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INSTITUTE OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT,

AURANGABAD

Loire Valley

WINE & FOOD HARMONY

HARSH RAJ SINGH CHAMPAWAT (15037)


PRATAP RATHORE (15077)
“Submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirement for
BA (Hons.) in Hotel Management”

THE UNIVERSITY OF HUDDERSFIELD,


UNITED KINGDOM

August 2009
Wine & Food Harmony Loire Valley

1. The Loire

It is marvellous with what felicity, what gastronomic savoirvivre, the river Rhone and Loire
counter balance one another on their passage through France. For 160 kilometres (100 miles)
or so they even run parallel, flowing in opposite directions forty-eight kilometres (thirty
miles) apart.

They decline the nation of rivalry: in every way they are complementary. The Rhone gives
France its soothing, warming, satisfying, winter weight wines. The Loire provides the
summer drinking.

The Loire rises within 100 kilometres (99 miles) of the Mediterranean. Wine is made in
earnest along some 400 kilometres (248 miles) of its course and on the banks of its lower
tributaries. It is a big stretch of the country, and one might expect a wide variety of wines.
The long list of the appellations encourages the idea, but it is not difficult simplify into half a
dozen dominant styles based on grape varieties.

The valley of the Loire is the most widespread of France’s vineyard area, producing dozens
of wines with as many different characters. While it is possible to talk of Loire as making
light wines that demonstrate elegance and freshness but rarely power, any single descriptive
phrase is sorely inadequate. There are dry, medium dry and sweet roses, reds that can be light
and fresh or deep and intense, and a variety of sparkling wines. One of the main factors in the
taste of the Loire’s is the very variable northern climate. A cool year can produce acidic,
short- lived wines; a warm summer and autumn can make rich, long-lasting ones. The other
great variable is the grape variety. Many are grown, both traditional ones and more recently
imported varieties from other regions of France.

France’s longest river runs by gentle hills, green fields and vineyards, magnificent chateaux
and fine, elegant cities. The rivers define the vineyards: the Loire itself, broad and slow-
moving; the Cher, Indre, Allier and Vienne, with their own valleys and wine districts. Smaller
tributaries such as the Aubance, Layon, Sevre and Maine Nantes create their own vineyards
micro-climates and their own landscapes of narrow valleys scarred through the high, flat
plateaux. The Loire rises in the southern mountains of the Massif Central. Here are tiny
pockets of vineyards, relics of area once much greater. It is not until it has covered almost
half its course to the sea, and is about to take the huge left turn that changes it from flowing
north to flowing west, that the first of the three main vineyards areas is reached. The upper

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Loire vineyards of Sancerre and Pouilly both make the crisp, herbaceous white based on
Sauvignon Blanc, whose taste has gone around the world. The second area is the vast tracts of
Touraine and Anjou. Here are found a wide range of white wines, still and sparkling, and the
Loire’s main concentration of red wines. The last division, the western Loire, is a complete
contrast. Here one grape variety, the white Melon de Bourgogne, also called the Muscadet,
reigns almost supreme: it produces crisp, seatangy white wines. The ocean is never far away,
as seen in the higher rainfall of the Pays Nantais.

Source: Johnson, H. 2003, Wine Companion, 4th edn, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd,
London. Pg. Nos. 137.

Foulkes, C.,(2001), Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine, 2nd edn, Octopus publishing Group
Ltd., London. Pg. Nos. 231.

2. History of Loire valley wines

It is believed that even in Gaulish, and certainly in Roman, times there were vines in the
Loire Region. It is more definitely known that St Martin, who founded his abbey at tours in
AD372, caused that great propagation of the vine to take place especially in the region we
now know as Anjou and Touraine. The high point of Loire wines in history was the
renaissance, when the princely chateaux where built, each with its vineyard, and French
gastronomy began to blossom amid the wealth and abundance of the Loire valley.
Vinegrowing existed along with market gardening and all kinds of fruits were cultivated.
Paris was (and is) a major market of Loire wines, but export trade also took place through the
cities of Nantes and Angers, who were major importers of spices.

Source: Foulkes, C.,(2001), Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine, 2nd edn, Octopus publishing
Group Ltd., London. Pg. Nos. 232.

