States of Matter

Matter and Properties of Matters
KEY IDEA: Properties of materials depend on their atoms, and how those atoms are linked together

1. • • 2. • • 3.

Matter Properties of matter States of matter Chemical Bonding Bonding theory Molecular Structure (VSEPR) Intermolecular Forces

SOLIDS (fixed volume and shape)

SOLIDS (fixed volume and shape)

Crystal – regular atomic arrangement

Glass: Atoms not periodic

Glass vs. Crystal Structure

LIQUIDS (fixed volume, variable shape)

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LIQUIDS (fixed volume, variable shape)
Liquid Crystals: Molecules line up under an electric field

GAS (variable volume and shape)

PLASMA (Gas with free electrons)

Properties of Matter
• Physical properties
– properties that we can measure and describe, including shape, color, and texture

• Chemical properties
– chemical properties, such as their flammability

• Macroscopic
– Physical and chemical properties that can be observed with the eye

• Microscopic
– The underlying structure of a chemical substance, that can be explored using magnifying devices

chemical element

Iron at atomic, miscroscopic and macroscopic levels
atom
the smallest possible particle of a substance

A substance that contains only one type of atom (each different element contains its own specific type of atom), cannot be decomposed into other chemical components

A chemical compound is a substance
that contains more than one element.

molecule
a combination of two or more atoms held together in a specific shape by attractive forces.

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mixtures vary in composition because the proportions of the substances in a mixture can change. dissolving sucrose and table sugar in water forms a mixture that contains water molecules and sucrose molecules. no matter what part of the sample is examined. a homogeneous mixture usually is called a solution.Classifications poor conductors of electricity and heat six elements that are categorized as metalloids dull-appearing. Hydrogen chloride gas is a homogeneous pure substance and always contains equal numbers of hydrogen atoms and chlorine atoms linked in HCl molecules. meaning that they can be hammered into thin sheets ductile meaning that they can be drawn into wires Except for mercury. Mixtures can be homogeneous. good conductors of heat and electricity and usually appear shiny. A sample is homogeneous if it always has the same composition. Under other conditions. malleable. too. Unlike pure compounds. all metals are solids at room temperature. which is a liquid. For example. brittle solids are sometimes called semiconductors because they conduct electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals. Silicon and germanium are used in the manufacture of semiconductor chips in the electronics industry. A mixture contains two or more chemical substances. The two gases form a homogeneous solution whose composition can be changed by adding more of either substance. molecular hydrogen and molecular chlorine do not react with each other. Phase of matter solid liquid gas tentukan karakteristik substansi pada dua gambar diatas meliputi fasa dan jenisnya SF-Berkeley distance 104 m transformation of matter: phase interstellar (sun-star) distance 1016 m football field 102 m blade of grass sun-earth distance 10-3 m 1011 m chlorophyll molecule 10-7 m diameter of earth 107 m H atom 10-10 m Dimension H nuclei 10-15 m 3 . Pure elements and pure chemical compounds are homogeneous.

area.Measurements in chemistry Length. area refers to two dimensions. Mengapa beberapa senyawa padatan meleleh pada suhu tinggi. every object possesses a certain quantity of matter. presisi dan akurasi precision describes the exactness of a measurement accuracy describes how close a measurement is to the true value. called analytical balances. Mass is a fundamental characteristic of an object. cermat dan akurat The process of determining mass is called weighing. and volume measure the size of an object. and volume refers to three dimensions of space. but they are not the same property.10. Mass and volume are two examples of extensive properties. whereas weight results from gravitational force acting on an object's mass.&36) of electrons form very stable atoms • Electrons may be transferred or shared to form stable bonds • Ionic Bonds • Covalent Bonds • Metallic Bonds extensive and intensive properties A property that depends on amount is called extensive. H2 Energi interaksi antara 2 atom H = atom H 0 Jarak antar inti 74 pm 436 kJ/mol Ep Gaya tolak Gaya tarik IKATAN KIMIA • menyatakan gaya tarik antar atom bersama membentuk suatu senyawa • menentukan sifat kimia suatu senyawa dan • mengontrol jumlah energi yang dilepas/diserap dalam suatu reaksi • Menentukan bentuk/geometri suatu senyawa • molekul H2 terbentuk dengan Ep=-436 kJ/mol pada jarak antar inti 74 pm • jarak antar inti yang memberikan energi potensial molekul paling rendah dapat ditentukan secara eksperimen ikatan kimia 4 . sedangkan cairan atau gas pada suhu kamar? Mengapa atom-atom unsur yang berbeda bereaksi? Bagaimana bentuk geometri suatu senyawa? PEMBENTUKAN MOLEKUL GAS HIDROGEN. A property that is independent of amount is called intensive.18. called its mass highly accurate mass-measuring machines. work by comparing forces acting on masses. Length refers to one dimension. ……………………… cermat dan tidak akurat tidak cermat dan tidak akurat Chemical Bonding significant figures • Atoms link together by the rearrangement of their electrons • Magic numbers (2. Density and temperature are intensive properties. Mass and weight are related.

