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SPE 84914

First Successful Implementation Of Expandable Sand Screen (Ess®) Technology In An
Open Hole Horizontal Well Located In Baram Field, Offshore Malaysia- A Case Study
Mir Rezaul Kabir, SPE, Petronas Carigali; M. Zaki Awang , SPE, Petronas Carigali; L. Umar, Petronas Carigali; Norjusni
Omar, SPE, Weatherford Completion Systems; Khazimad Yusof, SPE, Weatherford Completion Systems

Copyright 2003, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.
The primary objective of the well has been successfully
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE International Improved Oil Recovery realized as evidenced by better than expected sand free
Conference in Asia Pacific held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia , 20-21 October 2003.
production. The execution of ESS® installation was
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
successful with some problems encountered while initiating
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to the expansion process. After some modifications on the
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at expansion string and mud/brine system, the expansion
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
process was carried out smoothly.
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300
words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous The secondary objective of the ESS® application was to
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.
assess/evaluate the enhancement/impairment of productivity
of the well using ESS®, in comparison with the technique of
gravel packing. The well is presently in the process of being
cleaned up. Preliminary data indicates higher than expected
Abstract production. PI and PBU tests are planned for the well as
soon the well has cleaned up and/or stabilized.
During the second quarter of 2002 Petronas Carigali, the
State Oil Company of Malaysia, embarked on a campaign to Introduction
utilize Expandable Sand Screen (ESS®) in unconsolidated :
multi-zonal sandstone completions in the Baram and Alab The Baram field is located about 25km NNW of Lutong,
fields, offshore Malaysia. The primary objective of the Offshore Sarawak in Baram Delta, Malaysia ( Fig 1& 2).
application of ESS® technology was to control sand in The main Baram field was discovered in 1963. Baram
conjunction with minimum skin damage without reservoirs are composed of many sand layers which are of
encountering operational problems/constraints which are Miocene age consisting of alternating sequence of sand and
inherently associated with gravel packing as a means of sand shale beds. The drive mechanism of the reservoir is strong
control. A total of five deviated cased holes were equipped water drive.
with ESS® with mixed results which have been documented
in details in a previous publication by the authors (SPE paper Well # BA-47 was the first ESS® application in a horizontal
# 80449). Further investigation revealed that the wells open hole completion located offshore Malaysia. The
completed with ESS® have achieved satisfactory previous wells from Alab/Baram fields were multi-zonal
improvement in productivity. ESS® technology has now cased hole ESS® applications which were successfully
proven to be one of the best available sand control executed. The well profile, trajectory, well overview ,
techniques for the Baram field. seismic cross-section and well diagram are shown in Fig 3 ,
4, 5, 6 respectively.
This paper will focus on Petronas Carigali’s experience in
ESS® technology implemented in a deep horizontal open There are two main reservoirs completed in this well which
hole section of a sandy well which is to be equipped with a are I4.0 and I6.0 sandstones. Both the formations consist of
gravel pack assembly in the upper section inside the cased highly unconsolidated & friable sands requiring sand control
hole section, thereby providing an excellent source of to produce the wells. The formation has a uniformity co-
comparison between the performance of gravel packing and efficient of +3 and a sonic transit time of 110 µsec/ft. The
expandable sand screen technology. Installation of ESS® in average porosity, permeability and water saturation for these
well BA-47, being the first deep horizontal open hole reservoirs are 29%, 1000 mD and 37% respectively (Fig 7).
application in Malaysia, was an operational challenge with a
few lessons learnt which may be shared by other operators. In view of the success achieved and lessons learnt from the
previous wells, deployment of ESS® was preferred over
Open Hole Gravel Pack (OHGP).

