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DOCUMENT RESUME

ED 432 148 FL 025 907

TITLE ESL Magazine: The Information Source for ESL/EFL


Professionals, 1998.
ISSN ISSN-1098-6553
PUB DATE 1998-00-00
NOTE 191p.
AVAILABLE FROM Bridge Press, 220 McKendree Avenue, Annapolis, MD 21401.
PUB TYPE Collected Works Serials (022)
JOURNAL CIT ESL Magazine; vl n1-6 1998
EDRS PRICE MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
DESCRIPTORS Academic Achievement; Acculturation; Arabs; Audiovisual
Aids; Chinese Americans; Computer Assisted Instruction;
Computer Assisted Testing; *Educational Technology;
Elementary Secondary Education; *English (Second Language);
Foreign Countries; Foreign Students; Haitians; Higher
Education; Idioms; Immigrants; Instructional Effectiveness;
Internet; Job Search Methods; Korean Americans; Language
Fluency; Language Proficiency; Language Teachers; Listening
Skills; Literature Appreciation; Music Activities; Popular
Culture; Pronunciation Instruction; Second Language
Instruction; Singing; Skill Development; *Student
Characteristics; Student Motivation; Teacher Developed
Materials; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods; Vocabulary
Development; Vocational English (Second Language); Whole
Language Approach
IDENTIFIERS Homestays; Koreans- Russian Amerians; Russians; Slang

ABSTRACT
This document consists of the six issues of "ESL Magazine"
published during 1998. This journal for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)
professionals includes the following articles during this period: "The
Internet in the Classroom" (Christine Meloni); "Trippingly on the Tongue:
Putting Serious, Speech/Pronunciation Instruction Back in the TESOL equation"
(Joan Morley); "TESOL '98 Preview" (Kathleen R. Beall); "Korean Students in
the United States" (Marc van der Woude); "The Mouse Replaces the Pencil:
TOEFL Goes Electronic" (Effie Papatzikou Cochran); "Accuracy vs. Fluency:
Which Comes First in ESL Instruction?" (Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth); "Russian
Immigrants in the ESL Classroom: Success, Motivation, and Acculturation"
(Michael Berman); Developing Active Vocabulary: Making the Communicative
Connection" (Jayme Adelson-Goldstein); "Dave Sperling: A Man with a Virtual
Passion" (George H. Clemes, III); "Arab Students in the U.S.: Learning
Language, Teaching Friendship" (Paul Kwilinski); "The Expanding Role of the
Elementary ESL Teacher: Doing More Than Teaching Language" (Jodi Crandall);
"Going Corporate: Teaching English in the Workplace" (Faith Hayflich);
"Learning to Listen" (Marc Hegelsen); "Haitian Students in the U.S." (Roger
Savain); "Carolyn Graham: A Conversation with the Creator of Jazz Chants"
(Marilyn Rosenthal); "Without Slang and Idioms, Students are 'In the Dark'!"
(David Burke); "Homestay: Highlights and Hurdles" (Doug Ronson); "Has Whole
Language Failed?" Stephen Krashen); "Literature for Language Learning" (Mary
Lou McCloskey); "EFL Positions: Finding the Right Job" (Karen Asenavage, Bob
Hunkin); and "Chinese ESL Students in the U.S." (Frank Tang, Helene
Dunkelblau). (MSE)
PREVIEW OF TES01:98SEE US AT BOOTH_#916
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Complimentary Issue See Inside to Subscribe!
U S DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Office of Educational Research and Improvement PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE AND
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION DISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS
CENTER (ERIC) BEEN GRANTED BY
This document has been reproduced as
received from the person or organization
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ID
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Points of view or opinions stated in this
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)
BEST COPY AVAILABLE document do not necessar ly represent
official OERI position or policy. NO. 7
)1,

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The Internet in the Classroom
by Christine Meloni 10

Trippingly on the Tongue:


Putting serious speech/pronunciation instruction
back in the TESOL equation
by Joan Morley 20 ,{1.

TESOL'98 Preview
by Kathleen R. Beall 24

Korean Students in the United States


by Marc van der Woude 28

19Q171-,\MUIT51QM4@
Page 20
Editor's Note 4

Conference Calendar 5

News Briefs 6

Technology 19

Reviews 26

Linguistic Laughs 26

Classifieds 31 Page 24

See us at Booth
Who's Reading ESL Magazine? #916 at TESOL'98!

Check out our


James E. Alatis web site at
www.esimag.comi
Distinguished Professor
of Linguistics and
Modern Greek at In our next issue:
Georgetown UniversitY, o standardized testing
Washington, DC and o integrating accuracy
Executive Director and fluency
Emeritus of TESOL. o teaching Russian
students
o and more! Page 28
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 3
Q[DOVC,G2°g3 M,CD4g
ESL
&AMON

Welcome to the Publisher


GEORGE H. CLEMES, III

Premier Issue of Editorial Director

ESL Magazine! MARILYN ROSENTHAL

How us to introduce ourselves; we are a new publication Editor


KATHLEEN R. BEALL
in the world of English as a Second Language called
ESL Magazine! We started this magazine with the aim Contributing Editors
of serving ESL/EFL professionals with a quality publication that CHRISTINE MELONI

combines informative articles by recognized industry leaders, JOAN MORLEY

MARC VAN DER WOUDE


refreshing publication design and information about the latest
CHERYL PAVLIC
ESL/EFL products and services. If you find this combination is
RUTH VILMI
an asset to your profession, spread the word!
THOMAS ROBB

We're kicking off with a look at the ever-changing world of EDWARD KLEIN

cyberspace. Christine Meloni connects us to the Internet, an


Advertising Sales
invaluable tool and resource for ESL/EFL teachers. She shares George Clemes
410-280-3799 (tel)
practical examples of how the Internet can be used successfully in 410-798-5607 (fax)
eslmagazine@compuserve.com
the classroom. Joan Morley welcomes speaking and pronunciation
back into the mainstream of ESL/EFL instruction and offers a
Subscription Information
paradigm for communicative pronunciation teaching. Introductory rate: 1 year, 6 issues, U.S.:
$16.95, Canada: $24.95, outside North
America: $34.95. To subscribe, fill out
Also included is a look at trends among Korean students as well subscription card included with this
magazine (photocopy additional cards if
as a preview of the upcoming TESOL'98 conference. necessary) and mail with payment to:
ESL Magazine, P.O. Box 6209,
We welcome your feedback on our articles and our publication Lafayette, IN 47903-6209. Or fax sub-
scription card with credit card informa-
in general. Your letters may be published in a forthcoming tion to 765-743-3545. Call 765-743-
6813 for all other subscription inquiries.
"Letters to the Editor" department. Simply write us or e-mail us at
eslmagazine@compuserve.com. Best wishes for a successful and ESL Magazine is published bimonthly
by Bridge Press, LLC
rewarding 1998. We hope to be of service to you.
220 McKendree Avenue
Annapolis, MD 21401
eslmagazine@compuserve.com
www.eslmag.com

Marilyn Rosenthal, Ph.D.


Editorial Director 1998 Bridge Press, u..c
All rights reserved.
5
4 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
Conference Calendar
January 1998 17-21 Teachers of English to Speakers of o 3-4 Illinois TESOL-BE (ITBE) 24th Annual
22-24 Thailand TESOL (ThaiTESOL), Other Languages (TESOL) Annual State Convention, Chicago, IL. Contact
Songkhla, Thailand. Contact Naraporn Conference, Seattle, WA. Contact TESOL, Fran Michalski, 312-996-8098, michalsk
Chan-Ocha, 66-2-218-6027, ffInnco@ 703-836-0774, conv@tesol.edu. Expected @uic.edu. Expected attendance: 800.
chulkn.car.chula.ac.th. attendance: 7,500. 0 23-26 California TESOL (CATESOL) Annual
M 27-28 TESOL Ukraine, Vinnytsia, Ukraine. 0 19-21 National Council of Teachers of Conference, Pasadena, California.
Contact Svetlana Chuhu, 380-432-276375, English (NCTE). NCTE Spring Conference, Conference Hotline: 626-583-4358.
Chugu@tesol.vinnica.ua. Albuquerque, New Mexico. Contact NCTE, Expected attendance: 2,500.
1111 W. Kenyon Rd., Urbana, Illinois o 25 Eastern Pennsylvania TESOL
M 31 Inland Empire TESOL/CLAD
Conference, University of California, 61801-1096. 217-328-3870. (PennTESOL-East) Conference,
Riverside. Contact Stacy Sweeny, 909-787- 0 25-27 TESOL Arabia Conference, Al Ain, Philadelphia, PA, Contact Tobie Hoffman,
4346, ssweeney@ucx.ucr.edu. Expected United Arab Emirates. Contact: Barbara 215-473-4430, fax 215 895-6775,
attendance: 140. Kelly, 971-3-5046208, bkelly@hct.ac.ae. hoffmatl@duvm.ocs.drexel.edu. Proposal
Expected attendance: 600. deadline: Mar. 20. Expected attend.: 300.
February
I/121 Hawaii TESOL Roundtable, Brigham o 26-29 3rd Pacific Second Language May
Young University, Laie, Hawaii. Contact Research Forum (PacSLRF 98), Tokyo, 0 7-9 Florida Sunshine State TESOL Annual
Brent A. Green, 808-293-3358, greenb@ Japan. Contact Peter Robinson, Aoyama Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. Contact
byuh.edu. Expected attendance: 150. Gakuin University, 4-4-25 Shibuya, Shibuya- Judy Jameson, 352-331-4318, judy@cal.
ku, Tokyo 150, Japan, peterr@cl.aoyama. org. Proposal deadline: March 15.
24-28 National Association for Bilingual Expected attendance: 600.
ac.jp. Expected attendance: 500.
Education (NABE) 27th Annual
International Bilingual/Multicultural April 0 20-21 New Jersey TESOL/Bilingual
Education Conference, Dallas, Texas. 0 15-18 32nd international Association of Education (NJTESOL/NJBE) Spring
Contact 202-898-1829, NABE@nabe.org. Teachers of English as a Foreign Conference, East Brunswick, New Jersey.
Expected attendance: 8,000. Language (IATEFL) Conference, Judith B. O'Loughlin, 201-652-4555,
Manchester, UK. Contact Jill Stadjuhar joesIteach@aol.com. Expected: 700+.
March
M 9-12 international Language Testing e-mail 100070.1327. Expected 0 20-23 Centre for Research on Language
Association (ILTA). Language Testing attendance: 1,500. Teaching and Learning (CREAL), Canadian
Research Colloquium (LTRC), Monterey, 0 2-4 Tennessee TESOL (TNTESOL) Association of Applied Linguistics (CAAL)
California. Contact Dariush Hooshmand. Conference, Knoxville Hilton, Knoxville, International Congress, Ontario, Canada.
http://www.surrey.ac.uk/ELI/ilta/ilta.html. Tennessee. Contact Margi Wald, 423-974- Contact Chantel Dion, 613-520-2600,
4890, mwald@utk.edu. Expected att. 150. Expected attendance: 400.
In 14-17 American Association for Applied
Linguistics (AAAL) Annual Conference, 17 Louisiana TESOL (LATESOL) June
Seattle, WA. Contact Matt Howe, 612-953- Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. 0 24-27 Association for Language
0805, aaaloffice@aaal.org. Expected Contact Jo Ann Robisheaux 504-549-5275, Awareness (ALA). Quebec,Canada.
attendance: 1,000+. jrobisheaux@selu.edu. Proposal deadline Contact Joyce M. Angio, 418-659-6600,
March 1. Expected attendance: 100. Expected attendance: 125.

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INS Receives
Record Number of
Berlitz Acquires
Applications in 1997 ELS Language Centers
he U.S. Immigration and
T Naturalization Service received
more than 1.6 million applications
B erlitz International, Inc. has
acquired ELS Educational
Services, Inc., a privately held
"ELS
(Language
Centers) has
for naturalization in 1997-a 34% provider of intensive English a solid
increase from 1996. INS completed language instruction, in a stock brand, an
processing acquisition for a cash purchase exceptional
700,000 of the POO price of $95 million. reputation as
applications- ELS Language Centers owns a service
the largest annual and operates 25 language centers in provider and
total with the the United States and one in England an extensive
exception of and has operated a franchise pro- network of
1996-and swore gram in 16 countries. Consolidated company Perry S. Akins, President,
in 569,822 new revenue for ELS Language Centers owned and ELS Language Centers
American for the 12 months which ended franchised
citizens. December 1996 was $62.6 million. centers and sales representatives
Berlitz is the world's largest that are strategically located
Baltimore TESOL language services firm with
operatioris in 38 countries. Berlitz
around the world. These beneficial
factors will allow us to maintain the
Renamed offers intensive -English instruction ELS Language Centers name and
programs through its Berlitz On build on the valuable relationships
After 17 years as Baltimore
TESOL (BATESOL), this
organization has now become
CampusTM division which operates established during its 35-year
ten centers in the United States and history."
Maryland TESOL. "This new one in Canada. Commenting on the acquisition,
name will help us better accom- "We are extremely excited about ELS Language Center president and
modate the entire state of the strengths and depth that ELS CEO Perry S. Akins stated, "Our
Maryland, not just the Baltimore (Language Centers) brings to partners around the world should
area," said Maryland TESOL pres- Berlitz," stated Mr. Hirdmasa Yokoi, feel confident that Berlitz will
ident Jill Basye. The TESOL affil- Vice Chairman, Chief Executive continue ELS Language Centers'
iate has about 150 members. Officer and President of Berlitz. commitment to excellence."

Top 50 U.S. Foreign Languages


The 1990 Census found that nearly 32 million of the 230 million people in the USA older than five spoke a
language other than English in their homes. Nearly 21% of those people said they did not speak English well or at
all. The following is a list of the 50 most common foreign languages spoken in the USA, the number of speakers
and the percentage of foreign language speakers who say they don't speak English well or at all.
Don't speak Don't speak Don't speak
Number of English Number of English Number of English
Rank Language Speakers well/at all Rank Language Speakers well/at all Rank Language Speakers well/at all
1 Spanish 17,339,172 26% 18 Persian 201,865 12% 35 Kru 65,848 3%
2 French 1,702,176 9% 19 French Creole 187,658 22% 36 Romanian 65,265 17%
3 German 1,547,099 7% 20 Armenian 149,694 26% 37 Lithuanian 55,781 9%
4 Italian 1,308,648 12% 21 Navajo 148,530 15% 38 Finnish 54,350 6%
5 Chinese 1,249,213 30% 22 Hungarian 147,902 9% 39 Punjabi 50,005 15%
6 Tagalog 843,251 7% 23 Hebrew 144,292 5% 40 Formosan 46,044 21%
7 Polish 723,483 14% 24 Dutch 142,684 4% 41 Croatian 45,206 9%
8 Korean 626,478 30% 25 Mon-Khmer 127,441 43% 42 Turkish 41,876 14%
9 Vietnamese 507,069 28% 26 Guharati 102,418 12% 43 Bocano 41,131 20%
10 Portuguese 429,860 23% 27 Ukrainian 96,568 14% 44 Bengali 38,101 8%
11 Japanese 427,657 21% 28 Czech 92,485 6% 45 Danish 35,146 15%
12 Greek 388,260 11% 29 Pa. Dutch 83,525 6% 46 Syriac 35,146 15%
13 Arabic 355,150 11% 30 Miao (Hmong) 81,877 46% 47 Samoan 34,914 10%
14 Hindi (Urdu) 331,484 9% 31 Norwegian 80,723 5% 48 Malayalam 33,949 8%
15 Russian 241,798 27% 32 Slovak 80,388 7% 49 Cajun 33,670 7%
16 Yiddish 213,064 8% 33 Swedish 77,511 4% 50 Amharic 31,505 11%
17 Thai (Laotian) 206,266 28% 34 Serbo-Croatian 70,964 13% Source: U.S. Census Bureau

6 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998


MgCC9@

Michigan TESOL Wins The


ESL Endorsement Debate
In July 1997, after 15 years of debate, the Michigan
Peace Corps
Board of Education voted to accept the MITESOL pro-
posal for an English as a Second Language endorsement
for K-12 educators in Michigan.
is seeking
This endorsement will recognize certified teachers
whose experience or coursework meets the ESL Teacher
Competency Guidelines. The endorsement is optional,
1500
however, in order to protect the jobs of many ESL teach-
ers who are effective teachers although they may not
qualify for an official endorsement. This optional status
educators.
is a compromise between the Board and MITESOL after Learn more about unique
a long dispute. opportunities throughout the world.
Many countries are in urgent need of your skills
The Fannie Mae Foundation and practical experience. For over 36 years the
Produces ESL Workbook Peace Corps has been placing educators in exciting
and rewarding volunteer positions overseas in 85
on Home Buying countries. Peace Corps volunteers have taught
he Fannie Mae Foundation English to over 5 million people around the world.
T has produced a new guide to
help students learn both the
_flow to Benefits include:
English language and the home > transportation overseas and back home;
e
buying process. How to Buy A United States---\ > an allowance to cover living expenses;
Home in the United States is a > a $5,400 readjustment allowance after 27 months
one-of-a-kind educational tool of training and service;
specifically designed for ESL Li7; > 24 days of vacation, paid health and dental care;
programs across the country. 111111ME
> cross-cultural and technical training to help you
"This is a unique tool to help adapt your skills to your assignment.
ESL learners get on the path to
home ownership as they learn English," said Lidia Soto-
Harmon, Director of Targeted Outreach Programs at the
Fannie Mae Foundation.
Developed by the Fannie Mae Foundation in collab-
oration with the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL),
the ESL guide includes a teacher's guide and student
workbook, both available for free. The materials provide
practical knowledge about home ownership as they pro-
mote English reading, writing, listening and speaking
skills for intermediate to advanced learners of ESL. In
addition, the user-friendly workbook includes vocabulary
lists, writing exercises, grammar reviews, sample docu-
ments and a glossary.
How to Buy A Home in the United States is currently _

being implemented in New York, Boston, Washington,


DC, San Diego and Santa Ana, California. "This is a con- To learn more about becoming
cept that my students will use down the road," said Jose
Gonzalez, ESL Coordinator for the Spanish Education a Peace Corps volunteer,
Development (SED) Center in Washington, DC. "The
students have the potential to buy a home, but one of their
call 800-424-8580.
(press 1 at prompt and mention code #722)
obstacles is learning the English language. If we can pro-
vide them with the skills in both areas, home ownership
and English, we can do wonders for them." Pl&g[E, 'gORPO
To order a free copy of How to Buy A Home in the The toughest job you'll ever love.
United States, call 1-800-544-9224.

ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998


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ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 9


The INTERNET
in the
CLASSROOM
A Valuable Tool and Resource for ESL/EFL Teaghers
BY CHRISTINE MELONI
SL/EFL teachers are known for Increased Student Motivation between people in different corners
their innovation. When a new Many students love computers. of the world, connecting students
method or approach comes Unlike some teachers, students feel around the globe. For example, com-
, along, we explore and discuss comfortable with computers and are munication between students in New
it, and we sometimes adopt it, partial- very receptive to any learning activi- York and Tokyo can be swift and
ly or completely. It is probably safe to ties that involve the computer. smooth. Students attest that this kind
say that most ESL/EFL teachers have Increased motivation leads to of communication increases global
an eclectic approach, integrating the increased language use which leads understanding.
best elements of several approaches. to improved proficiency.
For the past several years teach- Environmental Friendliness
ers have been talking about comput- Use of the Internet can decrease the
ers. The discussion first centered on "Technology will not amount of paper used in the class-
the use of computers as word proces- room. Much of the writing can be
sors, asking questions such as, replace teachers... done on the computer. Web sites can
"Should students use the computer replace some printed materials there-
for writing assignments?" The debate teachers who use by conserving natural resources.
is essentially over now with teachers technology will
accepting the computer as a valuable Despite the benefits touted by the
tool for developing students' writing probably replace Internet believers, not everyone is
skills. It has proved a boon in partic- ready to board the Internet bandwag-
ular to the popular "process teachers who do not." on. Some teachers have convinced
approach" to teaching composition. themselves that the Internet is a waste
Now the discussion has shifted to of precious time. Others harbor a cer-
the Internet. The debate over the Authentic Language tain curiosity and would like to learn
value of the Internet for ESL/EFL When a writing activity is truly com- more about the possibilities but feel
teachers and students is far from municative, as e-mail projects are, that they just cannot invest the time
over; in fact, it is just beginning. Is the language is authentic. The stu- to learn about what is available and
the Internet just another bandwagon? dents are not going through the keep up with frequent changes.
If reluctant teachers wait, will inter- motions of an artificial exercise. Surveys, however, have shown
est in it simply go away? They are communicating because that fear is the main reason many
Most teachers who have ven- they need and want to communicate. teachers shy away from the Internet
tured into cyberspace are enthusiastic Most of the information on the World and why they tend to ignore the com-
about the wonderful learning oppor- Wide Web has been written in puter revolution that is rapidly
tunities offered to ESL/EFL students, English by native speakers. The Web spreading into all areas of daily life.
as well as the valuable resources for is, therefore, a rich source of authen- One of the fears is a fear of technolo-
teachers. They are encouraging their tic reading materials in English. gy itself. Teachers from non-techni-
colleagues to jump on the bandwag- cal backgrounds are worried that they
on. There are several common rea- Global Awareness 11 will not be able to master the new
sons for this Internet enthusiasm. Information can be exchanged easily technology. But ESL/EFL teachers
10 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
all over the world are amazing them-
selves by quickly learning the basic INTERCLASS E-MA1L PROJECT
skills needed for computer-assisted
language learning and are progress-
The International Writing Exchange
BY RUTH VILMI, HELSINKI, FINLAND
ing rapidly beyond the basics.
Another fear that teachers have is In 1993 I founded what is known as Fourth Week
that computers will replace them. It is the HUT E-Mail Writing Project. Since In the final week, students meet for
that time, many ESL/EFL teachers a conference online in the HUT Virtual
true that computers can now do many and students from all over the world Language Centre. The discussions
things that teachers can. Language have been involved in collaborative take place in an informal, friendly
learning is, however, a very human writing activities. The most popular and atmosphere where students have a
experience and human teachers will lasting of such activities has been the chance to get to know each other
always be needed in the classroom. International Writing Exchange, or IWE. and sometimes form strong and
The computer revolution, how- The IWE is very flexible, allowing lasting friendships.
ever, seems irreversible, and, as Ray for any number of classes to join for
any length of time. A class can take Benefits
Clifford of the Defense Language part for one month or for many years With the IWE, students have a wide
Institute put it, "Technology will not and can start at any time of the year audience and receive feedback from
replace teachers...teachers who use because each module lasts only four international peers, so they are moti-
technology will probably replace weeks. While the participants of IWE vated to write well. They exchange
teachers who do not." are primarily university students, this ideas with students globally, rather
activity could easily be adapted for ele- than writing only for their own teacher.
ESL/EFL teachers cannot ignore They learn about other cultures direct-
mentary or secondary school students.
the Internet. They must be aware of ly, rather than second
its potential and how their colleagues First Week hand. They read and write
are using it. Everyone must remem- In the first week of every much more than in con-
ber, however, that technology should cycle, students write an ventional language cours-
never be used just because it is there. article on a topic from a es. The IWE also avoids
Technology must be used only when list prepared by their the inevitable disappoint-
teacher or they may 7,17, ments experienced with
it enhances the language learning choose their own topic. keypal projects when
experience. If the computer offers These articles are then individual students drop
students something that they cannot e-mailed to a special out or miss deadlines.
obtain from an in-class communica- address, and are subse-
tive activity, then the use of technol- quently published on HUT Student Comments
web pages, on other par- All students taking part in
ogy is appropriate. When the com-
ticipating Web sites and in IWE students Pena (t) the IWE are required to
puter is simply a poor substitute, its local newsgroups. evaluate the course. Below
use is not acceptable. and Mikko (b).
Students then choose is part of an evaluation
ESL/EFL teachers can make use some of other students' articles to done by an Egyptian student from
of the two most popular features of read and offer their comments. The Cairo University in 1996.
the Internet, electronic mail (e-mail) most popular topics have been 'I realize very well the importance
and the World Wide Web. Get involv- abortion, drinking habits, gender of the Hut project. The most important
ed! Discover how you can maximize discrimination, TV violence, family and point is that we communicate with
marriage, alternative energy sources foreign people. ThroUgh their articles
this resource to teach English. and the legalization of drugs. we learn a lot about their culture,
traditions and way of education; for
Second and Third Weeks example, by reading others' articles
E-MAIL PROJECTS In the second and third weeks, we notice their English language, way
English teachers around the world are students give feedback on each of writing, beliefs, traditions and
finding creative ways to use e-mail in other's articles, commenting on style points of view.
and content according to established Also, by sending our articles to
their classes. They are discovering guidelines available online and pre- them we gain a lot; for example, we
that e-mail projects can truly help pared by IWE teachers. benefit from their comments as it
students improve their writing and Students give and receive feed- opens our minds to others' beliefs,
reading skills. The communication in back in many forms: a) from their points of view and traditions, as we
e-mail projects can involve the classmates and possibly from their are not alone in this world.
class teacher before sending their What also makes me happy is the
teacher and each student individually, work to be published; b) from other feeling that we have a lot of friends in
two students, small groups of stu- students; and c) from their class different countries, something that
dents within a class or groups of stu- teacher after the final draft. never makes us feel bored as we are
dents in more than one class. After reading the articles, students dealing with different mentalities which
work in local groups to consider which is very interesting."
articles were the most successful and For questions about the IWE or
Dialogue Journals then publish a summary of effective any other HUT projects, contact Ruth
Dialogue journals are a popular writing criteria. They can then revise Vilmi at rvilmi@cc.hut.fi.
means of improving the writing flu- their own articles and create more
ency and reading comprehension of effective articles during the next cycle. Ruth Vilmi teaches English at the
students. Students write in their jour- Sometimes students vote on the best Helsinki University of Technology,
nals in class or outside of class. The articles, and the winners are published Helsinki, Finland.
teacher then collects the journals and in a journal.
12
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 11
responds to the student entries. Since
the focus is on communication, the
students write on topics of their own
Finding Keypals and
choosing, and their grammar and Partner Classes
spelling errors are not pointed out.
Dialogue journals may easily
become electronic, with students
sending the teacher their journal
entries via e-mail rather than in a
paper notebook. This type of e-mail
writing assignment is an excellent
way to ease students into sharing
their writing electronically.