terutama elektron kulit terluar (elektron valensi) 2.KATION Contoh: pembentukan NaCl Na Cl + eNa+ + eCl 2NaCl(padatan) - Ikatan ionik • Gaya elektrostatik yang mengikat ion positif (kation) dan ion negatif (anion) dalam suatu senyawa senyawa ionik • Eg: reaksi antara litium dan flourin membentuk litium fluorida (serbuk putih beracun yang dipakai untuk menurunkan titik leleh solder dan pembuatan keramik) 2Na(padatan) + Cl2(gas) PERUBAHAN ENERGI DALAM PEMBENTUKAN SENYAWA IONIK Na+(g) + eEI1=+496 kJ/mol Na(g) Cl(g) + eCl-(g) AE=-349 kJ/mol Total energi perpindahan 1e. 4. 1 atau lebih pasangan elektron valensi digunakan bersama oleh atom yang berikatan membentuk IKATAN KOVALEN. atomatom cenderung mencapai konfigurasi gas mulia (Aturan oktet/Aturan gas mulia) untuk mencapai stabilitas maksimum. Dalam melepaskan atau menarik atau menggunakan elektron bersama untuk membentuk ikatan kimia.Teori Lewis 1. Pada ikatan antar atom non-logam. Yang berperan dalam ikatan kimia adalah elektron. Gaya elektrostatik antar kation-anion menghasilkan IKATAN IONIK. 3. STRUKTUR LEWIS • Menggunakan nama kimia atom untuk menyatakan inti dan elektron di kulit selain kulit valensi (core electrons) dan titik untuk menyatakan elektron valensi • Struktur Lewis tidak secara khusus menyatakan cara elektron berpasangan • Contoh: Si Grup 4A P Grup 5A Tentukan struktur Lewis ion berikut: a.dari atom Na ke atom Cl = (+496) + (-349) = +147 kJ/mol reaksi sukar terjadi Na(padatan) + 1/2Cl2(gas) NaCl(padatan) f=-411 kJ Reaksi berlangsung Perubahan energi pada pembentukan NaCl dapat ditentukan menggunakan Siklus Born-Haber Starting point: 1 mol Na(s) dan ½ mol Cl2(g) End point: 1 mol NaCl(s) ∆Ho Siklus Born-Haber untuk 1 mol NaCl Na+(g) + Cl(g) + e3 ∆H3 = +496 kJ 4 ∆H = -349 kJ 4 Na+(g) + Cl-(g) Na(g) + Cl(g) 2 ∆H2 = +122 kJ Na(g) + 1/2Cl2(g) 1 ∆H = +107 kJ 1 Na(s) + 1/2Cl2(g) start ∆Hfo NaCl(s) = -411 kJ ∆H5 = -787 kJ 5 NaCl(s) end 5 . N3c.< Energi untuk menangkap e. Elektron valensi umumnya dipindahkan dari atom logam ke non-logam dan terbentuk kation dan anion. S2- IKATAN IONIK • Pembentukan ikatan ionik lebih banyak dikontrol oleh energi potensial pembentukan ion (energi ionisasi dan affinitas elektron) • Ikatan ionik yang stabil mempunyai energi total pembentukan ion-ion penyusun ikatan bersifat EKSOTERMIS: energi potensial senyawa < energi potensial individu unsur • Pada atom non-logam: E untuk melepas e. Al3+ b.> Energi untuk menangkap e.ANION • Pada atom logam: E untuk melepas e.