while over-lapped layers of filter media slide analysis performed on the core samples.D. as the O. hole to reduce friction. The first was the CRES® as follows:. improved wellbore contact. Among all the lies in the slotted base-pipe. (Compliant Rotary Expansion System) tool which has been 1) Expandable Isolation Sleeve (EIS®) as a means of zonal replaced by a more reliable and more easily operated system. resulting in reduced rig time & cost. than conventional sand screens deployed in horizontal wells in the South East Asia region are limited. This method results in a minimum screen I. ⇒ The tool can not be rotated during the deployment phase 8) In case the tool is stuck in the hole. across each other to maintain sand integrity. isolation was not effective. The 3) Reduced skin damage compared to gravel packing. frac pack. the equipment. ESS® & OHGP were the preferred choices. open hole gravel is rapidly gaining industry acceptance.2 SPE 84914 ® connectors which allows flow along the entire ESS® The main drivers of ESS application were the following:- completion without any blank sections ( Fig 11). This allows the ESS® to expand fully to give fully energize the rollers and expand the screens. thereby the ESS®. jetting nozzle directly in front of the compliant section. are as follows:- 6) String weights (up and down) need to be checked every ⇒ The process of expansion is activated by string weight 500’ against the calibrated simulations. 2) Minimum logistical problem compared to gravel packing Several methods have been designed to expand ESS®. case histories of OHGP larger flowing I. by generation of a back-pressure within the ACE tool. expansion ratios up to 80% greater than the original Although OHGP jobs have been successfully performed in diameter2. Well Design Consideration ® Introduction to ESS Deployment: In order to optimize the sand control completion design. This 5) Better wellbore stability.(Fig 10). 9) Torque & drag simulation must be run for ERW and/or ⇒ The collapse resistance of the screen is lower than the horizontal wells before the actual deployment in order to pipe body which could turn out to be a problem in a highly identify buckling risks and the need to condition the deviated well having high dog leg severity. enabling deployment of intelligent completions. Activation of prior to running the ACE tool yielded better the compliant roller/traveling piston assemblies is achieved expansion results.The difference pack. cone ring through 4) Bigger wellbore ID over the pay section . only thereby making the deployment of the expansion tool 7) Stabilizers should always be run on a pre-expansion or difficult in ERW/Horizontal wells with shallow TVD. known as ACE (Axial Compliant Expansion) tool. The entire length of the ESS® joint is expanded.D. the outer protective shroud. This 4) Hole cleanout prior to running ESS® is of vital back-pressure is a result of flow through an integral drill bit importance to ensure successful deployment.D. thus providing better hole 3) Running a fixed cone expansion tool in tandem with or support and eliminating any micro-annulus.D. 5) Friction reducer was recommended in order to reduce torque/drag and slip/stick that could cause downhole Some of the limitations of the ESS® equipment application expansion velocities that are too high.. The base-pipe and outer shroud slots open during expansion to accommodate the change in The 150 micron weave screen was selected based on sieve diameter. The slotted base-pipe allows methods. For expansion string to minimize the tool from slumping to such applications hydraulically activated expansion process the low side of the hole which should increase the is desirable. This provides both a larger inflow area and the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico. a technical & economic comparison was made between ESS® Expandable sand screen is a relatively new technology that and other methods of sand control e. a safety joint needs which could be a problem if the tool is stuck or a fishing to be incorporated in the work string for fishing out operation is encountered. simplest method is to push a fixed O. operational and logistical constraints of OHGP three sandwiched layers. and were taken into account. the filter media. equal to the cone ring O. 2) The Axial Compliant Expander (ACE) tool needed The tool is compliant in sense that the pistons can extend or higher pressure (1600 psi) over the designed pressure retract if an increased or decreased hole diameter is (1200 psi) and lower expansion rate ( < 10 ft/min) to encountered. stand alone screen etc. method is considered non-compliant. in similar well-bore geometries. extension pack with between ESS® and other expandable tubular technologies conductivity enhancer . 1) Ease of operation. the base-pipe.g. plus an additional 4%. including the . high rate water pack. chances of uniform contact between the tool and the screen. of the ESS® is able to conform to the wellbore (casing or open During the previous cased hole ESS® deployments in the hole) by only a 4% variation. ESS® is constructed of Moreover.D. Two methods of compliant Baram/Alab fields some of the lessons learnt were expansion have been developed.