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3. Merchants and estates

The Loire is still a region of smallholding. There are very few great wine estates, as in
Bordeaux, and the tiny parcels of land are reminiscent of Burgundy. But while the
Burgundian may have become rich through the renown of this wine, outside a few famous
names, such as Sancerre, Muscadet, Pouilly-Fume and Saumur-Champigny, skill is still
meagrely rewarded for many producers in the Loire. There are few winemaking cooperatives
to provide the wine producers with an income. This has meant that the negociants are the real
power of Loire wines. From bases in the Muscadet region, Saumur and Touraine, the
merchants buy grapes (or more usually wine) from up and down the river, and make large
quantities of generally innocuous blended wines and sometimes downright bad ones. As
prices are generally kept low by the merchants, producers tend to sell off cuvees which are of
an inferior quality. This explains why a Sancerre bottled in the Nantes region often turns out
to be disappointing.

Source: Foulkes, C.,(2001), Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine, 2nd edn, Octopus publishing
Group Ltd., London. Pg. Nos. 232

Quality factors
The Loire vineyards are at the limits of reliable vine cultivation in France. It is because of the
favourable micro-climates and drainage patterns created by the rivers that it is possible to
practise successful viticulture at all. The shelter conferred by the valleys, the moderating
effect of the water in the rivers, even the extra light reflected from there surface, combine
to make the difference between the marginal and practical vine growing. As a result,
vintage variation, especially in red wines, is considerable.
Source: Foulkes, C.,(2001), Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine, 2nd edn, Octopus publishing
Group Ltd., London. Pg. Nos. 234.

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4.1. Climate
The climate varies considerably from one end of the valley to the other, the main variable
being the diminishing influence of the Atlantic.

This ocean influence moderates temperature in the west of the region. The Muscadet (Nantes)
area also has good amount of sun. Summer temperatures are highest at Pouilly, far inland, but
Angers has the warmest harvest period.

In the spring, there is an ever-present risk of frost until the end of May, and excessive
summer rainfall, especially in August and September, can cause rot in the vineyards.

Source: Foulkes, C.,(2001), Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine, 2nd edn, Octopus publishing
Group Ltd., London. Pg. Nos. 234

4.2. Viticulture and winemaking

With over 185,000 acres (750 km2) planted under vine, the Loire Valley is about two-thirds
the size of the Bordeaux wine region. Due to its location and marginal climate, the overall
quality of a vintage has a dramatic effect on the quality of the region's wines-more so than
with other French wine regions. The most common hazard is that the cool climate will
prevent the grapes from ripening fully and developing the sugars needed to balance the
naturally high acidity of the grapes. During these cool vintages the Sauvignon blanc based
wines are lighter in colour, less fruity and have more pronounced mineral notes. The
Cabernet franc based wines are also lighter in colour with more vegetal or "weed"-like
aromas. In riper vintages, a Loire Cabernet franc will develop aromas of raspberries and lead
pencil shavings.

The Loire Valley has a high density of vine plantings with an average of 1,600-2,000 vines
per acre (4,000-5,000 per hectare). Some Sancerre vineyards have as many as 10,000 plants
per hectare. With more vines competing for the same limited resources in the soil, the density
is designed to compensate for the excessive yields that some of the grape varieties, like
Chenin blanc, are prone to have. In recent times, pruning and canopy management have
started to limit yields more effectively.

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Winemaking in the Loire is characterized by a general avoidance of barrel aging and


malolactic fermentation. However some winemakers have begun experimenting with both.
Chaptalization is permitted here and can help wine makers compensate for the under ripeness
of the grapes in some years. For red wines there has been more emphasis on extending the
maceration time of skin contact in order to bring out more colour and tannins into the wine.
Temperature control is also an important consideration with the cold autumn weather
sometimes requiring that the must to be heated in order to complete fermentation fully.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loire_Valley_(wine), 10th August, 23:10

5. Wine and Food


The Loire Valley, the "garden of France" is not associated with particular dishes or flavours
but with the superb quality of its produce. This is the land of classic, French style cooking,
and the wines of the Loire Valley are table wines par excellence that balance great food rather
than competing with it.

Muscadet Sur Lie with shellfish is a classic blend. It is excellent with raw oysters. It is
magnificent with (and in) mussels à la marinière and mussel soup with saffron, and with
simple grilled fish. Muscadet may have been the wine used in the authentic beurre blanc, a
white butter sauce from Muscadet's native Pays Nantais. Dry and off-dry Vouvray whites
pair beautifully with the slight sweetness of scallops and lobster.