fasa gas ∆H4 (Afinitas elektron) 5. Energi disosiasi Fluorin +159 kJ/mol F2 dan EA fluorin -328 kJ/mol. Buat struktur rangka (hubungkan atom yang berikatan dengan garis) 3.Reaksi yang terlibat dalam pembentukan NaCl 1. Disosiasi/peruraian molekul Cl2 menjadi atom-atom Cl ∆H2 (energi disosiasi ikatan) 3. Konversi atom Cl fasa gas menjadi ion Cl. Konversi atom Na dari fasa padat ke fasa gas ∆H1 2. secara umum elektronegativitas meningkat dari kiri ke kanan • Dalam satu golongan SPU. Jika perlu. secara umum elektronegativitas meningkat dari bawah ke atas 6 . Ionisasi atom Na fasa gas menjadi ion Na+ fasa gas ∆H3 (Energi ionisasi pertama. Tentukan perubahan energi entalpi total reaksi: LiF(s) ∆Hof=? Li(s) + 1/2F2(g) IKATAN KOVALEN Bonding pair Cl Cl Lone pair Cl Cl TEKNIK PENULISAN STRUKTUR LEWIS 1. makin kuat atom tersebut menarik elektron ikatan kovalen • Dalam satu periode SPU. pindahkan 1 atau lebih elektron lone pair dari atom terminal untuk membentuk ikatan rangkap dengan atom pusat IKATAN KOVALEN KOORDINASI 1 atom menyediakan 2 elektron untuk dipakai bersama membentuk ikatan Pembentukan H3O+ IKATAN KOVALEN DAN ELEKTRONEGATIVITAS Elektronegativitas menyatakan kemampuan suatu atom untuk menarik elektron ikatan saat atom berada sebagai suatu molekul • makin besar elektronegativitas atom dalam suatu molekul. Tentukan total jumlah elektron valensi atom-atom yang berikatan 2. Tempatkan lone pair elektron di atom terminal (ujung) untuk mencapai konfigurasi oktet pada atom paling ujung (kecuali H) 4. Pembentukan sistem kristal dari ion-ion fasa gas ∆H5 (energi kisi) ∆Hfo = ∆H1 + ∆H2 + ∆H3 + ∆H4 + ∆H5 = -411kJ ENERGI KISI • Energi yang dibutuhkan untuk memisahkan secara sempurna 1 mol senyawa ionik padatan menjadi ion-ion fasa gasnya. EI1) 4. Susun elektron tersisa sebagai lone pair di sekitar atom pusat 5. Energi kisi LiF -1047 kJ/mol. • ditentukan dari Hk Coulomb: E = k (Q+Q-)/r • ditentukan secara tidak langsung menggunakan konsep siklus Born-Haber Entalpi sublimasi Li +161 kJ/mol dan EI1=+520 kJ/mol.

0 SCl6 0.increasing ionic character non polar covalent bond increasing covalent character polar covalent bond ionic bond 0 0.7 ionic bond .7 covalent bond .6 Cl2 0 ∆EN large difference small difference 7 .∆EN = ENhigher – EN lower Using electronegativities to determine bond type ∆EN > 1.transfer Chlorides of Period 2 compound LiCl 2.2 BeCl2 1.5 1.0 2.0 melting point senyawa periode 2 dan 3 What is the trend? Conductivity .6 Cl2 0 ∆EN Compound ∆EN < 1.2 1.0 1.low What about the distance between the atoms in a bond? NaCl Cl2 Na+ ClCl-Cl d = 281 pm d = 199 pm Chlorides of Period 2 compound melting point LiCl 610 BeCl2 415 BCl3 -107 CCl4 NCl3 OCl2 -23 -40 -121 Cl2 -102 Chlorides of Period 3 compound melting point NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3 801 714 193 -69 -112 SCl6 -51 Cl2 -102 What property can be used to tell when a bond will ionic or covalent? high low Electronegativity The electronegativity difference .sharing So we have a range of electronegativity difference of 0 to 1.3 1.high Conductivity .5 3.6 BCl3 1.5 2.6 0 0.7 for sharing an electron pair. Chlorides of Period 3 NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3 2.9 1.6 1.1 CCl4 NCl3 OCl2 0.

0 Space-filled Ionic compounds are generally high-melting solids that are good conductors of heat and electricity in the molten state.Is the sharing of electrons in molecules always equal? non-polar bond Which element is more electronegative? X X X X X Y increasing polarity of bond ∆EN = 0 ∆EN = 0.html 8 . top positive Electrostatic potential maps side Spartan ‘02 Bond Energy Is breaking a bond an endothermic or exothermic process? Show the direction of electron migration ( ) in the following.2 Nonmetallic element + nonmetallic element Molecular compound Y Y Y Y ENY > ENX polar bond 0 < EN < 1.edu/Data%20/Table_6. Examples are H2O. CH4. or low melting point solids and are characteristically poor conductors. common salt. BF3 – a planar molecule Metallic compound + nonmetallic compound compound IONIC B Ball & stick F 2. liquids.7 Direction of electron migration Molecular compounds are typically gases. NH3. C–H H–F C=O C – Cl Rank the bond polarity (1-most … 3-least) As-H N-H P-H X2 + energy X + X increasing bond strength F2 O2 N2 single bond double bond triple bond BE = 142 kJ/mole BE = 494 BE = 942 http://wulfenite. and NaF.0 negative 4.3 ∆EN = 0.6 ∆EN = 0.9 ∆EN = 1.fandm. sodium fluoride. Examples are NaCl.

