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Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt


Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility

Intramolecular forces
(Definition: Force between atoms to make up a molecule)

- Electronegativity
- Valence electrons
- Chemical bond

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Electronegativity
Definition: Ability of an atom or functional group to attract electrons towards itself

Increasing electronegativity
e.g.
electronegativity
of C = 2.55 and
O = 3.44
H = 2.20

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Valence electrons (VEs)
Definition: Electrons of the atoms outer shell, that participate in the formation of a
chemical bond

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 VEs
Increasing number of VEs

Alkali metals, such


as Na have 1
VE;
halogens
(F, Cl, Br, I, etc)
have 7 VEs

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Valence electrons (VEs)
VE

almost empty outer shell  highly reactive


(alkali metals, e.g. Na with 1 VE) Outermost
Entirety of 11 electrons Na shell
with 1 VE on the outer shell

almost fully occupied outer shell  most reactive


(halogens, e.g. Cl with 7 VEs)

Cl

fully occupied outer shell  chemically inert/non-reactive


(noble gases, e.g. Ne with 6 VEs)
Ne

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility

Chemical bonds

- non-polar covalent bond


- polar covalent bond
- ionic bond

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Covalent bond (single bond)
Definition: Covalent bonds between two atoms consist of a shared pair of electrons (Valence
electrons)
e.g. Methane CH4 and Methanol CH3OH

H H
H C H H C O H
H H
Electrons from H contributing to covalent bond
Electrons from C contributing to covalent bond Electrons from H contributing to covalent bond
Electrons from C contributing to covalent bond
Electrons from O contributing to covalent bond
Non-bonding pair of electrons

Distribution of electrons according to electronegativity

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Covalent bond (single bond)
e.g. Methane CH4 and Methanol CH3OH
2.20
2.20
H 3.44
H
2.20 H C O H 2.20
2.20 H C H 2.20
H
H 2.20
2.20

.. ..
δ+ δ+
.. C O
δ−
H
Similar electronegativity
for C and H
Even electron distribution
 non-polar covalent bond Unequal electron distribution due to
higher electronegativity of O
 O attracts electrons from covalent bond
 partial charge at O, C and H (δ− and δ+)
 polar covalent bond
PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel
Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Covalent bond (double bond)
Definition: Covalent bonds between two atoms consist of a shared pair of electrons
e.g. Ethene C2H2 and Carbon dioxide CO2

H H
C C O C O
H H

Electrons from H contributing to covalent bond Electrons from C contributing to covalent bond
Electrons from C contributing to covalent bond Electrons from O contributing to covalent bond
Non-bonding pair of electrons

Distribution of electrons according to electronegativity

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Covalent bond (double bond)
Definition: Covalent bonds between two atoms consist of a shared pair of electrons
e.g. Ethene C2H2 and Carbon dioxide CO2

2.20 2.20
H H 3.44 O C O 3.44
C C
H H
2.20 2.20
δ− δ+ δ−
Similar electronegativity O C O
for C and H
Even electron distribution
Unequal electron distribution due to
 non-polar covalent bond
higher electronegativity of O
 O attracts electrons from covalent bond
 partial charge at O, C and H (δ− and δ+)
 polar covalent bond
PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel
Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Ionic Bond
Definition: Bond or electrostatic attraction between a positively and a negatively charged ion
e.g. Sodium chloride NaCl and Magnesium chloride MgCl2

Na Cl Cl Mg Cl
Na with 1 valence electron (alkalin metals) Mg with 2 valence electron (alkali metals)
Cl with 7 valence electrons (halogens) Cl with 7 valence electrons (halogens)

Distribution of electrons according to electronegativity

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Ionic Bond
Definition: Bond or electrostatic attraction between a positively and a negatively charged ion
e.g. Sodium chloride NaCl and Magnesium chloride MgCl2

0.93 3.16 3.16 1.31 3.16

Na Cl Cl Mg Cl

3.16 3.16
1.31
0.93 3.16 - ++ -
- Cl Mg Cl
Na+ Cl
Distinctly different electronegativity
 Electron(s) is/are removed from Na/Mg and added to Cl
 Formation of a positively and a negatively charged ion

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Summary intramolecular forces:

- Non-polar covalent bond (identical or highly similar electronegativity)


- Polar covalent bonds (medium difference of electronegativity)
- Ionic bonds (distinct difference of electronegativity results in migration of electron(s) and
formation of positively and negatively charged ions)
 Ion are atoms that has lost or gained electron(s)

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility

Intermolecular forces
(Definition: Forces between molecules)

- dipole-dipole interactions
- ion-dipole interaction
- dipole-induced dipole interaction

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Dipole-dipole interaction
Definition: Electrostatic force between two permanent dipoles
e.g. Hydrogen chloride HCl

Dipole-dipole force

δ+ δ− δ+ δ−
H Cl H Cl

Permanent dipole, Permanent dipole,


due to electronegativity due to electronegativity

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Ion-dipole interaction
Polarity and Solubility
Definition: Electrostatic force between an ion (here: Na+ or Cl-) and a dipole (here: water)
e.g. Sodium chloride NaCl solution in water (Dissociation of NaCl)

H H
O
O
δ+ H H
δ+
H

H
δ−
O
O

Na+ Cl-
O

O
δ−
H

H
δ+ δ+
O H H

H H O

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Dipole-induced dipole interaction
Definition: Interaction of a permanent dipole and a non-polar molecule or atom, that induces a
dipole in the non-polar molecules/atom by attracting its electrons
e.g. Hydrogen chloride HCl and Argon Ar

δ− δ+
Ar
Cl H
8 valence electrons of Ar
Closing the distance between dipole HCl
and Argon  induction of a dipole

δ− δ+ δ− δ+
Cl H Ar

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Dipole Induced dipole
Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility


Hydrogen bonding (≙ dipole-dipole interaction)
Definition: Interaction between two polar molecules between a hydrogen and a electronegative
atom like O, N or F
e.g. Water H2O and Water H2O & Ammonia NH3

δ− H δ+ H δ+
δ+ N
δ−
H

δ+ δ+
O

H
δ+
H

δ+
δ−
or
H

δ+ δ− δ−
H H
H

O
Hydrogen bond δ+ N
donor Hydrogen bond H H
δ+
acceptor δ+ H
PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel
Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility

Hydrogen bonding (≙ dipole-dipole interaction)


Relevance

Hydrogen bonds are responsible for ….


… the high surface tension of water
… the relatively high boiling point & melting point Surface tension of water allows
insects to run along the surface
… the high viscosity
… the universality as solvent

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel


Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Ingenieurfakultät Bau Geo Umwelt
Technische Universität München

Polarity and Solubility

Summary intermolecular forces:

- Forces between two permanent dipoles are called dipole-dipole interactions


- A dipole can interact with a positively or negatively charged ion (e.g. NaCl in water)
- Permanent dipoles have the capability to induce dipoles in neutral molecules or atoms

PD Dr. J. Graßmann; PD Dr. T. Letzel