Intense, pungent Savennières, is outstanding with a wide range of fresh and smoked fish, as
well as with white meats such as veal or sweatbreads. Chinon, Bourgueil, St Nicolas de
Bourgueil and Saumur Champigny flatter pairs well with any grilled or roasted meat.

The aromatic Sauvignon Blanc wines of Pouilly Fumé, Sancerre, Quincy, Reuilly, Menetou-
Salon and Touraine Sauvignon are natural partners for the goat cheeses for which the region
is famous.

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These versatile wines are also wonderful partners for shellfish and seafood in general. The
best lentils in France (lentilles du Berry) are grown in Central Loire, and grilled salmon with
lentils could be paired equally well with white or red from the region.

The Loire Valley's wonderful sparkling wines are a good way to begin any meal, especially a
buffet of cold, roasted meats. The rare, off-dry sparkling wines are prefect at brunch with
strawberries.

Finally the great sweet wines of the Loire Valley are one of the world's best. They are
traditionally enjoyed alone, as an aperitif, or after a meal. But they are magnificent with foie
gras appetizers and with Tarte Tatin, the famous apple tart created in the Loire Valley.

Source: http://www.loirevalleywine.com/foodwine.html, 9th August, 15:27

6. Wine Producing Regions of Loire Valley

6.1. Western Loire

The Nantes, or Atlantic, region, in the westernmost part of the Loire, is cool and ideally
suited to the Melon de Bourgogne grape, known locally as Muscadet, which grows well in
the mild summers and ripens around mid-September, before the cold weather of early fall sets
in.

The Muscadet de Sever et Maine appellation achieves its fuller style from better sun exposure
on the hilly slopes of the region and from clay, granite, and volcanic soils. Wine makers in all
the appellations embraced stainless steel as the preferred vessel for fermentation, conducting
a long, slow, cool fermentation to maintain the freshness of the grape. After the fermentation
is over, many wine makers also choose to leave the wine sur lie (on its lees) until it is ready
to be bottled. This process is often used in other wine regions to provide an extra level of
smoothness and creaminess, a result of the breakdown of the yeast cells.

The decaying yeast cells are also a powerful antioxidant, preventing any oxidation and
keeping the wine fresh, even retaining a degree of spritz or petillance that is noticeable when
the wine is poured.

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In addition to the Muscadet grape, Gros Plant (known elsewhere as Picpoul or Folle Blanche)
is widely planted in the Atlantic region, producing light, simple, fresh wines in the VDQS
category, such as Gros Plant du Pays Nantais or Coteaux d’ Ancenis.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 289-291.

http://www.touringinwinecountry.com/loire/wineries/index.html, 11th August, 18:24

6.2. Central Loire

The central Loire can be split into three provinces, Anjou, Saumur, and Touraine. Central
Loire offers the broadest selection of types and style of wine made from several different
grape types, including the Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc as white, and
Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Pinot Noir, Cot (Malbec), and Grolleau as
reds. Pourriture noble (botrytis) is not common in the area, but those vintages when it was
widespread, such as 1945, 1955, 1969, and 1989, produce the most luscious, long-lived
examples.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 291.

6.2.1. Anjou

Centred on the town of Angers, Anjou is famous for its wide variety of styles. Today the
appellation Anjou is used to label many wines, from dry white to rose, reds, and sparkling
wines. The best dry whites (Anjou Blanc) are produced from 100 percent Chenin Blanc. They
are fresh, lively wines, full of bracing character, sometimes softened by the Chardonnay or
Sauvignon Blanc element. Anjou Rouge, Anjou villages, and Anjou Gamay are the three
appellations, with the first two concentrating on Cabernet Franc, while Anjou Gamay is made
from Gamay. The reds are light, simple, fruity reds, designed and consumed as bistro wines,
not to be taken too seriously.

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In addition to these basic Anjou appellations, there are several smaller appellations, some of
which are very special. Savennieres , Coteaux du Layon, Bonnezeaux and Quarts de
Chaume, Coteaux de I’ Aubance, Cremant de la Loire and Anjou Mousseux, Saumur

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 292.