9 1.7 100% covalent 100% ionic Bonding spectrum A B A B A+ B- valence electrons Increasing ∆EN Increasing polarity Transfer Here is the electrostatic potential map for H2CO.6 Cl2 0 What property can be used to tell when a bond will ionic or covalent? ∆EN large difference small difference 9 .3 1.6 0 0.6 BCl3 1.2 1. Show the electron migration on this planar molecule. H H blue – positive red .low Chlorides of Period 2 compound melting point LiCl 610 BeCl2 415 BCl3 -107 CCl4 NCl3 OCl2 -23 -40 -121 Cl2 -102 C O compound melting point Chlorides of Period 3 NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3 801 714 193 -69 -112 SCl6 -51 Cl2 -102 How is this molecule different than BF3? high low What about the distance between the atoms in a bond? NaCl Cl2 Na+ ClCl-Cl d = 281 pm d = 199 pm Electronegativity The electronegativity difference .2 BeCl2 1.∆EN = ENhigher – EN lower Chlorides of Period 2 compound LiCl 2.7 covalent molecules nonconductive sharing of electrons low mp ∆EN < 1.6 Cl2 0 ∆EN Compound Chlorides of Period 3 NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3 2.negative melting point senyawa periode 2 dan 3 What is the trend? Conductivity .Comparison of Bonding Types ionic ions molten salts conductive transfer of electrons high mp ∆EN > 1.high Conductivity .0 SCl6 0.6 1.1 CCl4 NCl3 OCl2 0.

0 Space-filled Bond Energy Is breaking a bond an endothermic or exothermic process? X2 + energy X + X increasing bond strength F2 O2 single bond double bond triple bond BE = 142 kJ/mole BE = 494 BE = 942 top positive Electrostatic potential maps side Spartan ‘02 N2 http://wulfenite. Nonmetallic element + nonmetallic element Molecular compound Molecular compounds are typically gases.3 ∆EN = 0.7 covalent bond . CH4.edu/Data%20/Table_6.9 ∆EN = 1. Examples are H2O. and NaF. or low melting point solids and are characteristically poor conductors.transfer ∆EN < 1.7 for sharing an electron pair.Using electronegativities to determine bond type ∆EN > 1. sodium fluoride. NH3.html 10 .6 ∆EN = 0.0 negative 4. common salt. Examples are NaCl. liquids. Is the sharing of electrons in molecules always equal? non-polar bond Which element is more electronegative? X X X X X Y increasing polarity of bond ∆EN = 0 ∆EN = 0.fandm.7 ionic bond . BF3 – a planar molecule B Ball & stick F 2.sharing So we have a range of electronegativity difference of 0 to 1.7 Direction of electron migration Metallic compound + nonmetallic compound compound IONIC Ionic compounds are generally high-melting solids that are good conductors of heat and electricity in the molten state.2 Y Y Y Y ENY > ENX polar bond 0 < EN < 1.

Derajat kuat tolakan: lp-lp > lp-bp > bp. geometri molekul ditentukan oleh geometri gugus elektron Cara menerapkan VSEPR: 1.negative C O How is this molecule different than BF3? TEORI IKATAN DAN BENTUK MOLEKUL METODE TOLAKAN PASANGAN ELEKTRON KULIT VALENSI (VSEPR:valence-shell electron-pair repulsion) Konsep: pasangan elektron pada kulit valensi atom-atom yang berikatan saling memberikan tolakan antara yang satu dengan yang lain sedemikian rupa sehingga menempati ruang sejauh mungkin terhadap pasangan elektron yang lain Geometri gugus elektron 2 gugus elektron: linier.7 covalent molecules nonconductive sharing of electrons low mp ∆EN < 1. Gambar struktur Lewis yang stabil 2. Geometri gugus elektron: orientasi ruang gugus elektron di sekitar atom pusat akibat tolakan antara gugus elektron Gugus elektron: kelompok elektron valensi yang terlokalisasi di sekitar atom pusat Geometri molekul – bentuk molekul: orientasi ruang atom-atom yang berikatan di sekitar atom pusat 2.7 valence electrons Here is the electrostatic potential map for H2CO. 100% covalent 100% ionic Bonding spectrum A B A B A+ B- Show the electron migration on this planar molecule.Show the direction of electron migration ( ) in the following. 4 gugus elektron: tetrahedral. bp) atau lone-pair electrons (lp) 3. 3 gugus elektron: segitiga planar (trigonal planar). 6 gugus elektron: oktahedral Jika tidak ada lone-pair electrons (lp). H Increasing ∆EN Increasing polarity Transfer H blue – positive red . Tentukan jumlah gugus elektron sekitar atom pusat dan identifikasikan sebagai gugus elektron ikatan (bonding pair. C–H H–F C=O C – Cl Rank the bond polarity (1-most … 3-least) As-H N-H P-H Comparison of Bonding Types ionic ions molten salts conductive transfer of electrons high mp ∆EN > 1.bp Geometri molekul dengan energi tolakan minimum Terms: 1. Deskripsikan geometri molekulnya 5. geometri gugus elektron = geometri molekul Jika ada lone-pair electrons (lp). 11 . 5 gugus elektron: trigonal bipiramidal. Tentukan geometri gugus elektronnya 4.

