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UCLA CEE 140L Beam Experiment

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1. Test Set-Up

monotonically to failure at its midpoint, as shown in Figure 1. A string

potentiometer (or alternatively, an LVDT) and LVDS (locations shown in Figure

1) are used to collect data that are converted to displacements and strains,

respectively. Predicted plots for load-displacement (P-δ) and moment-curvature

(M-φ) may be compared to the plots for measured data.

Supported RC Beam

2. Test Predictions

displacement plot may be generated for the beam. For all sample computations

herein, consider a 5” by 10.5” RC beam with 2#4 top bars and 2#6 bottom bars and

an assumed concrete cover of 1.5” to the center of the longitudinal bars. Use f’c =

5 ksi and fy = 68 ksi. Note that the beam used for sample computations differs

from the beam used in the experiment.

2.1 Moment-Curvature

given RC cross-section.

moment and curvature just prior to cracking, just after cracking, at yield of tensile

reinforcement, and at nominal capacity (εc = 0.003).

may be used to determine the moment and curvature prior to cracking. For both

approaches, it is necessary to estimate the rupture stress of concrete. For 5-ksi

concrete, the rupture stress may be estimated as follows:

strains concrete behaves nearly linear-elastically. Since cracking occurs at very

low concrete strains, assuming linear-elastic behavior is appropriate for computing

parameters at cracking. Although reinforced concrete is not homogenous,

transforming the area of steel reinforcement into an equivalent area of concrete

using modular ratios allows the RC cross-section to be analyzed as a homogenous

material.

In order to use the elastic section approach for the RC section just prior to cracking

it is necessary to compute the uncracked moment of inertia. The depth of the

neutral axis (same as the location of the centroid as measured from the top of the

beam) for the uncracked section is computed as follows:

2

Ag (5")(10.5") 52.5in

2 2

As' 2*(0.20in ) 0.40in

2 2

As 2*(0.44in ) 0.88in

Es Es 29000 ksi 29000 ksi

modular ratio: n ksi 7.2

Ec 57 f c' 57 5000 4030.5ksi

2 2

As' equiv. (n 1) * As' 6.2 *(0.40in ) 2.48in

2 2

As equiv. (n 1) * As 6.2 *(0.88in ) 5.456in

10.5"

As equiv. * 1.5" As equiv. * 10.5" 1.5"

'

Ag *

xuncr . 2

Ag As' equiv. As equiv.

2 2 2

(52.5in )* (5.25") (2.48in ) *(1.5") (5.456in ) *(9.0")

2 2 2

52.5in 2.48in 5.456in

5.43"

The moment of inertia (second moment of area about the centroid) for the

uncracked section is computed as follows (neglecting I0 for the reinforcement,

since the value is very small):

I uncr . [ I 0 A( xi x ) 2 ]

2 2

(1/ 12)(5")(10.5")3 (52.5in )(5.0" 5.43") 2 (2.48in ) *(1.5" 5.43") 2

2

(5.456 in )(9.0" 5.43") 2

4

600.0in

4

fI f r I uncr . (0.5303ksi )(600.0in )

M cr . r uncr . 62.8k in

cbot 10.5" xuncr . (10.5" 5.43")

The corresponding curvature just prior to cracking is computed as follows:

uncr . in 4

0.0000260in

EI uncr . (4030.5 )(600.0 )

ksi

remain plane assumption. For small strains, concrete stress-strain behavior may be

approximated as linear elastic. Therefore, the concrete stress distribution is also

linear. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between stress, strains, and forces for

the linear-elastic case (small strains) for a doubly reinforced RC cross-section just

prior to cracking.

Note that the bottom concrete stress just prior to cracking is equal to the rupture

stress. Based on the stress distribution, the resultant forces may be computed as

follows:

1 1

Cc f c top ctop b f c xb

2 2

Cs ( f s f c @ A' ) As

' ' '

s

1 1

Tc f c bot cbot b f r (h x )b

2 2

Ts ( f s f c @ As ) As

An iterative process may be used to determine the neutral axis depth, x, to achieve

section equilibrium. Once a guess of x has been made, the strain distribution is

known, from which the stresses and forces may be computed.

