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Newton’s Third Law For every force object A acts Gravitational Energy g = gravity=9.81 m/s
O Level on object B, object B will Ep = mgh h = height
exert an equal and opposite Conservation of Energy E1=Energy Before,
Physics Formula Sheet force on object A.
Forces and Torque
E1 = E2 E2=Energy After
Reaction Forces Acting in opposite direction. Energy cannot be created or
Base SI Units Mass SI Unit is Kilogram
For example, the ground will destroyed, only transformed
Kg, m, s, A, K, mol (kg).
give a reaction force that is or converted into other
Length SI unit is metre (m).
equivalent to the man’s forms. The total energy of a
Time SI Unit is second (s).
weight. closed system remains the
Current SI unit is Ampere
Force Resolution on Ө is the angle between the same.
(A). Temperature SI unit is
Kelvin (K). Inclined Plane horizontal surface and the Thermal Energy
Amount of substance is Fhorizontal = F cos Ө inclined plane. Thermal Energy & Energy is required to
molar (mol). Fvertical = F sin Ө Specific Heat Capacity increase the temperature of
Number Prefix nano (n), micro (µ), milli E= m s ∆T matter. m is the mass, s is the
n (10-9), µ (10-6), m (10-3), c (m), centi ©, deci (d), kilo Moment of Force Moment m is the product of specific heat capacity and T
(10-2), d (10-1), K (103), M (K), mega (M). m=Fd force F and perpendicular is the temperature.
(106) distance from the pivot d. Thermal Energy Energy is required to matter
Equations in Motion Rotational Balance Condition for body in & Latent Heat to change state. Lfusion is the
Anticlockwise Moment = rotational balance For melting, latent heat of fusion while
Average Speed d=distance,
Clockwise Moment E = m Lfusion Lvaporization is the latent heat
s = ∆d / ∆t t= time
Mass, Weight, Density and Pressure of vaporization.
Average Velocity x = displacement,
Weight Weight w is the product of For boiling, m is the mass.
v = ∆x/∆t t= time,
w = mg mass by gravitational field E = m Lvaporization
slope of distance-time graph
Acceleration strength
A = ∆v/∆t Density Density d is given by the Waves
m ratio of mass m over volume Wave Velocity The velocity of a wave v is
v = u + at u=initial velocity
V V. v=fλ the product of its frequency f
x = ut + ½ at2 g =gravitational
Pressure Pressure P is the ratio of and wavelength λ.
v2 = u2 + 2ax constant=9.81 m/s2
F force F over area A. Period Period T is the inverse of
v = 2gh h = height P= 1
A T= frequency f.
Pressure of liquid column Pressure h is proportional to
Newton’s Laws of Motion P = ρgh density ρ, height of column h
Newton’s First Law At equilibrium, the body and gravitational field

continues to stay in its state strength g.
∑F = 0 of rest or of uniform speed as Work and Energy
long as no net force and no Work Done F= force, d= distance
net torque is acting on the W = Fd θ=angle between Force &
body. distance
Newton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object Power t=time
F= ma is directly proportional to the P= W/t = Fv
net force acting on it and Kinetic Energy M=mass
inversely proportional to its Ek= 1 mv 2 v=velocity
mass. 2

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Find an experienced Physics Tutor to go through these formulas? Call us at 6219-1272 or visit to find out more.

Light and Optics Focal Length of a For a spherical mirror, the focal supplied by the power supply.
Law of Reflection
θ1 = θ 2
The angle of incident Ө1 is equal to
the angle of reflection Ө2. Both are
length is half of the radius of
∑V = EMF
with respect to the perpendicular f = r
normal of the surface of the mirror. 2 Electromagnetism
The angle of incident Ө1 and angle Transformer The ratio of the voltage Vp and Vs
Snell’s Law
of refraction Ө2 is with respect to Vp np in a transformer is proportional to
(refraction) Electronic Circuits
n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ 2 the perpendicular normal of the Current C=Charge = the ratio of the number of coils np
surface between the two medium. I = ∆C / ∆t t=time Vs ns and ns.
Critical Angle The critical angle θc is the angle of Ohm’s Law V=voltage, Right Hand Grip
n incidence beyond which total Resistance R= resistance, Rule
sin θ c = 2 internal reflection occurs. The index R=V/I I = current
of refraction for the medium in Resistance of a ρ = resistivity I is the current.
which the incident ray is traveling is wire L = length of wire B is the magnetic field.
n1, the index of refraction for the R = ρL/A A = cross sectional area
second medium which the refracted Electric Power Combining ohm’s law the power P
ray is traveling is n2. P = VI can be calculated using any Fleming’s Left Hand
Index of Refraction The higher the index of refraction is = V2/R combination of these three equation Rule (Motor Rule)
for a medium, the slower is the = I2R variations. Thumb is for the
n= speed of light v in the medium. c is motion. Index finger is
v the speed of light in vacuum. for the magnetic field.
Electrical Energy Electrical energy can be calculated
The Lens Equation The focal length of the lens f is: Second finger is for the
E = Pt = VIt by the product of power and time.
1 1 1 • Positive for a converging Root Mean Square For an AC circuit, the root-mean-
+ = lens Voltage & Current square (rms) values can be
do di f • Negative for a divergent & Power calculated from the peak values. Fleming’s Right
lens Vo I Prms= 0.5 Pmax
Vrms = , I rms = o Hand Rule
The object distance do is: 2 2
I 2R 1
• Positive if it is on the side Prms = I rms
R= 0 = P Thumb is for the
2 2
of the lens from which the motion. Index finger is
Resistance in Series Resistance in series adds up. Having
light is coming for the magnetic field.
Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 more obstacles along the path for
• Negative if on the current means more resistance. Second finger is for the
opposite side current.
Resistance in Resistance in parallel takes the
Parallel reciprocal. Parallel path for current
The image distance di is: 1 1 1 1
= + + to go through means lesser
• Positive if it is on the Rtotal R1 R2 R3
opposite side of the lens
Kirchoff’s First Sum of all incoming currents at a
from which the light is junction is the same as sum of all the
coming inco min g outgoing outgoing current at a junction.
• Negative if on the same
side ∑I = ∑I
Magnification For an upright image, the
hi d magnification m is positive and for Kirchoff’s Second Sum of all potential difference V in
m= =− i
ho do an inverted image m is negative. Law components of a circuit is equal to
the electromotive force EMF

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