6.2.1.1. Savennieres
The Savennieres appellation is situated to the north of the Loire River, just to the east of the
town of Angers. The high quality of Savennieres is due to Chenin Blanc grown on schistose
slate soil, with some volcanic rocks, giving the wines a marked concentration of mineral
flavours in addition to the beguiling nuances of Chenin at its best. Two grand cru sites,
Chateau de La Roche- aux-Moines and Coulee de Serrant, are the pride of the region. After a
half a dozen years the wines begin to display floral, honey, mineral, and spicy qualities in the
bouquet and complex and intense flavour on the palate.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 293

6.2.2. Saumur

There are actually three different appellations surrounding the town of Saumur: Saumur,
Saumur-Champigny, and Saumur Mousseux. One of the most important wines from this
region is a sparkling wine made in Saumur Mousseux from Chenin Blanc (although
increasing amounts of Chardonnay are being used). An ultimate destination for red wine
lovers, Saumur Rouge tends to have more success than the Blanc does, as the soil is similar to
those in Chinon and Bourgueil and it produces a refreshing, light fruity wine. These wines
are generally made from Cabernet France, with the best coming from Saumur-Champigny.
Although Saumur does make some rosé, they tend to be drier with less panache than you
generally find in surrounding region. One exciting aspect of Saumur is that quarrying over
the past centuries has left Saumur with extensive caves that work for cellaring their wines and
can frequently be visited.

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Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 294.

6.2.3. Touraine

Touraine produces a complete range of wines that carry the Touraine appellation name on the
label. The best dry whites are made with the Sauvignon Blanc variety, though Chenin Blanc
is also used for both still and sparkling white wines. Gamay is the most important grape for
Touraine red wines, followed by the Cabernet Franc and cot (Malbec). Touraine Mousseux
sparkling wine is made by the Champagne method using Chenin Blanc as the base grape, and
Cremant de la Loire is also produced within the Touraine region. Touraine has the following
appellations: Bourgueil, Chinon, Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil, Vouvray, Montlouis, Jasnieres,
Coteaux du Loir, and Cheverny.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 295.

6.2.3.1.Vouvray

The Vouvray appellation is situated on the north bank of the Loire. Chenin Blanc is used to
produce still white wines in range of sweetness that depends on how long and warm the
growing season was. Given the unreliable climate, a large quantity of Vouvray Mousseux is
produced, using the methode champenoise, from grapes harvested relatively early. When the
weather is more reliable and a warm fall can be predicted, grape growers here are more likely
to leave the grapes to ripe more fully, in the hopes of making at least some moelleux wines.
Vouvray producers also specialize in a style called sec-tendre, usually translated as “off-dry,”
somewhere between dry and semisweet. Whatever the style, the better vineyards line the
river, producing finer, more elegant, and complex wines from the chalky tuffeau subsoil, as
compared to the fuller, more foursquare wines inland from the river.

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Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 295

http://www.touringinwinecountry.com/loire/wineries/index.html, 11th August, 18:24

6.3. Upper Loire

The wines of the Upper Loire are dominated by Sauvignon Blanc. Sauvignon Blanc wines of
the Loire have mineral, herbal and gooseberry aromas, medium weight on the palate, and
explosive acidity. The vivacity and complexity of the region’s finest wines are due to an
unusual combination of Kimmeridgian (chalky marl) and portlandian (hard limestone) soils
that promote finesse, length of flavours and a distinct flinty, mineral quality. The element of
smoky flint is probably due to residues of iron in the soil structure. In addition, there are
outcropping of calcareous tufa, a volcanic soil that produces softer, somewhat flatter, but
distinctly fruitier wine. While offering distinct weight in the finest years, the flavours and
aromas of the wines of the upper Loire will dance tantalizingly around your mouth for several
minutes even after the wine has been swallowed.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 297

6.3.1. Pouilly-Fume

Fifteen hundred acres/600 hectares of Sauvignon Blanc vines are planted in mostly limestone
based soils in the Pouilly-Fume appellation. Higher levels of clay in the soil make for slightly
fuller, heavier wines than those from the neighbouring appellation of Sancerre. The grape
musts are fermented in stainless steel or old oak barrels. Malolactic fermentation in allowed
to occur on a piecemeal, haphazard basis, leaving the wines with obvious, sometimes searing
acidity tempered by a noticeable softness on the middle palate. When grown in the area, the
Sauvignon Blanc grape is known as Blanc Fume because of its smoky or flint like aromas.