Keypals
Writing to a penpal has long been an
interesting activity for children.
Having a "keypal" (an electronic
penpal) is even more fun because of
the immediacy of the communica-
tion. Teachers can pair their students
with keypals either within their own E-Mail projects give students incentive to write more clearly and
class or from another class. They may accurately.
ask students to gather information
If you are looking for individual keypals for your students or another
and write on specific topics or allow class for a collaborative project, look first among people you know.
students to choose their own topics. If you do not know anyone who would like to join you, don't despair.
One-to-one exchanges can be You should be able to find a match at one of the following web sites:
very effective if both participants are Kenji Kitao's Keypals
actively involved. If teachers do not http://ilc.doshisha.ac.ip/users/kkitao/online/www/keypal.html
know a colleague whose class would
E-Mall Classroom Exchange
like to participate in this activity, http://www.iglou.com/xchange/ece/index.html
there are web sites that provide indi-
vidual names and classes of students E-Mail Key Pal Connection
http://www.comenius.com/keypal/index.html
who are looking for keypals.
It should be pointed out that key- work well. the other side of the world. If the par-
pals need not be limited to elemen- Although it may seem artificial ticipants come from different cul-
tary and secondary school students. for students to write to classmates tures, the experience will be more
Language learners of all ages enjoy with whom they could easily com- stimulating and enriching for all of
communicating in the target language municate face-to-face, intraclass e- the students.
via e-mail. mail projects can be effective in help- The HUT E-Mail Writing Project
Within their own classes, teach- ing the students improve their writing and the Cities Project are two exam-
ers can divide students into groups and reading skills in English. It also ples of interclass e-mail projects car-
for e-mail communication. For exam- gives shy students an opportunity to ried out by students in different cities.
ple, if the class is reading a collection participate as much as the more out- While these projects were originally
of short stories, after the students fin- going ones. designed for university students, they
ish a story, they can write a summary Of course, it is exciting for stu- could easily be adapted for use with
and a critique of it to send to the other dents to communicate with students students at any level of education
members of their group via e-mail. in other places. It might be another elementary, secondary, university or
Small groups of four or five students school in the same city or a school on adult education.

Guidelines for a Successful E Mail Project


1. Choose a Partner Class Wisely Robb's very interesting web article on this subject,
In considering an e-mail project, the choice of partner "E-Mail Keypals for Language Fluency" at
classes is crucial. The participating teachers should http://www.kyoto-su.ac.jpi-trobb/keypals.html.
have compatible class schedules, similar course goals
and students at comparable proficiency levels. It is also 3. Use Proper Etiquette
essential that all students participate in the project. Another useful site to prepare you for your project is the
Netiquette Home Page. You will find the rules of
2. Plan Carefully Netiquette at http://www.fau.edu/rinaldi/net/elec.html.
While the benefits of e-mail projects can be significant, Students should read this page carefully so that they do
teachers must plan them with great care. Before you not commit any faux pas when dealing with students
begin an e-mail project, you might want to read Thomas whom they do not know.

12 ESLMAGAZINE0JAWARY/FEBRUARY1998
13
HUT E-Mail Writing Project send an e-mail message to: macjord
EFL instructor Ruth Vilmi at the @oxnar-dsd.org. In the message area
How to Search the
Helsinki University of Technology in write "subscribe ESLList" followed World Wide Web
Finland founded the HUT E-Mail by your name. he World Wide Web has been
Writing Project in 1993. Since then
many students in Finland, Norway, o SL-Lists
Tdefined in various ways, but the
most common image conjured up
France, the Czech Republic, Egypt, This list is open to ESL/EFL univer- in the minds of educators is that of
Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and the sity students. Students may sign up a virtual library with constantly
United States have taken part in HUT for one or more of the following topic expanding resources.
collaborative writing activities. lists: Chat-SL, Discuss-SL, Business-
Students have collaborated via e- SL, Engl-SL, Event-SL, Movie-SL, Searching the Web
mail on writing research papers, Music-SL, Scitech-SL and Sport-SL. If you do not have specific web
designing robots and proposing solu- For information, send an e-mail mes- addresses (URL), you need to use
sage to: listserv@lugb.latrobe.edu. a search engine to find the infor-
tions for environmental problems. mation you want. Some of the
(See interclass e-mail project on p. 11.) au. In the message area write "info
most popular search engines are
ENGL-SL". Or visit the SL-Lists the following:
The Cities Project web site at http://wwwlatrobe.edu.
An interesting spin-off of the HUT E- au/www/education/sl/sl.html. YAHOO
Mail Writing Project is the Cities http://www.yahoo.com
Project developed by Andrew Hess,
ALTA VISTA
an instructor at the New York THE WORLD WIDE WEB http://www.altavista.digital.com
University in New York City. New sites are popping up on the Web
Hess invited instructors Ron at an amazing rate. Many of these HOTBOT
Corio at Virginia Commonwealth sites can be very useful for students http://www.hotbot.com
University in Richmond, Virginia who want to improve their proficien- INFOSEEK
and Christine Meloni at The George cy in English. The Web is a gold mine http://www.infoseek.com
Washington University in Washing- of materials for ESL teachers.
ton, DC to develop an e-mail project A major advantage of the Web is LYCOS
for their high intermediate ESL stu- accessil5ility. It is available 24 hours a http://lycos.cs.cmu.edu
dents. The project involved student day. In addition, while textbooks cost WEBCRAWLER
collaboration via e-mail on a three- money, materials on the Web are http://webcrawler.com
city travel guide. generally available free of charge.
Classes in New York, Wash- There are sites created specifical- Do not expect searching to
ington, DC, Paris, Trondheim, and ly for English language learners as be as effortless as searching a
Hong Kong participated in a second well as sites for native speakers that library's online catalogue. Search
are valuable for ESL/EFL students. commands may seem as illogical,
Cities Project. In addition to creating
and, unfortunately, there is not a
a travel guide, the classes sent each Let's first look at some excellent sites
lot of uniformity in commands
other "culture packages" by snail that have been developed for ESL/ among the various search engines.
mail that included such items as city EFL students. Another problem is the lack of
maps, postcards, newspapers, tapes stability of sources. A web page
(both audio and video) and other may be here today and gone tomor-
memorabilia. Sites Designed for row. Perhaps the creator decided
More detailed information about ESL/EFL Students to move it to another address or
the initial Cities Project and subse- READING remove it completely.
quent projects (including culture Ilto Fluency Through Fables
packages) can be found at Andrew At this site your students will find a Evaluate What You Find
Hess's web site: http://wwwnyu.edu/ short fable to read. After reading the Evaluation of information on the
pages/hess/cities.html. fable, they can complete a variety of Web is a serious issue. Since virtu-
activities: vocabulary matching, a ally anyone can write anything on
E-Mail Discussion Groups true or false comprehension exercise, the Web, one needs to exercise
Students can also sign up for elec- vocabulary completion and written caution in accepting what one
tronic discussion groups. They will discussion. They can then use the finds. It is important to verify the
source although in many cases
receive all of the messages posted to index to find other fables and accom-
this is not easy or even possible.
the group by the other subscribers panying activities. http://www.come-
and they can post their own messages nius.com/fable/index.html Creating Bookmarks
as well. 00. U.S. Holidays Page When you have found reliable
Students are very interested in holi- sources that you like and that you
ESLList days. At this site they can read about find yourself returning to often, cre-
This list was created for ESL/EFL the following holidays: Halloween, ate "bookmarks" (a list of favorite
students between the ages of 11 and Thanksgiving, Martin Luther King sites) so that you will not have to
16. Participants can write on topics of Day, Groundhog Day, Valentine's search for the URL every time.
their own choosing. To subscribe, Day, St. Patrick's Day, Passover,
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 14 13
Easter and Memorial Day. http://www.aec.ukans.edu
14 SS WJ fl©JE cT /LEO/holidays/holidays.html

"Famous Personages WRITING


in Japan" II. Purdue's Online Writing Lab
This site offers instructional handouts on subjects such
BY THOMAS ROBB, KYOTO, JAPAN as punctuation, spelling, writing research papers and cit-
The "Famous Personages in Japan" project is a web ing sources. Originally created for native speakers, it has
site that my university students produced as a class a special section for ESL students that includes explana-
project. The web site consists of approximately 200 tions about the use of articles and the use of prepositions
descriptions of current personalities in Japan including in English. http://owl.English.purdue.edu
musicians, politicians, sports figures, TV and movie Dave's Graffiti Wall
personalities and writers.
The idea for this project came from my own need,
Send your students to this site to write on the Graffiti
as an American teaching in Japan, to learn more about Wall. http://wwwpacificnet.net/-sperling/wall.html
Japanese culture, and as a way for my students to write
something that was more than the "standard" composi- OCABULARY
tion which is normally written, Dave's ESL Slang Page
re-written and then forgotten. Why are students always eager to learn slang? Probably
The project started three because it makes them feel more a part of the target cul-
years ago when I assigned ture. This slang page is very useful for students who
each student in my class of 25 want to be more "hip" when speaking English.
to write on three people of http://www.eslcafe.com/slang
their own choosing. Once the
compositions were written to It* Weekly Idiom Page
my satisfaction, the students This site features a new idiom every two weeks. Each
converted them to HTML for new idiom is given with its definition and a sample dia-
posting to the Web, using a logue. http://www.comenius.com/idiom/index.html
simple template as a model. Thomas Robb's class. 0 Toon in to Idioms
In addition to the biographical sketch itself, each Students will find this site attractive. They will find an
piece included a listing of the students' sources and the idiom along with an amusing illustration and a sample
name of one other student who vouched for the accuracy
and completeness of the piece. A clickable e-mail
dialogue that they can listen to if their computer has
address was also included. This turned out to be one of speakers. http://www.elfs.com/2nInX-Title.html
the best aspects of the project since my students, much Crossword Puzzles for ESL Students
to their delight, soon began receiving unsolicited e-mail This site is a new project undertaken by the Internet
from around the world! TESL Journal. It currently has four puzzles and is solic-
This project was a great success due to its simplicity iting volunteers to create additional ones. http://www.
and the fact that it allows for a gradual accumulation of aitech.ac.jpt-iteslycw
information that is of genuine value to a specific audi-
encethose who want to find out more about Japanese G RAMMAR
personalities in English. Even now there are many entries
10 Grammar Safari
for which no other information exists on the Web in
English, if the results of my searches with the various An adventure-packed site! Students can participate in
search engines are accurate. hunting activities such as "Hunting adjective clauses in
Successive classes have added more pages and Little Women" and "Hunting past perfect verbs in a
have revised the older pages to keep them current. magazine article." http://deil.lang.uiuc.edu/web.pages/
Teachers at other schools have also had their own grammarsafari.html
students write contributions to the project. Professor TOEFL's Fun Page
As guidelines for other teachers desiring to produce Professor TOEFL will respond to your students' ques-
a class web page project, I would recommend the
following:
tions about English grammar. http://www.slip.nett-caa
It" Self-Study Quizzes for EFL Students
1. All pages should center on a specific, narrow topic. This site is another project of The Internet TESL
2. The information presented should be new to the web. Journal. Students can take grammar quizzes in a variety
3. The content of individual pages should be limited so of subject areas such as holidays, sports and culture. The
that students can finish them in a timely fashion. quizzes are graded on the spot. http://www.aitech.ac.jp/
4. The pages should have a unified design. -iteslj/quizzes
5. Most importantly, the topic should be of interest to
the students themselves. Lists of Links
View the "Famous Personages in Japan" web site at The sites mentioned above are just a sampling of the
http://cc2000.kyoto-su.ac.jp/information/famous/ ESL sites on the Web. To locate additional web pages of
index.html. interest, go to the following sites that have continually
updated lists of links: Volterre Web Links, Linguistic
Thomas Robb, Ph.D. teaches English at Kyoto Sangyo
University in Kyoto, Japan. Funland, the ESL Study Hall and Dave Sperling's ESL
Links Page for Students. (See addresses on p. 16.)
14 15 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
antoveztfing Vitae. Mot postcard to anyone in the world
OpectiTiosAlty Doztigned who has an e-mail address. This
fkaT EZVEFE. Otandertz site offers a nice selection of post-
ESL/EFL students can also benefit cards to choose from. http://post-
from sites designed for native cards.www.media.mit.edu/Post
speakers. Here are some sugges- cards
tions.
VOCABULARY
t> The Word Wizard
READING The Word Wizard will answer
The vast majority of web sites use
English which is a tremendous your students' questions about
advantage for ESL teachers and words. He also offers amusing
students. Authentic materials for Access to the Web opens a world of oppor- word contests. ESL students will
reading are, therefore, plentiful. tunities for ESL/EFL students of all ages. probably like best the Wizard's
Naturally, not everything is suit- Slang Street where they will find
able, but wonderful materials are not ing your desk! Some well-stocked slang words related to talking, sleep-
difficult to find. virtual libraries are the Online Books ing, eating and drinking. http://www.
Page, the Internet Public Library and wordwizard.corn
D CNN
the Children's Literature Web Guide.
This is a.marvelous source of current, N Focusing on Words
(See addresses on p. 16.)
authentic reading materials. In addi- This is a very advanced vocabulary
tion to the latest news stories, stu- WRITING site. Students will find vocabulary
dents will find interactive news Kidproj quizzes and stories about words.
qui zzes . http://www.nmis.org/News
This is an extensive and well-orga- http://www.wordfocus.com
Interactive/CNN/Newsroom nized web site maintained by teachers
D Newspapers & Magazines Online and youth leaders who design and Tenchev Resoureces on the Web
Newspapers and magazines have oversee projects, particularly collabo- Resources for teachers on the Web
long been popular sources of authen- rative writing activities for children are numerous, so it is difficult to pre-
tic materials for ESL/EFL. Teachers between the ages of 10 and 15. sent a complete list when space is
can now find online versions of USA Projects include The KIDPROJ limited. The following are important
Today, The New York Times, The Wall Multi-Cultural Calendar, Holiday sites for ESL/EFL teachers.
Street Journal, The Washington Post, Legends, Poems and Stories from N National Clearinghouse for
Time, Business Week, Life and many Around the World, the KIDPROJ Bilingual Education
others. (See addresses on p. 16.) Online Magazine, and the Multi- Among NCBE's many offerings are
D Literature Online Cultural Recipe Book. http://www. hundreds of links to web pages on
Teachers can find online libraries that kidlink.org/KIDPROJ language and education issues, lesson
contain complete texts of many D The Electric Postcard plans and other practical classroom
books. Imagine sitting at your com- Your students can send an electronic information. http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu
puter and finding books without leav-

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ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 15
II, Ask ERIC Virtual Library English to Speakers of Other Recommended Reading
This site offers lesson plans and Languages (TESOL) organization. Books
information guides. Of particular The "Wandering the Web" columns o The Internet Guide for English
interest is the AskERIC Toolbox, from TESOL Matters have been put Language Teachers by Dave
which offers links to sites on the online at this site. There are also links Sperling, Prentice-Hall Regents.
Internet where teachers can find to all of the TESOL affiliate home o New Ways of Using Computers in
information on educational technolo- pages. http://www.tesol.edu Language Teaching, edited by Tim
gy and other subjects. http://ericir Language Learning and Boswood, TESOL.
syredu/Virtual Technology o E-Mail for English Teaching:
ERIC Clearinghouse on This is a new online journal for lan- Bringing the Internet and Computer
Languages and Linguistics guage educators interested in tech- Learning Networks into the
This is the home page of the ERIC nology. This journal is edited by Language Classroom by Mark
Clearinghouse on Languages and Mark Warschauer at the University of Warschauer, TESOL.
Linguistics, located at the Center for Hawai'i. Take a look at the first o Virtual Connections: Online
Applied Linguistics in Washington, issue! http://polyglot.cal.msu.edullit/ Activities and Projects for
DC. hup://www.cal.org/ericll voll numl/editorhtml Networking Language Learners by
Internet TESL Journal Mark Warschauer, University of
This is a monthly web journal for Please be advised that web Hawai'i Press.
ESL teachers. One can find many addresses (URLs) are subject to Magazines
excellent articles at this site related to change. All of the URLs given in this
diverse aspects of language teaching. article were correct and active at o Yahoo! Internet Life (in print and
press time. We regret any inconve- online at http://www.yil.com)
http://www.aitech.ac.jp/-iteslj
nience you might experience due to o ZD Internet Magazine (in print
TESOL
changed or dead links. and online at http://zdimag.com)
This is the home page of the profes-
sional international Teachers of

Ad itionai Web Sites CHRISTINE MELONI, Ed.D. is associate professor of EFL


and Computer Education Coordinator at George
of interest Washington University. She has lectured around the
Newspapers & Magazines Online world on the Internet and English language teaching
USA TODAY and writes the bimonthly "Wandering the Web" column
http://www.usatoday.corn for TESOL Matters.
THE NEW YORK TIMES
http://www.nytimes.corn The Thirty-Second Annual Convention and Exposition
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.
THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
http://www.wsj.corn
G14947/
THE WASHINGTON POST
http://www.washingtonpost.corn 0 or
TIME
http://www.time.corn 6.01'
BUSINESS WEEK
http://www.businesswe.ek.com
LIFE
http://www.life.corn
Literature Online
THE ON-LINE BOOKS PAGE
http://www.cs.crnu.edu/Web/books.html
THE INTERNET PUBLIC LIBRARY
http://www.ipl.org
THE CHILDREN'S LITERATURE WEB GUIDE
http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/-dkbrown/index.html
Lists of Links March 17-21, 1998
VOLTERRE WEB LINKS FOR LEARNERS Seattle, Washington USA
http://www.wfi.fr/volterre/weblinklearners.html
Check out the details on TESOL's web site: www.tesol.edu
LINGUISTIC FUNLAND TESL PAGE
http://www.tesol.net/teslact.htrn1 For more information please contact:
THE ESL STUDY HALL TESOL Conventions Department, 1600 Cameron Street, Suite
http://gwis2.circ.gwu.edui-gwvcusas 300. Alexandria, Virginia 22314-2751 USA
ESL LINKS PAGE FOR STUDENTS Telephone 703-836-0774 Fax 703-836-7864
http://www.pacificnet.net/-sperling/links.html E-mail conv@tesol.edu http://www.tesol.edu

16 17 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998


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VOCABULARY BASICS)
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Judith Nadell Beth Johnson Paul Langan
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e Sensitivity to the needs of adult ESL students. Information is presented in a clear and
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O Outstanding price. While the books are comprehensive enough to serve as primary texts,
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Visit us in Seattle March 17-21 at TESOL booth #97

