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Magnetic Proximity Switch

with Toggle 043
T.K. Hareendran
This proximity switch employs a reed switch as the sensor
device and the good old CD4017 decade counter for pulse
C2 C3
processing. When the circuit is first switched on, the 4017 is
S1 10µ 100n
reset by the short pulse generated by C2-R3. This results in 16V
the Q0 output (pin 3) being pulled high and the LED coming D2 RE1
on to indicate standby mode. SWITCH 1N418 16
When a permanent magnet is held in the vicinity of the red 9

switch, the switch closes, generating one clock pulse at pin 14 CTRDIV10/ 8 9 1N4148
R1 DEC 6

of the 4017. This is indicated by Q1 (pin 2) going high and 5
relay Re1 being energized via transistor T1. 15
CT=0 5
If the magnet is removed from the reed contact and then IC1 4
4017 3
moved toward it again, IC1 is again clocked and the relay is de- 2
4 T1
14 2
energized. In this way a toggle function is realized. Actually, Q2 & + 1 4k7
goes high (pin 4), which causes the counter to be reset via 13
12 R4 BC547
diode D1. Since the circuit draws only a few milliamps,

R2 R3 8
almost any mains adapter with a (loaded) output voltage of C1


about 12 VDC is suitable for powering the proximity switch. In 22µ
all cases, the relay coil current will be the determining factor.
(024035-1) 024035 - 11

Super-Fast Comparator 044

Generating digital square-wave signals at logic levels from 0V...+12V +3V/+5V
fast signals having frequencies up to 150 MHz (such as sinu- *
soidal signals from quartz-crystal oscillators) is not particu-
C1 C2
larly easy. The discrete circuits used for this purpose are rel-
atively complex and require fast HF transistors. 100n 100n

This problem can now be solved in a considerably simpler 10 9

manner using the fast Linear Technology LT1715 dual com- VCC VCC OUT
parator ( This IC has sep- 1 +INA VOUT A
arate supply pins for the input region (Vcc and Vee) as well as OUTA 8
2 –INA 0V
for the output region (Vcc,out). This makes it easy to match one VREF A

side to the applied signal voltage, while the supply voltage IC1
VIN B LT1715
Vcc,out directly determines the logic level of the output signal. 4 +INB VOUT B
Note that the maximum allowable difference between Vcc and OUTB 7
3 –INB 0V
Vee is 13 V. For instance, with negative input signals the input VREF B

region of the comparators can be operated with Vcc = 0 V and VEE GND
5 6
Vee = –12 V. The input voltage may range from Vee to (Vcc –
1.2 V). The digital rail-to-rail output is laid out symmetrically inside
the IC to achieve equal rise and fall times. The reference voltage
sources shown in the figure symbolically represent the voltage 100n
* see text
dividers that determine the threshold levels of the two compara-
tors. The LT1715 is housed in a 10-pin MSOP package. 0V...–12V * 024089 - 11

12/2002 Elektor Electronics 77