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Some producers have branched out into speciality Pouilly wines, adopting small-barrel
fermentation and aging and full malolactic treatment to produce a wine resembling a rich
white Burgundy rather than the standard acidic style that is most prevalent here.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 297

6.3.2. Sancerre

Sancerre is larger area than Pouilly Fume, with 4000 acres/1,600 hectares in fourteen
communes and more variations in its soil type, producing Sauvignon Blanc white wines that
are leaner and more bracing than Pouilly-Fume, as well as some reds and roses from Pinot
Noir grape. Some producers follow a philosophy o blending wines from the lighter
Kimmeridgian soils with wines from softer tufa soils to produce the best of both worlds-
enough weight to suggest something serious, pleasing ripe and soft fruit, and a fine bracing
acidity to refresh and balance. Occasionally a sweet vendange tardive (late harvest) white is
made.

Source: Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York. Pg. Nos. 298

http://www.touringinwinecountry.com/loire/wineries/index.html, 11th August, 18:24

7. Famous Wines of Loire Valley

Pouilly Fume Henri Bourgeois

Producer: Henri Bourgeois

Vintage: 2005

Grape Varietal: Sauvignon Blanc

Appellation: Pouilly Fume AOC

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Tasting Notes: Pale, bright; pea pod. Smokey edge, not aggressive; excellent length &
pleasant finish.

Special Notes: “Pouilly Fume” is an appellation located in the town of Pouilly sur Loire,
which is located by the side of the Loire River. The Appellation gets the name ‘Fume’ by the
early morning fog created by the Loire River that can blanket the vineyard.

Sancerre “Les Baronnes” Henri Bourgeois

Producer: Henri Bourgeois

Vintage: 2005

Grape Varietal: Sauvignon Blanc

Appellation: Sancerre AOC

Tasting Notes: Wet hay on the nose. Grassy and lightweight on the palate with a somewhat
sweet, candied citrus finish.

Special Notes: “Sancerre” is an appellation based in the Sancerre town in the Loire Valley.
This town is located on the opposite side of the Loire Valley as compared to Pouilly sur
Loire. “Les Baronnes” is the name of a vineyard where this wine is made.

Muscadet Sevre et Maine Sur Lie “La Grande Reserve du Moulin” Gadais Pere & Fils

Producer: Gadais Pere et Fils

Vintage: 2005

Grape Varietal: Muscadet (also called Bourgogne de lemon)

Appellation: Muscadet sevre et maine AOC

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Tasting Notes: Wine with opulent character and perfectly balanced by a light crisp quality.
Pale, fresh, agreeable, dry, but not green or acid, a faint trace of muskiness, from which the
name Muscadet derives.

Special Notes: Any appellation having Muscadet in its name is an exception as that particular
appellation is named after the grape first and then the region. Gadais Pere et Fils means
Gadais Father and Son. Sevre is the name of a river passing by this appellation. ‘Sur lie’
literally translates from the French as 'on lees', lees meaning the yeasty residue remaining in
the cask after fermentation. 'Sur lie' wines are bottled directly from the lees without racking
(a process for filtering the wine), giving an added freshness and creaminess to the wine

Rose d’Anjou Sauvion et Fils

Producer: Sauvion et Fils

Vintage: 2004

Grape Varietal: Cabernet Franc

Country: France

Region: Loire Valley

Appellation: Rose d’Anjou AOC

Tasting Notes: There was very little nose with this wine, very light floral, and no fruit
present. The only real thing to taste is light fruit.

Special Notes: “Anjou” is a region around middle Loire around the town of ‘Angers’. “Rose
d’Anjou” is one of the appellations in that region famous for its Cabernet franc based wines.
“Sauvion et Fils” means Sauvion and sons. “Fils” is the French word for sons.

Source: Wine Manual 2007-08, Taj Lake Palace Udaipur

8. Loire Valley Wine Sales Decline in U.K., Biggest Export Market

Wines from the Loire Valley, France's third-biggest winemaking region, lost ground in
Britain, their main export market, as sales of reds and roses fell. Shipments of wines from the

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area to the U.K. declined 3 percent by volume and 2 percent by value in the first 11 months
of 2006, according to data released by export agency Ubifrance at this month's Loire wine
fair in Angers. The drop follows a broader decline in French wine exports to Britain, where
consumers are buying more full-bodied varieties such as New World Chardonnay or Shiraz.

Maybe we're moving a little away from the taste of the market,'' said Thierry Guertin, wine
maker at Cellier de la Verrine in Vouvray. A specialist in still and sparkling whites, he sells
only 5,000 to 8,000 bottles of his annual 200,000 production in Britain.