N lone pair of electrons in tetrahedral position H H 2 bond pairs 2 lone pairs The electron pair geometry is TETRAHEDRAL H The molecular geometry is BENT.67 Structure Determination by VSEPR Water. BENT. Lewis structure: 3 4 Geometri gugus elektron: Geometri molekul: 12 . The MOLECULAR GEOMETRY — the positions of the atoms — is TRIGONAL PYRAMID. NH3 The electron pair geometry is tetrahedral. H2O •• •• Structure Determination by VSEPR 68 H H O O •• •• H H Ammonia. NH3 dan H2O 2 Molecular Geometry Predict the molecular geometry of IF5. CH4 Ukuran relatif pasangan elektron ikatan dan lone pairs pada molekul CH4.

Kuantifikasi terhadap pemisahan muatan dalam suatu molekul dinyatakan oleh momen dipol (µ. debye. CO2 . (difference in electronegativity) electronegativity) 77 78 Molecular Dipole Moments For polyatomic molecules. the dipole moment is the geometric sum of all bond dipole moments. meter) dengan kuantitas muatan (δ. H Cl has a greater share in bonding electrons than does H. D).34 x 10-30 C m Molekul polar momen dipol ≠ 0 Molekul non-polar momen dipol = 0 Plat logam Medium non-konduktif Jika molekul polar ditempatkan antara kedua plat logam.Polar Cl has slight negative charge (-δ) and H has slight positive charge (+ δ) 13 .Nonpolar H2O . molekul tsb akan mengalami penataan seperti gambar di atas Molekul polar meningkatkan kapasitas penyimpanan muatan plat logam sampai pada suatu kuantitas yang sesuai dengan momen dipol molekul Bond Polarity + δ -δ • C• l• • • • HCl is POLAR because it has a positive end and a negative end.4 6 5 MOLEKUL POLAR DAN MOMEN DIPOL Molekul yang memiliki pusat muatan positif dan negatif terpisahkan oleh suatu jarak tertentu. coulomb) µ= d δ 1 D = 3. hasil kali jarak yang memisahkan pusat muatan positif dan negatif (d.

• Presence of electrons from hydrogen adds new waves that are in contact with each other and undergo constructive interference – new waves result. • CH4:The 1s orbital of hydrogen must overlap with the 2s and 2p orbitals of carbon.dengan orbital hibrida MOLECULAR SHAPES:VALENCE BOND THEORY (VBT) • Valence Bond Theory: a quantum mechanical description of bonding that pictures covalent bond formation as the overlap of two singly occupied atomic orbitals. and nonpolar. water is polar. • VSEPR effective but ignores the orbital concepts discussed in quantum mechanics. • Hybrid orbitals are as far apart as possible. – Molecular Orbital Theory = claims that upon bond formation new orbitals that are linear combinations of the atomic orbitals are formed. • Molecular Orbital Theory – Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory – Electron Configurations of Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements – Molecular Orbitals and Delocalized Bonding 8–81 8–82 TEORI IKATAN VALENSI Asumsi: Elektron suatu molekul menempati orbital atomnya masing-masing Molekul stabil terbentuk dari atom-atom yang bereaksi jika energi potensialnya minimum Teknik: • gambar struktur lewis • Perkirakan penataan semua pasang-an elektron menggunakan metode VSEPR • Tentukan hibridisasi atom pusat dengan cara memadankan pasangan e. • H2 forms due to overlap of two 1s orbitals. • Electron densities from p-subshell electrons overlap to produce a bond in F2. • The two will repel each other. • The s and p orbitals around an atom such as carbon become equivalent and the orbitals become a hybrid (sp3) of the original 8–84 orbitals.Bond Polarity 79 80 • This is why oil and water will not mix! Oil is nonpolar. 14 . • Molecular Geometry = general shape of the molecule as determined by the relative positions of the atomic nuclei. and so you can not dissolve one in the other • “Like dissolves like” like” Predict the Polarity of Molecules: HCl CCl4 NH3 BF3 CH3Cl Determine the dipol direction (electron migration) Overview • Geometry and Directional Bonding – – – – Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry Valence Bond Theory Description of Multiple Bonding Molecular Geometry and Directional Bonding • Atoms oriented in very well defined relative positions in the molecule. – Valence Bond Theory = considers quantum mechanics and hybridization of atomic orbitals. • Theories Describing the structure and bonding of molecules are: – VSEPR = considers mostly electrostatics in determining the geometry of the molecule.