I 1-800-406-READ
Vg@IIMCDICD@V

Listservs Serve
ESL/EFL Professionals
BY CHRISTINE MELONI
Talking shop. Most profession-
als do it and benefit from it.
ESL/EFL professionals are no
different. They find it informative
and stimulating to talk with col-
leagues in their field.
Listservs are simply electronic
discussion groups which allow
ESL/EFL professionals all over the
world to share ideas. When you sub-
scribe to a listserv, you receive,
through your e-mail account, all of
the messages posted by subscribers to
that group. You will be able to post
your own messages as well and par-
ticipate in any ongoing discussions.
If you are unfamiliar with list-
servs, a good place to start is Kristina
Pfaff-Harris's Linguistic Fun land
web site (http://www.tsol.net/mail-
ing.list.help.html). Kristina provides
information on what a listserv is, how Listservs allow ESL/EFL professionals to dialogue globally with ease.
you can subscribe and unsubscribe,
and what the rules of list etiquette Intensive English Programs, Admin- related to using the Internet as an
are. She also offers the opportunity to istration, Jobs and Employ-ment educational tool. The list is main-
sign up for several lists directly from Issues, Literacy and Adult Education, tained by Karla Frizler at San
her page. and Materials Writers. Francisco State University and Ron
There are thousands of electronic In addition to the electronic dis- Corio at Virginia Commonwealth
lists on every imaginable subject. To cussion, TESL-L members can get University.
find out what is available, try one of involved in TESL-EJ, an online jour- In addition to the ongoing elec-
the following web sites: nal, and CELIA, a project to create an tronic discussion, Neteach-L offers a
oLiszthttp://www.liszt.com online archive of materials related to web site of links to members' home
Computer Aided Language Learning pages, a list of "Sites Neteachers
0 Tile.net listshttp://tile.net/lists/ (CALL). Thought Were Cool!" and the
Two of the most popular discus- TESL-L is maintained by Anthea Neteach-L Archives.
sion lists for ESL/EFL teachers are Tillyer at Hunter College. To sub- To subscribe to Neteach-L, send
TESL-L and Neteach-L. scribe to TESL-L or to one of its an electronic message to: listserv@
branches, send an e-mail to: thecity.sfsu.edu. The text of the mes-
TESL-L Listserv@cunyvm.binet or sage should be: subscribe Neteach-L
TESL-L is an electronic forum for Listserv@cunyvm.cuny.edu your first name your last name.
teachers of English as a Second The text of the message should be: Example: subscribe Neteach-L John
Language. Subscribers may post SUB TESL-L your first name your Doe.
messages on any topic related to the last name. Example: SUB TESL-L
teaching of ESL. John Doe. You cannot subscribe to a One needs to be aware that the
TESL-L also has branches that TESL-L branch until you have sub- volume of mail generated by listservs
focus on specific areas of interest to scribed to TESL-L. may at times become overwhelming.
subscribers. The branches represent The volume on the TESL-L branches
the following interests: Computer Neteach-L and on Neteach-L is usually consid-
Assisted Language Learning, Neteach-L is an online forum where erably more manageable than that of
Fluency First and Whole Language, ESL/EFL teachers can discuss ideas TESL-L.
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 20 19
Trippingly on the Tongue:
Putting serious speech/pronunciation instruction
back in the TESOL equation
BY JOAN MORLEY
increasing pressure from growing of poor intelligibility and/or commu-
The "S" in TESOL stands for
SPEAKERSand slowly but numbers of adult and teen nonnative nicability) is such that it precludes
surely in this closing decade of speakers whose urgent need for intel- functional oral communication. Or,
the 20th century, a new level of atten- ligible, functional, oral communica- speech patterns may result in ineffec-
tion to SPOKEN communication tion skills is not being met. The sec- tual communication in communica-
skills in English as a second/foreign ond factor is the emergence of new tive settings such as occupational,
language has emerged. This develop- instructional programs that feature a educational, social or personal busi-
ment is welcome in the ESL/EFL communicative-cognitive approach ness transactions. Speakers are
field where curriculum design over to SP/PR instruction (Morley, 1991; judged as lacking credibility and not
the past two decades has valued liter- Anderson-Hsieh, 1989). Not since inspiring confidence in their knowl-
acy skills as the more important focus the 1940s 1960s, (which witnessed edge of "content" or their ability to
of second language instruction and the rise and decline of audio-lingual make intelligent decisions. Many
has devoted limited time, and often pronunciation practices) and the problems of this nature are reported
less than well-informed instruction, 1970s 1980s (when programs gave in the workplace and among interna-
to speech/pronunciation (SP/PR). less and less time to pronunciation, tional graduate student instructors in
Today, however, more programs in a and many dropped it entirely) has university settings.
variety of ESL/EFL settings are there been such a theoretically and Another problem is that listeners
revising curricula so that speech in pedagogically sound reformulation may make negative judgments about
general, and pronunciation in particu- of SP/PR instruction. a speaker's personal qualities when
lar, are brought into the mainstream nonnative speech patterns trigger
of instruction with a learner goal of "foreignerism" stereotyping. Beebe
oral communicative competence. " ...while. the pendulum (IDIOM, 1978, 9 [1] p.3) reported
In view of the current profession- has begun to swing back that native speakers described pro-
al commitment to empower students nunciation errors as "... 'comic al,'
to become fully participating members in the direction 'incompetent,"cute,"not serious,'
of their English-speaking communi- of more emphasis on 'effeminate' or 'childish' ..."
ties, this timely development is writ- In a conversation with a nonna-
ing SP/PR back into the instructional pronunciation, tive speaker who has poor intelligi-
equation, but with a whole new look. bility, many native speakers report
it is swinging back that they feel apprehensive as the
"...while the pendulum has
begun to swing back in the direction
in a different arc..." interaction proceeds. Even though
of more emphasis on pronunciation,
they seem to understand what the
nonnative speaker is saying, they feel
it is swinging back in a different arc, Learrnorr PvobIenzaz a continual undercurrent of anxiety, a
and we are now at a very different Nonnative speakers, particularly fear that they will not understand as
place than we were during the audio- adults and near-adults who have the interaction progresses. They
lingual period..." intelligibility problems, may experi- report that they keep to superficial
Anderson-Hsieh ence serious oral communication "social" topics, shift topics frequent-
(JALT Journal, 1989, 16 [2], 73) problems which place them at risk ly, speak loudly and slowly and often
Overall, the basic premise underlying educationally, socially, occupational- terminate the interaction as soon as
these changes is this undeniable fact: ly and professionally. Today there are possible. This robs the nonnative
intelligible pronunciation is essen- increasing numbers of such potential- speaker not only of natural language
tial to communicative competence. ly disadvantaged speakers of English interactions, but also of opportunities
in a variety of settings. They may to develop congenial social relation-
Forma [Dotviing (the experience one or more of the fol- ships.
Whwas off Mango lowing problems. Nonnative speakers may also
Two factors have driven the new Nonnative speakers may experi- encounter pejorative stereotyping.
movement in SP/PR teaching. The ence a complete breakdown in com- Based on speech patterns alone, lis-
first is a burgeoning clienteleand munication if their "accent" (features teners have been found to make seri-
20
2 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
ous pejorative judgments about non- where of communication). 3. Increased self-confidence
native speakers, assigning them to a The second step is to evaluate comfort and confidence in using spo-
variety of undesirable categories. In and describe learners' speech pat- ken English, overcoming feelings of
the research of Lambert (1967) and terns, taking into account pronuncia- embarrassment and shame, develop-
Labov (1972) listeners judged speak- tion intelligibility and its impact on ing a positive self-image and experi-
ers they had never seen nor met as to speech communicability; and to pre- encing the self-realization of growing
their personality, intelligence, ethnic pare profiles of both learners' empowerment in oral communica-
group, race, social statuseven their pronunciation and communication tion.
heightsimply from listening to the strengths and weaknesses. (See 4. Speech-monitoring abilities
way they pronounced a few words. Morley, 1991, 502, Intelligibility and speech modification strategies
Accent discrimination is another Communicability Index.) for use beyond the classroom
problem facing nonnative speakers. Step three is to design a speech awareness, personal speech-
The 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act, speech/pronunciation syllabus which monitoring skills and speech modifi-
among other areas of potential dis- combines two types of instruction: cation strategies that will enable stu-
crimination, clearly dents to continue
forbids an employer to develop intelli-
to discriminate ag- gibility, communi-
ainst a job applicant cability and confi-
on the basis of lin- dence inside and
guistic traits linked outside of class.
to national origin. The four goals
However, employers listed above also
have considerable help learners dev-
latitude in matters of elop a variety of
language, and em- language learning
ployer violations are strategiesin
widespread in the Wenden (1991)
U.S., perhaps in as and Oxford (1990)
many as 10% of terms.
businesses, although
only a very small percentage of these class work in which the communica- GUilaW Sh Me and
result in litigation. Cases are often tive task is the major speaking focus, Canvenq DivectIonz
settled out of court, and plaintiffs but with supplementary attention to [Imbue Ewell Falcons
generally have little success in win- specific pronunciation goals and These steps for program planning and
ning their cases. learner self-monitoring and self-cor- goal specification follow from major
recting of selected SP/PR features; shifts in instructional focus described
Flima eqeinDe kil and segments of class sessions in below which have developed over the
Pvcrognmro POsnatiling which explicit pronunciation activi- past several years.
These problems illustrate the strong ties are conducted for appropriate 1. A communicative-cognitive-
need for reformulated SP/PR instruc- periods of time. affective approach to speech/pronun-
tion. It is well-documented that for all ciation instructionprogram goals
types of pronunciation problems, a among RealTdistrc Soaks focus on (a) sufficient intelligibility
broadly constructed communicative- Setting realistic functional goals is to support functional communication;
cognitive approach is more effective essential. Goals of "perfect pronunci- (b) the learner's cognitive involve-
than a narrowly constructed articula- ation" or "near-native pronuncia- ment in developing speech awareness
tory phonetics approach. A first ques- tion," patently unattainable now or in and self-monitoring / self-correcting
tion, then, is, "How do today's new earlier times, are long gone. The fol- skills; and (c) the learner's affective
programs approach the task of pro- lowing learner goals are realistic and involvement in developing self-con-
viding 'informed' instruction?" The attainable. fidence and a positive self image.
answer is found in the specification 1. Functional intelligibility 2. A major focus on both into-
of three fundamental steps. clear spoken English that is, at least, nation, stress, rhythm and other
The first step is to establish long- reasonably easy to understand and suprasegmental features, and sounds
range oral communication goals of not distracting to listeners, even a redirection of priorities within
the language functions that learners though it is accented. the sound system to a focus on the
will need in their English-speaking 2. Functional communicability critical importance of suprasegmen-
interactions (i.e., the why of commu- spoken English that effectively serves tals and how they are used to com-
nication); and to analyze both the the learner's individual communica- municate meaning in spoken dis-
spoken discourse (actual speech pat- tive needs leading to communicative course, as well as the importance of

,
terns) that learners need to accom- competencein Cana le and Swain vowel and consonant sounds, their
plish those functions and the terms (1980): linguistic, discourse, combinations and their reduced, elid-
language situations, contexts and sociolinguistic and strategic compe- ed and/or assimilated forms.
specific settings (i.e., the what and the tencies. 3. An expanded domain for
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
22 21
pronunciationa reformulated con- Approach to Language Teaching" tion, linkage, elision, assimilation,
cept of what constitutes the scope of (GURT, 1993), defines "approach" in palatalization, etc.) and phrase-level
pronunciation; one that incorporates the traditional way (following prosodics.
attention to (a) segmentals; (b) Anthony, 1963) as "...a theory of lan-
suprasegmentals; (c) voice quality guage and language learning..." and Language Learning
features, articulatory settings and notes, "One's approach to language Instructional planning incorporates
other paralinguistic areas; and (d) teaching is the theoretical rationale special attention to both cognitive and
elements of body language used in that underlies everything that teach- affective components of learning.
oral communication (i.e., extralin- ers do in the classroom." 1. Selected explicit language
guistic features). Brown's thesis is that the field's information and procedural informa-
4. Practice activities designed for search for the "ultimate method" has tion need to be provided to help
specific interactive contexts, settings outlived its time and that we should learners develop speech awareness,
and situationsspeaking activities "...get on with the business of unify- study awareness and both cognitive
and tasks matched to the communica- ing our approach to language teach- and metacognitive learning strategies.
tive needs of learners in personalized, ing and of designing effective tasks 2. Learner self-involvement (and
real-life contextsno longer a "one and techniques that are informed by the development of cognitive,
size fits all" method of teaching. that approach." metacognitive and affective strate-
5. Changing per- gies) must be pro-
spectives on the roles moted through mea-
of learner and teacher sures that encourage
revised expecta- four aspects of
tions for both learner behavior: taking self-
and teacher involve- responsibility, devel-
ment; an emphasis on oping self-monitor-
learner strategies of ing skills, learning
speech awareness, speech modification
self-awareness and skills, and recogniz-
self-monitoring under ing self-accomplish-
the guidance of a ment. The greatest of
SP/PR teacher-facili- these is self-monitor-
tator who operates not ing, a skill which will
unlike a voice or empower learners to
speech "coach." continue to manage
6. Individualiz- 4,* their own learning, in
ation and the unique- and out of class.
ness of each learnera focus on indi- In the spirit of this perspective, 3. A comfortable supportive
vidualization in the SP/PR class, the following paradigm for a speech/ atmosphere needs to be established,
specifically on the uniqueness of pronunciation instructional program one that fosters both supportive
each ESL learneragain, no longer is offered. It is a three-part teacher-to-student and student-to-stu-
"one size fits all." "approach" which combines beliefs dent interactions and allows learners
7. Increased attention to the about language (linguistics princi- to develop affective and social
reciprocal listening-speaking connec- ples), language learning (psychologi- strategies.
tiona stronger focus on the link cal principles) and language teaching
between auditory and SP/PR skills. (educational principles). Language Teaching
8. Explicit attention to sound- Lesson planning provides for a range
spelling relationshipspresentation Language of integrated practice modes de-
of a range of important sound- Instruction employs a two-tiered lan- signed to carry out the "performa-
spelling relationships and specific guage/linguistic orientation. tive" dimension of SP/PR instruction,
guidance for students on using 1. A macro-focusthe domain with a focus on both communicative
English orthography as a tool in pre- of discourse-level phonological fea- tasks and pronunciation activities.
dicting pronunciation patterns tures (e.g., the use of intonation pat- 1. Speech/pronunciation prac-
Today these changes constitute a terns, stress and rhythm, and other tice, for maximum benefit, must go
coherent base upon which informed prosodic phenomena in creating far beyond imitation and provide
decisions can be made in developing meaning), ability to sustain speech three different practice modes: (a)
a communicative-cognitive approach for fluent ongoing structuring and imitative practice (dependent prac-
to SP/PR teaching. planning as it proceeds, and appropri- tice) as needed to establish controlled
ate expressive nonverbal behaviors. production; (b) rehearsed commu-
an "approach" Paradigm 2. A micro-focusthe phrase nicative practice (guided and inde-
qor Cornamordcarahro level/word-level domain and contex- pendent self-practice) to stabilize
PronantrocOaqoon VoachOrag tualized modification of vowel and modified or new speech/pronuncia-
H.D. Brown, in "After Method: consonant sounds and features of tion features; (c) extemporaneous
Toward a Principled Strategic combinatory phonetics (i.e., reduc- communicative practice (indepen-
22
23 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
dent practice) to habituate and inte- Answer: New textbooks for use in
grate modified speech patterns into
naturally occurring creative speech.
teacher training programs and short
courses, institutes, and workshops for
Exeliangin More
2. Pronunciation-oriented listen- teacher trainers as well as teachers, Than just Ideas
ing practice to facilitate the develop- are much in demand and there is
ment of auditory perception and dis- increased activity in both areas. For
crimination skills for all dimensions an excellent listing of references,
of speech/pronunciation. visit the website created by John M.
3. Pronunciation sound-spelling Murphy, Department of Applied
practice to help learners relate spoken Linguistics and ESL, Georgia State
and written English quickly and University (http://www.gsu.edulesl
accurately so they can become truly jmm /ss/furtherreading.htm).
literate in English. An awareness of Recent publications of special
spelling patterns as cues to stress and interest include a paper by .Wong
rhythm patterns is useful to learners. which includes comments addressed
specifically to nonnative speaking
QimszUlonz End Agawam EFL teachers ("Pronunciation Myths THE FULBRIGHT
siteara Veachav Urreigning and Facts," English Teaching Forum,
Oct, 1993, 45-46); and papers by TEACHER EXCHANGE
Question: What factor is most
responsible for continuing to keep Grant ("Creating Pronunciation- PROGRAM
pronunciation instruction out of the based ESL Materials for Publi-
cation," Materials Writer's Guide, Opportunities for educators at the
mainstream ESL/EFL curriculum?
Heinle and Heinle, 1995) and elementary, secondary, and two-
Answer: Despite the growing trend ("Phonology Courses year post-secondary levels to:
Murphy
toward a new formulation and imple- Exchange classrooms with
Offered by MATESOL Programs,"
mentation of speech/pronunciation TESOL Quarterly, 1997, 31 [4], 741- teachers from other countries.
instruction, some training programs
and teacher textbooks continue to 764); and texts by Celce-Murcia, Participate in a six-week
Brinton and Goodwin (Teaching
give it limited attention. Many pro- Pronunciation: A Reference for
administrative exchange.
Attend a Classics Seminar in
grams may avoid pronunciation Teachers of English as a Second
Italy.
because it is difficult to find the Language, Cambridge U. Press,
specifics of a clear instructional 1996) and Pennington (Phonology in
model beyond articulatory phonetics TO OUALIFYYOU MUST:
where both the process (viewed as English Language Teaching: An Be a U.S. citizen.
non-communicative drill-and-exer-
International Approach, Addison Be fluent in English.
Wesley Longman, 1996). Have a Bachelor's degree or
cise gambits) and the product
(viewed as having a minimal success higher.
Working toward meeting the pro- Be in at least third year of full-
for the time and energy expended) fessional needs of SP/PR teacher
are found wanting. time employment.
trainers and trainees as well as the Hold a current full-time
And, while some programs
instructional needs of SP/PR learners teaching or administrative
require a phonetics course, often it is
presented rather like a "hard sci- is one of the primary goals of the position.
ence," which may make it difficult founders of the newly-formed
TESOL Speech/Pronunciation Inter- Minorities are encouraged to
for some teachers with a language est Section. Special recognition and
apply.
arts background to tune into. More
significantly, it often includes very appreciation for their work in estab- For more information and
lishing this interest section is due to application material contact:
little if anything of an applied nature
Judy Gilbert and Elaine Klein. The Fulbright Teacher Exchange
which could help trainees make ped-
agogical use of phonetic/phonologi- Attention: L.E.
The title of this article is a salute 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W.
cal facts within a communicative- to William Shakespeare. (Hamlet,
cognitive speech/pronunciation Prince of Denmark, Act III, Scene II, Room 465
model. The result, as reported by Line 1, "Speak the speech, I pray Washington, DC 20024
many teachers who come to in-ser- you, as I pronounced it to you, trip- (800)726-0479
vice workshops and conference insti- fulbrigh ©grad.usda.gov
pingly on the tongue.")
tutes, is that they feel ill-prepared to http://www.grad.usda.gov/
teach speech/pronunciation, are International/ftep.html
uncomfortable teaching it and, Applications must be post-marked
frankly, avoid it.
Joan Morley is Full Professor at the
University of Michigan and a past by October 15, 1998
Question: How can training pro- TESOL president. She has published
grams change to prepare teachers for numerous books on phonetics,
new approaches to speech/pronuncia- applied linguistics, speech/pronunci- -Sponsored by the U.S. Information Agency-

tion instruction? ation and oral communication.


ESL MAGAZINE 0 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 24 23
TESOL'98 Connects
Our Global Community
/t all started in 1964, when approx- and others who work to meet the Speaker Highlights and Topics
imately 700 people gathered to- growing demands of English lan- TESOL has scheduled top profession-
gether in an ad hoc convention in guage learners worldwide. als, preeminent in their fields, who
Tucson, Arizona. The purpose was to These professionals will come to will share their insights with the glob-
discuss the burgeoning need to teach Seattle for a variety of reasons, not al ESL/EFL community on a wide
English as a language in post World the least of which is networking. range of topics.
War II North America. Only three Many come for the professional Techno-Fear? Techno-Joy?
years later, the first annual conven- development opportunities afforded At this opening plenary, four ESL,
tion of the newly formed Teachers of by the seminars, workshops and lec- professional development and tech-
English to Speakers of Other tures which address almost every nology specialists will discuss the
Languages (TESOL) association met conceivable aspect of English lan- benefits and challenges of technology
in Miami, Florida. guage teaching and learning. for language teaching. Fedric Litto,
For more than three decades, the Attendees will also review the latest School of the Future of the University
TESOL conference has convened in English language products and ser- of Sao Paulo, Brazil; David
the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Atten- Thornburg, Center for Professional
dance has increased from 3,000 in the Development, CA; Richard Boyum,
mid 1970s, to 6,500 in the 1980s and USIA; and Denise Murray, San Jose
to more than 8,000 in 1994. "We have State University, CA.
come a long way since those early
days," says ESL pioneer James Applications of Brain-Based
Alatis. "We used to meet under one Research to Second Language
hotel roof, now there's no single facil- Education
ity that can accommodate us." Mary Ann Christison, TESOL
On March 17-21, TESOL'98 is President 1997-98, Snow College,
expected to draw approximately UT Christison explores how second
7,500 ESL/EFL professionals from language teaching can be in accor-
over 80 countries on six continents to dance or incompatible with The
what has become .the largest confer- brain's learning processes.
ence and exposition of its kind in the The New American Immigrants
world. This 32nd annual convention vices offered by over 160 vendors. and Why We Need Them
will be held at the Washington State Undoubtedly, some ESL/EFL profes- Sanford J. Ungar, American Univer-
Convention and Trade Center in sionals will come seeking new sity, Washington, DC. Ungar draws
Seattle, WA. It will feature keynote employment opportunities at the on research from his book, Fresh
addresses, more than 1,200 sessions Employment Clearinghouse, a world- Blood: The New American Immi-
and workshops, the world's largest wide job fair set up to match employ- grants, calling for immigration policy
exposition of ESL/ EFL related publi- ers with employees. reform that resists unjust restriction
cations and software, advocacy infor- and discrimination.
mation and a worldwide job fair. Expansions This Year Diversity, Citizenship Education
The theme for TESOL'98 is The emphasis for 1998 is an and the New Century
"connecting our global community." increased use of technology, both in James Banks, University of Washing-
The conference will highlight tech- lectures and in exhibits such as the ton, Seattle, WA. Banks examines
nology and its use in English lan- CALL "electronic village" and the how U.S. schools can encourage eth-
guage teaching in diverse settings WorldNet satellite broadcast. nic and cultural diversity while pro-
around the world. Building upon previous confer- moting national unity.
ences, the TESOL Center has expand- Connection with English in the
They Come from All Over ed its area to accommodate a larger Context of Internationalization
Attendees of the TESOL conference advocacy booth and a larger publica- Ann Pakir, National University of
represent a wide variety of English tion and information booth. The Singapore. Pakir discusses the role of
language professionals. These men Special Research Symposium is larg- English in the "internationalization"
and women are teachers, administra- er and various interest sections and of many countries and explores the
tors, curriculum developers, linguists, caucuses have also been added. The social and linguistic ramifications as
media specialists, bilingual educators, Employment Clearinghouse has ext- well as the implications for English
professionals working with refugees ended its hours and added a directory. language teaching in these countries.
24
25 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
Students and Families as Inauguration of Adult
Authors and Protagonists Standards
Alma Flor Ada, University of San The committee for adult standards
Francisco in CA. Ada examines the will introduce and discuss plans for
benefits of authorship for teachers, developing adult ESL teaching stan-
students and their families. dards.
The Wonders of the TESOL World Pre- & Post-Convention Institutes
Omney Kassabgy, Career Develop- TESOL has planned state-of-the-art,
ment Center in Cairo, Egypt. full- and half-day institutes for
Kassabgy analyzes the unique inter- March 16-17 and March 21, which
national community of English lan- provide a stimulating learning envi-
guage educators and learners. ronment in a smaller setting.
Contemporary Trends in Educational Visits
Northwest Coast Art Offering a first-hand look at local
Marvin Olivet; University of Wash- ESL programs, these half-day trips TESOL'98
ington, WA. Oliver, an internationally
renowned Native American artist, programs.
give insightful glimpses into local Via Satellite
will give a slide presentation and Special Exhibits c elected sessions of TESOL'98
explain his bronze, steel, glass, and Two special exhibits highlight global will be broadcast via satellite
to remote locations around the
wood works as well as the TESOL'98 community ties among English lan- world and in the United States.
artwork and logo. guage educators and their students. TESOL'98 has arranged with
The first is a double exhibit called WorldNet and Visionary
Additional Highlights "Refugee Stories" and "Our Lives: Productions, Inc., to broadcast
CALL Room & Technology Sessions Refugee Women's Photographs," three live international satellite
Staged by TESOL's Computer consisting of photographs and recol- teleconferences from Seattle.
Assisted Language Learning interest lections by refugees and language The first teleconference will
section, the "electronic village" will learners in North America. The sec- be the opening night plenary
offer consultations, discussion ond special exhibit is an AIDS quilt "Techno Fear? Techno Joy?"
groups, demonstrations and an open created by friends and family of featuring Richard Boyum, Fredric
house to allow attendees to try share- AIDS patients around the world. Litto, Denise Murray and David
ware, freeware, demos and CDs. Thornburg and will air on March
Many sessions will explore the use of ack by Popular Demand 17, 1998, 7-9 pm Pacific
technology for language teaching and As in previous years, there are a Standard Time (PST).
learning. number of popular events that contin- The second broadcast is the
ue to delight, enrich and entertain the Presidential Plenary featuring
Publishers' and Software TESOL President Mary Ann
Exposition attendees. Some of the highlights are:
Christison titled "Application of
One hundred and sixty companies Swap Shops Brain-Based Research to Second
and agencies will showcase their lat- Awards Program Language Education," Wednes-
est products and services. day, March 18, 1998, 11:30-
Fun Run 12:30 pm PST. This session will
Employment Clearinghouse
Review job openings, schedule inter- Daily Door Prize Drawings feature a live interactive question-
views with more than 100 onsite Social Events and-answer session with
recruiters and sign up for career TESOLers in Brazil, Europe and
Networking Room Venezuela at 12:45-1:30 pm PST
counseling.
following the plenary in Seattle.
IEP Accreditation The third broadcast is titled
Workshop "Curriculum for Middle and
A preconvention work- Secondary School Literacy
shop will be held for inten- Development" featuring Mary Lou
sive English programs McCloskey, Alfredo Schiffini and
seeking accreditation. Lydia Stack and can be viewed on
Thursday, March 19, 9:30-10:15
Presentation of the am PST. TESOLers in Canada,
Pre-K-12 ESL Europe and Mexico will have the
Standards and opportunity to interact with
Assessment TESOLers in Seattle during this
The Standards Project session.
Team will present and dis- For more teleconference infor-
cuss the recently published mation, contact ACE network at
standards for ESL and its 850-784-9942 or go to www.ace-
implementation in public The WorldNet broadcast will facilitate the network.com.
schools. interaction of TESOLers worldwide.
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 25
i.)
W0g

