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Abstract

With increased emphasis on student achievement in schools,

teacher education programs are challenged to meet the demand for

highly effective teachers. Ensuring that pre-service teachers

feel confident in their ability to teach, prompted one Midwestern

University to implement an extended student teaching placement.

The idea behind this endeavor was two fold; first to provide

future teachers a more robust and diverse classroom experience;

and secondly to provide more opportunities for students to get

experience in high-risk school settings. There is very limited

research on the impact of year-long student teaching on a

teacher’s sense of efficacy. The purpose of this study was to

compare the efficacy of teacher candidates placed in a year-long

student teaching placement to teacher candidates placed in a

traditional one semester (16 week) placement. All teacher

candidates completed a 24 question Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy

Scale as well as nine demographic questions. The survey developed

at Ohio State University by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy

(2001), measures teacher attitudes towards working with students,

student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom

management. Specifically, the questions represent essential tasks

in teaching such as assessment, differentiating lessons for

individual students, dealing with students with learning

challenges, repairing student understanding, and encouraging


student engagement and interest. The results of the study

indicated that pre-service teacher candidates in a year-long

student teaching placement were more satisfied with their ability

to engage students and manage classroom behavior than their

counterparts in a traditional one semester placement.

Keywords: Teacher efficacy; student teaching; teacher

retention; sustainability

References

Ambrosetti, A., & Dekkers, J. (2010) The Interconnectedness of

the roles of mentors and mentees in pre-service teacher education

mentoring relationships. Australian Journal of Teacher

Education, 35, 42–55. Pre-service Teachers and Self-Efficacy: A

Study in Contrast

Pre-Service Teachers as Readers and Future Teachers of EFL

Reading

Leyla Tercanlioglu

Southampton University

<l.tercanlioglu@soton.ac.uk>

Abstract
The study reported here aims to deepen our understanding of what

pre-service teachers think about their own reading, their future

responsibility as teachers of EFL reading, and about the

effectiveness of the education they have been receiving. Pre-

service teachers did not describe themselves as very competent

readers, but when they read, they have intrinsic reasons to do

so. The findings suggest that they believe good reading teachers

should themselves be good readers, who read along with their

students. They were not very enthusiastic about teaching reading,

though they accepted they would need to teach it as part of a

language course. 51.51% of the pre-service teachers rated their

teacher education program as satisfactory in this domain.

Recently, the voice of pre-service teachers has started to be

recorded to find out what they think about themselves as future

teachers (Young, 1998), and their perceptions of quality of the

education they get (Brookhart & Loadman, 1996). It has also been

found useful to document teacher educator views, to explore

relationships between the perceptions of pre-service teachers and

teacher educators in the course of pre-service education.

The research reported here aimed to study the views of pre-

service EFL teachers, both as readers themselves and as potential

teachers of EFL reading. A short discussion of the significance

of self perceptions within theoretical frameworks of teaching and


of reading is followed by a brief discussion of the need for pre-

service ratings of teacher education program quality. After that

the study is introduced, in which the distinction between pre-

service teachers' description of themselves as readers and as

teachers of reading, and teacher educator views, was explored.

Pre-service teachers of different genders and at different years

of training were cross-sectionally compared to trace differences

in perspective between these different groups. The study also

explored participants' perceptions of the preparation of pre-

service teachers. [-1-]

Literature review

Pre-service teacher perceptions about teaching

Pre-service teachers' perceptions about teaching have recently

attracted the attention of researchers (cf. Almarza, 1996; Joram

& Gabriele, 1998; Brown & Mc Gannon, 1998). These researchers,

among others, have identified a wide range of benefits in helping

pre-service teachers reflect on their beliefs. Their perceptions

are considered significant because engagement and success in

teaching may be determined primarily by pre-service teachers'

perceptions of "Can I be a good teacher?" "Do I want to be a good

teacher?" and "Why?" It has also been frequently asserted that

pre-service teacher perceptions are important for at least two

further reasons: (a) pre-service teacher opinions and attitudes


toward teaching can affect their decisions on how best to modify

and use various language teaching techniques and methods in the

future (b) certain attitudes and beliefs derived from their

perceptions can have a profound impact in turn on their students'

affective state (Young, 1998).

It has been claimed that teachers' beliefs in their abilities to

instruct students and influence student performance are a very

strong indicator of instructional effectiveness (Bandura, 1997).

Bandura originally proposed that an individual's beliefs or

efficacy expectations are major determinants of activity choice,

willingness to expend effort, and persistence (1977). Efficacy

beliefs also have been shown to affect teacher activity, effort,

and productivity (Ashton & Webb, 1986). Teachers with high

efficacy hold positive expectations for student behaviour and

achievement; they take personal responsibility for student

learning; they use strategies for achieving objectives; and they

have a sense of control and confidence in their ability to

influence student learning (Ashton, Webb, & Doda, 1982). Studies

in different countries (Campbell, 1996; Gorrell, Ares, & Boakari,

1998; Gorrell et al., 1998) have shown that pre-service teachers

vary in the degree to which they believe themselves to be

efficacious in their teaching. These studies suggested that the

teacher efficacy concept is more differentiated in some

countries, and is strongly influenced by unique features of the


inherent cultures. For example, Lin and Gorrell's (2001) study of

Taiwanese pre-service teachers reported that efficacy beliefs are

influenced by cultural and/or social backgrounds, as well as by

the features of particular programs, and by the context of pre-

service teachers' studies.

As to pre-service teachers' response to the question "Why do I

want to teach?" Yong (1995) pointed out in his study of pre-

service teachers in Brunei that teaching attracts different

people for different reasons. The literature shows that their

reasons can be extrinsic and/or intrinsic. According to Dörnyei

(2000) teaching is more closely associated with intrinsic

motivation, which refers to being motivated and curious to do an

activity for its own sake (Harter, 1981; Deci & Ryan, 1985).

Dörnyei (2000) suggests that teaching has always been associated

with an internal desire to educate people, to impart knowledge

and values, and to advance a community or a whole nation. In the

ESL field, although the literature on the motivation of language

teachers is scarce, existing studies (e.g., Pennington, 1995;

Doyle & Kim, 1995) have also found that ESL pre-service teachers

are intrinsically motivated to teach ESL.

On the other hand, young people may select teaching for extrinsic

reasons, such as seeking to gain recognition, win rewards, and

surpass others in publicly acknowledged achievement (Deci,


Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991). Material benefits, job

security, shorter working days, or long school holidays may also

influence their decisions to choose a teaching career. For

example, Unwin (1990) carried out research amongst final-year

undergraduates in the United Kingdom to determine their reasons

for choosing teaching. The study showed that the criteria for

doing so were related to extrinsic reasons. [-2-]

Some studies have focused on gender as an explanation for pre-

service teachers' perception about their sense of efficacy and

the reasons to teach. Gender differences in teacher efficacy have

been identified as a possible variable accounting for individual

differences in teacher practice and student outcomes. Females

report higher teacher efficacy than males (Raudenbush, Rowan, &

Cheong, 1992), possibly because teaching is viewed as a female

occupation (Apple & Jungjk, 1992). It seems females are more

satisfied in teaching, they more strongly believe that they can

affect students' academic achievement, make changes in students,

and facilitate student learning. The previous literature also

reveals that males were more likely than females to have

extrinsic reasons to teach. For example, it was shown by

Johnston, McKeown, and McEwen, (1998) that female pre-service

teachers tended to seek intrinsic rewards such as mental

stimulation.
Pre-service teachers' perceptions within the theoretical

framework of reading

As introduced above, competence and efficacy belief constructs

are individuals' general perceptions of their competence in

different areas. So, for example, the statement "I think I am a

good reader," reflects the reader's perception that s/he has the

capability to read effectively. It has been shown that belief in

self-efficacy predicts text comprehension, and that students with

high self-efficacy see difficult reading tasks as challenging and

work attentively to master them, using their cognitive strategies

productively (Guthrie, Wigfield, Metsala, & Cox, 1999). Some

other studies have clearly demonstrated that students' sense of

efficacy relates to their academic performance (Schunk, 1991).

Extrinsic motivation refers to being motivated in an activity as

a means to an end, such as outperforming others (Observational

comparison) and receiving a tangible form of recognition for

success in reading (Social feedback). It is increasingly clear

that many students are motivated to read for extrinsic reasons

(Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997).

As far as reading is concerned, intrinsic motivation is based on

the students' understanding of how well they read and how they

can improve their reading performance (Psychological states);

intrinsically motivated students are more concerned with their


own progress. Increased intrinsic motivation has been found

related to greater interest in the reading material, higher

reading performance, greater amount of reading (Wigfield &

Guthrie, 1997), higher frequency of reading, higher achievement

in text-comprehension tasks (Benware & Deci, 1984; Gottfried,

1990) and higher sense of competence (Miller, Behrens, Greene, &

Newman, 1993).

The general reading literature contains a number of articles that

examine the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of children, and

how these may change over time and between genders, but it seems

there is a relative lack of studies of undergraduates'

perceptions of themselves as readers, whether in first or foreign

language.

Pre-service teacher ratings of teacher education program quality

Teacher education programs have tended to be something "planned

for'" and "done to" pre-service teachers, yet they are the ones

who are the most directly affected by the program. Therefore,

what they think, feel, and know about various aspects of their

teacher education, and whether their perceptions change as they

progress through their pre-service programs, have already

received a lot of attention. For example, Hsieh and Hu (1994)

reported on a survey of pre-service teachers in Taiwan to find

out what were the important teaching competencies and what their
relative order of importance was, in order to guide a teacher

education program. Similarly, Arubayi (1989) surveyed pre-service

teachers from three Nigerian universities about four aspects of

satisfaction with their teacher education programs. Brookhart and

Loadman (1996) have also explored practising teachers' rating of

their initial preparation in terms of teaching quality, teaching

skills and teaching knowledge. The mean ratings were slightly

above the adequate. This study also aimed to elicit pre-service

teachers' ratings of their teacher education program in preparing

them as teachers.[-3-]

The Study

The review of related research shows that no study has yet been

conducted on the self-perceptions of pre-service EFL teachers as

readers and future teachers of EFL reading. Thus, the present

study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of

these perceptions, and indirectly of the quality of new teachers

entering the profession. The paper also aims to describe and

explore the pre-service teachers' evaluation of their teacher

education program in respect of preparation to teach reading. It

is an attempt to examine in what way the needs of the pre-service

teacher, as a reader, and the future teacher of reading, are

being addressed in pre-service education in a particular context,

that of a Turkish higher education institution. Furthermore, the


study records what teacher educators in this institution think,

so as to explore the dis/agreements between those who educate and

who are educated.