identical to that 5-1/2” ESS® EXP hanger could be deployed to desired depth on an expansion cone ring. and to stiffen up the string in the the expansion was very jerky. top connector. Weight was then applied to a bottom.0 reservoir below the 7” liner (shoe depth at 8295 ft- out and examined. The ETC was tagged Expansion Run #2 as per the tally and expansion commenced with 60 k-lbs+. Upon reaching TD at 8694 ft-MD. While running the string the crossover between the recommenced till completion with 14-20 k-lbs. the weight was steady between 14-20 k-lbs. A 399 ft section of 5 7/8” hole was drilled horizontally inside before pulling out the fish. and then slid Open Hole Drilling down hole to rest in the ESS® bull nose. The 3 ⅛” drill collars were pulled the I6. Further Expansion Run #1 down when expansion was smoother the connections were A tandem expansion assembly. After this the weight was uniformity of the expansion. point the weight on bit was fluctuating between 20–40 k-lbs. and the Wellzyme breaker pill was spotted in the open hole. At approximately around it possibly caused by the formation collapsing.5 ppg FLO-PRO NT Solids Free pill. From the start of expansion at 8307 ft- 10. This is based available slack off at surface. on the potential reward of higher production rate from I-6 sands if the expansion was successful. 4 ¾” drill collars and the 5” drill pipe parted at surface. and worked in stages up to the maximum available weight of 92klbs. first option collars and drill pipe. but packer was then successfully set at 8125 ft and the setting became slightly jerkier. and tagged the ESS® Expandable Top was to run the tandem assembly with a 4. the expansion weight dropped.5 ppg FLO-PRO NT pin or shoulder. The ESS® screen connections were very difficult to see at the start of expansion as the weight on bit was very jerky. a 9. at the worst above in the 7” cased hole section. consisting of retrievable expanded with 52-60 k-lbs weight on bit. therefore aid the expansion process. dropping the string down hole. The pump was decided to run a drift run with the 3 ⅛” drill collars open shut down. The ACE tool was laid down and the bit was fluctuating between 24-62 k-lbs. The initial plan was to connections were expanded with 70 k-lbs. the pressure bled off. tools retrieved to surface. a applied to a maximum of 60 k-lbs. with no progress made.625” cone on the Connector (ETC) as per tally.2 ppg viscosified connector. and the expansion formation. The expansion string was run in hole on 3-1/8” drill The next stage in the operation posed two options.2 ppg brine MD to 8500 ft-MD the expansion was very jerky. The open hole was then displaced with expansion commenced. the screens. and the string picked up 5 ft. The ESS® screen 4. After further evaluation. From 8500 ft-MD to 8600 ft-MD the The 4” ESS® assembly was run with 150 micron sand filter expansion became much smoother. and with no problems. the entire expansion achieved at this point was about The expansion assembly was then pulled back above the ESS® four feet. but the weight on bit screens was deployed in one run. One explanation for this could be that the 3 ⅛” drill collars Deployment were buckling up above. As there was no benefit to expanding past it. The last 180’ of displace the cased hole section with drilling mud but due screen was much smoother to expand. The only suitable equipment on board was a 4” A 5 ¾” stabilizer and 7” scraper assembly was then run in OD 2⅞” regular pin x 2⅞” PAC box crossover. repeated attempts were made to expand through it brine was pumped instead to increase the lubricity. The However there was no progress made. ended to ascertain if the screens were restricted by the The pump was brought up to speed. and the to be deployed. The mud was earlier conditioned over 250 mesh shaker Expansion Run #3 screens. The pin end tandem to ensure the hole is large enough for ESS® assembly on the crossover was machined into a bull nose. A fishing assembly was then . The 7” x 5-1/2” ESS® EXP deployment expansion at 8684 ft-MD. and the ACE tool was activated as per the surface test parameters. with 9. with only slight hang-ups increased to around 50 k-lbs. and At this stage there was a concern that the ETC had a restriction the connectors required 30 k-lbs to pass. The risk with this being that if there was a restriction maximum of 50 k-lbs available slack off weight at surface. at the worst point the weight on horizontal section.625” cone ring. it would be a wasted run in the hole. The string was run in hole. The expansion string second option would be to run the ACE tool only where the was then reconfigured by changing three stands of 5”drill downside to this being uncertainty as to the size and pipe at surface to 5” hevi-wate. a wiper trip was The next plan was to run a reduced OD expansion tool through performed to thoroughly clean out the cuttings from the hole. while scraping the 7” liner to ensure the 7” x shoulder was machined into a 45 degree taper. The weight was applied expansion was terminated to prevent any unnecessary damage. It was 8390 ft-MD the weight increased to 36 k-lbs. As It was agreed to change the expansion string to impart more with the previous expansion from 8307 ft-MD to 8500 ft-MD weight in the vertical section. From 8600 ft-MD to the end of in the open hole. at the top connector. which was the maximum decision was made to run the tandem assembly.625” fixed cone was then run in hole. The fish was caught. and 4” Axial Compliant Expansion (ACE) Expansion Run #4 tool. The hole was drilled with a 10. which is a non-damaging brine based drill-in mud system. the fish was tagged at 2193 ft-MD. The expansion for the ACE run was Drift Run very smooth. At the ESS® bottom insufficient mud chemicals onboard. fixed cone expansion tool on the bottom dressed with a 4.SPE 84914 3 Chronological Events During the job excution: run in hole. no damage was sustained to the exposed MD). and with no success.