For the sample RC section considered, the neutral axis depth was determined to be

5.43”, leading to the stress, strain, and force distribution shown in Figure 3.

1 1 1

Cc f c top ctop b f c xb (0.5680ksi )(5.43")(5.0") 7.71k

2 2 2

2

Cs' ( f s' f c @ A' ) As' [2.958ksi ( Ec 4030.5ksi ) *( 's 0.000102)]*(2 *0.20in ) 1.02 k

s

1 1 1

Tc f c bot cbot b f c (h x )b (0.5303ksi )(10.5" 5.43")(5.0") 6.72 k

2 2 2

2

Ts ( f s f c @ As ) As [2.687 ksi ( Ec 4030.5ksi )* ( s 0.000093)]*(2*0.44in ) 2.04 k

Note that the concrete stress at the location of the top bars has been subtracted

from the steel stress in the preceding computation to account for the absence of

concrete at the location of top bars.

The resultant forces satisfy equilibrium and the cracking moment is computed as

follows:

10.5" x

M cr . Tc * 10.5" Ts * (9.0") Cc * (5.43"/ 3) Cs * (1.5")

'

3

(6.72 )(8.81") (2.04 k )(9.0") (7.71k )(1.81") (1.02k )(1.5")

k

62.1k in

c 0.000141 1

uncr . 0.0000260in

x 5.43"

Note that the results for the elastic section approach match the results for the

material stress-strain approach.

Immediately after cracking, the tensile strength of concrete is neglected entirely for

this analysis. This is a simplifying assumption (conservative for design) which

introduces marginal error for the test predications, since the tensile strength of

concrete is small compared to compressive strength (typically on the order of

1/10).

For the example RC cross-section, the cracked neutral axis depth is computed as

follows:

Ag (5")( xcr . )

2 2

As' equiv. (n 1) * As' 6.2 *(0.40in ) 2.48in

2 2

As equiv. n * As 7.2*(0.88in ) 6.336in

xcr .

Ag As' equiv. As equiv.

2 2

(5")( xcr . ) *( xcr . / 2) (2.48in )*(1.5") (6.336in )*(9.0")

2 2

(5")( xcr . ) 2.48in 6.336in

3

(2.5")( xcr . ) 2 60.744in

2

(5.0")( xcr . ) 8.816in

solve quadratic:

2 3

(2.5")( xcr . ) 2 (8.816in )( xcr . ) 60.744in 0 xcr . 3.47"

The moment of inertia (second moment of area about the centroid) for the cracked

section is computed as follows (neglecting I0 for the reinforcement, since the value

is very small):

I uncr . [ I 0 A( xi x ) 2 ]

2

(1/ 12)(5")(3.47")3 (5")(3.47")(3.47"/ 2) 2 (2.48in )* (1.5" 3.47") 2

2

(6.336 in )(9.0" 3.47") 2

4

273.0in

Using the elastic section approach, the curvature immediately after cracking is

computed as follows:

M cr . 62.8k in 1

cr . in 4

0.0000571in

EI cr . (4030.5 )(273.0 )

ksi

The moment and curvature for tension steel yield may be estimated by assuming

linear-elastic behavior for concrete in compression. This is an assumption that can

be checked based on the value of the outer fiber concrete compressive strain.

The depth of the neutral axis for the cracked RC section (neglecting tensile

strength of cracked concrete) was previously determined to be 3.47”. The yield

strain for fy = 68 ksi reinforcement is computed as follows:

fy 68ksi

y 0.00234in / in

Es 29000ksi

Since plane sections are assumed to remain plane, the outer fiber concrete

compressive strain can be computed as follows:

x 3.47"

c y * 0.00234in / in * 0.00147

in / in

to strains of about 0.001. In this case, due to the large outer fiber concrete

compressive strain, using a linear-elastic relationship for concrete is not the best

approximation. Section 2.1.2 presents material stress-strain relationships for steel

and concrete that account for nonlinearities; this type of analysis would provide a

more reliable estimate of the yield moment. However, using the linear-elastic

assumption can provide a crude estimate of the yield moment.