This study was limited to a Turkish pre-service teacher education

program preparing future teachers of secondary school English

teachers. The subjects were not chosen randomly, and therefore,

caution should be taken in making generalizations from the

results to other contexts.

The following research questions were generated to guide the

inquiry:

How do prospective English teachers describe themselves as future

teachers of reading?

What are the pre-service teachers' perceptions about themselves

as readers?

How do pre-service teachers rate their teacher education program

in preparing them to teach reading?

How and to what extent are reading self-perceptions and the

teaching of reading addressed in the teacher education program?

Where appropriate, answers to these questions were further

analysed by gender and year differences among the pre-service

teachers.
Participants

Pre-service teachers. The participants were all full-time

undergraduates on the TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign

Language) program at a Turkish university. This is a 4-year full-

time pre-service TEFL teacher-training program, for those who

wish to teach English in secondary schools, which has a yearly

intake of 200. 132 pre-service EFL teachers (72 males and 60

females), aged 20-22, from two different course years (third N=

88 and fourth N= 44) took part in the study. All of them speak

Turkish as their first language.

Teacher educators. In the 2000-2001 academic year, the total

number of full-time teacher educators in the TEFL department was

13, of whom one held a PhD in Linguistics, ten in Literature and

two in Applied Linguistics. Seven teacher educators (6 males and

1 female) agreed to participate. Their average length of teaching

experience was 15 years. All teacher educators were non-native

speakers of English. [-4-]

Measures

Reader self-perception scale (RSPS). The first instrument of

measurement was adapted from the RSPS developed by Henk and

Melnick (1995). The RSPS was chosen because it accounts

adequately for concerns related to focus, norming, theoretical

grounding, and practicality. Beyond these advantages, the RSPS


offers a wide range of assessment, instructional, and research

applications that are outlined in Henk and Melnick (1995). This

RSPS consists of thirty-three questions and provides information

about how the respondents feel about themselves as readers. These

thirty-three questions are organized into five dimensions of

reader self-perception. A 5-point Likert-scale (strongly agree,

agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree) was used. The

abbreviations (Ab.) for each dimension, and sample items selected

from each dimension, are given in Table 1 (Appendix 1).

Table 1. Sample items for RSPS

Dimension Ab. # Sample Item

General perception GP 1 I think I am a good reader.

Psychological
PS 8 Reading makes me feel happy inside.
states

When I read, I don't have to try as

Progress P 9 hard as I

used to.

When I read, I can figure out words


Observational
OC 6 better than other
comparison
classmates.

People in my family think I am a good


Social feedback SF 9
reader.
The RSPS was designed to assess the feelings about themselves as

readers of elementary students who are speakers of English as a

native language. However, it has been used in this paper to

assess pre-service EFL teacher's feelings about themselves as

readers of both Turkish and English. Therefore, all items, which

included the words "kids," and "teacher" were modified to

"classmates" and "lecturer". The subscales showed an internal

consistency coefficient ranging between 74 and 80, in line with

existing evidence regarding the validity and reliability of the

subscales (see Henk & Melnick, 1995).

Teaching reading self-perception scale (TRSPS). To address the

questions related to the students' perception of themselves as

future teachers, a second questionnaire was needed, relating

specifically to beliefs and attitudes towards the teaching of

reading, and a five-item questionnaire was designed (Appendix 2).

Furthermore, one item (Item 39) was added to elicit respondents'

ratings of their teacher education program in preparing them both

as readers and as reading teachers. A 5-point Likert-scale

(strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree)

was used. One item (Item 38) was worded negatively. Scale

reliability showed tolerable internal reliability in this total

sample (0.56.).
Teacher-educator questionnaire. To examine the beliefs and

practices of teacher educators, a teacher-educator questionnaire

was distributed to all 13 teacher-educators. Respondents were

asked to identify the experience they had in years. (0-5; 6-10;

11-15; 16-25; 26+). Following questions were designed to inquire

into the types of reading experiences being pursued in the

teacher-training program. They were also intended to explore the

extent to which teacher educators' beliefs mirrored those found

in current paradigms for reading instruction, and finally

attempted to find out where, and how, the identity of a teacher

as a reader, was being addressed in the course content (Appendix

3).

Procedure

The pre-service teachers were told that the questionnaires were

anonymous and were reassured that their responses would not be

available to their educators. They were also offered the option

to decline participation or withdraw at any time. All

questionnaires were completed under the supervision of the

researcher.[-5-]

Data analysis

The data analysis was conducted using SPSS 10.0, and basic

descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations) were computed

for all the data. Gender and year differences in pre-service


teachers' self-perceptions as readers (research question 1), and

as future teachers (research question 2), and their perceptions

of their training (research question 3) were analysed using Mann-

Whitney U statistics.

Percentages were used to report the proportion of pre-service

teachers who selected each alternative on the TRSPS (research

question 2) and rated their teacher education program (research

question 3). Percentages were used similarly in reporting

teacher-educator responses on how the teacher education program

addresses reading self-perceptions and teaching reading (research

question 4).

Bivariate correlations were used to explore the relation between

pre-service teachers' self-perception as readers and as future

reading teachers (research question 2), and between their self

perception as readers and their perception of how well they are

educated (research question 3).

Analysis of the completed teacher educator questionnaire involved

interpretation of open-ended responses, as well.

Results

How do the prospective secondary teachers describe themselves as

readers? The examination of data collected through RSPS permitted

a description of pre-service teachers' perceptions of themselves,


and gave information about which dimensions of self-perception

students endorse most and least. The means and standard

deviations for the different dimensions of pre-service teachers'

self-perceptions as readers are provided in Table 2.

Table 2: Pearson correlations among scales and descriptive

statistics (n=132)

Correlation coefficient=r

Scale Statistics GP P OC SF PS

GP r

P r 0.09

P 0.31

OC r 0.38 0.45

P 0.00** 0.00**

SF r 0.38 0.41 0.61

P 0.00** 0.00** 0.00**

PS r 0.33 0.44 0.41 0.45

P 0.00** 0.00** 0.00** 0.00**

M 3.56 4.11 3.26 3.38 3.98

SD 0.93 0.49 0.53 0.47 0.55

** p= < 0.01, 2-tailed

Note 1. P= Progress; PS= Psychological states; GP= General

perception; SF= Social feedback; OC= Observational comparison


The mean ratings for the item for the item ("I think I am a good

reader") were slightly above the "undecided" level on the 5-point

scale. This implies that respondents are not very confident that

they have the capability to read effectively.[-6-]

However, when they read, they read for intrinsic reasons. The

table shows that more intrinsic dimensions (Progress and

Psychological states) have the highest scores, whereas more

extrinsic dimensions (Observational comparison and Social

feedback) have the lowest scores. Pre-service teachers seem to

view themselves as reading well, improving their reading,

enjoying reading significantly, and being motivated to be engaged

in an activity for its own sake, rather than for "extrinsic"

reasons.

When considering the correlations among the subscales, the most

notable aspect was the generally high level of interrelatedness.

The existence of these relations would suggest the existence of

multidimensionality of the pre-service teachers' self-perceptions

as readers. That is, self-perception is a multifaceted

psychological phenomenon, and individuals may have multiple,

rather than a single, perceptions of reading. Unexpectedly, self-

perceptions of reading Progress and General perception of reading

ability were found to be unrelated. However, the related


literature on self-efficacy theory postulates that progress

raises self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986).

In order to determine if there are year and gender differences in

pre-service teachers self-perceptions as readers, a non-

parametric two Independent Samples - Mann Whitney U Test was run.

Table 3: Two independent samples for gender differences in pre-

service teachers' self-perceptions as readers

Variable Gender N MR SR U P

GP F 60 62.350 3741 1911.0 0.22

M 72 69.958 5037

P F 60 67.825 4069.5 2080.5 0.72

M 72 65.395 4708.5

OC F 60 62.958 3777.5 1947.5 0.33

M 72 69.451 5000.5

SF F 60 65.825 3949.5 2119.5 0.85

M 72 67.062 4828.5

PS F 60 66.233 3974 2144.0 0.94

M 72 66.722 4804

Table 4: Two independent samples for year differences in pre-

service teachers' self-perceptions as readers

Variable Year N MR SR U P

GP 3 88 62.875 5533 1617.0 0.10

4 44 73.75 3245
P 3 88 66.017 5809.5 1893.5 0.84

4 44 67.465 2968.5

OC 3 88 64.75 5698 1782.0 0.45

4 44 70 3080

SF 3 88 63.505 5588.5 1672.5 0.20

4 44 72.488 3189.5

PS 3 88 62.761 5523 1607.0 0.11

4 44 73.977 3255

Yet, the results revealed no significant gender (Table 3) or year

(Table 4) differences in pre-service teachers' perceptions of

themselves as readers. It seemed that positive feelings on

reading were shared across whole group.[-7-]

What are the pre-service teachers' perceptions about themselves

as readers? As noted previously, an additional 5-item section was

added to the TRSPS (items 34-38), to measure beliefs regarding

the teacher's role in reading, both generally and personally. The

percentages and descriptive statistics for pre-service teacher

comments on four questions are presented in Table 5.

Table 5: Items with percentages, means and standard deviations of

pre-service teachers selecting each alternative (n=132)

Item Statistics SA A U D SD M SD

34 Percent 28.8 47.7 13.6 6.1 3.8 3.92 1.00

35 Percent 34.8 45.5 15.9 3.8 - 4.11 0.81


36 Percent 62.9 27.3 6.1 3.0 0.8 4.48 0.81

37 Percent 45.5 42.4 9.8 1.5 0.8 4.30 0.77

Note. SA=Strongly agree; A=Agree; U=Undecided; D=Disagree;

SD=Strongly disagree.