. C2H2: sp (linear) hybridized. Leads to the existence of a σ bond as well as two π bonds. • Summarizing a • single bond is a σ bond. • Overlap above and below makes rotation of carbon atoms difficult.e. • The σ bond formed between an s orbital and a p orbital or even between two p orbitals.g. the number of electron clouds around the central atom. E. sp2. i. CH3CH2OH. Dinitrogen difluoride exists as cis and trans isomers( a compound having the same formula with a different arrangement of atoms). • E. • E. • triple bond is a σ bond and 2 π bonds. • SF6: sp3d2.: Determine the hybridization of B in BF3. • Proximity to each other results in overlap to give a charge distribution resembling a cloud which is above and below the plane of the molecule and called a π –bond .Other Kinds of Hybrid Orbitals • Hybridization varies from sp. • VBT: Multiple bonds C2H4 planar with a trigonal geometry = sp2 hybridization for each of the carbon atoms and they form σ bonds with hydrogen. • Each carbon has 4 orbitals in its valence shell. E. • Hybridization determined by using VSEPR to establish the geometry.even though there are C-C bonds and C-O bonds which each involve the interaction of sp3 orbitals to form the σ bonds. This means one of the p-orbitals for each C is not hybridized.g.g. • double bond is a σ bond and a π bond. up to sp3d2 depending upon the number of orbitals involved in the bonding. has all σ bonds . The number of electron clouds = the number of hybrid orbitals. Investigate the bonding. • Each of these has a characteristic shape see table in book. 8–85 8–86 Hybrid Orbitals Hybrid Orbitals Geometric Arrangements Number of Orbitals Example Untuk atom O dalam H2O 2 3 4 5 6 Be in BeF2 B in BF3 C in CH4 P in PCl5 S in SF6 8–87 sp sp2 sp3 sp3d sp3d2 Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral 2p 2s 1s O atom (ground state) sp3 sp3 lone pairs O-H bonds Energy 1s O atom (hybridized state) 1s O atom (in H2O) Pembentukan orbital hibrida sp3 Pembentukan orbital hibrida sp 15 .g.

creating an electron distribution above and below the bond axis. one hybrid orbital is needed for each bond (whether a single or multiple) and for each lone pair. which indicates the need for three hybrid orbitals. we must first distinguish between two kinds of bonds. 16 .Pembentukan orbital hibrida sp2 Multiple Bonding • According to valence bond theory. consider the molecule ethene. – A π (pi) bond is a “side-to-side” overlap of parallel “p” orbitals. – For example. – The third 2p orbital is left unhybridized and lies perpendicular to the plane of the trigonal sp2 hybrids. Multiple Bonding • Each carbon atom is bonded to three other atoms and no lone pairs.25 Multiple Bonding • To describe the multiple bonding in ethene. This occurs when two “s” orbitals overlap or “p” orbitals overlap along their axis. (unhybridized) 2p 2p sp2 2s Energy 1s 1s C atom (hybridized) C atom (ground state) Figure 10. – A σ (sigma) bond is a “head-to-head” overlap of orbitals with a cylindrical shape about the bond axis. – The following slide represents the sp2 hybridization of the carbon atoms. – This implies sp2 hybridization.

17 . * σ 2s 8–101 8–102 σ1s Because the energy of the two electrons is lower than the energy of the individual atoms. • Hydrogen: when two atomic orbitals from hydrogen approach each other they form 2 molecular orbitals. – The energy of the antibonding orbital is higher than the original atomic orbitals and thus destabilizes the molecule. σ and σ*. An excited state of this molecule would be σ1s ↑ . bonding orbital and antibonding orbital respectively. the molecule is stable.Multiple Bonding • The remaining “unhybridized” 2p orbitals on each of the carbon atoms overlap sideto-side forming a π bond. Molecular orbitals are considered to be the result of the combination of atomic orbitals. H atom H2 molecule H atom σ1s* 1s 1s • The electron distribution of H2 would be: σ1s ↑↓ . * ↓ . Bonding in Ethylene – You therefore describe the carbon-carbon double bond as one σ bond and one π bond. σ1s . Pembentukan orbital hibrida pada molekul berikatan rangkap C2H4 etilen C2H2 asetilen MO Theory of Bonding • Molecular Orbital Theory extends quantum theory and states that electrons spread throughout the molecule in molecular orbitals = region in a molecule in which an electron is likely to be which is similar to the concept discussed in quantum theory. – The energy of the bonding orbital is lower than the original atomic orbital.

