of 800 6 30 r/ nal at a speed of 1800 6 30 r/min are shown in Figure

min: (a) normal signal at an engine speed of 800 6 30 r/min, (b) 9(a) and (b), respectively. These signals did not remark-

scuffing cylinder bore signal at an engine speed of 800 6 30 r/ ably differ from each other. However, the normal

min, (c) time–frequency models of the normal signal at an engine model was different from the scuffing cylinder bore

speed of 800 6 30 r/min, and (d) time–frequency models of the model in the terms of time–frequency domain (Figure

scuffing cylinder bore signal at an engine speed of 800 6 30 r/ 9(c) and (d)). In the time–frequency model of the nor-

min.

mal signal, no abnormal change was detected. By con-

trast, the maximum values were high (marked with red

other components, but only one group of data was cho- circles) in the time–frequency model of the scuffing

sen. The normal sound data were obtained from the cylinder bore signal. A clicking sound indicating a

same engine after this engine was repaired. The original faulty sound signal could be heard by human ears, and

signal should be filtered by a low pass filter whose the moment of the clicking sound is matched with the

threshold is 2000 Hz to eliminate the high-frequency maximum value in the time–frequency model of the

interference. scuffing cylinder bore through listening.

Ning et al. 7

model of the bolt looseness fault in an engine bonnet.

the article, the calculating process was intro-

Figure 10. Comparison of wavelet transform and inverse

duced, and the method was verified through a

trigonometric instantaneous frequency analysis methods.

series of experiments.

2. The method was based on abnormal sounds

The means of the normal sound signal and the scuff-

that could be identified by human ears. The

ing sound signal in the normalized time–frequency

abnormal sound can be distinguished easily by

model are expressed as follows

the time–frequency model when an engine pro-

duces a regular abnormal sound. By contrast,

~ mean normal = 0:2612

w

the faulty condition of the engine can be hardly

~ mean scuffing = 0:1137

w identified when the engine produces a slightly

regular abnormal sound or an irregular abnor-

The faulty condition indicated by the corresponding

mal sound.

signal can be easily identified because w ~ mean normal is

much bigger than w ~ mean scuffing .

The results of the proposed method and the wavelet Declaration of conflicting interests

transform method are compared in Figure 10. The orig- The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with

inal signal originated from the scuffing cylinder at a respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this

speed of 1800 6 30 r/min (Figure 9(b)). The wavelet article.

transform method was applied to perform a four-layer

db10 wavelet decomposition. To facilitate the compari- Funding

son, we transformed the wavelet layers into the same

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial sup-

form; the absolute values were calculated and then nor- port for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this

malized. The d3 wavelet layer (Figure 10) is similar to article: This work was financially supported by the

the normalized time–frequency model (Figure 9(d)). Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

However, appropriate wavelet function and wavelet (No. 3132015091), Liaoning Natural Science Foundation

layer should be selected in practical applications. (No. 2014025007), National Key Technology Support

Another experiment was performed to examine the Program (Nos 2014BAB12B05 and 2014BAB12B06),

bolt looseness fault in an engine bonnet. The original National Natural Science Fund (No. 51275063), and Dalian

signal and the normalized time–frequency model science and technology planning project (2014A11GX023).

(Figure 11) were described in this study. Figure 11 illus-

trates that the normalized time–frequency model can References

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