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Textural and Mineralogical

Clastic sediment is differentiated or evolved from its parent
rock by processes (such as erosion and transportation)
which act over a long period of time. As sediment is
subjected to such processes, easily-weatherable materials
such as clay are broken down leaving more stable minerals
(such as quartz). The degree of mineralogical maturity can
be determined by looking at the types of grains present. For
example, if the rock contains no feldspar (feldspar easily
weathers to clay), then either:
 the rock contained to feldspar to begin with, or
 the rock is made of lithified sediment which underwent
much weathering and/or transport, destroying the
unstable feldspar grains.

This diagram displays the percentages of detrital
constituents in sediments of varying grain size. It can be
seen, for example, that a sediment with grain size greater

These features implying large transport distance of the sediment. 1997. 08-Aug-97 15:15:48 PDT Geology 202 Introduction to Petrology University of British Columbia . 15% polycrystalline quartz. causing the grains to become more well-rounded and well-sorted. Textural maturity is reflected by the sorting and roundness of the grains. well rounded grains. Back to Grain size 796 accesses since August 8. with relatively low amount of monocrystalline quartz. A rock which is texturally mature will contain well sorted. Last Modified: Friday. and 7% feldspars.than 9 phi units will contain mostly clays and micas. 30% rock fragments + chert. a sediment with grain size ~1 phi unit will contain (on average) approximately 48% monocrystalline quartz. On the other hand.