The table shows that the mean score of 3.92 for Item 34 "I want

to teach reading" is only slightly higher than "undecided." 47.7%

of the pre-service teachers merely "agreed" with this statement,

suggesting pre-service teachers are not very highly motivated to

teach reading. This is the only item that displays gender

differences in pre-service teachers' perceptions of themselves as

readers. On this item males (M=4.0556, SE=.1168) had higher score

than females (M=3.7500, SE= .1294). Table 6 given below displays

the gender differences.

Conversely, the mean scores of 4.3 for Item 37, "I plan to use

reading regularly in my classes when I teach" is higher than that

for Item 34, and 45.5% of the pre-service students "strongly

agreed" and an additional 42.4% "agreed" with this item. This

suggests that pre-service teachers recognize that they must teach

reading, at least as a section in a course.

Although they themselves are not very motivated to teach reading,

these instructors strongly believe those who will teach reading

should be good readers (Item 36, M=4.48; SD=0.81) and should read

along with their students (M=4.11; SD=0.81) [-8-]


Table 6: Two independent samples for gender differences in pre-

service teachers' self perceptions as future teachers

Variable Gender N MR SR U p </p>

34 F 60 59.616 3577 1747.0 0.04

M 72 72.23 5201

35 F 60 68.091 4085.5 2064.5 0.64

M 72 65.173 4692.5

36 F 60 68.316 4099 2051.0 0.56

M 72 64.986 4679

37 F 60 67.291 4037.5 2112.5 0.81

M 72 65.840 4740.5

38 F 60 69.866 4192 1958.0 0.33

M 72 63.694 4586

As noted above, the results presented in Table 6 indicate that

there is a significant gender difference in pre-service teachers'

perceptions of themselves as reading teachers. On Item 34 "I want

to teach reading" (U 1747, p < .05.) males (M=4.0556, SE=.1168)

had higher score than females (M=3.7500, SE= .1294). It seemed

that males in general were more confident and more motivated to

teach reading than the females, although there was no gender

difference (Table 3) in their perceptions of themselves as

readers. This finding implies that males' choosing to teach

reading has some other explanation than being a good reader.


However, this study does not help us to explain the gender

difference.

Table 7 displays the year differences in pre-service teachers'

perceptions of themselves as readers

Table 7: Two independent samples for year differences in pre-

service teachers' self perceptions as future teachers

Variable Year N MR SR U F

34 3 88 63.82 5616 1700.0 0.22

4 44 71.86 3162

35 3 88 64.95 5716 1800.0 0.48

4 44 69.59 3062

36 3 88 61.22 5387.5 1471.5 0.01

4 44 77.06 3390.5

37 3 88 66.59 5860 1928.0 0.97

4 44 66.32 2918

38 3 88 72.42 6373 1415.0 0.01

4 44 54.66 2405

Two related items showed a difference by year: Item 36, U 1471 =.

001, p < .01 and Item 38 U 1415.5 = 0.01 p < .01. On item 36 "All

teachers should be readers", 4th year pre-service teachers had

higher scores (M=4. 6818, SD =. 7400). Conversely, on Item 38

"EFL teachers do not have to be readers", which was the only

negatively worded item, 3rd year pre-service teachers had higher


scores with M= 2. 2273, SD= 1.0140. The 3rd year pre-service

teachers appeared to have less clear-cut beliefs about the

connection between being a good reader and a good reading

teacher. This situation may imply a belief change from one year

to another. 4th year pre-service teachers were likely to revise

their ideas as a result of experiences on teaching practice.[-9-]

Correlations between the sub-scales of self-perception as

readers, and self-perception as future teachers of reading are

shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Summary of bivariate correlations--reader self

perception and self-perception as future teacher

Variable Statistics GP P OC SF PS

34 R 0.034 0.167 0.167 0.176 0.102

P 0.697 0.056 0.056 0.043* 0.244

35 R -0.014 0.242 0.091 0.211 0.142

P 0.870 0.005** 0.301 0.015* 0.104

36 R 0.052 0.231 0.141 0.210 0.099

P 0.551 0.008** 0.106 0.016* 0.258

37 R - 0.005 0.175 0.025 0.150 0.066

P 0.959 0.045* 0.777 0.085 0.453

** p= < 0.01, 2-tailed *p= <0.05, 2-tailed

Correlation coefficient =r
The results revealed significant differences in pre-service

teachers' perceptions of how they have been trained, relating to

several dimensions of their perceptions of themselves as readers.

Progress had a significant correlation with item 35 (0.242, p < .

01), item 36 (0.231, p < .01), and with item 37 (0.175, p < .05).

That is, the more pre-service teachers perceived themselves as

making progress, the more likely they were to report planning to

use reading in their language classes, reading along with the

students to motivate them, and having a view that all teachers

should be good readers. This finding suggests a dynamic view of

reading. Social feedback was also correlated with Items 34

(0.176, p < .05), 35 (0.211, p < .05) and 36 (0.210, p < .05),

suggesting a concern with how others see them, reflected on both

scales. That is, social feedback influences pre-service teachers'

desire to teach reading and plan to use it when they teach

positively.

How do pre-service teachers rate their teacher education program

in preparing them to teach reading? The last item on the TRSPS

was used to assess the respondents' feelings about their teacher

education program: 15.15% indicated that they strongly believed

they had been trained well, 36.36% indicated that they agreed. On

the other hand, a total of 19.70% disagreed with this statement,

and 10.61% said that they strongly disagreed. 18.18% of


thesubjects said they were uncertain. The results can be seen in

Table 9.

Table 9: Percentage of pre-service teachers who responded that

their teacher education program has trained them well (n=132)

Statistics SD D U A SA

Frequency 14.00 26.00 24.00 48.00 20.00

Percent 10.61 19.70 18.18 36.36 15.15

Overall, in Table 9 we see that 30.31% of the prospective

teachers participating in this study did not feel they had been

trained well in this area. An additional 18.00% were uncertain

about their level of preparation for teaching reading, so that a

total of 48.49% seem not satisfied with their training. The pre-

service teachers report significantly low ratings of the

usefulness of teacher education for developing the knowledge and

skills necessary for teaching. No difference for gender (Table

10) was identified. Furthermore, the present study found that

these perceptions remained unchanged from third to fourth year

students (Table 11), so that that this rating is shared across

whole group.[-10-]

Table 10: Two independent samples for gender differences in pre-

service teachers' perceptions on their training

Variable Gender N MR SR U P

39 F 60 68.166 4090 2060 0.64


M 72 65.111 4688

Table 11: Two independent samples for year differences in pre-

service teachers' perceptions on their training

Variable Year N MR SR U P

39 3 88 68.602 6037 1751 0.36

4 44 62.295 2741

How and to what extent are reading self-perceptions and the

teaching of reading addressed in the teacher education program?

In this phase of the study we analyse the responses of seven

teacher educators to a series of questions about the types of

reading required in their courses. The responses indicate that

the most popular type of reading is literary works (85.7%).

Literary reading is followed by journal reading (57.1%). The type

of reading used by the fewest teacher educators (14.2%) was

research papers.

Next, respondents were provided with a space for describing the

types of feedback pre-service teachers receive for the above-

mentioned course-related reading. Four of the respondents

mentioned that they correct errors of pronunciation and

intonation, implying that reading aloud is practised. The others

did not reply to this question.


Next, teacher educators were asked whether it is a goal of their

instruction to train pre-service teachers how to teach reading.

Three responded affirmatively, to a great extent; two responded

affirmatively, but to some extent, while 2 responded negatively.

A few expressed the view that since reading is not their content

area, or is the responsibility of methods courses, it was not

their responsibility to train reading teachers.

How does this group of teacher educators rate the reading ability

of their pre-service teachers? Not a single respondent rated pre-

service teachers' reading as excellent. The majority (57.1%)

considered pre-service teacher reading to be satisfactory whereas

42.7% found it to be poor.[-11-]

Teacher-educators were also asked to describe what they believed

to be the attitude toward reading of pre-service teachers in

their classes. 42.7% rated pre-service teacher attitudes toward

reading as being positive. The most common rating of pre-service

teacher attitude toward reading was "neutral", given by 57.3%.

However, no respondent rated pre-service teacher attitudes toward

reading as being "negative".

Finally, teacher educators were given an open opportunity to

express any additional comments they had concerning pre-service

teacher reading or their approach to teaching reading. Several

seemed to have the desire to have good readers but they saw
reading ability as something pre-service teachers should improve

in their free time, not a curricular issue.

Discussion

The first aim of this investigation was to explore the pre-

service teachers' self-perceptions as readers. Results revealed

that respondents here are not very confident that they have

capability to read effectively. However, when they read, they

read for intrinsic reasons.

As expected, the results also revealed highly significant

correlations among the subscales. In fact, the scales relate so

much to one another that interrelations among them are

unavoidable. These interactions confirm the idea that reading is

complex and multidimensional. However, although the related

literature on self-efficacy theory postulates a relationship

between perceived progress and self-efficacy beliefs by

suggesting that individuals are competent and can continue to

learn (Bandura, 1986), in this study these two scales were found

to be unrelated.

Gender and year differences did not have direct effects on pre-

service teachers' perceptions of themselves as readers. Previous

research has already suggested that teachers' beliefs tend not to

change much from the time they enter until they leave pre-service

training programs, and that their beliefs are generally not


influenced easily. Beliefs probably persist in part because they

serve as "filters" through which new information is processed

(Cohen and Ball, 1990; Kagan, 1992). However, given the course

tutors stress on pre-service teachers' self-development as

readers, it is disappointing not to see any significant change

from one-year group to the next in pre-service teachers' self-

perception.

Several implications can be drawn from this first group of

findings. The first is that teacher-educators in this program

should pay more attention to pre-service teachers' perceptions of

their capability to read, in part because these perceptions work

in concert with future experiences to help determine the academic

choices and achievements of students (Hackett & Betz, 1989).

Furthermore, as regarding differences by year, the study found

that 4th year pre-service teachers did not report any stronger

perceptions of themselves as readers than 3rd year pre-service

teachers. This lack of development suggests that attention to

pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs should become an

explicit feature of teacher education in such programs, and

should assess both competence and the beliefs that accompany

competence as part of reading. This is an area that merits

continued scrutiny, especially in a study that would trace a

cohort of students as they progress through beginning teaching.