Shenanigames is a Winner!
BY CHERYL PAVLIK
Asuccessful supplementary act- Each game begins with a sum- Obviously, a supplementary text
ivity book must contain a vari- mary so that teachers needn't read of this sort must be adaptable for
ety of activities and be easy to through all of the directions in order many different teaching situations.
use, flexible and fun. Shenani-games, to understand the point of the activi- The authors of Shenanigames have
a new book of ESL/EFL activities ty. In addition, a section entitled made their text flexible in several dif-
and games by James Kealey and "Preparation by Teacher" explains ferent ways.
Donna Inness, gets high marks in all everything that must be done before First, they often give alternate
of these categories. class. This section also includes notes directions for both small and large
To begin, the authors have and hints that will help the activity go groups. In addition, because they
included nearly fifty different activi- more smoothly. There is a separate know that class temperaments differ,
ties. In addition to new twists on old they also offer the option of a com-
favorites such as "Find Someone Grammar-Focused petitive or cooperative activity.
Who" and "Bingo," Shenanigames The games are also flexible in
provides a wealth of new activities terms of time. Some activities such as
including an imaginative group "Fractured Sentences" or "Condi-
crossword and a murder mystery that tional Chain Reaction" are short and
works! could easily be done in just ten or fif-
The activities are divided into SHENANIGAMES teen minutes. Some such as "The
twenty-two grammatical categories. I/ Great Modal Race Around North
Most of the grammar points covered r111,,, fir I,i Vc/ /1. t 1 '; America" require more time and
and 1;11"141
are normally taught in beginning and preparation.
lower intermediate classes; however, James Kealey Most of the games and activities
there are also some which address Donna Inness are appropriate for teenagers and
higher level structures such as the adults while some can even be used
future passive and the past perfect. with younger children.
Best of all, Shenanigames is very set of directions for students. This Shenanigames will be a welcome
easy to use. Many teachers have had eliminates the possibility that a addition to the textbook collections
the experience of having a "fun" teacher will give students incomplete of busy ESL teachers who understand
activity fail miserably because stu- or incorrect directions that doom the the importance of fun activities but
dents (and sometimes even the teach- activity before it begins. Finally, usually don't have enough time to
ers) did not completely understandKealey and Inness have done almost create them. Shenanigames, James
all of the prep work. Most activities
what to do. Kealey and Inness under- Kealey, Donna Inness; Pro Lingua
include photocopiable worksheets on
stand the pitfalls of game-playing and Associates, 1997, price: $23, 152 pp.
have designed virtually foolproof perforated pages for interactive use in
activities. the classroom.

Litig1ts4te Lattgi7si,
E very ESL teacher has his or her favorite class 350. After he inserted another quarter, the machine
story; these stories usually concern comical lin- displayed the digital letters "d i m e." To you and me
guistic/cultural misunderstandings. My own favorite this means ten cents. But he misread it as two separate
story occurred many years ago in a small ESL school words "d i" "m e" which means "tell me" in Spanish.
in Washington, DC. On the first day of school a young He leaned closer to the vending machine and whis-
Hispanic student joined our beginners' English class; pered: "Una Coca Cola por favor." Needless to say,
he had just arrived in the U.S. the other students died laughing and the story of the
During break he went to buy a Coke from the soda bilingual vending machine spread like wildfire!
vending machine. This machine contained a little win-
dow with a digital display. The display indicated how Dominick Egan teaches ESL to university students
much to insert for a soda, e.g., 600. The thirsty student at Catholic University in Washington, DC.
inserted a quarter and the machine promptly displayed
If you have a true and humorous ESL story you would like to share, e-mail it to eslmagazine@compuserve.com, subject: linguistic laughs.

26
27 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
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28
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 27
KOREAN STUDENTS
IN THE UNITED STATES
BY MARC VAN DER WOUDE

Korean students constitute a sig- rigorous education is crucial to their Eileen Sir of UCLA's Center for
nificant portion of the Ameri- children's well-being and that private Korean Studies, most Korean college
can ESL community. Accor- schools are better and more prestigious students new to the U.S. pass the Test
ding to Mr. Jung Kun Han, Educational than public schools. of English as a Foreign Language
Attaché at the Korean Los Angeles Koreans also attend Korean (TOEFL) in Korea before entering the
Consular office, there are 2,000,438 schools in large numbers. There are country. Of those who do not, many
Koreans living in the U.S. The largest over 470 Korean schools throughout study in U.S. colleges and universities
concentrations of Koreans can be the nation, mostly in the urban areas in ESL programs to improve their
found in the three major urban centers already mentioned. These are mainly English and prepare for the TOEFL.
of the U.S. The greater Los Angeles "Saturday schools" operated by com-
area and its well-established Korea- munity organizations which teach Education and Families
town are home to over 600,000 Korean and other subjects predomi- In general, the younger the student, the
Koreans and Korean-Americans, nately in Korean (Hangul). These more likely he is to have entered the
arguably the densest population of schools reflect the commitment of U.S. with his parents on a permanent
Koreans in the world outside Asia. Korean parents to maintain strong cul- basis. Typically, K-6 children, and
New York and Chicago are second and tural, social and familial ties with their even some middle school students,
third with 473,760 and arrive with their parents
225,598 Koreans and who have come to
Korean-Americans America for career pur-
respectively. poses and have acquired
Some Koreans immi- legal resident-alien sta-
grate to America at young tus. Often these families
ages while others move stay in the U.S. and
during their high school, eventually acquire citi-
college and later years. zenship.
Likewise, they arrive by Family arrangements
different means, pursue for the education of high
diverse goals and possess school students are
varying levels of cultural more diverse. Like
literacy and English skills. younger students, many
The wide range of ages, high school students
goals and language com- also enter the U.S. with
petency of these large their families, either
numbers of Korean stu- traveling with their par-
dents pose opportunities ents or joining family
and challenges for the ESL Over 2 million Koreans and Korean-Americans live in the U.S., members who have pre-
community. viously established resi-
comprising a large portion of the ESL community.
dency. These students
Public and Private Education country of origin, especially parents tend to achieve high marks and gradu-
At the elementary through high school with children who have resided in U.S. ate on time; they are motivated and
levels, many Koreans attend public since infancy or early childhood. While secure.
school in the U.S. Based on their expe- there are bilingual programs in public Other Korean parents place their
riences in Korea, families tend to have schools in the major U.S. cities, high school children with their broth-
an abiding faith in public education Korean parents generally seem to pre- ers, sisters or family friends in the U.S.
which, in Korea, is operated centrally fer instruction for their children in one while they, the parents, remain behind
through the Ministry of Education. language or the other, not both. in Korea, or, increasingly, in any num-
Therefore, many Korean parents hap- Korean college students in the ber of Latin American countries. Since
pily place their children in U.S. gov- U.S. attend public universities and col- the practice of leaving children with
ernment funded education leges in large numbers. Many Korean "aunts" and "uncles" can often be dis-
However, significant numbers of college students in the U.S. are here on ruptive to a family, it is not the most
Korean elementary through high some type of exchange program. desirable living arrangement. In terms
school pupils are switching to private Others enter college after having of academic performance, these stu-
schools. This trend reflects the perva- attended American high schools for dents tend to display the full spectrum
sive view among Korean adults that two or more years. According to Ms. from success to underachievement
28 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
' '
29
depending on many factors, not the
least of which is the legitimacy of their
immigrational status.
Academic Writing:
Another arrangement for high The Challenge for Korean Students
school students is the practice of par-
ents or guardians providing U.S. bank A II students entering our academ- in hagwon (private institutes), this is
accounts, automobiles and apartments ic English program (the English primarily to improve TOEFL scores
for their children, enrolling them in Foundations Program at Hawaii and little attention is paid to acade-
school then leaving them to their own Pacific University) take a battery of mic writing.
tests including sections on listening, Second, Korean students get
devices. The parents leave for overseas,
structure, vocabulary and reading very little practice with composition
and the guardiancommonly an older, comprehension, as well as a 35- in their first language. We have to
university-attending cousinoften minute writing sample and an oral question how much academic writ-
neglects his charge for his own studies. interview. Our experience has been ing in the Korean language is
Because of the sensitive nature of leav- that the weakest skill for Korean emphasized in the kugo (national
ing a minor unsupervised and because, students is usually the ability to language, i.e., Korean) courses.
technically, the paperwork for these compose a grammatical, coherent Most secondary classes and lower
students appears legitimate, there are essay in English. division college classes enroll well
few authorities willing to discuss this A more telling indication comes over 50 students, a fact that pre-
practice. Nevertheless, though nearly from the Test of Written English vents an average teacher from
impossible to confirm, this problem is (TWE) Guide, both the demanding many
well-known in Korean communities third edition (1992) essays or composi-
throughout America. and the fourth edition tions from students.
Paradoxically, the apparent indif- (1996), published by When they do, many
ference or neglect of Korean parents Educational Testing essays are short,
who leave their children in the U.S. Service (ETS) about personal, sentence-
while they reside abroad is actually an the results of the by-sentence, stream-
indication of their high regard for the TWE. This writing sam- of-consciousness
U.S. educational system and their great ple test is given with essays. This genre
desire to provide every opportunity for the TOEFL and is often does not trans-
scored on a 1-6 scale. late well into acade-
their child's prosperous future. In gen-
The TWE Guide gives mic English and will
eral, whether they live in Korea or in be criticized and
countries such as Paraguay, Chile, Peru score means of all
examinees over the scored low by native
and Guatemala where many Young Korean students get English teachers on
previous two years,
Koreans operate established businesses classified by native little composition practice. the basis of being
Koreans look upon America as a language. ETS warns "disorganized" or
paragon of higher education. that the "data do not permit any "without a thesis." If little practice
It is appropriate to note that since generalizations about differences in in academic writing is done in
many Korean students enter the United the English writing proficiency of the Korean by Koreans in Korea, we can
States through Latin America, English various national and language hardly expect a better show in
isoften their third language after groups" because "different selective written English.
Korean and Spanish. Additionally factors may operate in different This lack of experience with
among students of this group, linguistic parts of the world to determine who composition among Korean students
identification with the Spanish-speak- takes the test." Nevertheless, in has several implications for academ-
ing world, more than with Korea, is not 1992 the Korean mean (3.04/6.00) ic writing teachers. First, teachers
uncommon. For example, one of my was 113th out of 113 reported should be prepared to begin teach-
own students (we'll call her Se Young), languages groups, and in 1996 it ing writing at a lower level than with
who prided herself on her English (3.29) was 116th out of 117 other language groups. Second,
translation skills, volunteered to trans- reported language groups. With all there may need to be a particular,
late for a group of visiting Korean due respect to the ETS warning, sustained effort by teachers to help
exchange students. Se Young had lived these results lead us to conclude Korean students transition from
that Korean students are not doing writing sentences to composing
in Latin America for 12 years. When paragraphs. Finally, Korean students
she spoke to the Korean exchange stu- well on this widely used English writ-
ing test. may require special encouragement
dents in their native tongue, she was to think and write in English rather
We have come to two conclu-
met with stunned silence; Se Young sions as to why Korean written than rely on translation.
couldn't understand their reaction. English scores are so low. First, in
When she asked what the matter was, Korea, students get very little prac-
one Korean student boldly stated, "We Edward E Klein, Ph.D. is Professor
tice in English composition. of Applied Linguistics and Associate
don't speak Spanish. Please speak Composing English is not normally a
Korean." Dean of the English Foundations
part of the middle or high school
English curricula where grammar- Program at Hawaii Pacific University
In the Classroom translation approaches still domi- in Honolulu. He spent five years of his
Regardless of their country of origin, nate. In addition, though it is 30-year teaching career in Korea,
Koreans tend to be highly motivated, extremely common for Korean stu- teaching at the secondary and
eager and respectful in the classroom dents to do additional English study university levels and in a hagwon.
because of the strong emphasis on edu-
29
ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 20
cation in their culture. There are, how- equivalent idea in English, but it loose- total physical response (TPR) approach
ever, noteworthy linguistic and cultural ly translates to personal pride, dignity, is useful in acting out a transaction at
differences which present Korean stu- or feelings. If not careful, a teacher can McDonald's or the local CinePlex, for
dents with entirely new challenges in easily injure a Korean student's kibun. example. Classroom games such as
the American classroom. To insult or disgrace a Korean student "Twenty Questions" can help over-
For example, there are four main by personal confrontation or to prompt come the reticence common to many
levels of speech in Korean (intimate, performance through shame is a coun- Korean students and can encourage
plain, polite-informal and polite-for- terproductive classroom strategy; it is speech. Additionally, it is crucial to
mal), no explicit definite or indefinite likely only to incur a student's person- build a communicative, meaningful
articles and a subject-object-verb (S-0- al animosity and intellectual resistance. vocabulary that is specific to students'
V) syntactic pattern as opposed to the Once their kibun has been violated, it is lives. Vocabulary related to school,
English S-V-0. Phonologically, Kor- extremely difficult to regain their trust. American culture and sports (the NBA
ean vowels often merge so that in the Student trust can also pivot on the is highly popular among Koreans) is
English words "racquet" and "rocket," teacher's style of classroom manage- interesting and meaningful to them.
for eiample, there is no appreciable ment. Korean students come from a Finally, a useful tactic to assist
difference to the Korean ear. Other society based on strict hierarchies. The English language acquisition among
common speech hurdles include diffi- strong authority in their culture is Koreans is to learn a little Korean one-
culty pronouncing the English frica- reflected in schools and families; they self. A basic understanding of Korean
tives /f/, /v/, /z/, /6/ and /0/, which are are accustomed to discipline. There- greetings, phrases and formalities will
absent in Korean. Also, go a long way in discovering
Koreans have trouble pro- 544
the particular difficulties
nouncing "w" combined Korean students may
with certain vowels. For encounter. Korean classes
instance, the word "wood" is are offered in most major
often pronounced "oo-dah." urban areas. Also, In-Seok
Hence, I am often refefred to Kim's Colloquial Korean
not as Mr. van der Woude, (Rout-ledge, 1997) is an
but more commonly as Mr. excellent resource for begin-
"pen-deh-oo-dah" by native
Korean speakers. 11=1111.01111. ners and advanced students
alike.
Of course, there are cul-
tural as well as linguistic Looking Ahead
challenges in the classroom, Since 1976, over 30,000
a place where cultural values Koreans have immigrated to
become learning issues. For the U.S. annually, according
instance, in America, chil- Students at the L.A. Hankook School, California. to California's State Depart-
dren are taught to maintain ment of Education. Small
eye contact when addressed by an fore, a relaxed, laissez-faire instruc- Korean communities through-out the
adult. In Korea, where firm genera- tional approach is often not successful country have blossomed dramatically
tional hierarchies prevail, such bold- with Korean students. It confuses and within the last decade alone. The estab-
ness by a minor toward an elder could distracts them because educational lishment of major Korean media in our
be considered insolent. More than one informality contradicts their expecta- largest urban centers testifies to the
ESL/EFL instructor has thought that he tions. In my experience, Korean stu- increasing representation of Koreans in
was being ignored when, in fact, he was dents respond best to a highly disci- America's ethnically diverse society.
being shown all possible deference. plined, structured learning environ- The immigrational trend of Koreans
Another Korean value is group ment. When firm classroom leadership living and studying in the U.S. is
achievement. Emphasis is placed on is established early, the requisite trust expected to remain bullish (although
mass learning and deference to a supe- necessary for language acquisition can the recent economic crisis in Korea
rior's judgement instead of individual develop. may reduce new student numbers,
view points and critical thinking. For Successful classroom tactics for especially college exchange students,
instance, in Korean schools, havirig language acquisition among Korean for 18-24 months).
students speak aloud in class is not a students include sustained silent read- America remains a land of oppor-
popular mode of pedagogy. Expressing ing (SSR), role playing, games and tunity and dreams for many overseas
a personal opinion aloud could be con- meaningful vocabulary building. For Koreans, especially where education is
sidered arrogant, and asking a question SSR, I allot 10-20 minutes, allowing concerned. The challenge for American
insults the teacher's labors by admit- students to choose the reading material ESL professionals, now and in the
ting the student "doesn't understand." (as long as it is appropriate), reasoning future, will be to meet the educational
Therefore, in initial stages of instruc- that their interests, not mine, will build demands of these important members
tion, it can be difficult to draw out their literacy. I encourage popular of our national community.
Korean students to read aloud, answer youth literature such as the Sweet
questions or speak in front of class. Valley High series, Goosebumps and Marc van der Woude, M.A. teaches
Perhaps more so than students even comic books for beginners. Role English/ESL and is Chairman of the
from other cultures, Korean students playing of "real-life" situations in English Department at L.A. Hankook
can be sensitive due to their highly which students are likely to find them- School. He has served on the English
developed sense of kibun. There is no selves in America is also effective. A Textbook Review Committee in Seoul.
30
31 ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998
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ESL MAGAZINE JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1998 39 31


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TOEFL is switching to computer in selected areas
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It's part of ETS's ongoing program to improve TOEFL.
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03:00 Section : Reading Comprehension 1 of 6 5

birds have increased in numbers


since the settlement of the country,
owing to the increased food supply
resulting from cultivation; and in some
cases, at least, this increase has
taken place in spite of the fact that the Click on the phrase in
birds were extensively shot for food.
While the native prairies paragraph 2 that describes
produced an abundance of forage what blackbirds mainly ate
for the larger ruminants and small
rodents, they did not offer a great prior to the existence of crops.
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FEATURES
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The Mouse Replaces The Pencil:
TOEFL Goes Electronic
by Effie Papatzikou Cochran 10

Bring Language to Life! Page 10


Using Video in Your ESL/EFL Program
by Kathleen F. Flynn 18

Accuracy vs. Fluency:


Which Comes First in ESL Instruction?
by Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth 24

Russian Immigrants in the ESL Classroom:


Success, Motivation and Acculturation
by Michael Berman 28
Page 18
DEPARTMENTS
Editor's Note 4
Letters to the Editor 5
News Briefs 6
Conference Calendar 9
Technology 9
Reviews 17
Linguistic Laughs 17
New Products 27
Catalog Showcase 31
Page 24

Who's Reading ESL Magazine? Check out our


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Jodi Crandall
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Co-Director, ESOL/ What ESL
Bilingual Program and professionals earn
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And more! Page 28
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 3
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Changing the Way Editorial Director

We Test English! MARILYN ROSENTHAL

Editor
KATHLEEN R. BEALL
his issue of ESL Magazine focuses on one of the biggest
changes in language testing in decades. After 34 years on Contributing Editors
EFFIE PAPATZIKOU COCHRAN
paper, the TOEFL will be converted to a computer format MIRIAM EISENSTEIN EBSWORTH

beginning in 1998. Find out more about the big change and how you can KATHLEEN F. FLYNN
KEE WON LEE
help your students prepare. Effie Papatzikou Cochran's interview with
CHRISTINE MELONI

Julia ToDukta, Executive Director of TOEFL, and preview of the TOEFL SUSAN STEMPLESKI

BILL STOUT
tutorial will assist you on your way.
CINDY TRACEY

CHERYL PAVLIC
Video is a great way to bring life to your classroom and can
significantly enhance English language learning. Kathleen Flynn discusses Webmaster
CHARLES FOWLER
the benefits of using video and introduces some new products along with
guidelines for making the most of video in your English program. Advertising Sales
410-570-0746
410-798-5607 (fax)
Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth addresses the longstanding debate of eslmagazine@compuserve.com

accuracy versus fluency and gives advice to teachers on finding a balance Subscription Information
Introductory rate: 1 year, 6 issues, U.S.:
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North America: $34.95. All prices in U.S.
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For our international focus, Michael Berman shares stories and insights scribe, fill out subscription form on page
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ESL Magazine is published bimonthly
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ISSN: 1098-6553

Marilyn Rosenthal, Ph.D. ESL Magazine is abstracted and


indexed with ERIC.
Editorial Director
© 1998 Bridge Press, LLC, All rights reserved.