Sales to the U.K. of Loire reds and roses, grouped together in the Ubifrance data, fell 18
percent in the 11-month period. Saumur and Saumur-Champigny were particularly hard hit,
falling 68 percent, while sales of Chinon reds and roses increased 46 percent by volume and
Sancerres gained 40 percent.

Loire whites fared better, selling 2 percent more by volume in the U.K., according to
Ubifrance. Whites from Touraine rose 62 percent by volume and Anjou- Saumur 11 percent.
Muscadets were little changed and Loire sparkling wines slid 14 percent, losing ground to
competition from Italy, Spain, Australia and New Zealand.

Source: http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601088&sid=amm1DJ5fi30o&refer=muse,
12th August, 14:04, Year of Publishing-2007.

8.1. Loire Sharpens its Image

Wine producers from the Loire Valley are launching a new umbrella brand in the UK to
create a clearer identity for the French wine region.

Vallee Loire is a collection of six wines--three whites, two reds and a rose--priced at 4.99
[pounds sterling] and 6.99 [pounds sterling], with a 7.99 [pounds sterling] Cremant de Loire
also included.

Created by Alliance Loire--a collaboration of seven co-operatives from the Loire Valley, in
partnership with distributor HwCg and CorpBrand Identity--Vallee Loire uses simple design

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cues, glass colour and straightforward labelling to give the brand a modern image and help
customers understand the different varietals.

Alliance Loire said the Loire Valley offered huge sales potential with consumer-friendly wine
styles, but admitted the region was difficult for the export market to understand.

Alliance Loire said the region was bucking the general decline in French wine sales. While
sales for total off-trade French wine fell nearly 1%, the Loire has increased by nearly 12%.

Source: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5245/is_7673_227/ai_n29125966/, 12th


August, 17:22, Year of Publishing-2007.

9. Conclusion

Today the Loire Valley is the third most popular tourist destination in France. Famous for its
natural beauty, wonderful châteaux and picturesque towns, the Loire Valley is also renowned
for the excellent quality, variety and affordability of its wines. The length of the river, the
varied terrain, geology and climates through which the river flows, make the Loire Valley the
only region in France to produce excellent wines of every variety. Red, rose or white,
sparkling or still, sweet or dry, the Loire Valley wines are among the best of their kinds. The
cool climate of the Loire Valley insures that the wines, no matter how ripe, will always have
a lean acidity that balances well with the region’s fruit and alcohol. Even though many Loire
Valley wines age admirably, most can be appreciated in youth. They show their best qualities
with food, and they possess enough flavour and body to stand up to almost all styles of
cooking.

“These are not wines to be collected and displayed; they are wines to be enjoyed.”

-Loirevalleywine.com

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10. Bibliography

Books:

• Foulkes, C.,(2001), Larousse Encyclopaedia of Wine, 2nd edn, Octopus publishing


Group Ltd., London.

• Johnson, H. 2003, Wine Companion, 4th edn, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd, London.

• Kolpan, S., Smith, B., and Weiss, M. 2002, Exploring Wine, 2nd edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York.

Internet:

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loire_Valley_(wine), 10th August, 23:10


• http://www.loirevalleywine.com/foodwine.html, 9th August, 15:27
• http://www.touringinwinecountry.com/loire/wineries/index.html, 11th August, 18:24

Champawat. H, Rathore. P
Wine & Food Harmony Loire Valley

• http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?
pid=20601088&sid=amm1DJ5fi30o&refer=muse, 12th August, 14:04, Year of
Publishing-2007.

• http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5245/is_7673_227/ai_n29125966/, 12th
August, 17:22, Year of Publishing-2007.

• http://www.intowine.com/regions/france/loire-valley, 13th August, 13:52

• http://nywine.browsemystuff.com/blog/wine-making/&query=loire+valley+wines,
13th August, 18:21

• http://www.pierrechainier.com/page_eng.php?nav=terroir&id=30, 13th August, 18:12

• http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5245/is_7458_223/ai_n28779258/, 13th
August, 17:21

• http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface?
content=a791202252&rt=0&format=pdf, 12th August, 10:59

• http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/w/wines/the_loire/index.
html, 12th August, 10:16

• http://www.harpers.co.uk/misc/content/article/1977-points-make-prices.html, 12th
August, 11:08

Unpublished Manual:
• Wine Manual 2007-08, Taj Lake Palace Udaipur

Champawat. H, Rathore. P