The second aim of the study was to discover pre-service teachers'

self-perceptions as future teachers of reading in a foreign

language. Findings revealed that, the mean score of the item "I

want to teach reading" was only slightly higher than "uncertain",

though the mean score of the item "I plan to use reading

regularly in my classes when I teach" was higher. However,

although pre-service teachers themselves are not very motivated

to teach reading, they strongly believe that those who will teach

reading should be good readers and should read along with their

students.

The study revealed a direct effect of gender, favouring males, on

the item "I want to teach reading." However, this study does not

help us to explain this. "All teachers should be readers" also

showed a difference by year, as 4th year pre-service teachers had

higher scores. This situation may imply a belief change from one

year to another. 4th year pre-service teachers were likely to

revise their pedagogic ideas as a result of confronting

experiences on teaching practice (Cohen & Ball, 1990).[-12-]

The study also correlated pre-service teachers' perceptions of

themselves as readers with their perceptions of themselves as

future teachers. These results showed that, at least for this

sample, Progress and Social feedback had significant correlations

with pre-service teachers' perceptions of their future practice


as teachers. Progress is defined as how one's perception of

present reading performance compares with past performance. The

more they perceived progress, the more likely they were to report

planning to use reading in their language classes, reading along

with the students to motivate them, and having a view that all

teachers should be good readers. Social feedback includes direct

or indirect input about reading from others. Social feedback also

seems to influence pre-service teachers' desire to teach reading

and plans to use it when they teach positively. So, our results

confirm that pre-service teacher perceptions on teaching are

positively related to both intrinsic and socially situated

extrinsic goal orientations (Dweck, 1986; Urdan, 1997). The

existence of these correlations underlines the relevance of self-

perceptions relating to becoming a teacher of reading.

The third aim of the study was to explore the pre-service

teachers' evaluation of their teacher education program for

teaching reading. A total of 51.41% seem satisfied with their

training. No difference for gender was identified, and self-

perceptions remained unchanged from third to fourth year

students, so that this rather low rating is shared across the

whole group. This result indicates the need for improving

standards in teacher education in Turkey regarding reading,

focusing on what current participants think.


The fourth aim of the study was to examine in what way the needs

of the pre-service teacher, as a reader, and the future teacher

of reading, are being addressed in pre-service education in the

context of a Turkish higher education institution.

Teacher educators were asked how and to what extent reading self-

perceptions and the teaching of reading are addressed in the

teacher education program. Teacher educator responses indicate

that teacher educators prefer to focus on prestigious literary

texts. It seems that dealing with literary works may have

resulted in aesthetic pleasure, since pre-service teachers

reported more intrinsic reasons for reading. However this focus

could be viewed as somewhat one-sided. That is, teacher educators

are focusing on personal development of pre-service teachers as

readers, rather than their vocational development as teachers of

reading.

Respondents also described the types of feedback pre-service

teachers receive for their course-relatedreading. Providing

feedback to pre-service teachers is one of the teacher educator's

most important tasks, offering individualized attention that is

otherwise rarely possible under normal conditions. Teacher

educators are already conscious of the potential feedback has for

helping a supportive learning to teach environment and the

related literature generally acknowledges its usefulness


(Hedgcock & Lefkowitz, 1994.) However, in this case it seems that

teacher educators limit the form of feedback they provide to the

correction of errors in pronunciation and intonation. Some did

not reply this question at all. Yet as discussed above, pre-

service teacher replies suggested that social feedback had

significant influences on both pre-service perceptions as both a

reader and a future teacher of reading. Could the pre-service

teachers' lack of feedback be limiting/depressing these self-

perceptions? This possibility cannot be excluded.

On the other hand, both pre-service teachers and teacher

educators agreed that pre-service teacher attitudes to reading

are positive, but not very high. This implies that there is still

more to do to increase pre-service teacher reading to the desired

level. However, teacher educators seemed to see reading as

something pre-service teachers should improve in their free time,

not a curricular issue.

When teacher educators were asked whether it was a goal of their

instruction to train pre-service teachers how to teach reading,

two responded negatively and three expressed the view that since

reading was not their content area, or was the responsibility of

methods courses, it was not their responsibility to train reading

teachers. This suggests that the education of teachers in the


area of reading is still not a primary concern in foreign

language education. [-13-]

Conclusion

Teacher educators at this university are committed to the

development of pre-teachers as readers. They approach this

through a focus on literary reading, which is arguably a bit

narrow, but seems to produce pre-service teachers who are indeed

intrinsically motivated to read. However, the teacher educators

are ambivalent about their responsibility for delivering

professional education in the teaching of reading.

Correspondingly, the students do not feel well prepared to teach

reading, and are not all that enthusiastic about teaching it.

There are obvious implications here for the development of the

teacher education programme. The teaching of reading needs much

more attention in the programme. However, this needs to be done

in such a way as not to destroy what is positive about the

present situation (pre-service teachers' personal enthusiasm for

reading).

Future research is needed to track any such developments so that

we continue to learn more about how pre-service teachers'

intrinsic motivations and self-efficacy beliefs can best be

carried out through into their professional training e.g., in the


skills of reading reaching, and be communicated in turn to their

students, through effective classroom practice.

Future studies should also examine the content of pre-service EFL

teacher perceptions in the social and cultural context by

investigating the common views of pre-service teachers share

across teacher education programs. Additionally, examining

teacher education program influence by looking at the consistency

between the context of pre-service teachers' perceptions on

reading and teaching reading, and program goals would further

isolate the degree to which social and cultural perspectives are

affected by the programs. A better understanding of these

relationships can lead to a more effective integration of program

goals and cultural context.

Acknowledgments

The author is indebted to Prof. Rosomund Mitchell, Southampton

University, UK, for invaluable comments.

The author expresses her appreciation to Prof. Cem Alptekin,

Bogazici University, Turkey, for his critical feedback and

valuable suggestions on an earlier draft of the manuscript.

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Appendices

Appendix 1

The reader self-perception scale (RSPS)

1. I think I am a good reader.


2. I can tell that my lecturer likes to listen to me read.
3. My lecturer thinks that my reading is fine.
4. I read faster than other classmates.
5. I like to read aloud.
When I read, I can figure out words better than other
6.
classmates.
7. My classmates like to listen to me read.
8. I feel good inside when I read.
9. My classmates think that I read well.
10. When I read, I don't have to try as hard as I used to.
11. I seem to know more words than other classmates when I read.
12. People in my family think I am a good reader.
13. I am getting better at reading.
14. I understand what I read as well as other classmates do.
15. When I read, I need less help than I used to.
16. Reading makes me feel happy inside.
17. My lecturer thinks I am a good reader.
18. Reading is easier for me than it used to be.
19. I read faster than I could before.
20. I read better than other classmates in my class.
21. I feel calm when I read.
22. I read more than other classmates.
23. I understand what I read better than I could before.
24. I can figure out words better than I could before
25. I feel comfortable when I read.
26. I think reading is relaxing.
27. I read better now than I could before.
28. When I read, I recognize new words than I used to.
29. Reading makes me feel good.
30. Other classmates think I am a good reader.
31. People in my family think I read pretty well.
32. I enjoy reading.
33. People in my family like to listen to me read.
[-16-]

Appendix 2

The reading teacher self-perception scale (TRSPS)

34. I want to teach reading


35. Teachers should read along with their students
36. All teachers should be readers
37. I plan to use reading regularly in my classes when I teach
38. Teachers in my field do not have to be readers
My teacher education program has trained me well to teach
39.
reading
Appendix 3

Teacher educator questionnaire

· Please indicate your years of experience as a teacher educator?

0-5 ____ 6-10 ______ 11-15 ______ 16-25 _____ 26+ ____

· What type(s) of reading are required in your courses?

journal _____ essays _____ reviews of literature _____ research

papers ____literary works___ other

· What type(s) of written or verbal feedback do your students

receive from you for their reading:

· Is it a goal of your instruction to train pre-service teachers

how to teach reading?

yes, to a great extent ____ yes, to some extent _____ no _______

If yes, how:

If no, why not:

· How would you rate the reading ability of most of your

students?
excellent _____

satisfactory _____

poor _____

· How would you describe most of your students' attitudes toward

reading as demonstrated in your class?

positive _______

neutral _____

negative ______

About the Author

Dr. Leyla Tercanlioglu is an assistant professor at Ataturk

University, Erzurum, Turkey. Her main academic interests are

foreign language teaching education, reading, and L1 and L2

reading instruction. She is currently at the University of

Southampton, UK, doing postdoctoral work on the L1 and L2

readers.

© Copyright rests with authors. Please cite TESL-

EJ appropriately.

Editor's Note: Dashed numbers in square brackets

indicate the end of each page for purposes of

citation.
THE IMPORTANCE FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS TO HAVE PRACTICE

EXPERIENCES TO APPLY THEORY TO REALITY

by

Besty Price

Project Manager

The Natural History of Genes Eccles Institute of Human Genetics

UMNH Utah Museum of Natural History

University of Utah

University of Utah Medical School

Salt Lake City, Utah 84111

e-mail: betsy@geode.umnh.utah.edu
Introduction

An ERIC search on science methods courses brings up 1,923

entries. These articles debate how students should be taught,

what is effective, and what is not. This study brings up the idea

that improvement may be dependent on what doesn't happen after

the courses - an opportunity to practice the pedagogy preservice

teachers have learned. This may be just as important as what

happens during the course and during student teaching. Much of

the actual student teaching experience is devoted to learning

discipline and classroom management skills not to technology,

cultural diversity, and learning theory (Rothenberg, 1997;

Whitworth, 1996; Ramcofer, 1992). Preservice teachers may not

have the opportunity or comfort level to work on pedagogy while

managing their first class.

This paper reports on case studies of two undergraduates who

showed how their level of skills, thinking, and teaching styles

improved and expanded with the opportunity to practice what they

acquired from their methods courses. Although this alone is not

conclusive evidence, it is in agreement with the findings of

other educators who also suggest that preservice teachers do


better after they have had an opportunity to practice educational

theory (Hill, Lee, & Lofton, 1991; Kennedy, Ball & McDiarmid,

1993; Gee, Boberg & Gabel, 1996; Yegar, Lutz, & Craven, 1996).