4
Z7 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
1g4VC4G2@, V® 411g gIDOVC,G2
ItY1111 or 1.01.11-11t At Itatil sow

I> I'd like to send my warmest con- Trippingly on the Tongue


Olbro era
gratulations and thanks to everyone at > Congratulations! A job well done!
ESL Magazine. What a quality publi- Very needed magazine! I consider
'11 cation! I've devoted the past three Joan Morley to be the "Moses" of ESL
years to creating interactive Web teachers, taking us to the "promised
pages for ESL/EFL students and ESL land," where pronunciation is
teachers from around the world, and it finally given its rightful place after so
was so refreshing to read Christine many years of neglect. In a brilliant,
Meloni's superbly written feature arti- yet easy-to-understand style, she
cle on using the Internet in the class- clearly defines that promised land and
Send your "letters to the editor" to room. Keep up the excellent work shows us the way to get there. In this
eslmagazine@compuserve.com or write
to ESL Magazine, 220 McKendree Ave., because my subscription is on its way! article she sets a definite path to fol-
Annapolis, MD 21401. Please include DAVE SPERLING low. I hope she continues writing on
your name and position or address. Creator of Dave's ESL Cafe the subject of pronunciation, so
teacher trainers and school administra-
Our Debut Issue I> I was very happy to read Christine tors start providing and supporting this
> Love ESL Magazine! Just exactly Meloni's article. It is a very useful type of training to present and future
what the ESL community needs introduction for ESL teachers who ESL teachers.
timely, comprehensive, stimulating want to get their virtual feet wet. MAYA LEON MEIS
articles. A fabulous publication. Vilmi's and Robb's side-bars offer a Community College of Denver, CO
EMILY
LITEs concrete and concise description for
> With the much needed refocus that
Chair, Materials Writers Interest Section teachers to follow. I hope you will pronunciation teaching and learning is
continue to invite teachers using the
beginning to enjoy, Joan Morley's arti-
1> News about what's happening in Web or e-mail to teach and share their
the profession, what new products and successes or failures, especially in cle was an excellent and timely dis-
other countries. I also liked the Web cussion-starter. The recently formed
materials are available, and valuable Speech/Pronunciation Interest Section
ideas for use in the classroomI site listing, which serves as a starter.
of TESOL had the article posted on
found them all in the issue of ESL LINDA MAK their bulletin board at the TESOL con-
Magazine that I received at the Hong Kong U. of Science & Technology
ference in Seattle, and literally crowds
TESOL Convention. This issue was of ESL teachers were reading and
enjoyable and informative. > My heartiest congratulations on the
premier issue of ESL Magazine. It's a commenting on its ideas. Your inclu-
KATHY TRUMP sion of Ms. Morley's article in your
George Mason University, VA wonderful addition to print media tar-
geted at ELT practitioners. I thorough- pre-conference edition helped stimu-
> Kudos on the first issue! ly enjoyed every page! I particularly late and focus the interest in speech/
KAREN ASENAVAGE enjoyed Christine Meloni's feature pronunciation.
Al Ain, United Arab Emirates article. Dr. Meloni communicated a LARRY MORGAN
Chair-Elect Speech/Pronunciation
wealth of information in a very reader-
C. Congratulations to the team for the Interest Section
friendly manner, and I've not seen
auspicious and far-sighted publication such a treatment of ELT and the Net
of ESL Magazine. I had the pleasure of
Korean Students in the U.S.
reading it over to cover. I suggest a
anywhere else. > I have just finished reading the very
The article provides an excellent helpful article on Korean students by
new section called "Quotes," where and markedly multifaceted overview
ESL/EFL professionals share favorite van der Woude. I found myself nod-
of how ESOL and the Net are coming ding in agreement throughout and
and relevant quotations. together and will, I firmly believe,
DR. FRANCISCO GOMES DE MATOS
plan on giving the article to my col-
become recognized as a classic docu- leagues. I especially appreciated the
Federal U. of Pernambuco, Brazil ment in the story of our profession and way he outlined specific linguistic and
The Internet in the Classroom its involvement with this new and cultural problems, expectations that
> I was pleased to see ESL Mag- exciting medium. I was also particu- students and families have, and sug-
azine's Web site online and Christine larly pleased to see such ESOL gestions on how to work with them. I
Meloni's excellent article "The Internet pioneers as Ruth Vilmi, Keji look forward to next month's article
Internet in the Classroom." I shared Kitao, Thomas Robb, Mark War- and hope this becomes a regular fea-
this resource with a group of about 80 schauer and Dave Sperling recognized ture in your magazine. Thank you.
teachers at a Conference in Comp- by name in the article. I greatly look CELIA O'MALLEY
iegne, France called "Multi-media et forward to future issues of ESL DePere, WI
langues etrangères" in March. It was Magazine and many more articles by Clarification:
"hot off the press." A nice "coup"! Dr. Meloni. Kudos! TESL-L and TESL-EJ are independent elec-
LINDA THALMAN DENNIS OLIVER tronic entities, which may have been unclear
WebFrance International Director Arizona State University
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
0. cr
in the Tech. Dept. of the Jan./Feb. issue.
5
MgC0@ B17301

TESOL'98 Sets United States-Puerto Rico


New Attendance Political Status Act
Record Passes in the House
With 9,300 attendees, TESOL '98 he United States-Puerto Rico Political Status
in Seattle, March 17-21 sur-
passed previous TESOL convention
T Act was passed in the House of Representatives
in early March and has been referred to committee
attendance records. The 1998 confer- in the Senate. A series of Senate "workshops" on
ence attracted about 800 more atten- the bill will begin in early April. The bill outlines a
dees than last year. The conference process by which Puerto Rico could vote to deter-
also hosted more than 150 exhibitors. mine its political status: a U.S. commonwealth as it
Besides the Seattle attendees, numer- is currently, a U.S. state, or an independent republic.
ous ESL/EFL The act declares that if Puerto Rico elects statehood, (1) any language
professionals requirements of the Federal Government would apply to Puerto Rico to the
participated in same extent as throughout the United States; (2) that it is in the best interest of
the confer- the United States to promote the teaching of English in Puerto Rico as the lan-
ence in 48 guage of opportunity and empowerment so that public school students achieve
U.S. states English proficiency by the age of ten; and (3) that a plan for transition to state-
and other sites hood should include proposals and incentives to enable the citizens of Puerto
around the Rico to expand their English proficiency, including using English as the lan-
world via guage of instruction in public schools, awarding fellowships and scholarships,
World Net and providing grants to organizations to promote English language skills.
broadcasts. Currently, the only language laws in the United States are in effect in
Puerto Rico where the official language of the Federal courts is English and
where English proficiency is required of those who serve on Federal juries.
New York Board Also, the non-voting delegate to Congress from Puerto Rico must be proficient
in English.
Proposes to
Eliminate ESL International Exchange
Certification Program for Teachers
ItheirnBoard
November of 1997, the New York
of Regents Task Force, in
document "Teachers for S
ince 1992 Rotary International
Clubs have sponsored teachers
language learners immersed in an
alien culture. The exchange prepares
Tomorrow," recommended eliminating from school districts, colleges, and teachers to better serve all interna-
ESL teacher certification for kinder- universities as teachers of English in tional students in their own their
garten through twelfth grade teachers. Spanish, Portuguese and Russian own schools.
In its place, the Task Force recom- language countries through the U.S. Rotary Clubs pay round
mended that teachers certified in areas Rotary InterCountry Teacher Ex- trip transportation and the host
other than ESL become ESL teachers change program. Club provides room, board
by taking a group of courses leading to Teachers have been and local transportation.
an ESL endorsement. The Task Force placed in over 50 dif- Teachers do not need
held hearings for public comment in ferent communities to speak the language
different regions of the state. Persons for four week ses- of the host country
wishing to comment were required to sions to teach practi- but should have a
sign up to speak. cal English to speak- strong interest in
The "Tomorrow" document is cur- ers of other languages learning.
rently being revised for a final vote by who would benefit Information about
the Board in April. ESL teachers, par- from a working knowl- the Rotary InterCoun-
ents, principals and members of the edge of English. try Teacher Exchange may
higher education community have vig- During the exchange, be found at: http://www.
orously opposed this proposed action teachers learn about the language, RITE-Teacher.com. (Rotary mem-
claiming the endorsement training culture, customs, history, and geog- bers may contact Conrad Heede at
would not produce competent ESL raphy of the host country. This inter- ccheede@aol.com Teachers may
teachers at a time when English stan- national experience provides teach- contact William Eubank at william
dards for graduation are being raised. ers with greater empathy for second @raytown.com.)

6 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


MgM3 B121:1CW@

INS Initiates Adult ESL Participation


Pilot Project for Increasing in the U.S.
International
Student Tthe total number of adult education clients receiving ESL instruction had
he last national study of adult education, conducted in April 1992, showed

increased by 268% over the 12 years since the previous study done in 1980. In
Information fact, adult ESL learners constituted a majority (51%) of adult education clients
in that year, receiving 76% of the hours of instruction (Wrigley, 1993).
he Immigration and Naturalization
T Service (INS) has undertaken a
pilot project, TheCoordinated
Chisman, Spruck-Wrigley & Ewen estimated that 1.8 million adults are
enrolled in some form of ESL instruction every year (Cohen, 1994).
Of the three most common types of literacy programsAdult Basic.
Interagency Partnership Regulating Education (ABE), Adult Secondary Education (ASE), and ESLESL is the
International Students (CIPRIS), fastest growing, serving the largest number of adult literacy students in the
which may lead to the redesign of the United States (Cohen, 1994). In these programs alone, enrollment of English
process of providing documentation language learners nearly tripled from 1980 to 1995, from 396,000 to over 1.4
for and keeping records regarding million in 1995 (Adult Learning & Literacy Clearinghouse, 1997). Most litera-
non-immigrant international students cy students enrolled in ESL programs reside in California, Texas, New York,
in the United States. This redesign Florida and Illinois, accounting for 75% of ESL enrollments nationwide (U.S.
would implement some of the require- Department of Education, 1996).
ments of the Illegal Immigration The National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education reports that many
Reform and Immigrant Responsibility more adult students are on waiting lists, particularly in urban areas. In San Jose,
Act of 1996. California, for example, more than 4,000 were reported on waiting lists, and a
The pilot will establish an INS Massachusetts Department of Education survey verified 15,000 on waiting lists
CIPRIS database and electronic statewide (National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education, 1996).
reporting of student information from Of the ESL students cur-
participating schools to the INS. The rently enrolled in adult educa-
CIPRIS Task Force includes represen- tion programs, the majority
tatives from the INS, the Department are Hispanic (69%) and Asian
of State, the United States Information (19%). Almost all ,reported
Agency (USIA), and the Department reading well in their native
of Education as well as various higher language; however, only 13%
education, data systems and telecom- reported speaking English
munications consultants and contrac- well at the time of enrollment,
tors. Twenty-two schools, institutions, and 73% were initially placed
and programs in Alabama, Georgia, in beginning level ESL class-
North Carolina, and South Carolina es (Fitzgerald, 1995).
are participating in the pilot.
As part of the CIPRIS project, a
student will eventually receive a
Student/Exchange Visitor Identifi-
Economic Hardships Affect
cation Card that will replace the 1-20 English Education in Korea
and the IAP-66. This card, rather than
he economic crisis in Asia has
a signed/endorsed 1-20 or IAP-66, will
allow students to depart and re-enter
T affected English language educa-
tion in South Korea. (South Korea
Native English-speaking teachers
who are already in Korea with current
contracts face difficulty because their
the U.S. freely as long as they main- received a $55-billion "rescue pack- salary is worth less than half of what
tain valid status and have a valid visa. age" from The International Monetary they expected when they first signed.
This will save time and effort for stu- Fund last December.) With the Korean Canadian James Smith, for example,
dents and school personnel. The won falling to half its value in just a signed a one-year contract with an
CIPRIS program, which will give few months, native English-speaking English academy in Sanbon city last
schools and the INS direct electronic teachers are rushing to leave Korea. November. He came to Korea to earn
communication via the Internet, will As a result, teaching English in money by teaching English in order to
also provide an easy way for schools public schools is being left to Korean pay off his college debt, but this is no
to notify the INS of changes in a stu- teachers. Many English institutes that longer possible for him. Sadly, many
dent or exchange visitor's status. This were once very prosperous are now in native English-speaking teachers face
will make it easier to assist the student the same situation. English education
danger of bankruptcy resulting from
or exchange visitor in maintaining decreased enrollment due to the is suffering as a result of the ailing
legal non-immigrant status throughout
scarcity of native English-speaking economy.
their stay in the United States.
teachers. by Korea Correspondent, Kee Won Lee
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 7
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8 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


lig@lial(DICDOW

"Mooing": Great for Language Learners


B Y CHRISTINE MELONI
Do your students want more practice the virtual campus. In the Student Union a MOO in a language other than your
communicating in English outside they can play Boggle, Scrabble, and native language. I enjoy visiting the
of class? Send them to a MOO other games. They can go to the library MOO Frangais for learners of French.
where they can practice their English to where they will find a resource room and For more information about MOOs:
their hearts' content 24 hours a day. stacks, or they can wander in the gar- D Welcome to schM0Oze!
MOO stands for Multi-user domain, dens. If they want to be alone, students http://schmooze.hunter.cuny.edu:8888
Object-Oriented and is a virtual world can go to their private dorm room. D Educational MOO: Text-based
where users can move around and "talk" Teachers can take their students to a virtual reality for learning in
(via the keyboard) to the people they schM0Oze classroom. There students communityAn ERIC Digest by
meet. It's like a chat room. can carry on a general class discussion, Lonnie Turbee. http://www.syr.edu/-
The most popular MOO for or they. can be divided into small groups lmturbee/ericdemo.html
ESL/EFL students is "schM0Oze where they will hear only the other stu-
dents in their group. They also have use Neteach-L MOO Sessions
University" created in 1994 by Julia http://spot.colorado.edu/-youngerg/net-
Falsetti and Eric Schweitzer, both of a blackboard and overhead projector.
A very convenient feature of this moo.html
instructors at Hunter College of the City
University of New York. There are MOO is that students can log their con- D Foreign Language MOOs
approximately 600 individuals who visit versations for reference later (if they http://www.cet.middlebury.edu/resource
schM0Oze regularly. have permission from the other partici- s/flMOOs.html
When one enters schM0Oze pants, of course). The Neteach-L D MOO Francais
University, there is a campus map. From Electronic List has periodic conferences http://moo.syr.edu/-fmoo
that point, one sees only words. at schM0Oze which are logged and MundoHispaho
However, when users enter the various available at Neteach-L's Web site. http://web.syr.edu/-lmturbee/mundo.html
areas, they find detailed descriptions Although schM0Oze is a virtual Questions and comments may be
which create vivid images in their minds. university, secondary and adult education sent to Christine Meloni at meloni@
Also, users can describe themselves so students will enjoy it as well. gwis2.circ.gwu.edu or Dept. of EFL,
that others know what they "look" like. An excellent way to get a feel for George Washington University, Wash-
Users can go to various locations on what your students experience is to visit ington, DC 20052.

Conference Calendar
March 1998 17 Louisiana TESOL (LATESOL) June
9-12 International Language Testing Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. 24-27 Association for Language
Association (ILTA), Monterey, California. Contact Jo Ann Robisheaux 504-549-5275, Awareness (ALA). Quebec, Canada.
Contact Dariush Hooshmand. jrobisheaux@selu.edu. Proposal deadline Contact Joyce M. Angio, 418-659-6600.
14-17 American Association for Applied March 1. Expected attendance: 100. Expected attendance: 125.
Linguistics (AAAL) Annual Conference, 3-4 Illinois TESOL-BE (ITBE) 24th Annual July
Seattle, WA. Contact Matt Howe, 612-953- State Convention, Chicago, IL. Contact 13-16 English Teachers' Association in
0805, aaaloffice@aaal.org. Exp.: 1,000+. Fran Michalski, 312-996-8098, michalsk Israel (ETAI). Jerusalem, Israel. Contact H.
17-21 Teachers of English to Speakers of @uic.edu. Expected attendance: 800. Hoffman, teumcong@netmedia.netil.
Other Languages (TESOL) Annual 23-26 California TESOL (CATESOL) Annual Expected attendance: 800.
Conference, Seattle, WA. Contact TESOL, Conference, Pasadena, California. 13-17 inaugural World Conference on
703-836-0774, conv@tesol.edu. Expected Conference Hotline: 626-583-4358. Computer Aided Language Learning, U. of
attendance: 7,500. Expected attendance: 2,500. Melbourne, Australia. Contact Fauth Royale
19-21 National Council of Teachers of 25 Eastern Pennsylvania TESOL fauroy@ozemail.com.au., http://www.arts.
English (NCTE). NCTE Spring Conference, (PennTESOL-East) Conference, unimelb.edu.au/hIc/worldcall/.
Albuquerque, New Mexico. Contact NCTE, Philadelphia, PA, Contact Tobie Hoffman, 28-August 1 Linguistic Association of
217-328-3870. 215-473-4430, fax 215 895-6775, Canada and the United States (LACUS),
1125-27 TESOL Arabia Conference, Al Ain, hoffmatl@duvm.ocs.drexel.edu. Exp.: 300. Claremont, California. Contact Ruth Brend
United Arab Emirates. Contact: Barbara May 313-665-2787, rbrend@umich.edu.
Kelly, 971-3-5046208, bkelly@hct.ac.ae. 7-9 Florida Sunshine State TESOL Annual 31-August 1 The Ohio State Conference
Expected attendance: 600. Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. Contact on Second Language Reading/Writing
26-29 3rd Pacific Second Language Judy Jameson, 352-331-4318, judy@cal. Connections, Ohio State University,
Research Forum (PacSLRF 98), Tokyo, org. Proposal deadline: March 15. Columbus, Ohio. Contact Coordinator,
Japan. Contact Peter Robinson, Expected attendance: 600. ESL Programs, L2Conference@osu.edu.
peterr@cl.aoyama.ac.jp. Expected: 500. 20-21 New Jersey TESOL/Bilingual August
April Education (NJTESOL/NJBE) Spring 10-12 National Council of Teachers of
15-18 32nd International Association of Conference, East Brunswick, New Jersey. English (NCTE), Bordeaux, France. Contact
Teachers of English as a Foreign Judith B. O'Loughlin, 201-652-4555, NCTE, 217-328-3870, 217-328-0977 fax.
Language (IATEFL) Conference, joesIteach@aol.com. Expected: 700+. 14-16 TESOL Academy, Seattle, WA,
Manchester, UK. Contact Jill Stadjuhar 20-23 Centre for Research on Language Seattle University. Contact Stephen Grady,
e-mail 100070.1327. Exp.: 1,500. Teaching and Learning (CREAL), Canadian 703-836-0774, sgrady@tesol.edu.
IM 2-4 Tennessee TESOL (TNTESOL) Association of Applied Linguistics (CAAL) Ili 27-30 international Association of
Conference, Knoxville Hilton, Knoxville, International Congress, Ontario, Canada. Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
Tennessee. Contact Margi Wald, 423-974- Contact Chantel Dion, 613-520-2600, (IATEFL), Constantsa, Romania. Contact
4890, mwald@utk.edu. Expected att. 150. Expected attendance: 400. IATEFL, 100070.1327@compuserve.com.
441`,-J
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 9
The Mouse Replaces
The Pencil:
TOEFL Goes Electronic
BY EFFIE PAPATZIKOU COCHRAN, ED.D.

initial conversions sched-


With large-scale revisions and improve- staying current with technology. ETS
uled for July 1998, the Test of ments to the TOEFL test, which has recognizes that this can only be
English as a Foreign Language been developed and administered by accomplished over time. The CBT is
(TOEFL) will eventually reside exclu- ETS over the last 34 years. The pro- the first computer-based effort. It is an
sively on computer. Thus, Educational ject has been spearheaded by the electronic platform to help create new
Testing Service (ETS) officials TOEFL Policy Council, a 15-member items to improve the test and bring
observe, there will be no more test board consisting of deans, admissions about other changes.
booklets and blackening of little ovals officers and international student Dr. Julia ToDutka, Executive
with a number two pencil. Faster test advisors from primarily North Director of TOEFL, says about the
results and a greater variety of testing American colleges and universities. TOEFL CBT, "We're supporting the
times and dates are among the advan- The TOEFL program has been work- improvement of language and test
tages offered by the new platform. ing closely with the Policy Council's assessment. We've responded to a
However, everyone is curious about Committee of Examiners to imple- challenge from higher education."
how this technological advance will ment the changes. Dr. ToDutka is no stranger to the
work, and some are a bit worried. The hope is that the redesigned world of English language students,
Aren't there still parts of the world TOEFL will better simulate the way being a non-native speaker of English
where computers are not yet com- people actually communicate, be herself and a former ESL instructor,
monplace? What about students who more performance-based, and assess teacher trainer, and college dean. She
are not computer literate or even key- more accurately the ability of interna- gets very excited describing what the
board comfortable? tional students to communicate in aca- new TOEFL CBT can offer: "It
demic settings. enables us to look at issues of com-
The Impetus for Change The Policy Council recognizes municative competence."
The TOEFL computer-based test that computers are the direction of the Having herself taken the TOEFL
(CBT) is part of the TOEFL 2000 ini- future and cannot be ignored. TOEFL 25 years ago, ToDutka brings to this
tiative that began in 1993. The intent must be ready to serve students and test conversion a personal perspective
of the TOEFL 2000 project is to make institutions as well as possible by on the human experience of TOEFL

What the new CBT offers:


more flexibility for scheduling the exam; topic orientation and context-setting visuals
test dates will be completely replaced by during the Listening section
continuous testing in permanent and mobile
closer text interaction in the Reading section
computer testing centers worldwide
writing assessment via typed or handwritten
faster score reporting; concordance table
essay with every TOEFL administration
available in May
assessment tailored to each examinee's
a more private test environment with
ME level of abi I ity
personal volume-control headphones
electronic platform for future innovations in
greater examinee control over the pace of
test design
the Listening section