• Li2: * 1 (σ1s )2 σ1s (σ2s )2 ⇒ BO=1/2(4 − 2) = 1.g. Metals and energy bands formed by them. and the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. bond order = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 (n b . • • • Molecular Orbital Theory of Other Diatomic Molecules * He2: (σ1s )2 σ1s ⇒ no net stabilization (or bonding). Molecular orbitals for all metals are very similar and a continuous band is formed. Last two filled orbitals are antibonding ⇒ one elctron in each orbital (Hund’s rule) or two unpaired electrons ⇒ O2 a paramagnetic molecule.Bond Order • The term bond order refers to the number of bonds that exist between two atoms.g. For He2 BO(He2) = 1/2(2 −2) = 0. The energy separation between the occupied and unoccupied orbitals is small so that little energy is required to cause this. 2 2 BO= 1/2(10 − 6) = 2. They can conduct electricity when the atoms are excited so that an electron occupies an excited state. He 1s 1s 2 ( )2 ( ) – The bond order of a diatomic molecule is defined as one-half the difference between the number of electrons in bonding orbitals. 10.na) 8–103 Fig. nb. 2 * 2 O2: (σ1s )2 σ1s (σ2s )2 σ* s (π2p )4 (σ2p )2 π* p . E.2 H2 on the other hand would have a BO(H2) = 1/2(2 − 0) = 1 or there is a single bond between the two atoms.34 MO Diagram of N2 18 . na.34 MO Diagram of 8–104 N2 MO Levels of 2nd Row Elements Large 2s-2p interaction σ* p 2 π* p 2 Delocalized Bonding • • • • • Molecular orbital theory handles delocalization quite nicely since molecular orbitals can be said to be spread over the entire. • • Molecule of lithium should2be stable. Solidification of metal atoms forms large “molecules” with extensive delocalization of electrons. E. 1 + (σ )2 σ* ⇒ a net of one bonding electron. Bond order: BO = 1/2(nb − na) where nb is the number of bonding electrons and na is the number of antibonding electrons. Small 2s-2p interaction B2 C2 N2 O2 ↑ ↑ F2 ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ 1 D Ne2 ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ 0 8–105 σ2p π2p σ* s 2 ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ 1 P ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ 2 P ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ 2 D ↑↓ ↑↓ 3 D σ2s Bond Order Magnetic behavior 8–106 P = Paramagnetic. 10. D = Diamagnetic INTERMOLECULAR FORCES 8–107 8–108 Fig.

Liquids and Solids – Liquids are almost incompressible. • The attraction between molecules is an intermolecular force. Liquids and Solids • Converting a gas into a liquid or solid requires the molecules to get closer to each other: – cool or compress. • Intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces (e. assumes shape and volume of container: • Gas molecules are far apart and do not interact much with each other. Intermolecular Forces • The covalent bond holding a molecule together is an intramolecular force. Liquids and Solids • Physical properties of substances understood in terms of kinetic molecular theory: – Gases are highly compressible. assume the shape but not the volume of container: • Liquids molecules are held closer together than gas molecules.A Molecular Comparison of Gases. • When a substance condenses intermolecular forces are formed. – Solids are incompressible and have a definite shape and volume: • Solid molecules are packed closely together. • When a substance melts or boils the intermolecular forces are broken (not the covalent bonds). 16 kJ/mol vs. 431 kJ/mol for HCl). Intermolecular Forces in Solutions 19 . The molecules are so rigidly packed that they cannot easily slide past each other. • Converting a solid into a liquid or gas requires the molecules to move further apart: – heat or reduce pressure.g. A Molecular Comparison of Gases. A Molecular Comparison of Gases. • The forces holding solids and liquids together are called intermolecular forces. but not so rigidly that the molecules cannot slide past each other.

Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Dipole-Dipole Forces • Dipole-dipole forces exist between neutral polar molecules. the larger the ion-dipole attraction. F is comparatively large. 20 . • F increases as Q increases and as d decreases: – the larger the charge and smaller the ion. • Polar molecules need to be close together.g. Na+) and a dipole (e. • If two molecules have about the same mass and size. • Weaker than ion-dipole forces: QQ F =k 1 2 d2 – Q1 and Q2 are partial charges. water). then dipoledipole forces increase with increasing polarity. • Strongest of all intermolecular forces: QQ F =k 1 2 d2 – Since Q1 is a full charge and Q2 is a partial charge.Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Ion-Dipole Forces • Interaction between an ion (e.g. Intermolecular Forces Dipole-Dipole Forces • There is a mix of attractive and repulsive dipole-dipole forces as the molecules tumble.