Description of the Course

The independent study course observed is for preservice

teachers who are planning careers in the public schools and for

biology majors who are interested in non-formal (museums, zoos,

etc.) education. Such students can take the course multiple times

for up to 12 credit hours. The students research an education

topic that interests them, propose an action plan to solve the

problem, carry out the plan, and analyze the effect their efforts

had on the problem. The projects are done in a constructivist

environment with the university instructor acting as a

facilitator to guide the students during the weekly class

meetings and while they work on their individual projects.

The two undergraduates observed chose to add an interactive

website to an ongoing medical school outreach project that

encourages under-served minority students to pursue careers in

the health sciences. The undergraduates wanted to give the middle

school students more contact time with university students, i.e.,

to provide a friend at the university. They also wanted to learn

about the attitude this minority population had about science, to


discover how they learn science, and to know in which sciences

they are interested. The undergraduates built a website where the

students at one of the target schools could submit science

questions and the undergraduates would post the answers.

The middle school students attended a public school in a

rural area that serves an American Indian reservation and a

ranching district. The science classroom was well stocked with

equipment and tables for hands on activities. The school had a

new computer lab and one computer was in the classroom. Both

rooms had Internet access. The science teacher and the principal

were both supportive of the undergraduates working with the

students.

To begin the project, the undergraduates researched the

literature for articles on constructivism and on the learning

preferences of the cultural group. They continued reading

articles as they worked on the website, adapting their reading

choices to their current needs. Each week the undergraduates met

to discuss the articles that were useful and were relevant to the

issues they were investigating. Data for this study were

collected during the discussion sessions, in personal interviews

with the students, and from written assignments.

Answering diverse science questions that students ask


The undergraduates were unable to answer the students'

questions in a manner that was easily understood by the students.

Their university instructor had them analyze the content of the

questions and determine the relationship the questions had to the

culture and to the interests of that particular age group of

students. The undergraduates then sought articles in the research

literature that would help them decide how to answer the

questions. Both undergraduates began the activity with great

enthusiasm, but quickly discovered this was not as easy a task as

they first believed. Answering the questions proved to be

difficult.

Undergraduate One:

"At first this (answering questions) was exciting because I could

see what kids of a diverse culture thought was interesting and

also what misconceptions they had. From my readings in the area

of student questioning, I realized that it is very important to

learn about the diversity of students in the classrooms. I

learned that students of this culture group don't like to be

asked direct questions and do not like to be singled out. It was

hard (answering questions) in the beginning because I did not

know why they asked the questions they did. Were the questions
from topics in class or were they questions that were indicative

of their culture?"

"From the connection between the questions and their lifeways and

using what limited knowledge I gained about them I think the

questions were focused on things that were relative to their

culture. An example was repeated questions about addictions to

smoking and alcohol, hepatitis, and gray hair. When we came to

this observation, it made it easier to answer the questions by

trying to think of what they really might be asking. However,

without a comparison school it is difficult to determine if it

was the culture of poverty , their ethnic culture, or if they

were just questions that all middle school students have."

"It is important to learn about what type of questions would

influence and encourage each specific student to grow. It is also

important to figure out why they asked specific questions. That

is what this project has helped me do."

Undergraduate Two:

"Since this project has focused on Native American students, it

was interesting to think of constructivism in terms of

multicultural education. If students come from diverse

backgrounds, what path will the construction of knowledge take?

Will there be discrepancies between cultures that have serious

implications on this construction? If the answer is yes, then


whose background provides the fundamental building blocks? In

addition, and perhaps more importantly, whose knowledge will gain

validity? What happens when the schools are in competition with

the ideals of the culture (walking between two cultures)?"

When the undergraduates first began to answer questions, they

looked in textbooks and gave detailed, fact-laden answers. They

quickly exhausted themselves when they learned how much time this

required and that the students could not understand the answers.

Both undergraduates moved readily to the Internet as a better

resource for answering questions. On the websites the students

could read experts' answers to their questions. There was also

lots of information, so the students could search for the answers

they sought.

Undergraduate Two tried to engage the students by adding a

page where she controlled the subject matter. Rather than be

reactive to the questions, she chose to become proactive, to draw

out and focus questions. She also wanted to experiment with how

to solicit input about their attitudes and about their interests

in science. Her solution involved picking a subject she believed

would be interesting to the age group of the students: worms. She

produced a webpage that was very upbeat, colorful, and

interactive.
At first, both had problems with answering questions on a

level the students could understand. In seeking ways to answer

the questions better, they began to ask what was the motive for

the questions, what type of answers the students wanted, and what

depth the students were expecting in an answer. They also began

to analyze the questions for specificity of the cultural group.

It wasn't until the end of the quarter that the students began

using a higher level of thinking and reasoning to answer

questions appropriately.

Both undergraduates learned that finding answers was time

consuming for many reasons: the answers were not readily

available, were beyond their knowledge level, spanned many

sciences, and many of the questions required applying basic

science to medical issues. After the frustration of spending too

much time composing ineffective answers from textbooks, they were

eager and adventuresome about looking at what was available on

the web.

Incorporating technology as a tool for enhancing learning

The undergraduates were unable to produce a webpage with the

skills they acquired from a class on educational technology. Both

undergraduates had taken classes on the Internet as a part of

their undergraduate courses. Undergraduate One had produced a


webpage the previous quarter in a large computer class, and

Undergraduate Two had built a simple page as an assessment of her

project the previous quarter. Despite their experience, the

element that consumed most of their time was working on the

Internet, both in finding sites with answers and in producing the

webpage.

Undergraduate One:

"This (the computer) was the part of the project that was very

difficult, often overwhelming. At first I couldn't even work the

mouse. It was hard to use someone else's programs and equipment.

I felt like I was using a foreign language that no one else knew.

Sometimes I just wanted to turn from the computer screaming.

Sometimes I wanted to cry and plead with the computer to

cooperate. I had a class on HTML and had created a web page from

"scratch" which was difficult and slow going. It took me about

five weeks to figure it out. So when I ventured into this project

I had a limited background and had spent many hours creating a

web page. I know that the computer knowledge that I have gained

from this class will help me tremendously in the future."

"The barriers were not limited to me. There were problems at the

middle school. The students' access to computers was very limited

and that made the road tough. The computers were not in the
science classroom but in the computer lab. The computer classes

were full every period, so students had to use them on their own

time after or before school. This was difficult for those who

rode the bus or had various other commitments. Also, students who

worked on their own were those that had the skills to do so.

Those that didn't have time or skills could not participate."

Undergraduate Two:

"Because these students were so far away, the computer, and more

specifically the Internet, proved to be the core component of

this project. As it turned out, it was the sole communication

with the students. There is no doubt that this is a very powerful

tool for the classroom, but as with any new technology, there is

a period of acclimation as well as acceptance. Once the mysteries

and frustrations have been defeated, then it can take its place

as a vital constituent of the educational setting."

"The computer software was definitely my biggest limiting factor,

mainly due to lack of experience, as well as a hint of fear. It

was of the utmost importance that I learn the intricacies of the

computer world. As a result, I have been able to embrace the

power of this technology, but I still have quite a path to

explore before I can unlock its full potential."


Without the benefit of the Internet, these questions would

have been difficult for the students to answer in a timely and

efficient manner. The undergraduates spent most of their time

wrestling with the technology, not interacting with the students.

This proved to be frustrating to both undergraduates. It was

clear that the previous course did not give them enough

experience to produce a site on their own. Both undergraduates

came to the course with computer and webpage experience. In this

class they had on-going and individual support with a small

computer lab, computer professionals, and easy to use software.

To produce the webpage they were given minimum instructions on

the equipment and software, and they had open access to the

computer center. Both students struggled with the technology at

first, but soon became more confident.

The students at the middle school were also held back by the

technology. Without a computer in the room, the teacher was

constrained to print out the answers and read them to the class.

Some students were able to use computers on their own before and

after school, but there was not enough contact for them to feel

comfortable using the website. The science website didn't have

enough appeal to lure them away from some of the more flashy,

commercial websites that attract that age group. Both

undergraduates tried changing the design of the page to be more

user friendly and appealing to the students, but the lack of


computers in the classroom still made it difficult for the

students to use the site.

How to work with diverse students

Both undergraduates had little exposure to minority students

from their own schooling or in actual practice during their

undergraduate studies. Reading the literature provided them with

some useful insights into working with this culture of students.

Undergraduate One:

"They (the students) did not have the opportunity to get to know

us very well because of the barriers of distance and time. It was

very humbling to learn about the lives that they led and the

barriers that they had to conquer which were very foreign to me.

It was hard to imagine the long bus commute and the negative

feelings that other schools had for them because they were from a

specific cultural group. They were limited to the small computer

lab in the school library. Even if they did go into town, would

it be "cool" to go to the library and send in science questions

or would it be better to play games with their peers? Like all

schools, peer approval was very important."

Undergraduate Two:
"This (working with diverse cultures) is perhaps the most

difficult part of the class in which to respond. Since there was

very little contact (face-to-face) with the students, I had to

rely on information that was given to me by various individuals

and from readings. The teacher at the middle school provided the

best insight, but that is expected since she is in close contact

with these students and their culture on a daily basis. I did

begin to understand the concept of walking between two cultures,

and the conflicts involved with this."

As the undergraduates were discussing how to address

multicultural issues and how to analyze the questions according

to cultural differences, they came to an important conclusion on

their own. They reasoned that in order for them to determine what

student behaviors and questions were influenced by cultural and

socioeconomic factors, and what behaviors were middle school age

factors, they would have to develop a comparable website with a

dissimilar group. Another question that arose again and again is

what "culture" the students were representing. They were the only

minority group in a small rural community with a low

socioeconomic status.

Undergraduate Two became intrigued with constructivism.

Specifically, what if the students constructed the wrong

knowledge? Her readings told her that students can only reason
within the boundaries of their experience and knowledge. She

realized that the students did not have the educational

advantages or exposure to ideas that other schools might have

provided. What if the students come to an incorrect conclusion

and actually create another misconception? This misconception

would be harder to displace since it would be deeply

internalized.