10 4'3 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


exams. She promises that ETS will have answered correctly the same takers in some Asian countries, more
continue to work closely with number of questions, the one whose infrastructure and system work needs
ESL/EFL professionals during the questions were more difficult will get to be in place to satisfy assessment
TOEFL transformation process. a higher score. design. Hence, the period of prepara-
Furthermore, in order to strength- Another benefit for examinees tion for Asia is longer.
en the TOEFL and the ancillary ser- will be the way the test is adminis- Testing will eventually be avail-
vices the program offers, she looks tered. They will no longer be tested able at more than 650 centers through-
forward to meeting with educators in together in a large room; each individ- out the world.
the field who will bring to the atten- ual will sit in a private carrel with
tion of ETS those language issues headphones and individual volume Q: Now will the score scale
which may have been overlooked. To control, all of which should enhance be changed and how will
that end, she hopes to work with mem- their ability to concentrate. scores be reported?
bers of the teaching community both In addition to these benefits, by A: New scales are anticipated for all
in the U.S. and around the globe. She phasing out the "paper and pencil" test sections due to the addition of the
describes the entire process "an and using computer technology, ETS
important partnership for the constant is moving into a brand new generation
essay and new question types. A con-
improvement of our services." of language assessment options. From cordance tablerelating scores on the
The following is based on an this electronic platform, the door to paper-based and computer-based
interview with Dr. ToDutka. future innovations in test design is testwill be available in May to assist
wide open. score users in setting new standards.
Q: What will be the benefits For instance, types of questions Until full transition to CBT is
of the TOEFL CBT? that could not be included with the achieved, institutions will receive both
A: The score reporting on paper-based and
the new test will be con- CBT scores.
siderably faster. The Electronic Score
exam's computerization Reporting will al-
will make it possible for low institutions to
the scores of some sec- download their test
scores from ETS.
tions to appear immediate-
The target date for
ly on the screen for the this is fall 1998.
examinee to see. Official
scores will be sent within Q: What has Ers
10 to 15 days (rather than done to study
four to six weeks), the effects of
depending on the time
required to score the
. ii computer
I 0 literacy on test
essay, which will now be
111

scores?
included with every A: In response to
TOEFL administration. the apprehension
Also, in many locations a test paper-based test can be introduced in that there will be a negative effect on
taker will be able to retake the test the futurefor example, a speaking examinees who are not familiar with
once per calendar month. component and other performance- the computer or keyboarding, ETS has
Another benefit is that assessment based questions.
done a two-phase international com-
of the test taker's language skills will
Q: When exactly will the TOEFL puter familiarity study. ETS analyzed
be more individualized. The Listening
and Structure sections are computer- CBT come to the U.S. and other 90,000 questionnaires from 1996
adaptive. This means that each exami- parts of the world? TOEFL test takers. The findings were
nee begins with an intermediate level A: Implementation will be inaugurated that 50% were excellent in computer
question. If the examinee answers it this summer when ETS introduces skills, 34% had intermediate skills,
correctly, the next question is typical- computer-based testing for TOEFL and 16% had low skills.
ly more difficult; if the answer is examinees everywhere except select The high and low familiarity
incorrect, the next question is typical- Asian countries. Those Asian coun- groups were given a computerized
ly less difficult. The TOEFL CBT will tries will follow by the year 2000, so tutorial and then administered some
be, in effect, a test in which every test that by then, the TOEFL CBT will computer-based test questions. When
taker has a completely individualized have completely replaced the tradi- the two groups' performances were
experience, always working at his or compared, it was deterinined that no
her own ability level. tional test throughout the world.
After the CBT becomes opera- practical differences existed in CBT
The new computer-adaptive sec- performance between the experienced
tions will take question difficulty into tional in a country, the option of taking
the paper-based test will no longer computer users and the computer
consideration when scoring those novices after adjusting for language
parts. Thus, even if two examinees exist. Due to the large numbers of test
ability.
4. d
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 11
Q: What is ETS doing to prepare having had good language instruction.
test takers for the computer- Behind every good test taker is a good
based platform? teacher. The relationship between
A: Beginning in March, and for a assessment and instruction must be
whole year, ETS is offering to affirmed as TOEFL makes its transi- all
prospective test takers a free tutorial tion to CBT. The tutorial is intended to test
with 67 practice items on a multime- teach the computer skills needed for takers.
dia CD-ROM. the CBT. The major
Examinees don't need to be con- investment
cerned about their typing skills Q: Who is footing the bill in the CD-
because they have the option of hand- for aU0 these changes? ROM tutorial at-
writing the essay. tests to ETS's wish to
A: ETS is making the financial invest-
be fair to test takers in all countries
Q: How can teachers help stu- ment in the development of the inter- and make it possible for everyone to
dents prepare for the new test? national testing network and has con- become familiar with the test.
A: The 67-question CBT CD-ROM tracted with Sylvan Learning Systems
Sampler will be available to anyone to set up computer testing facilities Conversion Concerns
who wishes to learn about the TOEFL worldwide. While the CBT is a truly visionary
CBT. Teachers can help by encourag- In addition, the TOEFL Policy idea and ETS is working to improve
Council is presently exploring the test its practical application, the big ques-
ing students to complete the tutorial to
fee structure and how it might possi- tion on everyone's mind is, of course,
familiarize themselves with the com- bly be modified to assist needy indi-
ponents of the new test. This will help "what about international students
vidual applicants. (The fee for the test who are neither familiar with comput-
alleviate any apprehension they may is $100 domestically and $125 er terminology nor have significant
have about the change. Obviously, stu- abroad.) The Council is seeking to computer skills?"
dents need good language instruction implement ideas that will work and ETS admits that access to com-
as well as some computer skills in does not wish to block access to any- puters for practice is important. The
order to do well on this new TOEFL one. They will continue to explore tutorial helps examinees become
CBT. Students can't do well without options that will be equitable for familiar with the test format and to
learn the basic computer skills need-

Tempo Bookstore ed for the test.


It is difficult to believe, however,
that test takers with low computer
The Languages Resource Center skills will not be adversely affected by
the CBT format. Critics of the transi-
To Learn Foreign Languages and English as a Second Language (ESL)
tion may say that the conversion dates
Translation Aids Cassettes Children's Visual Aids
Language Videos Language Arts Electronic are premature.
Teacher CD-ROM's (Preschool & K-12; Translators The improvements in the TOEFL
Resources CD's ESL; Phonics; Special Book test, however, do hold promise for
Dictionaries Cards Bilingual; Requests: Any those committed to quality language
(Worldwide & Games Multicultural) Title, Any Field
Special Fields) instruction and assessment.
202-363-6683 For More Information
4905 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington D.C. 20016
Fax: 202-363-6686 E-Mail: tempobookstore@usa.net For updates on the CBT and other
Mon-Sat: 10-10, Sun: 11-7 information, visit ETS's Web site at
www.ets.org. Details about ETS's
TOEFL computer familiarity study, its

Shenanigames concordance table, as well as specific


information on test registration and
payment, test center locations, and
Grammar-Focused testing policies are also available on
the TOEFL Web site. Teachers can
ESL-EFL Activities and Games also join the Internet mailing list by
typing their e-mail addresses at
Dr. Donna Inness and Dr. James Kea ley www.toefl.org/edindx.html or by call-
49 grammar games for middle school to adult learners ing 609-771-7100.
96 pages of photocopyable masters
$23.°° plus s8rx Visa/MC/AmEx Effie Papatzikou Cochran, M.Ed.,
Ed.D. is Associate Professor in the
PRO LINGUA ASSOCIATES Department of English at John Jay
15 Elm St. Brattleboro, Vt 05301 USA 800-366-4775 College of Criminal Justice in the City
University of New York.

12 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


The TOEFL Computer-Based Test
(CBT) in Brief
The TOEFL CBT has four sections. It has the three a sentence with four underlined parts, click on the part
sections that the traditional TOEFL has (Listening, which is grammatically incorrect; 2) Given a sentence with
Structure, Reading) but will include a written essay a blank in it and a list of four words or phrases, click in
with every test administration. The Listening and Structure the oval next to the word or phrase that correctly com-
sections are computer-adaptive which means that they pletes the sentence.
begin with questions of intermediate difficulty then pro-
ceed to questions that are easier or more difficult based Reading
on the student's responses. The questions are presented The Reading section measures a non-native speaker's
one at a time. The student cannot proceed without answer- ability to understand non-technical reading material and
ing the question; neither can the student go back and allows closer interaction with the text than was possible
change an answer once it has been confirmed. The with the paper-based test. The student is first presented
Reading and Writing sections are not computer-adaptive. with a text which he or she must scroll through to read in
its entirety. The student may not proceed to the questions
Listening without reading the text (or at least scrolling through it).
The Listening section measures the candidate's ability to Questions are then presented one by one along with the
understand spoken North American English. The TOEFL text. The section is not computer-adaptive, so the student
CBT allows test takers to listen through a set of head- may skip questions and return to them later or return and
phones to conversations, lectures, and group discussions change answers.
accompanied by appro- The examinee is asked
priate visuals on their to demonstrate comprehen-
monitors. For the conver- sion by identifying main
sations, the image on topics and supporting
the screen depicts the ideas, making inferences,
people talking but does identifying the author's
not present pictures purpose, specifying the
related to the content of meaning of words in con-
the conversation. For text and identifying refer-
some of the lectures, in ents. There are several
addition to a picture of 'question formats: 1) Given ,
the person lecturing, a question with four
there may be pictures or answers listed beneath it,
diagrams that relate to choose the best answer
part of the lecture. The (words or pictures) by click-
listening stimulus and its Y ing on the oval next to it;
visual(s) are presented 2) Given a question,
t,
first and only once. The answer it by clicking on the
student then hears and The CBT adds new question type s and an essay to every test appropriate word, phrase,
sees the questions one sentence or paragraph in
at a time. Finally, the
administration. the passage; 3) Given a
possible answers appear along with the question. sentence and a reading passage marked with several pos-
There are three question types: 1) Single-answer sible insertion points, point to the place in the passage
questionsgiven a question and four answers, click with where the sentence could be best inseeted.
the mouse on one answer. The answers may be either
words or phrases with ovals which darken when clicked, Writing
a set of pictures from which one must be selected, or a The Writing section assesses the student's ability to write
single picture or diagram with several labeled parts; a well-organized essay in standard English on a given
2) Questions with more than one answergiven a topic. The essay can be handwritten or typed on the
question and a list of answers, choose all the correct computer. If it is to be handwritten, the test center sup-
answers by clicking in the box next to each one. Selected plies paper for outlining and writing notes as well as the
answers will be marked with an "X" (rather than the official Answer Sheet for the final essay. Thirty minutes
darkened oval of the single-answer questions). Answers total are allotted; this includes time for planning and
can be unselected by clicking on the box again. revising the essay. The essay will be graded by two
3) Matching or ordering questionsgiven a set of words readers using the same criteria that are used for the Test
or phrases and a set boxes, move a word or phrase into of Written English (TWE). The essay score will be combined
the correct box by clicking on one then the other. The with the Structure score and will count as one half of the
boxes may be numbered to represent a sequence or may Structure/Writing scaled score. The rating on the essay
be labeled with terms or categories. will also be reported separately.

Structure Scoring
The Structure section will measure the international The examinee will receive a scaled score for each section:
student's ability to recognize standard written English. 0-30 for Listening, 0-30 for Structure/Writing, 0-30 for
The student will respond to two question types: 1) Given Reading. There is also a total scaled score of 000 to 300.
EPC
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 13
CD-ROM TOEFL Sampler:
A Tutorial for Taking the TOEFL on Computer
How will the new computer-based Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0, 8 or such as the clock, "help", "confirm
format affect test takers? ETS more megabytes of RAM, CD-ROM answer" and "next" (question). It also
hopes to prepare test takers as drive, VGA display with 640x480 res- explains the screen layout, which dis-
much as possible and minimize any olution and 256 colors, a sound card, plays the name of the section, the time
potential negative effects of the new speakers and a mouse. Without sound remaining, the number of the question
computer version. Just as sample tests capability, one can still use the struc- on the screen over the total number of
have helped test takers prepare for the ture, reading and writing parts of the questions in the section. Instructions
traditional TOEFL, a sample comput- tutorial. Simple installation instruc- about selecting, cutting and pasting
er test should help students prepare for tions come with the CD which will are provided in the writing lesson.
the TOEFL computer-based test create a TOEFL folder on your hard The four remaining lessons cover
(CBT). drive when installed. each section of the test. Each les-
son gives general informa-
The Need for a Tutorial tion and "rules" about the
ETS recognizes that all stu- test section so that
dents, those with computer Plel. examinees will know
skills and those without, will what to expectfor
benefit from direct experience example, whether or
with the computer format. not questions may be
Thus ETS has produced the skipped and returned
TOEFL Sampler to orient all to, how much time is
test takers to the new format allotted or whether or
and also to teach some basic not one may take notes.
computer skills to those with lit- The lessons then
tle or no computer experience. demonstrate the question
Based on their computer famil- types and give step-by-step
iarity study, ETS has high hopes instructions on how to answer them.
that their Sampler will level the Lessons also include practice ques-
playing field for test takers. tions. The Listening section provides
ETS has produced 440,000 copies Description of the Tutorial 27 practice questions. There are 20
of the free Sampler which is available The TOEFL Sampler consists of Structure practice questions and 20
on compact disc (CD) or can be down- seven lessonsthree on basic com- Reading questions. The Writing sec-
loaded from the TOEFL Web site at puter skills and four on the test itself. tion provides four practice questions
www.toefl/org.cbtutprq.html. The sys- The Basic Computer Skills tutorial along with six graded sample essays,
tem requirements for the Sampler are: explains how to point and click with one to represent each possible score
a personal computer with at least a the mouse, how to scroll through a from 1-6, i.e., failing to top passing
486 processor, Windows 3.1, text and how to use the testing tools score. After the practice questions

Milestones in ESL Testing by Bill Stout, The Lado TEFL Certificate Program
1.903 19 64
Frederick Kelly's Robert Lado Robert Lado introduces the The inception of Friedman's
Silent Reading introduces the English Test for Foreign the TOEFL, which dissertation
Test is published, Test of Aural Students (the Michigan is designed as proposes
the first ever Comprehension Test), a discrete-item exam an admission cloze reading
multiple choice in English as a focusing on first language criterion for tests for ESL
test in any subject. Foreign language. interference errors. universities. students.

.1 9
Inception of U. Jeanne The College Board and John Carroll coins the terms for
of Cambridge Greenleaf's French ETS publish English "discrete-point" and "integrative"
Certificate of Pronunciation Test Examinations for Foreign testing, stating a preference for the
Proficiency in makes use of the Students. latter because it offered "broader
English (CPE). newly invented and more diffuse sampling over the
dictaphone. total field of linguistic items."

14 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


Ell
have been answered, the questions, Help Odelsting - Practice Questions & Review C0000nlla1338.E11
takes getting used to. Concepts such
14.3
the student's answers and the status as pointing to, selecting or clicking on
flat was ems storm we
of each (correct, incorrect or not lent night] icons or text, advancing to other
'Did your power go net?
answered) appear in a table format It oar. didl screens or returning to previous
for review. Examinees may revisit And then my alarm did.. menus will be new concepts for many.
off tlros morning. so I
questions by clicking on them in oy first closet
:

In addition, there is new vocabulary.


the table. Although some computer terms such
as "icon" and "scrolling" are defined
Strengths of the TOEFL Tutorial when first used, others such as
The tutorial certainly accomplishes "menu" and "click" are not.
the goal of orienting students to the (=> Furthermore, in order to access the
computer format. It introduces all lesson on how to use a mouse, one
the question types and provides a must click with the mouse through at
A screen from the TOEFL Sampler
large number of practice questions. least five screens.
It also allows students to review listening
File
practice section.
0010.91.
Finally, although the differences
Reading Comproheasthe Practice Questions A Review C
their answers. The graphics are between the Sampler and the test itself
good, and the topics are interesting.
Also, students can "pause" in the
NOW was d that enabled earth hanene to control
The use of fire: NUM keep e firs gothg for an
WIPft3
tg
"If:WI
are emphasized at several points in the
equation length of ante end then tc am moaned in
Posing oe ON ebON from IP...Om lo Pner.th...,
c't it
i con Orl
tutorial, examinees may find it diffi-
gn.

listening sectionthe picture In order to moor Mth geonma it rrmy be uodut to


defingOsh between the ptheicaL mental. erd social
cult to keep the differences straight.
freezes and the talk stops, but the preconditions thin were necessary. No doubt math
Pthrthool thalweg em wed pasture and dm
owthamteta (Weida for drying °Reds SI Me nod
written text is there for the students and marrodang them mem essonlial. Even theme
bonne could make fros themselves. one of the Recommendations
to read before they go back to the edolronee OW foY Sod Kea* &of Prootee ee
well) had over other enimida was that they were able Anyone planning to take the TOEFL
at holds Wicks Isith which May could rummage in Pm
sound with the picture. Upon com- smothering fire *Shout getting burned. Afier a forest
fire fey were able to search through the ashes for
computer-based test should use the
pletion of an exercise, the program food end probably naked OW key night prolong the
Myth bonne by Ihrowing Mendes on a Even mom tutorial. Those with limited computer
important. hummer. was Me celooN lo Pidl oP
encourages the student with, burning mane, end tramped b In a phco wawa it
=Ad not be adinguished by rain or wthd.
skills will need support using the
Proceed
"Good, you have completed the Ella Ws vms Weedy no Orte s molter cd de
Sampler. English language programs
exercise." Also, it provides addi- L.4 could perhaps use the Sampler in a
tional prompts if one makes a mis- A screen from the TOEFL Sampler TOEFL preparation class to ensure
take or pauses for too long. reading practice section. that their students use it and to help
Re thdp TOEFL Sampler Omegans IMO ET
them in doing so.
Concerns enislitall .ilviz_l
Do you agree or disagree with the following statemend
Teantana &foot l asht lelortiag embyalde sod Iva la Itoati. sitodeatx
ETS still needs to address the ques- Ube moms w4 epwific %samples Ito suppon yaw opinion. For More Information
tion of access. Will students without Score 5
Sims&
An essay othisleme
_
For updates on the CBT, the TOEFL
- ellectivegroddlesses the enrol; task
computer experience, who perhaps l '
Saxe 5
- Onall merited and well developed
- uses dearly appropess dosses to support e ewes or derstreste ideas
Sampler and specific information on
need the tutorial more than anyone, s
- displays consistent toady into use ol lengunge
- demonstrates syrdacticththey and epproptiele ward choice test registration and payment, test cen-
have access to the computer system s
Some 4
Estax
i do strimgly mwpon Me Wee Mel Mathew shrwld mWm Warning enimmble
ter locations, and testing policies, visit
needed to use the Sampler? Also, Soon 3
44 hm for the students. TN. I support with Ms fogoning masons.
First hil us Oka Me pthrothologioN component of a Mothm. A child orOldaN ETS's Web site at www.ets.org or call
many schools and students have S... 2
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presented M en tharesting end enjoyable manner. U eel Mwe W missy ildhord
MW Me mho 4d be wean or will raNd Me mew pmeented as he
609-771-7100. Teachers can also join
Macintosh computers and cannot awW4m, studying is a burden on him.
My Second point I. that he presets day Emden, faces tremendous amount of the Internet mailing list by typing their
use the PC-based tutorial. ETS is Scans I dioniroons such as Seaman rolestsion Progrenowei Our" diot".6. Imi
momenta some wd many more. To gel Me elutthms moth from 0 Mese and th e-mail addresses at www.toefl.org/
looking into this option, however. edindx.html.
For those without computer t EPC
experience, the Sampler will be a A screen from the TOEFL Sampler Sampler screen images reprinted with permission
challenge. Any computer platform writing practice section. from Educational Testing Service, copyright owner

1979
The first meeting of the
1997 Language Testing Research
Colloquium. 1984 1990's
Language
The University of First Testing The International
Michigan Conference The Test of English for issue si=i=1Q= Language Testing
debates the emphasis International Communi- of the Association and the
on discrete-point vs. cation (TOEIC) first adminis- journal Association of
integrative testing. tered; in Japan; designed Language Language Testers in
for non-academic purposes. Testing. Europe are founded.
ac?.11(0
g(91g3(0) 1.19910

1970'0 1976 1932 1989 less


John 011er continues The TOEFL is ACTFL Provisional TOEFL first TOEFL
research on the revised and Guidelines are published includes the Test moves to TOEFL
validity and benefits condensed with scales for speak- of Written English computer
of cloze format test- from five ing, listening, reading, (TWE), an essay based
ing of integrative sections to writing, and culture (cul- test of academic format.
language skills, three. ture was later dropped). writing proficiency.
1

ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 48 BEST COPY AVAILABLE 15


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The Ultimate in Survival English!


BY CINDY TRACEY
EF Multimedia has published sever- paper by making the sentences fit, fol- nique" which allows the user to freely
al delightful and truly innovative low the directions from an old map and turn around a full 360 degrees and view
programs for ESL/EFL students, perform other tasks through conversa- the surroundings. The game also fea-
one of which is "Escape from Planet tures three dimensional graphics and
Arizona," designed for intermediate specially composed sound and music.
level ESL learners, ages 12 to adult. i The playing time is approximately
The underlying premise is that 40 hours. Users can save their
the user is an alien whose spaceship progress to pick up where they left
has crash-landed in the Arizona off the last time they played.
desert. In order to get the parts need- The beauty of "Escape from Planet
ed to repair the ship, the alien must Arizona" is that English learners
interact with the humans in the near- become engaged in this software
by town. It must look for clues and because the graphics, plot and char-
follow directions to obtain the neces- acters are so intriguing.
sary parts. With the help of actors and tions with the characters. Each charac- The CD-ROM is a hybrid designed
QuickTime video, the user is quickly ter has something they need the alien to for Windows 3.11, Windows 95 or
immersed in a town and meets a banker, help them do. Once the task is complet- Macintosh. There are translations avail-
artist, librarian, saloon keeper, and other ed, they provide the necessary parts for able in Spanish, French, German,
townspeople. the spaceship. But time is limited Italian, Swedish and Japanese.
When the user meets one of the because the alien may run out of food Available from World of Reading at
characters, he or she must respond to and die. 800-729-3703. The suggested retail
the character by clicking on one of sev- There is a glossary with definitions price is $60 and site license pricing is
eral sentences. Each sentence elicits a of all the vocabulary used, so when the available; however, due to the extensive
different response from the character. user goes to the saloon, for example, video, it is not networkable.
The various personalities keep the story and is offered a "Sasparilla Float," he or
interestingthe banker is prim and she can access the dictionary to see
proper and becomes rude when she what this drink is. There is even a Europe $235
realizes the alien doesn't know what an "cheater's guide" available if one gets
ATM card is; the artist is a free spirit,
etc.
really stuck and does not know how to
proceed.
Asia $370
The user learns how to make a tele- The program was developed using
phone call, put together a torn piece of "Quick Time Virtual Reality Tech- So. America $167
Fly as an international courier for
Letteig1ts4te Lattg17s! the "big name" freight companies.
It's the cheapest way to fly. Over
ne of the teachers from our ESL school tutors in the home of a young 1000 r/t flights weekly.
O Japanese woman who has a new baby. During a lesson last April, the
woman told her tutor that she loved the American tradition of announcing Examples:
Europe, Middle East,Africa: Amsterdam,
to the neighbors a child's first steps. The teacher said that she didn't know Brussels, Cairo, Cape Town, Copenhagen, Dublin,
of such a tradition, so the student walked her teacher over to a neighboring Frankfurt, Johannesburg, London, Madrid, Milan,
apartment where a sign prominently proclaimed the Easter message, "He Nairobi, Paris, Rome, Stockholm,Tel Aviv, Zurich.
has risen!" Asia, Pacific Rim, South Pacific: Auckland,
Kaleen Wineinger, M. A. Bangkok, Beijing, Brisbane, Cairns, Hong Kong,
Honolulu, Manila, Melbourne, Seoul, Singapore,
Director, The English Workshop Sydney,Taipei,Tokyo.