The moment and curvature computed using an elastic section approach for the

cracked RC section (neglecting the tensile strength of cracked concrete) are

computed as follows:

4

f c top I cr . EI (0.00147 in / in )(4030.5ksi )(273.0in )

My c c cr . 466.6k in

ctop xcr . (3.47")

My 466.6 k in 1

y in 4

0.000424in

EI cr . ksi

(4030.5 )(273.0 )

The stress, strain, and force distribution for tension steel yielding is shown in

Figure 4.

Figure 4 – Strains, Stresses, and Forces at Yielding of Tension Reinforcement

(59.8k )(9.0") (51.4 k )(1.1567") (8.3k )(1.5")

466.3k in

c 0.00147 1

y 0.000424in

x 3.47"

Note that the results for the elastic section approach match the results for the

material stress-strain approach.

At nominal capacity (εc = 0.003), tension steel has yielded and the concrete

compressive stress distribution is nonlinear and is approximated by a Whitney

stress block. Per ACI 318-14 Chapter 9 Beams, the Whitney stress block assumes

a uniformly distributed concrete compressive stress of 0.85f’c distributed uniformly

from the outer compression fiber to a depth of a=β1x. For 5-ksi concrete, β1 is

taken as 0.80 per ACI 318-14, Chapter 22 (22.2.2).

Calculations for the nominal capacity of the example RC section are performed

both including and excluding compression steel.

2.1.1.4.1 Singly-Reinforced Section

moment and curvature, leads to the following computation for the depth of the

Whitney stress block, a, and the depth of the neutral axis, x:

2

T As f y (2 *0.44in ) * (68ksi ) 59.84k

C 0.85 f c'ba 0.85*(5ksi )* (5.0") * a (21.25k / in ) * a

As f y 59.84k

T C a 2.816"

0.85 f c'b 21.25k / in

a 2.816"

x 3.52"

1 0.80

c 0.003 1

n 0.000852in

x 3.52"

2.1.1.4.2 Doubly-Reinforced Section

Including the contribution of tensile steel causes a slight increase in the nominal

moment capacity. The depth of the Whitney stress block, a, and the depth of the

neutral axis, x, are computed as follows:

2

T As f y (2* 0.44in ) *(68ksi ) 59.84 k

Cc 0.85 f c'ba 0.85 f c'b1 x 0.85*(5ksi )*(5.0") *(0.80) * x (17.0k / in )* x

(x d ')

Cs' As' ( f s' 0.85 f c' ) As' ( Es 's 0.85 fc' ) As' Es c 0.85 f c'

x

2 ( x 1.5")

(2* 0.20in ) * (29000 ksi )* (0.003in / in ) * 4.25ksi 34.8k (1 1.5"/ x) 1.7 k

x

T Cc Cs' Cc Cs' T 0

solve quadratic:

(17.0k / in ) x 2 (26.74k ) x 52.2 k in 0

x 2.707"

a 1 x (0.80)(2.707") 2.166"

The nominal moment and curvature are computed as follows:

M n Ts d Cc a / 2 Cs' d ' (59.84k )(9.0") (46.02k )(2.166"/ 2) (13.82 k )(1.5") 468.0 k in

c 0.003 1

n 0.00111in

x 2.707"

capacity slightly (by 3.0% in this case).

at tensile steel yield, and at nominal capacity may be used to create the

approximate moment-curvature plot shown in Figure 7.

500

400

300

Moment (k-in)

200

100

Curvature (1/in)

2.1.2 Refined Formulation

Material stress-strain relationships for steel and concrete may be used to compute

moment and curvature for any outer fiber concrete compressive strain, εc.

represents linear-elastic behavior. Region B is a stress plateau, where strain

increases without an increase in load. Region C represents the strain hardening

region with an assumed linear modulus, Esh. Region D is another stress plateau,

which continues until rebar fracture occurs.

Region A: 0 s y f s Es s

Region B: y s sh fs f y

Region C: sh s fu f s f y ( s sh ) Esh

Region D: fu s f s fu

For expected material properties for grade 60 reinforcing steel, fy = 68 ksi, fu = 100

ksi, Esh = 1280 ksi, εsh = 0.005, and εfu = 0.03.