observed during the mechanical expansion runs.. presently yielding at 1200 BOPD on 16/64” extend appreciation to Mr Yeow Lei Meng of Production choke size with 0% water cut and 0% sand content This Technology Department. as the primary viscosifier... The Technology Conference held in Houston. F. The OD on EBC was large considering thereby resulting in high coefficient of friction. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank the managements of Petronas Carigali and Weatherford Malaysia Sdn Bhd for their kind Production Performance permissions to publish this paper.A. 6–9 May 2002. Tom Gado Bobo of the Drilling Department of Petronas Carigali SDN BHD for their The well is on sustained production since completion in support and encouragement. Neil Hudson and Mr. Zuki Bidi. Thanks also extended to Mr The production profiles are exhibited in Figure 8 and 9. encouragement and assistance throughout the project and PI/PBU tests are planned to be conducted in the near future.625”. R. which would have reduced the friction. But due to the fact that the o In order to utilize the available ESS® equipment. H. reduce Baram field. although the mud was treated with downhole events. Texas U. a fluid was saturated and the salt was treated to remain wine glass shaped Expandable Bottom Connector in suspension in un-dissolved state (for bridging (EBC) of 5-3/4” OD was locally fabricated and used purposes) contributing to fairly high abrasiveness. in this job. Key understanding in term of the paper OTC 14220 prepared for presentation at the 2002 mud characteristics is very important i.N. Although there were few operational problems during screens in a stick/slip manner. A. The production performannce is quite satisfactory. Petronas Carigali and Mr Alistair compares favourably to the expected production rate of 800 Geddes of Weatherford Solutions Sdn Bhd for their BOPD. which an increment of 50% oil production over the forecasted rate. Lessons Learnt for Future Applications: References: o More detailed investigations need to be conducted 1.S. 2. allowing partial expansion and reducing the required weight to expand later with the 4. the fact that it was run in 5-7/8” hole.: “Productivity of when considering Drill in Fluid (DIF) for ESS® open Wells Completed with Expandable Sand Screens in Brunei” hole completion. 3. Mr. To further evaluate the performance of the well. . the downhole expansion data information so that a (1) The FLO-PRO mud system might have increased the better understanding can be made of the expansion force.( (based on Torque & Drag analysis) The difficulty in expanding and higher expansion forces observed could be contributed by one or combination of o Run Weight on Bit and Accelerator Subs to capture the following causes:. Texas increases the friction such that it makes it difficult to U. Possible Causes o Use 3-1/2” and/or 4-1/8” drill collars if anticipating and Remedies: problem of buckling in 3-1/8” drill collar. This comes with 5” OD should be used.Van Vliet.4 SPE 84914 Operational Problems. In 3 ⅛” Drill Collars to helically buckle and lock up as future ESS® openhole application. Martin. F.S. 6 –9 standard sizes at present are 4.. May 2002. The expansion was achieved by two possible remedies: 2. and Saeby.625” cone. Putra.. whereby the string was alternately locking up and Conclusions freeing.A. the well had met the overall objectives.75” and 4. J.Caretta. expand ESS® or potential of salt crystallization that hinders the expansion. The author would also like to January 2003.: “The Use of Expandable Sand Screen to Prolong ESP Runlife in a Mature o Have smaller size retrievable cone mandrels that can Field with Severe Sand Production Problems” paper OTC be utilized with smaller cone rings in case similar 14216 prepared for presentation at the 2002 Offshore situation occurs as experienced in this well . the friction. Lavie.. This would also explain the erratic readings rig time. with 2) The deployment of 4” modified expansion tool. This will resulted in minimal weight transfer to the expansion eliminate the need to do dummy run thus saving cone. preparation of this paper. Lau.C. whether it Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston. J. a normal EBC that the weight was applied to the expansion tools. greatly reduced expansion force due to smaller OD. A precaution was taken by running in a 5-3/4” stabilizer as a (2) The tortuous well path could have caused the dummy run prior to deploying the ESS® assembly. FLO-VIS.e. initiating the expansion. causing the expansion cone to go through the 1. Expandable Sand Screens proves to be an economical 1) Pumping the Wellzyme breaker fluid in the open hole alternative to openhole gravel packing completions in which would have dissolved the salt and therefore.