A n ESL teacher holding and end-of-term party at her house noticed that Mexico, Central and South America: Buenos
A
...there wasn't enough ham on the table. She gave a young Spanish
student $10 and asked him to buy ham at the corner shop. Ten minutes
Aires, Caracas, Guatamala City, Guayquil, Kingston,
La Paz, Lima, Managua, Mexico City, Panama, Quito,
Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, San Juan, Sao Paulo, Santiago.
later he returned with his bounty, but when the teacher opened the bag, she
didn't find any ham. Instead, there were three jars of jam inside. She had AIR COURIER
forgotten that the "h" sound in Spanish is represented by the letter "j". For a FREE
When the misunderstanding was discovered, everyone laughed (ja, ja, ja). info kit call
Dominick Egan
Catholic University, Washington D.C. 1-800-822-0888
ASSOCIATION,
Denva; Colaacb 303-215-9000
E-mail your true and humorous ESL story to eslmagazine@compuserve.com, subject: linguistic laughs. http://wwwaircourier.org

ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 50 17


Bnng
Language to
Using Video in Your ESL/EFL Program
BY KATHLEEN F. FLYNN, PH.D.
Are you looking for a way to Students can see facial expressions, allow the them to be copied (with per-
liven up your classroom? Do gestures, and whether the speaker is mission), so that students can rent the
you want to get your students hesitant or not about a particular sub- videos or tape them off the air and
more involved? Try video! The videos ject. They can observe the body lan- them watch them at home.
available today bring language to life guage of a situation, how far apart Videos appeal to a wide variety of
in the classroom. They get students people stand, how the characters react today's ESL students. Younger stu-
involved in cultural situations, job to emotional situationsinformation dents are part of the video generation.
hunting, family matters, even person- that is difficult to get from a book or Many are more comfortable watching
al decision making. an audio tape. This context has sever- videos than reading books. Many
Are you curious about using al advantages. adult learners need to see cross-cul-
video? Consider all the advantages. First, the language is authentic; tural situations being acted out. This
One characteristic of video is that it this motivates students and also teach- adds to their confidence in facing new
presents language in the context of es language that is useful. In addition, situations in a new language.
life; it shows students how language the context increases the probability Finally, videos offer flexibility.
is used naturally in realistic settings. that the second language input will be Many adult ESL learners have fami-
comprehensible; hasn't everyone had lies and/or are working and have to
L" the experience of being able to guess manage their study time carefully.
the meaning of something said in a Students can go to a lab or check out
foreign language because of the con- a tape and watch it several times.
text in which it was said? Moreover, Slower learners can spend more time
the settings presented in video teach with the material while more
more than languagethey teach cul- advanced learners can progress at
ture, which many students need to their own speed.
know as much as they need to know Not all ESL learners study in aca-
English. Students who are new to demic ESL programs. Some learners
the culture feel comfortable because are part of the new "Welfare to Work"
they can see how others have han- programs which are being started
dled typical problems with around the U.S. These learners are in
school, family, or finding a job. school and need to learn English or
Video can also add variety improve their English skills quickly.
to the classroom so that more They don't have time to commute,
than one method is used to pre- there may not be a campus that's easy
sent language. Not only will to get to, and they are trying to juggle
this make a class more interest- the demands of work, school, and
-.114,-"'",
ing, but it can help students with family. Video can provide the flexible
different learning styles. Many instruction they need.
visual learners feel left out in Video is also applicable in dis-
the typical classroom setting but tance learning programs which fit the
can benefit from the visual input busy schedules of many working stu-
of video. Auditory learners also dents who can benefit from a combi-
benefit since they can listen to nation of classroom and home study.
TOP: Crossroads Café customer, Jess, videos more than once. In a distance learning class, students
creates a rapport with the troubled son Because videos can be meet with a teacher six to eight times
of the café waitress, Kathryn. watched again and again, they in a semester and then watch the
ABOVE: When vandals target Crossroads can provide the repetition that videos on their own time. The videos
Cafe, owner Victor Brashov and Rosa language learners need. Most are aired on public television or can
Rivera, the cook, share a reflective moment. companies thatx sell ESL videos be rented or borrowed.
18 iq ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
(Uri_
Types of Video Connect With English
There are videos available for a wide (CWE) is a video series com-
variety of students and instructional posed of 48 15-minute
settings. Three main types of ESL episodes. The story follows a
videos available today are video young woman who must pull
series, supplementary videos, and up her roots in Boston and
video-assisted learning (see chart move to California. Her
below). dreams and struggles are much
In a video series, the video is an like those of ESL students.
essential part of the course. Students There are also two other video
watch the video both in class and at segments which introduce the
home. Most video series have an series and student learners who
involved plot line and a number of discuss the series on tape. This is
characters providing students with one of the interesting features of
real-life situations to discuss and write CWEstudents get to see the
about. There are text books, photo reactions of other ESL learners
books that follow the plot, readers, CWE is organized so that it can
and lab work books. Most video series be used off-air, in a classroom or
are designed to be used both in a tra- lab, as part of a home-study pro-
ditional classroom and as part of a dis- gram, or a combination of these.
tance learning program. In fact, the The series is divided into
three video series described here have four segments. There are video
been aired on public television sta- comprehension books, conversa-
tions in the United States. tion books and grammar guides for TOP: Scene from Connect With English
How you use video in your ESL each segment, supplemental video in which the Mendosa's celebrate.
program depends on your focus. If scripts, and a series of graded readers.
your program has a distance learning It is currently being aired on public ABOVE: Connect With English has
class or you want to use ESL videos television in the U.S. included a discussion session at the end
on an ongoing basis, then a video of each episode which depicts non-native
series will offer you and your students Crossroads Café is a video series speakers practicing English by talking
a rich amount of material. There are composed of 26 half-hour episodes. about the video. These discussions show
three major video series available The series revolves around the lives of viewers they need not have a complete
today. six characters who work at or frequent grasp of English in order to participate
in meaningful conversations.

Types of Video to Use in the ESL Classroom


Number of Teacher's Public
Episodes Guide TV Level* Publisher
Connect With English 48+2 A, C Videos: Annenberg/CPB
Video Books: McGraw-Hill
Crossroads Café 26 A, C Videos: INTELECOM
Series
Books: Heinle & Heinle
Family Album, USA 26 A, C Prentice Hall

Insights -Books 1 and 2 2 Videos C Addison-Wesley Longman

ABC News ESL Video Library 10 Videos A, C Prentice Hall Regents


Supple- Mosaic One and Two 2 Videos C McGraw Hill
mentary
Videos Interactions One and Two 2 Videos C McGraw Hill

Side by Side 4 Videos A Prentice Hall Regents

Spectrum 2 Videos A, C Prentice Hall Regents

Video- I Want to Read 3 Videos A, LT New Readers Press


Assisted
Learning TV Tutor 8 Videos A, LT New Readers Press

*A=Adult, C=College, LT=Literacy Training.


,52
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 19
the café. There are two photo story business, health, the environment, and exercises, and practice in all four lan-
books and two work texts. It is also American culture then explore these guage skills. These texts are not
being aired on public television in the topics further with a corresponding intended to replace the main grammar
U.S. text. The text contains reading materi- book in a course. Instead, they provide
al related to the stories, vocabulary current topics for reading, writing, and
Family Album, USA is a video discussion.
series about a family in the U.S. and A second type of supplementary
the people with whom they interact. video is produced to accompany a
There are 26 half-hour episodes and text book or book series. These
four student books that are meant to be videos are intended to enhance a
used in a classroom setting. There are book series, for example, by pro-
also two Viewer's Guides which con- viding video clips that explain a
tain the scripts and are designed for reading selection or highlight lan-
independent study. This series origi- guage functions, structures, or
nally aired on PBS and is now seen on vocabulary. The Interactions and
educational channels in the U.S. and Mosaic series now have video pro-
overseas. Family Album, USA has grams with clips of authentic mate-
aired in over 60 countries. nals related to the themes of each
chapter. There is also a video guide
The second main type of video is for Mosaic that includes video-
supplementary video. These are gen- based activities. The Side by Side
erally used as part of a class, but they II and Spectrum series also have
can also be used in a lab. Supple- videos and video workbooks
mentary videos come in two vari- designed to supplement the main
eties. One type is designed to pro- texts.
mote a specific skill such as taking The third type of video avail-
notes or understanding lectures. able is video-assisted learning
For example, the Insights series for use in a lab, classroom, pull-
presents high-level university lec- out class, or home-based learn-
tures on video and through the ing. Video-assisted learning is
companion text provides support usually introduced by the
in understanding the lectures and teacher who shows students
the vocabulary. The lectures are not how to use the tapes. Students
edited and provide a very real then work at their own pace in
introduction to the demands of lis- the lab or at home.Videos such
tening to a professor who is a as I Want to Read and TV Tutor
native English speaker and who are designed to strengthen a
does not slow down to accommo- specific skill such as reading or
date students with limited English basic word recognition. These
proficiency. TOP: The Stewart family of Family Album, USA. videos are meant to be self-
Another example of this type of paced so that an adult student
supplemental video is the ABC News Barrom: A Stewart family picnic. As viewers with limited literacy skills can
series. Students watch actual ABC follow the daily lives of the Stewarts, they learn benefit from repeated viewing
news broadcasts on topics such as English as well as American culture. in the lab or at home. These
Continued on pg. 22

Video Really Works!


Patricia Dooley: don't drop out. They watch the episodes
ESL Distance Learning Teacher at home and then they are ready when they
What I love about using a video series is how come to class. I'm sold on using video. I
excited my students get about learning. They I r- don't think I want to teach from just a
beg me to go over the video, and they talk book again!
about the characters as if they were their
friends. It's almost like talking about a show Maria Chacon:
that we all have seen the night before on TV, ESL Distance Learning Student
but then we have a book and can do gram- This is my favorite class because everything
mar exercises. The first time I taught this is clear from the tapes. My son makes the
course, I wasn't prepared for the emotional video tapes for me from the public TV station
involvement that the students had. They get Patricia Dooley and he watches them with me. I watch them
upset when something unfair happens to one again and then I work in the book. It doesn't
of the characters. I like to use this emotion to talk matter if they speak fast on the tape because I can
about situations that they deal with everyday and how listen again. This is really good. I work and I don't have
they can avoid being treated unfairly. The best thing time to take the bus to go to the lab. If I watch the
about teaching with a video series is that my students video at home, it is better for me.

20 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


NOW AVM LE
Powerful
New Drama for
Le
A new video series t allows
h! your dents to...
onnect
English
4 Rebecca Casey is a young woman with a dream To make it come true, she has to leave her

family, her fnendseverything she has known and start all over again in a new wodd.

Nothing is obvious, nothing is easy, and every bit of her dream costs more than she planned.

But once she has the road, the dream takes over

IS IT A )41.:"-1,,;
A ?
It's Connect with English, the highly anticipated ESOL television, video and print course from the producers
of French in Action, and Destinos: An Introduction to Spanish Led by a distinguished panel of acade-
mic advisors, WGBH-Boston, the McGraw-Hill Companies, and the AnnenberWCPB Project have joined forces
to create a ground-breaking series that will change the way young adult and adult learners, all over the world,
connect with English. Connect with English provides 48 fifteen-minute 3-part story episodes plus an
introduction and a segment of student portraits for a total of 12 and 1/2 hours of video.

CONNECT WITH ENGLISH features a vanety of flexible print materials that include:

Video Comprehension Books 1-4 help Connections Graded Readers II Video Scripts 1-4 provide the
students build comprehension skills and feature controlled vocabulary and instnictor with complete transcripts of
gain a clear understanding of the characters grammar at four distinct levels of dif- the Connect with English story, includ-
and story line in Connect with English. ficulty to encourage new readers to ing the original filming and stage
be able to read with understanding as directions.
Conversation Books 1-4 help students well as enjoyment. (16 books)
develop oral communication skills using Instructor's Manuals contain
the themes found in Connect with English Home Viewer's Guide helps stu- answer keys, detailed teaching sug-
as a springboard for classroom discussion. dents study at home or in a tutorial gestions and a testing program. There
learning situation. Available in is a separate manual for each of the
Grammar Guides 1-4 help students English and in four bilingual edi- followingsets of books: Video
develop mastery of the grammatical struc- tions: Spanish/English, Chinese/English, Comprehension Books 1-4, Conver-
tures found throughout Connect with Korean/English and Thai/English. sation Books 1-4, and Grammar
English. Guides 1-4.

For a FREE PREVIEW of the video and a Connect with English


print sampler call: 1-800-624-7294

The AnnenbiaPB ProjectE 14447:111,


row
two videos can be used for are materials that will not
ESL and adult literacy students 6"
benefit students without
and may also be used with LiT
the guidance of a teacher.
younger learners. I Want to It takes a skilled teacher
411.
Read introduces phonics and to show students how to
word recognition from context. apply the lessons learned
TV Tutor is a more basic set of from these videos in real
videos which begin with academic or life situa-
sound-letter associations and tions.
pronunciation. These videos Overall, video can
provide learners with basic make learning a richer
information which they can experience. Students get
view as many times as they more time on task and
need in order for learning to can do their lessons when
take place. their schedules allow. To
respond to this need,
Potential Drawbacks Kathleen Flynn demonstrates the technique of pausing the publishers are adding
One fear of administrators is video and asking students to write about a scene. video components to
that teachers will simply start more of their materials. In
a video and essentially stop teaching. check-out or library system so that the the next few years we will
Of course, this doesn't need to hap- videos can circulate among students see even more videos that bring lan-
pen. Training teachers in how to use who want to use them in a lab or at guage to life in the classroom. Stay
home. These are costs which an ESL tuned!
video in the classroom is important
and can be provided through in-ser- program will have to take into
account. Considering all the potential Kathleen E Flynn, Ph.D. is Professor
vice workshops. Some publishers benefits of video, it can certainly be of Credit ESL and the Chair of the
offer workshops to schools that pur- worth the investment. Credit ESL Division at Glendale
chase a video series. Some might ask if video will Community College in California. She
Other issues include the cost of replace teachers. The answer is an is author of several ESL texts and
the videos themselves, copying videos emphatic "no"! The video series and teaches distance learning ESL
or renting them, and maintaining a supplemental videos available today courses.

TESOL Video
Interest Section
The TESOL (Teachers of English
ESL Software ESL Software to Speakers of Other
Languages) Convention in New
York City in 1999 will mark the
tenth anniversary of the formation
of the TESOL Video Interest
Section (IS). The Video IS, a spe-
cial interest group of the interna-
tional TESOL association, focuses
on the production and use of video
Don't let our name fool you! and video-related technologies in
the teaching of ESL.
We sell the largest number of ESL software programs The section publishes a
newsletter (TESOL Video News),
Preschool through College ALL at discounted prices. coordinates video-related projects,
and organizes video-related pre-
Visit our catalogue online at: http://www.wor.com sentations and other events for
Annual TESOL Conventions.
Membership is open to all mem-
Or call for our print catalogue bers of the international TESOL
(800) 729-3703 or (404) 233-4042 association. For more information,
please contact: TESOL, 1600
Fax (404) 237-5511 Or E-mail polyglot@wor.com Cameron Street, Suite 300,
Alexandria, VA 22314-2751 USA,
WORLD OF READING, LTD. tel: 703-836-0774, fax: 703-836-
7864, e-mail: tesol@tesol.edu.
P.O. Box 13092 Atlanta, GA 30324-0092
by Susan Stempleski
55
22 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
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ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 23
ACCURACY vs. FLUENCY:
Which Comes First
in ESL Instruction?
BY MIRIAM EISENSTEIN EBSWORTH, PH.D.
While communicative compe- notes that fluency "is sometimes con- constraints. Sentence level grammati-
tence has been widely accepted trasted with accuracy, which refers to cal accuracy that violates principles of
as the goal of teaching English the ability to produce grammatically discourse and appropriateness is also
as a second language, there is consid- correct sentences but may not include possible, but such language would not
erable debate regarding the ideal way the ability to speak or write fluently" be truly accurate in following the com-
to help students learn English. The (p.141). municative rules of the target lan-
"fluency first" movement engages guage.
learners in purely meaning-oriented
practice until they have attained fluen- "The degree to which Alternative Approaches
cy in the second language. Issues of 1. Meaning first
grammatical and phonological accura- fluency and accuracy The "fluency first" approach assumes
cy are dealt with at a later time. are stressed will valy that early work in the new language
However, others express concern that should focus on meaningful practice
a unilateral focus on fluency will with the nature of the in context both in receptive and pro-
reduce the likelihood that learners will ductive skills. In other words, give
ever attain accuracy in their second learner community and learners a substantial dose of compre-
language oral and written production. hensible language and the opportunity
with learners' back- to use it. Whether or not the language
Definhig Fluency and Accuracy grounds and goals." produced at early stages is grammati-
To examine the "fluency first" argu- cally accurate is considered unimpor-
ment, let's start with some definitions. tant. In fact, "fluency first" advocates
The Longman Dictionary of Language Clearly, fluency and accuracy are fear that early attention to accuracy
Teaching and Applied Linguistics overlapping constructs. For example, may get in the way of fluency, could
defines second language fluency as a certain degree of accuracy is make the learner overly self-con-
"the ability to produce written and/or required for fluency. A steady stream scious, and impede second language
spoken language with ease...speak of speech which is highly inaccurate development from both cognitive and
with a good but not necessarily perfect in vocabulary, syntax, or pronuncia- emotional dimensions.
command of intonation, vocabulary tion could be so hard to understand as A second, related possibility is
and grammar...communicate ideas to violate an essential aspect of fluen- suggested by Krashen and Terrell's
effectively, and produce continuous cybeing comprehensible. On the "Natural Approach," in which ideal
speech without causing comprehen- other hand, it is possible for a speaker early second language input is intelli-
sion difficulties or a breakdown of to be halting but accurate or for a gible but slightly ahead of the learn-
communication." Longman's also writer to write well but not under time er's interlanguage (a learner's own

.N.ogeng Mevu Undai the Sun


I n his text entitled, 25 Centuries of Language Teaching, instruction in specific
Kelly reveals that linguists have been arguing the accu- grammar elements can
racy vs. fluency debate for ages. In a 1648 version of speed acquisition if these
inductive methodology, Comenius commented, "All elements are presented
things are taught and learned through examples, pre- when learners are devel-
cepts, and exercises. The exemplar should always opmentally ready. As a
come first, the precept should always follow, and imita- practical matter, class-
L .

tion should always be insisted on." Cooper used mini- room teachers can't wait another century for the issue
mal pairs to teach accuracy in phonology in the seven- to be resolved. They need to develop sensible and
teenth century. Substitution drills go back to the responsive approaches to supporting their learners'
1500's! second language development as the debate continues.
Today, Pienemann (1984) suggests that formal What is a teacher to do?

24 5V ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


evolving form of the new language). common in Asia and Eastern Europe. other, or both. Again, substantial
Indeed, it is widely accepted that input The "Silent Way" is another amounts of comprehensible input at
at all stages of acquisition should be "accuracy first" approach, considered appropriate developmental levels for
"comprehensible" to the learner. The revolutionary when first proposed by learners is recommended. However,
Natural Approach also recommends Gattegno in the 1960s. Through the appropriate feedback and conscious
that early practice focus on listening use of colored rods and abstract color attention to how the second language
skills, allowing for a "silent period" charts called "fidels," the learner com- is structured are also included. The
before the learner feels comfortable mences with a focus on the rule-gov- degree to which fluency and accuracy
speaking. As speech emerges, mean- erned nature of the language, its gram- are stressed will vary with the nature
ingful practice is urged. Accuracy is mar and phonology. Vocabulary is of the learner community and with
thought to evolve as the learner pro- kept to a minimum, and language is learners' backgrounds and goals.
gresses, without conscious attention to presented in manageable chunks, with In a clear and practical guide to
form or overt error correction. communicative teaching called "The
meaning made clear through action. In
This leads to an important distinc- the case of The Silent Way, issues of Tapestry Approach," Scarcella and
tion among language methodologists. grammar are not dealt with conscious Oxford take the "fluency plus accura-
According to The Natural Approach cy view." They discuss how accuracy
and proponents of "fluency first," it is and fluency interact in formal learn-
crucial to focus on meaning exclu-, ,,, ing, noting that while the goal of most
sively in early stages of learning.
Feedback is considered neces- //:' \
students is effective communica-
.
tion, there are some learners
sary only when intelligibility / \ who require a high level of
is affected. Ideally, the 7 mastery. The Tapestry Ap-
clarification provided proach encourages teach-
through second lan- ers to work on both. In
guage instruction inter- Scarcella and Oxford's
action is thought to words, "formal instruc-
result in greater clar- `,, tion and practice can
ity and fluency on \ *enhance both fluency
the part of the learn- and accuracy."
er. Those learners
who wish to focus Evaluating the
on accuracy are Alternatives
encouraged to do so Criticisms of each
through reference to a \ approach by propo-
grammar text and/or \ nents of the others
private discussions with abound. Too much focus
the teacher. / on grammar gets in the
way of fluency. Too much
2. Accuracy first error correction makes learn-
Another possibility for lan- ' ers self-conscious. Lack of
guage instruction is to begin by t, focus on accuracy results in fos-
making accuracy a priority, usually ' silized learners whose errors have
through focusing on how the language become highly resistant to improve-
works from the beginning. This means ment.
teaching the second language deduc- What are the underlying issues
tively. One such approach, sometimes ly, and metalinguistic aspects of lan- here? As Stevick pointed out some
called "Cognitive Code," was tradi- guage are not discussed. Error correc- years ago, learners continue to acquire
tionally associated with Chastain. In tion and feedback are provided languages successfully via radically
this case, a lesson would begin with a through visual cues which encourage different formal methods. The key
conscious review of a particular learners to correct themselves. The appears to be that not all English
grammar structure or rule, followed accurate use of the grammatical build- learners are the same. It is certainly
by a substantial amount of language ing blocks of the language provides the case that different learner popula-
practice illustrating the point. Perhaps the framework for the development of tions have distinct goals regarding the
because this reminded people too fluency, as subsequent instruction English they need. They may require it
much of the disgraced grammar-trans- focuses on both. to varying degrees for oral or written
lation approach, albeit without the communication, formal or informal
translation, it was never widely adopt- 3. Accuracy and fluency contexts, for reading signs and cereal
ed by ESL methodologists. It is from the beginning boxes, filling out forms, writing let-
rumored, however, that some ESL A third alternative is to deal with both ters, using the telephone, using the
teachers, particularly those with a lin- fluency and accuracy from the begin- Internet, or writing academic or scien-
guistic bent, have privately used this ning of second language instruction tific papers. The result is that not all
approach which is not unlike some and to continue working on each, learners seek the same degree of flu-
grammar-based language teaching sometimes emphasizing one, the ency and accuracy in their English.
t,
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 %.2,14'
25
Students may also have different clearly need to develop both fluency
timetables for achieving their lan- and accuracy as soon as possible. For
guage goals. Max and Gina, survival English is the
Max, for example, is a blue collar priority. But even for them, meaning-
worker who uses English primarily to centered language practice must
communicate on the job. Gina, a include sufficient accuracy so that they
homemaker, needs functional English can be understood by others. The real
to survive in daily life. Liudmilla is a issue is not a choice of fluency or
dentist who must master academic accuracy firstthe two are inextrica-
texts in English, pass competitive as. bly related. Professionals must make
examinations, and communicate suc- decisions geared to learners' back-
cessfully with her patients. Juanito is a 0:1 grounds, styles, abilities and require-
child who must learn academic and .kk ments.
social English to connect with peers Students need the opportunity for
and teachers. Mei Ling is a university substantial interaction so that they can
student who needs to pass a writing get feedback on their own production
test to take classes for credit. Frank tool for accuracy. The awareness com- and practice in understanding others.
wants to be a legal secretary and must ponent is used as a precursor to a The level of attention given to accura-
have excellent speech for dealing with process writing class with feedback cy must be appropriate for them. A
the public and exemplary English for meaning and accuracy. This makes reflective teacher needs to discover
writing skills for correspondence. learners dramatically more successful what works with every learner in every
Research into the issue does not than similar learners without it. class. What should come first is nei-
provide simple answers. Krashen Finally, in a recent study with C. ther fluency nor accuracy but rather
makes an effective case for compre- William Schweers, the author has the learner. The teacher needs to
hensible input. Swain shows the found that the majority of teachers decide what will be most effective in
importance of comprehensible output surveyed favor the judicious use of supporting each learner's acquisition
and the need for feedback to learners. grammar for accuracy within a mean- of English and success in the context
Long and others stress that interaction ing-centered communicative ap- of their own lives.
is the key to success. proach. Teachers of young children
Montgomery and Eisenstein are more likely to advocate relatively Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth, Ph.D. is
found that a combination of a gram- less attention to form. Director of Doctoral Programs in
mar class and a meaning-focused class Multilingual, Multicultural Studies at
based on field trips resulted in greater Implications the New York University School of
grammatical improvement for learners Teachers must balance issues of fluen- Education, Department of Teaching
than taking the grammar class alone, cy and accuracy depending on the spe- and Learning. She has authored two
but there was no improvement in flu- cific needs of learners and the texts and numerous articles on second
ency. Camhi's writing method begins resources of time and materials for language acquisition research and
with grammatical awareness as the instruction. Mei Ling and Liudmilla pedagogy.