Working in a constructivist atmosphere

Only one of the undergraduates had had a previous class that

was conducted in a constructivist or open ended teaching style.

This course gave its students the opportunity to construct their

own knowledge as they solved a problem in education. There was no

textbook and the undergraduates in the course were directed to

seek information and answers in the educational literature. They

were given instructions on how to access ERIC and other data

bases via Netscape and by telnetting through their email

accounts. In the group discussions they received suggestions from

the instructor and from each other on what articles or authors

might be useful.

Undergraduate One:
"The instructor sent us an E-mail that told us to go look in the

library for journals and papers on broad topics such as

questioning skills, misconceptions in science, and

constructivism. At first it was hard to work on my own, to find

articles, and to work on my web page. There were no time limits

and there was no one telling me what to do, no book for the

class, and no syllabus. I learned the hard way about

constructivism. I am a firm believer that it works but not

without extra hard work . Also I realize the motivation and

flexibility that needs to be intrinsic in our students. This has

helped me understand that when I am a teacher and I spring a

constructivist activity on my students, how they might feel and

the struggles they might encounter."

Undergraduate Two:

"I believe that I found my niche when I was asked to examine the

topic of constructivism, and this became a driving force

throughout the quarter. This concept definitely sparked an

interest within me, and I set out to discover the inner workings

of this seemingly simple notion. It very quickly became apparent

that this was going to be a complicated task. I soon realized

that this subject was much bigger than I ever expected."

"I quickly felt that I was being engulfed by the articles that

had been collected. I read about constructivism and the


individual, the social and cultural aspects of constructivism,

the implications of constructivism, and so on. Then came the even

more difficult task of sorting all of this information and

synthesizing it into something that I could understand, as well

as relate it to others."

Undergraduate One used the literature to seek answers and

instructions on a concrete operational level of thinking. She

wanted to find the answers to her direct questions quickly and

she never discovered an easy path to finding appropriate

articles. This was the first time Undergraduate One was taking

the course. She was less comfortable with researching the

literature and wanted more direction on where to find relevant

articles. The articles she found came predominately from teacher

practitioner journals and books. She labored over applying what

she read in the articles to the problem of answering the

students' questions with cultural sensitivity.

Undergraduate Two exhibited higher level thinking about the

practical as well as philosophical aspects of the pedagogy. This

was her second quarter in the course and she appeared to be

carrying over knowledge from the first quarter, in which she

investigated what museum visitors who attended a family-style

special event learned as a result of the visit. She was familiar


with how to do a literature search, how to obtain articles, and

she was comfortable with reading higher level articles in

scholarly educational research journals where she found more

questions than answers. The articles she found were about the

pros and cons of constructivism. She was using the articles to

theorize what the learning outcomes of constructivism activities

might be.

Discussion

Because of the practice:

The undergraduates were better able to answer student questions.

Because they had this practice in a university class, not a

classroom, it allowed the undergraduates the time to reflect on

the questions the students asked and on the answers they gave.

The undergraduates believe that they would not have had this

luxury of time for reflection during student teaching, or in

their own classroom. As the undergraduates progressed throughout

the quarter, the quality and style of their answers to questions

matured. This in turn changed their teacher-centered role from


dispersing textbook-style fact-laden answers to becoming a

facilitator and guiding students to seek their own answers.

This practice gave the students the opportunity to think,

research, and test the effectiveness of the answers they gave

students. Supon & Wolf (1993) experience working with teachers

suggested that the fear of answering questions can be a result of

a lack of exposure to problem solving. O'Brien & Richardson

(1987) found that teachers who were unprepared to teach content

were also unprepared to answer student's questions. Godbold

(1973) also states the importance of laboratory experiences for

preservice teachers to build questioning skills. Gues-Newsome &

Lederman (1991) found that preservice teachers are positively

influenced by the opportunities to think about teaching subject

matter.

In 1968, Zimmerman & Bergan found there is much too much

content in science for teachers to be expert in every aspect.

Their research indicated that teachers needed to "adopt

developing curriculums to transmit intellectual processes

applicable to many tasks instead of subject matter content." The

undergraduates in this case study found that they could not

answer students questions off the top of their head. The answers

they would eventually give were fact laden and time consuming to

compose. How they solved the problem was to provide the students
with a way to answer their own questions via Internet websites

written by experts for the general public.

The undergraduates became more comfortable with using technology

as a tool for enhancing learning

Both undergraduates agree that as a result of this

experience, they are comfortable and willing to use technology as

a teaching tool. They believe that they would have been

unprepared to cope with the difficulties of an activity with such

a steep learning curve if they had tried building a website for

the first time in the classroom rather than in a university

class. Students in Rogan's 1996 and Lavoie's 1997 study both

demonstrate the frustration and difficulty of becoming facile

with computer hardware and software.

Farenga & Joyce (1996) identified factors of success,

"minimizing instruction time and maximizing the doing time" that

was found successful in this case study. In Boehmer & Waugh

(1997) and Slough & McGrew-Zoubi's (1996) studies they also found

that preservice teachers benefit from a practical experience with

computers. They found that this experience can also be used as an

assessment tool to measure professional development. Computers

add an opportunity for students to gain control over the

curriculum as was found in Dabbagh's 1996 study of students

enrolled in an introductory computer course. Our observations in


this class showed how computers allow students to differ in the

subject matter they want to pursue, in what learning techniques

they want to use, and at what rate and to what academic level

they want to advance.

The undergraduates developed a better understanding of

constructivism

The undergraduates participated in a problem solving exercise

that allowed them to construct answers to their own questions.

Although uncomfortable at first, they demonstrated their

enthusiasm and liking for this style of learning by adopting this

manner of teaching to the way they answered questions. Brown

(1996) also found that not only is time needed but also teachers

need practice in "tasks that simulate an authentic learning

activity for students to become comfortable in using this type of

learning style." Preservice teachers had a more positive attitude

about inquiry after their experience.

The undergraduates in their study benefited by using the

educational literature rather than a textbook. By using the

literature they were able to tailor the course to investigate

areas they believed to be paramount and, importantly, at their

own level of understanding. They were able to reflect on what

they wanted to achieve as they searched the literature, to use

small groups to discuss points of interest, and to solve a


problem. Both undergraduates in our study believed that using the

literature to solve a problem was a valuable skill which they

would use in their own teaching careers.

In the Hurd, Bybee, Kahle & Yager (1980) study, it was found

that fewer than 25% of teachers used inquiry teaching methods.

Gee & Gabrial (1996) indicated that, although teachers had been

taught about inquiry in their methods classes, only one teacher

in their study exhibited this style when teaching. This problem

isn't restricted to teachers who can't do inquiry teaching. In

Whitman's 1989 study it was found that first and fourth year

medical students were unable to solve a written problem. In the

1990 Mestre & Lockhead study of physics undergraduates, the vast

majority of students appeared not to be able to transfer

knowledge to real-life problem solving.

The solution to better teaching may be to provide students

with more opportunities in class to apply knowledge to problem

solving. The input from this case study suggested that it is

indeed paramount to provide undergraduates with life-sized

problem solving exercises. As in the findings of this study,

Coldron & Smith, (1995) also found that preservice teachers fared

better after participating in a practical experience. This was

also found by Layman, Ochoa, and Heikkinen (1996) when teaching

students how to use the scientific method. Kaiser (1996) found


that a research experience in a laboratory helped teachers

understand the process of science.

The undergraduates had more of an understanding of a cultural

group to which they had not been exposed

At the beginning of the class the undergraduates had a

textbook idea of how to teach in a multicultural situation.

Without the Internet, the two undergraduates may not have had the

opportunity to work in a multicultural environment. How they

answered questions evolved as they learned about the students

through the literature and communicated with them over the

Internet. However, it is just as important that the middle school

students had the opportunity to learn about another cultural

group, the undergraduates at the university (Barba, 1993; Hynes &

Socoski, 1991).

As long as there is a focus on science education for all

students, the problem of how to teach students with diverse

backgrounds and beliefs will be a problem that science educators

are going to have to address (Wachtel, 1995). Understanding how

to teach to ethnic students requires more than just understanding

cultural ways of knowing. It also encompasses understanding the

social and cultural lifeways of the students (Estrin & Nelson-

Barber, 1995). In Nelson's (1997) comparative study it was found


that preservice teachers' direct exposure to cultural diversity

increased their levels of confidence.

Conclusions

What did we find that was interesting?

The most interesting finding was that the undergraduates were

not prepared to answer questions from the students. Most of the

literature is devoted to how teachers ask questions of their

students, not how questions are asked of the teachers (Durham,

1997). We were encouraged by how quickly the undergraduates were

able to problem solve and adjust to how they answered questions.

The Internet played the paramount role in providing them with a

source, not only for answering questions, but also for providing

students with sources from which they could answer their own

questions. It also gave them an opportunity to learn more about

the subject.

A second finding was the substantial role the Internet can

play in answering student questions, especially in a rural school

where students and teachers do not have the advantages of large

school or public libraries. We were surprised to see the

undergraduates, at the beginning of the course, latch on to

textbooks and textbook like answers to student questions. Though


the undergraduates had had experience on the Internet, it was

difficult for them to find appropriate websites and use the

Internet effectively. Once the benefits of the Internet were

clear, however, the undergraduates quickly turned to it as the

main source of information gathering and as a way to encourage

the students to seek answers to their own questions by suggesting

webpages the students could read.

What did we not find from this study?

The undergraduates were not able to spend as much time as we

hoped interacting with the students. Problems the undergraduates

had with computers were compounded by the problems the students

had. The school had what seemed at first to be adequate computer

hardware and software support. However, the classroom computer

broke down the first week of the courses and the computer lab was

constantly overloaded. This resulted in the students not having

sufficient time to have access to the website to enter questions,

to read the answers, or to explore the websites the

undergraduates suggested. Because of this, the undergraduates had

the problem of finding how much of the students' participation

and questions were biased by the poor access to computers. We

learned that it was not enough for the undergraduates to be

comfortable using the Internet as a classroom tool. As teachers


they would also have to find ways to keep equipment running and

to optimize computer access.