54 E-02 = m 4. (ESS) to Control Sand in Unconsolidated Multi-zone completions in the Baram and Alab fields. Hong Chung Lau. Mike Ward. Jacques Van Vliet. Petronas 72131 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Carigali and Norjusni Omar. ft x 3. Abdur Rahim Ali. Arifun Djamil of BSP: Walter Aldaz & Steven lbs x 4.535 E-01 = Kg Shanks of Weatherford Completion Systems: “ Openhole psi x 6. bbl x 1. Offshore Malaysia—A case Study. SPE paper# . Pat Moran of Weatherford Conference held in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. Completion Systems: “ The Use Of Expandable Sand Screens 8-0 October 2001.894 E+03 = Pa Expandable Sand Screen Completions in Brunei”. Texas.Foo Kok Wai.SPE 84914 5 3.588 E-01 = m3 David Morin.Mir Rezaul Kabir.USA 5-8 May.048 E-01 = m inches x 2. 2003. OTC paper 15154 presented in OTC SI Metric Conversion Factors: conference & exhibition held in Houston.

6 SPE 84914 Fig.220 ft ss I4.0 Reservoir For Fault Block 11 BAJT-D A B Fault Block 10 W Fault Block 10 E A BAJT-F 33 32 0 00 50 320 BA-47 ST 00 50 34 50 34 D 32 00 33 3220 Fault Block 11 50 OD 33 T (B A-9 ft 3350 8) @ 3269 73 3400 C /WU 32 T @32 C @ B W 78 (BA PO 3400 -43 Baram South D C I4.0 was completed as a long string producer Total perforation interval length 160 ft ah Total open hole exposure with ESS 394 ft ah Figure: 4 Completed in a inside 7 inch Liner Completed in a inside 6 inch open hole Fig.0 Wire Line Log Interpretation for BA-47 ST I6.344 ft ss 3.LUTONG SUMATRA KALIMANTAN TUKAU MIRI SUMATRA SIWA SARAWAK oil gas Seismic Cross Section (TWT) Along BA-47 Sdtr Well Path (Plan & Vertical View) Top Structure Map For I4.LUTONG BOKOR BOKOR LUTONG W.0 was completed as a short string producer I6.0 Wire Line Log Interpretation for BA-47 ST 3. 1 & 2 – Field and Well Location BR M UN AL E AY M I BR 200 200 SI A UN TO N A LA E 0 300 miles miles YS I BSP 0 KM N IA TO FAIRLEY 300 E11 BARONIA BARAM KM KK SABAH BARAM SOUTH PENINSULAR CHINA SEA MALAYSIA MIRI MALAYSIA BETTY KUALA BARAM BAKAU KUALA BARAM BRUNEI SARAWAK KUCHING W. 3 & 4 – Well Overview and Seismic Cross Section Along BA – 47 Well Path .

