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PARTICULARS PG. INDEX S. 1 Introduction 3 2 Types of Anemometers 4-7 3 Construction 8-9 4 Working Principle 10-11 5 Advantages 12 6 Disadvantages 13 7 Applications 14 8 References 15 2 .NO.NO.

3 . An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed. anemometers detect change in some physical property of the fluid or the effect of the fluid on a mechanical device inserted into the flow. or in unconfined flows. The term is derived from the Greek word "anemos". such as atmospheric wind. the heat lost to fluid convection is a function of the fluid velocity. The core of the anemometer is an exposed hot wire either heated up by a constant current or maintained at a constant temperature (refer to the schematic below). To determine the air velocity. and is a common weather station instrument. and is used to describe any wind speed measurement instrument used in meteorology. which means wind. such as airflow in a duct. In either case.1) INTRODUCTION: An anemometer is an instrument used to measure the speed or velocity of air (gases) either in a contained flow.

Unlike the Robinson anemometer whose axis of rotation is vertical.Cup Anemometers. 1. 3. 4 . a wind vane or some other contrivance to fulfill the same purpose must be employed. 4.Thermal Anemometers with Velocity/Temperature Profiling.Vane Anemometer: One of the other forms of mechanical velocity anemometer is the vane anemometer. Furthermore. It may be described as a windmill or a propeller anemometer. The four most popular models are: 1.2)TYPES OF ANEMOMETERS: There is a wide range of anemometers models for directly measuring wind and air velocity.Vane Anemometers. since the wind varies in direction and the axis has to follow its changes. the axis on the vane anemometer must be parallel to the direction of the wind and therefore horizontal. 2.Thermal Anemometers.

2. Several ways of implementing this exist. and their applicability to liquid or gas flows. The voltage output from these anemometers is thus the result of some sort of circuit within the device trying to maintain the specific variable (current. CVA (Constant-Voltage Anemometer) and CTA (Constant-Temperature Anemometer). Constant-temperature anemometers are popular because of their high-frequency response. low electronic noise level. and hot-wire devices can be further classified as CCA (Constant-Current Anemometer). compatibility with hot film sensors. immunity from sensor burnout when airflow suddenly drops. 5 . voltage or temperature) constant. As the electrical resistance of most metals is dependent upon the temperature of the metal (tungsten is a popular choice for hot wires).Thermal Anemometer: Thermal anemometers use a very fine wire (on the order of several micrometers) or element heated up to some temperature above the ambient. Air flowing past over has a cooling effect. a relationship can be obtained between the resistance of the wire and the flow velocity.

Temperature is simply proportional to flow rate. 6 . They are less popular because their zero-flow reading is not stable. temperature and velocity response is slow.Constant-power anemometers do not have a feedback system. and temperature compensation is limited.

The multi-point data-logging system allows the user to profile flow characteristics in the application and analyze the data graphically.3. On an anemometer with four cups. The sensors measure both velocity and temperature. the wind always has the hollow of one cup presented to it and is blowing on the back of the cup on the opposite end of the cross. it is easy to see that since the cups are arranged symmetrically on the end of the arms. Therefore.Cup Anemometers: It consisted of four hemispherical cups mounted on horizontal arms.Thermal Anemometers with Velocity/Temperature Profiling: Thermal anemometer profiling systems have the smallest available sensor. 4. The air flow past the cups in any horizontal direction turned the shaft at a rate that was proportional to the wind speed. which were mounted on a vertical shaft. These are commonly used in wind tunnels for circuit board and heat sink analysis. counting the turns of the shaft over a set time period produced a value proportional to the average wind speed for a wide range of speeds. 7 .

the anemometer wire is made of platinum or tungsten and is 4 ~ 10 µm (158 ~ 393 µin) in diameter and 1 mm (0.04 in) in length. In liquid flow or rugged gas flow. a platinum hot-film coated on a 25 ~ 150 mm (1 ~ 6 in) diameter quartz fiber or hollow glass tube can be used instead. or 50 kHz at 91 m/s (300 ft/s).1 m/s (30 ft/s). as shown in the schematic below.5 m/s (100 ft/s). 30 kHz at 30. Typical commercially available hot-wire anemometers have a flat frequency response (< 3 dB) up to 17 kHz at the average velocity of 9. 8 .3) CONSTRUCTION: Typically.

as shown schematically below. 9 .Another alternative is a pyrex glass wedge coated with a thin platinum hot-film at the edge tip.

The temperature of the hot wire is kept constant via a regulating switch. 10 . When using a hot wire in turbulent air streams the measured results can be impacted by turbulent airflow striking the measurement sensor from multiple directions. This could indicate a higher measured value than a vane probe.4) WORKING PRINCIPLE: The principal of a hot wire anemometer is based on a heated element from which heat is extracted by the colder impact airflow. and the current (amp draw measured internally) is directly proportional to the air velocity. This characteristic is typically prevalent in ducts where turbulent airflow can occur even at very low velocities.

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cost is relatively cheap.high frequency response.excellent spatial resolution. 5. 12 . 2.good spartial and temporal resolution. turbulent flow can easily be measured. 3.5)Advantages: 1. 4.

6)Disadvantages: 1. High cost. 3. 5. can be used only in clean gas flows. Probes are not sensitive to flow direction. 2. Fragile. Needs to be recalibrated frequently due to dust accumulation (unless the flow is very clean). Restricted to low and moderate turbulent intensity flows. 13 . 4.

Anemometers are currently used as the industry standard for wind resource assessment studies. 14 . 2.7)Applications: 1. 4. They are commonly used in wind tunnels for circuit board and heat sink analysis. Used in weather stations to measure the mean velocity. Anemometers are widely used for air duct balancing. 3.

ht ml 3) 4) research/hph/hot-wire/ ot_wires/ 14285929 15 .8)Reference: 1)https://www.html 2)http://www.slideshare.html 5)http://www.efunda.