The observations from this study suggest that, without a

guided practice experience, much of the skills and knowledge

undergraduates acquire in their methods courses may not be useful

in creating the kind of improved teaching climate intended by

standards (national, state, and professional).

The time the undergraduates needed to develop Internet

materials, to learn how to find resources in the educational

literature, and to reflect on issues, would have been in direct

conflict with the time needed to learn how to manage a classroom

of students and with the number of working hours in one day. To

become comfortable with teaching and with classroom management at

the same time may be overwhelming.

In Glick's (1992) research, he found that education majors'

primary resources for teaching were those things they acquired

and learned as a result of student teaching, not from their

methods classes. An interesting question for future research may

be whether or not skills that are undeveloped soon after methods

courses can be retained or regained over time if they are not

applied and refined.

In final reflections on this course in which they practiced

their skills, the undergraduates agreed with our observations.


They realized the importance of having the opportunity to

practice, in a controlled environment, what they had learned in

their methods classes. They did not believe they could have

accomplished the tasks of producing an interactive website, and

investigating the nature of students' questions, during student

teaching or the first year as a teacher. As a result of this

practice they felt comfortable to answer student questions, to

build a website, and to produce constructivist activities to

engage students at their level of understanding.

References

Barba, R. H. (1993). Multicultural infusion: A strategy for

science teacher preparation. Paper presented at the Annual

Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science

Teaching, Atlanta, GA.

Monday, September 2, 2013

PRE-SERVICE AND IN SERVICE TRAINING FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

INTRODUCTION

According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an

ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a


strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom

are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic,

encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes

the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who

eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only

can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen

the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a

lifelong learner because of his association with scientific

knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be

afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing

throughout his professional life. This is precisely the

responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a

mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service

teacher preparation and in-service education.

Professional preparation and professional development of teachers

is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an

aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction

into the profession and his continuous development throughout his


teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher

preparation and continuing professional development should

optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher

learning.

PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION, MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE

Pre-service education of teacher means,

education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher.

During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching

practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge

about theory papers.

A good deal of improvement in the teacher education programme is

needed. Pre-service education is carried on for preparing

different types of teachers. Pre-service teacher preparation is a

collection of unrelated courses and field experience. Research

based curriculum development of pre-service teacher education is

yet to take roots. These programmes are intended to support and

enhance teacher learning instill in them a greater degree of self

confidence. The beginning teachers in this case learn from their

practice and from the culture and norms of the unique school

settings where in they have been placed and interact with these

cultures.

It is important for teacher educators to learn

the methodology of how to get in touch with the core qualities of


a good teacher and how they can stimulate these qualities in

student teachers. This will lead to a deeper involvement in the

learning process of teacher educators as well as student

teachers. The inclusion of appropriate content knowledge about

essential qualities of a good teacher in relevant theory papers

and practice of effective domain related traits in school

situation for a longer duration could help promote these traits

in student teachers. The teacher education programme needs to

allow the space where in a teacher’s personality could be

developed as someone who is reflective, introspective and capable

of analyzing his or her own life and the process of education at

school so that after becoming a teacher, he becomes an agent of

change.

A. PRE-PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME.

Here teachers are trained for teaching children of pre-primary

classes. This type of teacher training is generally called

nursery teacher training (N.T.T). Teacher training institute of

this type are existing in different states. At Mussorie, there is

Montessori teacher training programme in one institution. That

type of training institutes are affiliated to association

Montessori international. There are pre-basic teacher training

schools which prepare teachers for pre-primary schools. These

institutes are recognized by Hindustani Falimi sangh, Wardha.


Some state governments also conduct this type of teacher training

programmes. The universities of Jabalpur and Baroda run pre-

primary teacher training course leading to certificate. At

Chandigarh education department U.T. Administration is running

such a course which is duly recognized by U.T Administration. In

the state of Haryana about two decades back Haryana government

had given affiliation for running this course of teacher training

to Sohan Lal D.A.V college of education, Ambala city. But then

it was closed down by the government after the lapse of two-three

years. At present a few schools and colleges of education in the

state of Haryana are running one year N.T.T course meant for

girls only who have qualified +2 examination. The said course is

recognized by D.A.V college managing committee, New Delhi.

B. PRIMARY TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES

Primary teacher training institutes prepare teachers for teaching

to the children of primary courses. These institutes prepare the

students for junior basic training certificate (J.B.T). This

training has been very popular almost in all the states

earlier this training was meant for male and female

teachers who were matriculates. Recently some modifications have

been made for giving training of J.B.T. After passing J.B.T the

teacher is able to earn a teaching diploma. How the minimum

qualification for training has been raised to 10+2 examination.


In the states of Punjab and Haryana, this type of teacher

training is sanctioned to government teacher training schools

(or) district institute of education and training (D.I.E.T) with

the revision of grades of all type of teachers, J.B.T training

centers attract students of higher calibers and they possess

higher qualifications

The National Commission of Teachers has

recommended the introduction of integrated four year course for

matriculates which will enable the teachers to earn teaching

diploma for teaching primary classes

C. LANGUAGES PROFICIENCY TEACHERS

This type of teacher training programme prepares teachers for

teaching Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit. This training is meant for

those who are 10+2. It helps them to earn a teaching certificate

called O.T (Hindi), O.T (Punjabi), O.T (Sanskrit)etc. This type

of teacher training programme has been popular in government as

well as non government institutes. At present, his course is

being run in a very few institutes. The government has almost

withdrawn its sanction to private recognized institutions.

D. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS

Teacher training for secondary schools is

given in the government as well as non-government colleges of


education. These colleges prepare teachers for middle, high (or)

secondary classes. Generally in these colleges it is one year

course after B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc.

With the revision of grades of teachers, the

college of education has started attracting students with good

qualifications. In some states like Punjab , Rajasthan, entrance

test have been introduced. In the state of Haryana, The minimum

qualification for competing in the admission to B.Ed is 50% marks

in B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc. Besides, entrance test is also held.

Marks in both are added up and then merit list is prepared.

E. REGIONAL COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

N.C.E.R.T started its own regional colleges

of education in four regions of the country to meet the shortage

of teachers for technical subjects such as agriculture, commerce,

fine arts, home science, etc. The different regional colleges of

education are as under:-

(i) REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AJMER:-

It is meant for U.P, Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and

Jammu Kashmir. (Northern region)

(ii) REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. MYSORE:-

It is meant for south region which includes Andhra

Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala.


(iii) REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHOPAL:-

It is meant for western states such as Maharashtra,

Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat

(iv) REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHUBNESWAR:-

It is meant for eastern states such as Assam, Manipur,

Bihar, West Bengal and Tripura.

F. TRAINING INSTITUTIONS FOR SPECIAL SUBJECT

TEACHERS:-

The following training institutions prepare special subject

teachers such as music, drawing, painting, fine arts, home

science, etc.

(a) Viswa Bharathi University, Santhinikethan (W.Bengal)

(b) Institute of Art education, Jumia mitia, Delhi.

(c) Government school of art, Luck now

(d) Kala kshetra, Adayar, Madras

(e) One year diploma in physical education for graduates at Govt:

physical college of education, Patiala

G. INSTITUTE FOR POST GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION


A) ONE YEAR M.ED COURSE: - this course is meant for those who

have already passed B.Ed. It is carried in the universities in

some selected colleges of education.

B) M.A IN EDUCATION: - Like other M.A it is a two year course for

graduates. It is generally run by different universities. M.A in

education is considered equal to M.Ed.

Post graduate diploma in education, N.C.E.R.T, and some

universities are running post graduate diploma courses for

greater efficiency of teachers. A few such courses are in the

field of research methodology, educational and vocational

guidance evaluation, audio-visual aids, social education,

distances education etc. These courses are mostly for teachers

who have passed B.Ed.

Special courses for teaching English are conducted by control

institute of English and foreign languages, Hyderabad and

regional institute of English.

H. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE:-

Correspondence courses for teacher education have been started by

some universities and colleges. The four regional colleges of

education under N.C.E.R.T were the first to start this course. It

is 14 month courses including four months training during two

summer vacation.
H.P University, Simla started B.Ed and M.Ed courses in 1972.

After one year, B.Ed courses through correspondence were stopped.

Jammu University, the B.Ed correspondence course by Jammu

University was meant only for in-service teachers. In south,

Annamalai University is running B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence

course. Punjab University, Patiala also started B.Ed and M.Ed

correspondence courses. But new B.Ed by correspondence ion large

scale is banned by N.C.T.E

IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION – MEANING

The moment a teacher has completed his training

in a college of education, it does not mean that he is now

trained for all times to come. A teaching degree, like B.Ed makes

him enter into service as a teacher. Thereafter his job continues

well only if he continues his studies everyday in the classroom

situations and outside the classroom, he comes across problems

and side by side he is a expected to sort them out. There is need

of more and more knowledge, more and more education for making

him a better teacher.

There are formal an informal programmes of in-

service education organized from time to time. The higher

authorities concerned with education want to ensure that the

standards of education are properly maintained. That is possible

only if the teachers refresh their knowledge and keep it up to


the mark. The different agencies, therefore keep on organizing

teacher education programmes for enriching the knowledge of

teachers and also for over all proficiency and betterment.

According to Lawrence, “In-service education is the

education a teacher receives after he has entered to teaching

profession and after he has had his education in a teacher’s

college. It includes all the programmes – educational, social and

others in which the teacher takes a virtual part, all the extra

education which he receives at different institutions by way of

refresher and other professional courses and travels and visits

which he undertakes.

HISTORY OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION

In-service education and training of teachers has

its own historical roots. Its journey from pre-independence to

post independence period is characterized by numerous policy

statements recommendations of different commissions regarding its

content and strategies for implementation it has grown from a

concept to a process and gained its importance for preparing

teachers towards professional growth and development. The root of

in-service education can be traced back to pre-independent period

of 1904 in Lord Curzon’s resolution of educational policy which

stated, “The trained students whom the college was sent out

should be occasionally brought together again in seeing that the


influence of the college makes itself felt in the school.”

Hartorg committee and sergeant committee referred to in-service

education as refresher courses and recommended for their

organization on a continuing basis. The secondary education

commission was more specific in recommending the programme of

extension services for secondary teachers.

NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION

In our country, the trend is that once a teacher

has joined service as a teacher, he continues to be so, through

he may or may not study. It is not like that in countries like

U.S.A. There the teacher has to face the screening committee to

his re-appointment as a teacher after two or three years. In-

service education is badly needed for all types of teachers in

India. The following points indicate its need and importance.

1. EDUCATION- A LIFELONG PROCESS:-

The teacher who does not study side by side can’t remain a good

teacher. Training of a teacher is a lifelong process. He should

continue making efforts in this direction for the whole life.

Rabindra Nath Tagore has rightly stated, “A lamp can never light

another lamp unless it continues to burn its flame. “ According

to secondary education commission “However, excellent the

programme of teacher training may be, it does not by itself

produce an excellent teacher. Increased efficiency will come


through experience critically analyzed and through individual and

group effort and improvement.

2. PROFESSIONAL GROWTH:-

Every teacher is a expected to be professionally bound,

for the professional growth, he always needs the guidance and

help of others. The efficiency of the teachers must be covered

up. So the teacher need be up to the mark in every way.

3. EDUCATION IS DYNAMIC:-

Education is very dynamic. It depends upon the society

which is fast changing. Due to the advancement in the field of

science and technology, there is explosion of knowledge.

Accordingly the curriculum and syllabus are also being changed

with a good speed. Continuous in-service education of the teacher

can save the teacher from facing dire consequences.

4. MAKES DEMOCRATIC

In-service education helps the teacher in becoming

fully democratic. By in-service education programmes, the teacher

is able to meet people of all types and he is also able to share

his experience with others.

PROGRAMMES OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION


SEMINAR- In a seminar some problems of education are taken up

and there is collective thinking. Discussions are held and

conclusions are arrived at all under the guidance of some

experts.

REFRESHER COURSES: - A refresher course means an educational

programme organized for refreshing the knowledge of in-service

teacher. Generally they acquire the teachers with the new

development in the field of education. With the coming up of new

education policy, refresher courses were arranged all around for

teachers of different categories.

WORKSHOPS: - Workshops are organized for giving in-service

education to teachers. They involve more of practical work and

less theoretical discussion. These types of programmes are more

useful for the teachers. The teachers have to work practically

and come out with final materials to be seen by others.

Organization of workshops consumes more time than a seminar or

conference.

CONFERENCE: - In a conference, there is a broad discussion of

subjects of practical interest. Generally there is a central

theme around which several sub topics are given. Teachers as per

their interest, present paper at the time of conference. The

session ends with the concluding remarks of the president


STUDY GROUPS: - Forming study groups and using them as a

technique for in-service education for teachers can work wonders.

A group of teachers of the same subject and a subject expert in

the college of education are combined and start working. They

choose some topics of common interest (or) it may be a problem

related to their teaching subject. Discussion is started under

guidance and they continue thinking, studying and discussing that

subject. If need arises, someone may be invited for extension

lecture. The study groups may be meeting once in a week or even

once in a month.

A STUDY CENTRE OF PROFESSIONAL WRITINGS: - Generally the

materials are not under the reach of teachers. The college of

education, the extension service departments can help in this

direction. Various publications of N.C.E.R.T, some good books,

materials produced by different centers of education may be

produced in the college library. The study of reading materials

will help the teacher to acquire sufficient knowledge in their

subjects.

EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOLS: - The College of education should have

their demonstration school and experimental school. These are

actually practicing schools where some experiences can be

performed. Whatever is taught in theory, which is put into

practice by carrying out experiments?


The experimental schools become centers of learning

for in-service teachers. Innovations done in these schools may be

advocated among the teaching staffs of other schools.

Regional colleges of education affiliated to

N.C.E.R.T have their experimental schools where those colleges

are showing leadership to the working teachers of other schools

in their areas. Other colleges have their practicing schools but

they don’t have any experimental schools or demonstration

schools.

CORRESPONDENCECOURSES:

Correspondence courses can be designed for giving in-service

education to teachers. A few universities have already started

working in the area of in-service teacher education programmes.

Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages at Hyderabad

provides post graduate certificate course and diploma course

through correspondence.

OTHER PROGRAMMES: - A few programmes for in-service education of

teachers are suggested below:-

· Educational tours

· Radio broadcast

· Film shows
· T.V programmes

· Extension lecture for teachers

· Exhibitions

· Exchange of teachers

PROVISION OF IN-SERVICE EDUCATION: - Different institutions are

functioning where there is a provision of in-service education of

teachers. Some of them are doing commendable work in this field.

STATE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (SIE):- In different states, SIE

have been set up which cater to the need of in-service education

only. They organize seminars, workshops, etc.

STATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE: - In some states, they have set up

institutes for in-service education of science teachers. They

make efforts for developing scientific attitudes among the

teachers. Science exhibitions are also conducted there which

attract large number of children from the state. Thus it’s a

great source of inspiration for teachers and their students.

REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH: -

Regional institute of English has been set up in different

regions of the country. They have their affiliation with Central

Institute of English and Foreign languages; Hyderabad. These

institutes impact four month certificate course in teaching


English to in-service teachers. The institutes gives scholarship

to the trainees and the teachers are paid full salary by the

schools were they are employed. These institutes are working for

efficiency and improvement of English teachers

CONCLUSION

“Good education requires good teachers” that it

becomes essential that the most capable and appropriate be

recruited into the teaching profession, provided with high

quality pre-service programme of teacher education, and them

offered opportunities to upgrade their knowledge and skills over

the full length of their career. It is, therefore, essential that

there is major reorientation of teacher education to ensure that

teachers are furnished with the necessary knowledge and skills to

cope with the new demands placed on them. It is strange to note

that too often teachers are helpless in front of machines which

refuse to work. How undignified it is for the teacher to be

thwarted by machines

With the increased capacity of communication

technology, language will become a very powerful instrument. The

teacher-education programme should be strengthened to develop

language competency among our teacher-taught. The modern time

demands multi lingual competence including the new computer


languages that are bound to emerge with expansion of computer-

technology.

Continuing teachers and other educators which

commences after initial professional education is over and which

leads to the improvement of professional competence of educators

all throughout their careers.

8 Important Objectives of Teacher Education

Article shared by :

. Imparting an adequate knowledge of the subject- matter:

The objective of teacher education is to develop a good command

of the subject matter of the assignment given to him in the

colleges.

2. Equipping the prospective teachers with necessary pedagogic

skills:

The main objective of teacher education is to develop a skill to

stimulate experience in the taught, under an artificially created

environment, less with material resources and more by the

creation of an emotional atmosphere. The teacher should develop a

capacity to do, observe, infer and to generalize.

3. Enabling the teacher to acquire understanding of child

psychology:
The objective is to understand the child psychology so that the

teacher is able to appreciate the difficulties experienced by

children so as to bring about new modes and methods of achieving

the goals in consonance with the reactions of the children.

4. Developing proper attitudes towards teaching:

One of the major objectives of teacher education is to develop

proper altitudes towards teaching as a result of which he will be

able to maximize the achievements from both the material and

human resources. T here is also development of a proper

perception of the problems of universal enrolment, regular

attendance, year-to-year promotion.

5. Developing self-confidence in the teachers:

The objectives of teacher education are development of the

ability to take care of himself in terms of:

(a) Adjustment with the physical conditions,

(b) Healthy adjustment with the social environment

(c) Adjustment with himself to derive emotional satisfaction with

his life.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

6. Enabling teachers to make proper use of instructional

facilities:
The objective of teacher education is to develop the capacity to

extend the resources of the school by means of improvisation of

instructional facilities.

7. Enabling teachers to understand the significance of individual

differences of child and to take appropriate steps for their

optimum development:

The objective of teacher education is to know the causes of

individual differences as a result of which he will be able to

develop the ability to be a child with children, an adult with

the adults, a responsible citizen among the community.

8. Development of the ability to give direct satisfaction of

parents from the achievement of children in terms of:

(a) Proper habits of taking care of the body,

(b) Proper attitudes reflected in the behaviour of the children

at home, in the school, in the streets, at the farms and fields

etc.

(c) Progress in the class.

The duties of the teacher is very much relevant in nursery,

primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary schools. Hence the

scope of teacher education is very vast. The duties of the

teacher in different stages of education depend on the


foundational general education of the teacher. Emphasis is to be

on the practical aspects rather than theory.

PRE-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS IN THE PHILIPPINES: THE

STUDENT-TEACHERS PRACTICUM TEACHING EXPERIENCE

Mark Bedoya Ulla

ABSTRACT

Pre-service teacher training is one of the most important aspects

of every teacher’s education curriculum as it prepares student-

teachers to become qualified teachers in the future. This paper

explored the pre-service teacher training programs in the

Philippines through the practicum experience of the 21 junior and

senior BSEd and BA English student-teachers from a private

university in Mindanao, Philippines. Data were taken from

classroom observations, group interview, and modified

questionnaire. The findings revealed that there was a different

standard policy of pre-service teacher training programs for BSEd

and BA English. While BSEd-English concentrated on developing

professional teachers for secondary schools, BA-English focused

on developing not just teachers but professionals with

exceptional communication skills. The student-teachers also


reported some challenges in practicum teaching; classroom

management, teaching confidence, and lack of teaching

resources. Some solutions to overcome the challenges were

suggested.

mbrosetti, A. (2014). Are You Ready to be a Mentor? Preparing

Teachers for Mentoring Pre- service Teachers. Australian Journal

of Teacher Education, 39(6).

http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2014v39n6.2

Abstract

Inclusion of students with disabilities into regular schools is

now one of the most significant issues facing the education

community both nationally and internationally. In order to

address this issue there is widespread acceptance that teacher

training institutions must ensure that new teachers are trained

to teach effectively in classrooms where there are students with

a variety of learning needs. Utilizing a data set of 603 pre‐

service teachers from Australia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore

this study reports the effects of training in inclusive education

on pre‐service teacher attitudes towards inclusion, their

sentiments about people with a disability and their concerns

about inclusion. The results are discussed in relation to a range

of factors that could have produced different gains in their


attitudes, sentiments and concerns among cohorts from different

countries.

Keywords: pre‐service

training, attitudes, concerns, sentiments, inclusion

 https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590802469271