5 x 1 0 ft) 6 " O p e n H o le TD @ 8694’ MDDF 4 " E x p a n d a b le B o tto m C o n n e c to r 5 .0 N o te : In v e rsion _ u p pe r_ A F ig u re : 5 Fig.0 MILLED WINDOW THRU 4. 5 . 1.Im p ed a n c e V a lu e a lo n g th e P r o p o se d W e ll P a th H o rizo n ta l T a rg et I4 . SINKING WELLHEAD V a m F JL 2.Well Trajectory and Well Diagram .1 / 2 " B la n k P ip e . 6 . HIGHLY DEVIATED (83 deg) IN I4.1 / 2 " B u ll N o s e Fig. OPEN HOLE COMPLETION 13-3/8” AND 18-5/8” CSG @ 737-754’ MDDF 9-5/8” CSG @ 2674’ MDDF 7” CSG @ 8295’ MDDF 4 " E S S Jts ( 1 2 x 3 8 ft.SPE 84914 7 B A -4 7 H o r izo n ta l S d tr .0 T o p C o n n e c to r AND HORIZONTALWELL IN I6.Well Profile B A -4 7 S 1 WELL INFO 7" Packer WELL SCHEMATIC BA-47 Str-1 WELL PROFILE 7 " E XP P a c k e r 5 . WORKOVER PROBLEM DUE TO HIGHER TOC 4 " E x p a n d a b le 7 " C a s in g 26” CDTR @ 267’ MDDF 3.0 I6 .

0 s a n d s to d e v e lo p 3 M M s tb E U R C h a lle n g e s H ig h ly d e v ia te d in I4 . 7 – Well Log Profile B A -4 7 st1 I R E S E R V O IR S E R IE S I4 .0 a n d I6 .0 s a n d (8 3 d e g ) a n d h o r iz o n ta l in I6 .0 s a n d I6 .0 s a n d S h a llo w r e s e r v o ir s w ith h ig h ly u n c o n s o lid a te d a n d fr ia b le s a n d w ith s a n d p r o d u c tio n h is to r y Fig. 8 & 9 – Production Performance Net Oil Rate & Watercut 1200 100 90 1000 80 watercut (%) & Bean Size 70 Net Oil rate (stb/d) 800 60 600 50 40 400 30 20 200 10 0 0 08-Feb-2003 28-Feb-2003 20-Mar-2003 09-Apr-2003 29-Apr-2003 19-May-2003 08-Jun-2003 28-Jun-2003 Date Ne t oil GROSS WCUT Be an Size GOR AND LIFT GAS RATE 4500 160 4000 140 LIFT GAS RATE (Mscf/d) 3500 120 GOR (scf/bbl) 3000 100 2500 80 2000 60 1500 1000 40 500 20 0 0 08-Feb-2003 28-Feb-2003 20-Mar-2003 09-Apr-2003 29-Apr-2003 19-May-2003 08-Jun-2003 28-Jun-2003 FGOR Date Liftgas .8 SPE 84914 Fig.0 s a n d O b je c t iv e W e ll o b je c t iv e is t o c o m p le t e t h e I4 .

SPE 84914 9 Fig. Post- expansion expansion . 10 & 11 – Expansion Tools and Screen E xpandable S and S c reen E xpansion Tools P odger C RES AC E Expandable Sand Screen Pre.

10 SPE 84914 Fig . 1 2 – W e ll S ch e m at ic .

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