• For an instant. • Polarizability is the ease with which an electron cloud can be deformed. Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces • Ion-Induced Dipole: – An ion induces a dipole moment in an adjacent molecule or atom. the electron clouds become distorted. • It is possible for two adjacent neutral molecules to affect each other. Intermolecular Forces Polarizability & Periodic Table • Polarizability increases down a group of atoms or ions because size increases & larger electron clouds are more easily distorted • Polarizability decreases from left to right across a period because the effective nuclear charge holds the electrons more tightly • Cations are less polarizable than parent atom because they are smaller. • The forces between instantaneous dipoles are called London dispersion forces.g. • In that instant a dipole is formed (called an instantaneous dipole). whereas anions are more polarizable because they are larger 21 . water).g.Intermolecular Forces London Dispersion Forces • Weakest of all intermolecular forces. Intermolecular Forces London Dispersion Forces • One instantaneous dipole can induce another instantaneous dipole in an adjacent molecule (or atom). • The nucleus of one molecule (or atom) attracts the electrons of the adjacent molecule (or atom). London Dispersion Forces • Interaction between an ion (e. • The larger the molecule (the greater the number of electrons) the more polarizable. Na+) and a dipole (e.

• H-bonding requires H bonded to an electronegative element (most important for compounds of F. • Intermolecular forces are abnormally strong. – Electrons in the H-X (X = electronegative element) lie much closer to X than H. – Therefore. Intermolecular Forces Hydrogen Bonding 22 . so in the H-X bond. • London dispersion forces between spherical molecules are lower than between sausage-like molecules. H-O.X. and H-N bonds are abnormally high. and N). • The greater the surface area available for contact. H-bonds are strong. the δ+ H presents an almost bare proton to the δ. Intermolecular Forces Hydrogen Bonding • Special case of dipole-dipole forces. • London dispersion forces depend on the shape of the molecule. • London dispersion forces exist between all molecules.Intermolecular Forces London Dispersion Forces Intermolecular Forces London Dispersion Forces • London dispersion forces increase as molecular weight increases. • By experiments: boiling points of compounds with HF. O. – H has only one electron. the greater the dispersion forces.

• Ice is ordered with an open structure to optimize H-bonding. • The O…H hydrogen bond length is 1. so it forms an insulating layer on top of lakes. Therefore. etc.Intermolecular Forces Hydrogen Bonding • Hydrogen bonds are responsible for: – Ice Floating • Solids are usually more closely packed than liquids. • Ice floats. solids are more dense than liquids. • In water the H-O bond length is 1. Intermolecular Forces Hydrogen Bonding • Hydrogen bonds are responsible for: – Protein Structure • Protein folding is a consequence of H-bonding. • therefore. • Therefore.0 Å. • Each δ+ H points towards a lone pair on O. rivers. aquatic life can survive in winter. • DNA Transport of Genetic Information Intermolecular Forces Comparing Intermolecular Forces 23 . ice is less dense than water.8 Å. regular hexagon. • Ice has waters arranged in an open.

3 H-bonds per water molecule Ice: H-bond lifetime .Intermolecular Forces in Solutions Ion-Dipole (40-600 kJ/mol) H bond (10-40 kJ/mol) Dipole-Dipole (5-25 kJ/mol) Ion-Induced dipole (3-15 kJ/mol) Dipole-Induced Dipole (2-10 kJ/mol) Dispersion (0.about 10 psec (10 psec = 0.00000000001 sec) Thats "one times ten to the minus eleven second"! 24 .05-40 kJ/mol) Strongest to Weakest The Uniqueness of Water • Water has many unusual properties when compared with properties that periodic trends would otherwise predict: – – – – – – – – – Higher boiling point Higher specific heat capacity Higher surface tension.about 10 microsec Water: H-bond lifetime . capillarity Higher heat of vaporization Lower vapor pressure Higher viscosity Dissolves many substances Liquid state at room T & P Solid form floats on liquid –less dense The electrons forming each bond between hydrogen and oxygen are drawn strongly toward the oxygen atom This results in two very polar bonds The 104.5° bond angle makes a strong dipole Water molecules also form hydrogen bonds Comparison of Ice and Water • • • • • • Issues: H-bonds and Motion Ice: 4 H-bonds per water molecule Water: 2.