2.1.2.2 Stress-Strain Relationship for Concrete

Figure 9 shows the stress-strain relationship for concrete using the Hognestad

(1955) model. Region A is nonlinear with a parabolic stress-strain relationship

modeled by the following equation:

2 2

fc f c c

c

'

for 0 c 0

0 0

decrease linearly for strains in excess of ε0. For the Hognestaad model, the stress

is taken as 0.85f’c at a strain of 0.0035, leading to the following relationship:

c 0

f c f c' 1 0.15 0 for 0 c

0

The value ε0 = 0.002 is typically assumed for the Hognestaad stress-strain model,

which leads to ε(fc=0) = 0.012 (Figure 9).

2.1.2.3 Moment-Curvature Analysis

steel, moment and curvature may be computed for any outer fiber concrete

compressive strain, εx, considered for the RC beam. An iterative procedure may be

used to determine the required neutral axis depth, x, to achieve section equilibrium.

The process is best illustrated via example.

For this example, consider again the 5” by 10.5” RC beam with 2#4 top bars and

2#6 bottom bars and an assumed concrete cover of 1.5” to the center of the bars.

Take f’c = 5ksi and use expected material properties for steel. The moment and

curvature for an outer fiber concrete compressive strain εx = 0.005 are desired.

Figure 10 shows the internal strains, stresses, and forces for an initial guess of the

neutral axis depth, x = 2.5”. The concrete compressive zone is divided into slices

to allow piecewise-linear analysis. For this example, five slices are used. Using

more slices provides greater computational refinement.

0.005

The strain distribution is linear based on the assumption that plane sections remain

plane. Thus, the parameters εx and x are sufficient to describe the strain

distribution completely. For concrete, the stresses at the boundary of each slice are

computed as:

2 2 2* 0.001 0.001 2

for c 0.001, fc f

c

' c

(5 ) *

c ksi

3.75

ksi

0 0 0.002 0.002

2 2 2*0.002 0.002 2

for c 0.002, fc f

c

' c

(5 ) *

c ksi

5.00

ksi

0 0 0.002 0.002

c 0 0.003 0.002

for c 0.003, f c f c' 1 0.15 (5 ) * 1 0.15

ksi

4.50 ksi

0 0.002

c 0 0.004 0.002

for c 0.004, f c f c' 1 0.15 (5 ) * 1 0.15

ksi

4.00 ksi

0 0.002

c 0 0.005 0.002

for c 0.005, f c f c' 1 0.15 (5 )* 1 0.15

ksi

3.50 ksi

0 0.002

Approximating the stress variation within each slice as linear leads to the following

computation for concrete compressive forces:

3.75ksi x

C1 0.5" b 5.0" 4.6875

ksi

2 5

3.75ksi 5.00 ksi x

C2 0.5" b 5.0" 10.9375

ksi

2 5

5.00ksi 4.50 ksi x

C3 0.5" b 5.0" 11.875

ksi

2 5

4.50 ksi 4.00ksi x

C4 0.5" b 5.0" 10.625

ksi

2 5

4.00ksi 3.50 ksi x

C5 0.5" b 5.0" 9.375

ksi

2 5

The stresses in the top and bottom steel are computed as follows:

bottom steel: f s f y ( s sh ) Esh 68ksi (0.013 0.005) *1280 ksi 78.24 ksi

2

top steel: C's f s' f c @( c s 0.002) * As' (58.0ksi 5.0 ksi )(0.40in ) 21.2 kips

2

bottom steel: T f s * As (78.24 ksi )(0.88in ) 68.85 ksi

Note that the concrete stress at the location of the top bars has been subtracted

from the steel stress in the preceding computation to account for the absence of

concrete at the location of top bars.

T T 68.85kips

Therefore, since T = C within a reasonable tolerance, the initial guess x = 2.5” was

correct for εx = 0.005 and further iteration is not needed to determine the depth of

the neutral axis. In general, if T > C then increase the neutral axis depth for the

next iteration and vice versa.

Once the depth of the neutral axis has been determined via iteration, the moment

and curvature may be computed. For the example problem, the moment and

curvature at an outer fiber concrete compressive strain of εx = 0.005 may be

computed as follows:

533k in

x 0.005 1

0.002in

x 2.5"

Using this procedure the moment and curvature may be computed for any outer

fiber concrete compressive strain, εx, for a given RC cross-section.

This procedure may be used to compute moment and curvature at tensile steel

yield. In this way, the yield moment was computed to be 458.4 k-in (curvature is

0.00114 in-1), which is slightly less than the yield moment computed when

assuming linear-elastic behavior in the concrete compression zone; the nominal

moment was computed to be 488.7 k-in (curvature is 0.000432 in -1), which is

larger than the nominal moment computed previously due to the inclusion of

strain-hardening in the tensile reinforcement. Figure 11 shows a complete

moment-curvature plot generated using this refined method. Note that the cracking

moment cannot be determined using this method (and is not included in this plot),

since this method does not include any tensile strength of concrete prior to

cracking.

Moment-Curvature Plot for Example Beam

600

500

400

Moment (k-in)

300

200

100

Curvature (1/in)

2.2 Load-Displacement

supported beam with a total (support-to-support) span length of 8’ and a vertical

point load, P, at its midpoint. Load and displacement are evaluated at cracking, at

yielding, and for post-yielding.

2.2.1 Cracking

The cracking moment for the section was previously computed to be M cr = 62.8 k-

in. The load that causes cracking, Pcr, is thus computed as follows:

4 M cr 4* 62.8k in

Pcr 2.62k

L 96"

The maximum moment is at the center of the beam; the beam is reaching cracking

only at the midpoint and therefore remains uncracked throughout the span. The

displacement at midspan at cracking, δcr., is computed as follows, using the

equation for a simply-supported beam with concentrated load at mid-span and

uniform EI:

cr . 2 0.020"

48EI uncr . 48(4030.5ksi )(600.0in )

2.2.2 Yielding

The yielding moment for the section was previously computed to be My = 458.4 k-

in. The load that causes yielding, Py, is thus computed as follows:

4M y 4* 458.4k in

Py 19.1k

L 96"

account for cracked and uncracked portions of the beam. The analysis may be

simplified since the midspan rotation is zero due to symmetry.

Moment-Area Method

Figure 12 shows the moment diagram for the simply supported beam at yielding of

tension steel. The deflection computed via the moment-area method is as follows:

1 M 2 M 1

y * 6.576"* cr . * *6.576" 41.424"* cr . * 6.576" * 41.424"

2 EI uncr . 3 EI cr . 2

1 M y M cr . 2

* 41.424"* * 6.576" * 41.424"

2 EI cr . 3

1 62.8k in 62.8k in

* 6.576"* 4

* 4.384"

41.424"* 4 * 27.288"

2 4030.5ksi *600.0in 4030.5ksi * 273.0in

1 458.4k in 62.8k in

* 41.424"* 4 * 34.192"

2 4030.5ksi * 273.0in

0.0004" 0.0645" 0.2546"

0.32"

Neglecting the uncracked portion of the beam and computing the deflection as

though the beam were entirely cracked, leads to the following deflection:

y 2 0.32"

48EI cr . 48(4030.5ksi )(273.0in )

2.2.3 Post-Yielding

Figure 13, in which all post-yield deformation occurs due to rigid rotation within

the plastic hinge. The formation of the plastic hinge occurs at midspan, where

moment demand is the largest. The hinge rotation, plastic , is computed as follows:

plastic ( y ) * L p

where Lp is the length of the plastic hinge, is the curvature at the moment of

interest, and y is the yield curvature. The plastic rotation is assumed to occur

about the midpoint of the plastic hinge. Based on the beam geometry, the

corresponding deflection for the given rotation may be computed as follows

(Figure 13):

plastic Lbeam

plastic *

2 2

Figure 13 – Plastic Hinge Model for Simply-Supported Beam

The total displacement is the sum of the linear and nonlinear displacement:

total y plastic

For the example problem, the load when the simply supported beam reaches the

nominal moment at midspan is computed as follows:

4 M n 4* 488.7 k in

Pn 20.3625k

L 96"

is computed as follows:

plastic * *

2 2 2 2

in 1 1

(0.00114 0.000432in ) *10.5" 96"

*

2 2

0.18"

Similarly, for an outer fiber concrete compressive strain of єc=0.005, the moment

and curvature were previously computed to be M(єc=0.005) = 533 k-in and φ(єc=0.005) =

0.002 in-1, leading to P(єc=0.005) = 21.2083 k and δ(єc=0.005) = 0.72”.

2.2.4 Load-Displacement Plot

The resulting P-δ plot for the example problem is estimated in Figure 14 using the

four previously mentioned data points (cracking, yield, nominal, єc=0.005).

Load-Displacement Plot for Example Beam

25

20

15

Load, P (kips)

10

Displacement, d (inches)

318-14 Section 22.5 as follows:

Vn Vc Vs

where Vc is the nominal shear strength provided by concrete and Vs is the nominal

shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.

Vc 2 f c' bw d

where λ is equal to 1.0 for normal weight concrete, f’c is the compressive strength

of concrete in psi, bw is the beam width, and d is the depth from the outer

compression fiber to the beam tension steel.

Av f yt d

Vs

s

where Av is the area of shear reinforcement within the spacing s, and fyt is the yield

stress of transverse reinforcement.

For the example beam without stirrups, the shear capacity is computed as follows:

5000 psi

Vn Vc 2 f c' bw d 2*(1.0)* * (5.0") *(9.0") 6.4k

1000 psi / ksi

If #3 grade 40 stirrups spaced at 4.0” were used in the example beam, the shear

capacity is computed as follows:

2

Av f yt d 2* (0.11in ) * (40ksi ) *(9.0")

Vs 19.8k

s (4.0")

Vn Vc Vs 6.4k 19.8k 26.2k

3. Experimental Results

3.1 Moment-Curvature

The hydraulic jack is used to apply load monotonically at the midspan of the

simply-supported RC beam. A load cell is used to measure the experimental load

exerted on the beam by the hydraulic jack. The measured load is used to determine

the experimental moment as follows:

PL

M

4

The horizontal LVDTs are used to determine curvature. The LVDTs measure

voltage, which is converted to displacement via a calibration factor. The measured

strain equals the displacement divided by the gauge length (pin-to-pin length) of

the LVDT.

Since the montonic, midspan loading is upward, the top LVDT measures tensile

strain while the bottom LVDT measures compressive strain (provided the neutral

axis for the cross-section is not below the lower LVDT). The experimental

curvature is computed as follows:

top bot .

exp

d LVDT

where dLVDT is the vertical distance between the top and bottom LVDTs. Note that

this equation was set up to yield positive curvature when tensile strain is taken

positive and compressive strain is taken negative. Figure 15 illustrates

geometrically the relationship between LVDT strains and section curvature.

A link apparatus, Figure 16, is used to magnify the strains. Magnifying the strains

serves to minimize the influence of noise. Referring to Figure 16, the lowermost

horizontal link is rigid (no axial deformation), meaning that the lowermost pins do

not move. The two pins just above the lowermost pins embed into the beam and

displace due to the strain at this location in the beam. This displacement causes a

rigid rotation about the lowermost pins as seen in Figure 16. This rigid rotation

causes the uppermost pins to translate, creating a measured displacement in the

LVDT. By similar triangles, the measured strain is determined from the beam

strain as follows:

b

meas. beam

a

3.2 Load-Displacement

The applied load is measured via a load cell, and the the midspan displacement is

measured using a vertical LVDT. Both the load cell and the LVDT measure

voltage, which is converted to force and displacement, respectively, via a

calibration factor.

3.3 Shear Force

The experimental shear in the beam may be determined from the measured applied

load using statics. Since the vertical load is applied at midspan, the maximum

shear demand in the beam is Vu=P/2 as seen by the shear diagram in Figure 17.

Point Load

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