Accuracy and Fluency Self-Assessment for Teachers


Self-Assessment What activities in my class emphasize both?
How do I feel about my students' errors? How do I provide feedback to my students?
How do I feel about my students' fluency? How often do I correct students?
When my students talk to me outside of class, How do my students respond to feedback?
which do I tend to notice more, their accuracy or Do my students seem cautious and calculating to
their fluency? avoid errors in their production?
Do I enjoy teaching grammar? pronunciation? Do they seem to feel free to produce language
vocabulary? without great concern about errors?
What techniques do I believe help students with Am I satisfied with my students' progress in
accuracy? accuracy?
What techniques do I believe help students with Am I satisfied with my students' progress in
fluency? fluency?
Are my students' satisfied with their progress in
Class Assessment accuracy?
What are my students' needs and goals for English? Are my students' satisfied with their progress in
What percentage of class time do my students fluency?
spend using productive skills? Does the emphasis in my classroom match my
What percentage of class time do my students students' needs and goals?
spend using receptive skills? Which area, accuracy or fluency, may be lacking in
What activities in my class emphasize accuracy? my classroom and what activities could I add to
What activities in my class emphasize fluency? promote this more?

26 58 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998


RIQV99 1712C)Cig@V@

BY CHERYL PAVLIC

North Star call the Addison Wesley Longman 50 countries. The Windows version
North Star, by Addison ESL Help Desk at 1-800-266-8855 or features 3D graphics and a "role play"
Wesley Longman, is a visit their Web site at http://www.awl- activity in which the user selects a
new, fully integrated elt.com. character in a scene and replays the
four-level adult scene taking the part of that character.
series that builds International Traci Talk: In role play the user sees the scene
language compe- The Mystery from the eyes of the character selected
tence and develops This new CD-ROM teaches English and says that character's lines as other
personal ex-pres- conversation skills. The user solves a characters respond. IBM speech
sion. North-Star mystery by interviewing four sus- recognition is used. This program
consists of a lis- pects. Interviews are all by voice; the requires a Pentium PC, 16 MB of
tening/speaking book and a reading user speaks and suspects respond to RAM and Win 95. A set of 3 CDs
/writing book on each of four levels what is said. IBM's Voice Type speech costs $395.
Basic, Intermediate, High Intermedi- recognition, with fine tuning by CPI,
ate and Advanced. makes this possible. The typical user Active English
The texts are integrated in a num- needs 30 to 50 In April 1998 CPI will release a new
ber of ways. They are cross-referenced hours to solve TRACIPrALK Windows/Macintosh hybrid CD ver-
to the highly successful Focus On the mystery. The sion of its intermediate level Active
Grammar series. In addition, they program requ- English series. The new version fea-
offer unit by unit thematic integration ires a Pentium tures a dramatically improved inter-
and related vocabulary. Furthermore, PC, 16 MB of face design plus improved and
North Star motivates students by using RAM and Win expanded activities. Active English is
contemporary themes with a creative 3.1 or Win 95. The cost is $125. ideal for high school and lower level
perspective on ideas and issues of Available from CPI or leading distrib- college ESL/EFL programs. The pro-
wide concern. North Star encourages utors such as Delta and Alta California gram requires a Pentium PC, 8 MB of
critical thinking and personal expres- Books. RAM and Win 95 or a Power Mac
sion through a variety of creative exer- with 8 MB of RAM. A set of 4 CDs
cises. Accelerated English costs $395.
The Intermediate and Advanced In January 1998 CPI released the For further information, contact
levels are available now. The Basic Windows version of Accelerated CPI, 20380 Town Center Lane, Suite
and High Intermediate Levels will be English, The Soap Opera. This 169, Cupertino, CA 95014; fax: 408-
available in the spring. For further updates their popular DOS title used at 446-4588; e-mail: usecpi@aol.com;
information and examination copies colleges and universities in more than Web site: www.usecpi.com.

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ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 C 27
Russian Immigrants
in the ESL Classroom
Success, Motivation, and Acculturation
BY MICHAEL BERMAN, M.A.

ver the past decade, the Russian eignties in the classroom. In fact, Education

0 /Eurasian region has arguably


been the most topsy-turvy politi-
cal and socio-economic arena in the
although most Americans
Canadians view divisions in this
and

region as political, these distinctions


LIVE A CENTURY, LEARN A CENTURY.
Russian proverb
Russian students in the United States
world. Since 1991, fifteen states have are as much ethnic in nature as they and Canada have a long-standing rep-
declared their independence, and the are political. Sovereign borders gener- utation for being among the most
region's market economies are under- ally coincide with ethnic identity. A highly motivated and well-prepared
going unprecedented change. What Ukrainian, for example, considered students in their classes. Several fac-
the world may have once mistakenly himself Ukrainian, not Russian, even tors would explain such a trait. First,
perceived as a homogenous Soviet most schools in the former Soviet
Union has now displayed Union are rigorous. They preach disci-
its true diversity. It is cer- 1,,- pline and often take students beyond
tainly difficult to make i typical United
generalizations about peo- 41P States and Can-
ple from this diverse adian high school
region. Nevertheless we curricula in certain
may benefit from consid- "VIP" subject areas, the
ering the impact on the sciences in particu-
ESL classroom of educa- lar. "If you pass
tional, cultural, and lin- high school," says
guistic traits shared by Rita Kaushansk-
these students. aya, a recent gradu-
First, what do we mean ate of Long Island
when we say "Russian?" University who ar-
We can say, in a sense, that rived from Ukraine
there are really two Russian in 1991, "you know
homelands. One corresponds to the what is taught here
present day nation of Russia, in university." John
which conforms to the territory Slade, an English
inhabited by ethnic Russians. The teacher at the Bodö
other includes states that are Graduate School of Business in north-
beyond Russia proper but were ern Norway, wrote of students in St.
once part of the pre-World War I Petersburg in 1991: "These teenagers
Russian Empire and, subsequently, do not slouch and stare at the teacher
the Soviet Union. We are dealing with glazed eyes that have watched
with a chameleon of a word, a Challenges in the new culture include ten thousand hours of television.
term that can simultaneously making friends, learning English and even These kids are hungry."
function as an ethnicity, a nation- shopping. In addition, Russian students are
ality, a region, and a language. In often focused on their career paths at a
this article, "Russia" will be treated as before Ukraine became independent in young age, having come to the United
a region including Russia proper as 1991. I recall being corrected quickly States and Canada with their profes-
well as the former Soviet states. by Yuri, a Ukrainian student of mine, sional goals already in mind. This is a
Unless otherwise specified, "Russian" after having mistakenly called him a vestige of the former Soviet educa-
will refer to a person from this region. Russian. Yet he corrected me with tional system, which encouraged all
However, despite the broad use of some fatigue, obviously growing tired students to channel their interests into
the term "Russian" in the article, of making the effort. The job of the a single professional field at an early
which is simply practical in this con- ESL teacher is to assist students in this age. The more general education typi-
text, the ESL teacher should be very effort rather than making it more bur- cal of the West was traditionally char-
careful to recognize national sover- densome. acterized as "bourgeois decadence"

28
L..
I and was viewed as wasteful.
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
A 1981 survey of 900 Soviet to achieve a high place in society if the Assistant training program at the
Jewish refugees conducted by the Communist regime were to collapse University of Rhode Island, English
Soviet Resettlement Program of the and they were able to return home. programs reflect the economic dispar-
Council of Jewish Federations noted Even if they ultimately decided not to ity within the region. Petro, who
the factors that had motivated their return home, higher education was taught ESL at Novgorod State
move to the United States. Second seen as essential for successful adapta- University in Russia in 1997,
only to escaping religious persecution, tion to American society. describes ESL programs in Russia in
bettering their children's educational terms of "haves" and "have-nots." At
future was the main reason immi- English Education Novgorod, for example, she describes
grants had come. Russian Jewish The same survey cited above identifies a program which offers an internation-
immigrants were bringing with them a the language barrier as the most press- ally seasoned faculty, small class
centuries-old tradition that valued ing problem for Russian immigrants. sizes, and up-to-date methods, equip-
education highly. So what can we say about the quality ment, and texts. However, in the
Meanwhile, non-Jewish Russian of ESL programs in Russia? majority of schools in Russia, Petro
immigrants were also determined to According to Allison Petro, coordina- witnessed "have-not" programs that
push their children educationally so as tor of the International Teaching were burdened with large classes,

UKRAINE TO AMERICA:
A Student's Journey to a New Home, Culture and Language
atyana Pashnyak immigrated to the United States At times she felt overwhelmed by the challenge of
Tfrom the Ukraine with her family as a teenager in learning English. Although she knew the grammar and
the vocabulary, it was difficult to understand some
1992. She believes her experiences, both cultural and
linguistic, are similar to those of many students from Americans. Pronunciation was clearly the most difficult
the former Soviet Union and hopes her story may be aspect of learning English, and she also had difficulty
helpful to other students as well as to ESL teachers. with articles. Other obstacles included tests; multiple
For two years Tatyana, her parents, younger brother choice and true/false exams were the most difficult.
and sister made plans to move to America from their Tatyana's high school had a Russian language
home in lzmail near the city of Odessa on the Danube program. The teacher for this program assisted Tatyana
River bordering Romania. Relatives waiting in the United and was a mentor to her. It was comforting to have
States supported them throughout months of delays, someone to turn to for help with translation when a
trips to Moscow and extensive paper- dictionary was inadequate, especially with
work. The family anxiously awaited final unique expressions. This teacher encouraged
permission to emigrate. They sought her to read extensively and to try to under-
personal safety and an escape from the stand written and spoken phrases without
depressed economy there. looking up every word. Tatyana was proud to
The Pashnyaks sold their home in serve eventually as a student assistant is
Ukraine for $15,000 to buy their this program, helping students with Russian
Aeroflot plane tickets. Passengers were while she learned Englisha great exchange.
limited to two suitcases per person The turning point for Tatyana in grasp-
Tatyana filled hers with books, clothes, ing the English language came in her litera-
family photos and mementos, as well ture class. The students read Mark Twain's
as souvenirs to share with new friends. short story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of
The anticipation of a new life in America Calaveras County." Tatyana could not make
was exciting yet clouded by the difficult sense of this story and read it over and over,
reality of leaving possessions, family as many as ten times. Once she mastered it,
and a familiar language behind. Tatyana Pashnyak something clicked and future reading seemed
During her first month in America, to come much easier.
Tatyana felt overwhelmed by her new experiences. The Tatyana explains that reading has helped her most
cultural atmosphere was free and open-people were coupled with the strong support of teachers, friends
smiling. Supermarkets and shopping centers were a and family. She also found software that included
surprise. Choosing items rather than waiting in long English grammar helpful.
lines and settling for anything available was vastly dif- Although Tatyana has been successful in learning
ferent. Selecting an item and placing it in a shopping English, she continues to challenge herself. For exam-
cart rather than having it handed to her was a shock. ple, she has determined to refine her pronunciation
Tatyana's English background consisted of English skills by listening to tapes, music, and television, as
classes that began in the fifth grade but which met only well as through everyday conversation. Her advice to
once a week for forty-five minutes and were based on other ESL students: "Don't be afraid. It's okay to make
British pronunciation and vocabulary. During her first mistakes. Keep reading and speaking in English." She
days at Douglas County High School in Douglasville, has completed three years at the State University of
Georgia, Tatyana concentrated on listening and grap- West Georgia and is now enrolled in the teacher
pling with new vocabulary. Initially, she spent half of education program there.
each day in English classes. She continued to work on
vocabulary and reading to strengthen her skills. Her By Diane Boothe, D.P.A. Diane is Assistant Professor
education was a high priority for her and she was moti- at State University of West Georgia and President of
vated to excel. GeorgiaTESOL, USA.
I
ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
62 29
antiquated Soviet-era textbooks, and request or offer, Russians generally will probably not speak Russian as his
little or no access to native speakers or don't mince words. For this reason, or her first language, or may not speak
modern equipment. These programs Roberta Drucker, director of the it at all.
lacked the ability to bring the English Newcomer Resettlement Program of Second, although we have seen
language to life and provide meaning- the Jewish Social Service Agency in that Russian immigrants take their
ful oral practice. Therefore, the Rockville, Maryland, cites the fre- children's education very seriously,
English background and ability of quent need for job counseling to help many are not accustomed to develop-
Russian students in ESL classrooms prevent Russians from misperceiving ing personal, direct, or confidential
across the United States and Canada polite orders as requests. relationships with their children's
will tend to vary as much as the coun- Similarly, she notes, this direct- teachers. Many Russian parents may
tries from which the students come. ness may cause a new Russian immi- not be comfortable advocating for
grant to take literally your invitation to their children in the classroom the way
"A Valk on the Vild Side" "drop by anytime." Also stemming parents do currently in primary and
Culture and Adjustment from this perceptual framework is the secondary schools in the United States
The material culture and affluence of newly-arrived Russian's frequent dif- and Canada. Teachers at this level may
the United States and Canada can be ficulty in differentiating between need to take initiative in establishing
quite a socio-economic shock for new friends and acquaintances. this kind of relationship with parents.
Russian immigrants, as well as for Third, special education is a very
those who have been here a while. new concept throughout the Russian
Robert Hughes, an ESL teacher at region and is only beginning to take
Truman College in Chicago, shares an root in educational systems there.
illustrative story. He asked his class of Consequently, students with mild
mostly elderly Russians to examine learning disabilities, previously unrec-
and discuss a picture in their textbook ognized in their native countries, stand
depicting Americans eating hot dogs to benefit greatly from having their
from a park vendor. Hughes expected problems correctly assessed in the
a discussion of American fast food or United States and Canada. However,
perhaps the unhealthy diets of the teacher's job here is particularly
Americans. Rather, his students chose challenging since it can be difficult or
the topic, "In America, food is readily impossible to detect mild disabilities
available." when the student speaks little English.
More recent immigrants typically Fourth, while race, religion, and
come from opposite circumstances ethnicity are becoming common class-
with ironically similar results. "We room and public topics of discussion
don't have a shortage of food," in the United States and Canada, these
explains Katia Prokopenko, a high Cultural adjustment may include topics are traditionally not spoken of
school student from Pskof, Russia, changing the Russian "work face" publicly in Russian society. Such an
"but most people don't have enough into a smile. aversion traces back to the former
money to buy food." Katia's grand- Soviet attitude toward these issues.
mother complains that she doesn't Finally, body language differ- Therefore, lack of participation in
know which is worse, "having less ences may result in misperceptions in class discussion of these subjects
food that we can afford, or more food the classroom or the workplace. A should not be interpreted as a student's
that we can't afford." For many new good example, Drucker notes, is the lack of ability or ideas.
and Soviet-era immigrants alike, their Russian "work face." Many Russians Finally, as with all immigrant
views on what are necessities and conduct what they perceive as work, populations, we must remember that
luxuries will differ widely from school included, with a consistent they have not usually come here to
American and Canadian views. An expression of seriousness. For exam- change themselves and their culture;
ESL teacher's complaint that his ple, a Russian immigrant student of they have come to change their coun-
washing machine is broken will often mine from Moscow, Olga, told me she try of residence. We cannot assume
meet with bewilderment rather than had once been asked at work if she that people want to be like Americans
sympathy. was depressed. Having had this expe- or Canadians. It is the ESL teacher's
On the other hand, there are rience, she now smiles more frequently. responsibility to help students find a
notable exceptions to this as an balance between their old world and
increasing number of Russian busi- Further Notes for the Classroom their new one.
nessmen come to the United States First, in the area of pronunciation,
and Canada who are accustomed to there are a handful of common prob- Michael Berman, M.A. teaches ESL at
the material and economic culture of lems for native speakers of Russian. Montgomery College in Rockville,
their new countries. These difficulties include /3/-/x/, /x/- Maryland. He is a contributing author
Another cultural difference is that /a/, /a/-/a/, /i/-/iy/, /h/-/ow/, /u/-/uw/, in McGraw-Hill's new series Connect
Russians are generally more direct /0/, /6/, /w/, /v/, /h/, /r/, /0/, and voiced With English and is the author of the
than Americans and Canadians. That final consonants. Keep in mind, how- forthcoming ESL textbook The Listen-
is, where Americans and Canadians ever, that a student from Latvia, ing System. Michael is a fourth-gener-
would be politely circuitous in a Tajikistan, or ,Gcorgia, for example, ation Russian immigrant.
V

30
B3 ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998
Projected Learning Programs Cambridge University Press
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ESL MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 1998 31
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TOEFL is switching to computer in selected areas
starting July 1998, and worldwide by the year 2000.
It's part of ETS's ongoing program to improve TOEFL.
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Written essay with each test

So get ready for 1998, because TOEFL will soon


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ir JOIN OUR INTERNET MAILING LIST

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ESL Help Desk: 1-800-266-8855
Email: awlelt.com
May/June 1998
Vol. 1, No. 3

Gign4CYJMQ@

Developing Active Vocabulary:


Making the Communicative Connection
by Jayme Adelson-Goldstein 10
Page 7
Dave Sperling: A Man with a Virtual Passion
by George H. Clemes, III 20

Arab Students in the U.S.:


Learning Language, Teaching Friendship
by Paul Kwilinski 28

Oc:noluauct,
Editor's Note 4
Letters to the Editor 5 Page 10
News Briefs 6
Conference Calendar 8

Technology 17

Reviews 18

Christine Meloni's Networthy 27


New Products 27
Catalog Showcase 31

Linguistic Laughs 31 Page 20

Who's Reading ESL Magazine?


Charles A.S. Heinle
President of Heinle &
Heinle Enterprises, Inc.
Check out our
Mr Heinle has established Web site at
five publishing companies
in forty years of language
www.esimag.com!
publishing. These publish- (many resources)
ing programs have
included ESL, EFL, ESP
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-111. materials4 30 languages.
138 Page 28
ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998 3
Q1D04®G2°@ MCYtifg

TM

Communicative GEORGE
Publisher
H. CLEMES, 111

\--4, Activities Teach Editorial Director

Vocabulary! MARILYN ROSENTHAL

Editor
KATHLEEN R. BEALL
ayme Adelson-Goldstein, coauthor of the Oxford Picture Dictionary,

connects communicative teaching methods with the development of Contributing Editors


JAYME ADELSON-GOLDSTEIN
a) active vocabulary. She highlights a variety of classroom activities that KAREN ASENAVAGE
PAT FINLAYSON
provide new and engaging ways of teaching vocabulary. JOHN HICKOK

MARILYN KNIGHT-MENDELSON
In just a short time, Dave Sperling has become known worldwide for his PAUL KWILINSKI
TOMMY B. MCDONELL
Web site "Dave's ESL Cafe." In an exclusive ESL Magazine interview, we
CHRISTINE MELON1

meet the man behind the counter at the Cafe. Dave candidly discusses his ERIC MILLER
MICHAELANGELO RODRIGUEZ
background, how and why he started the Cafe, teaching, his books, lecturing
Webmaster
and life in general. Learn from this pioneer who has led the way in serving
CHARLES FOWLER

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ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
D.Q1r4g1J Q V® 411Q QD04®12
Wm mai CM
...... Russian Immigrants Accuracy vs. Fluency
III Robots
F. Pasties in the ESL Classroom > I really enjoyed reading the
> Michael Berman's excellent article March/April 1998 issue of ESL
The Mouse elucidated several important points Magazine. Dr. Eisenstein Ebsworth
Replaces that ESL teachers need to know about highlights and correctly frames the
The Pencil:
TOEFL Gm Electronic
teaching Russian students. issue by stating that a balance of accu-
I have found another classroom racy and fluency depends on the spe-
issue to add to his, which is not cial needs of the learners. As with a
restricted to Russians, certainly, but child learning to speak, ESL students
which has been common in my expe- make repeated "fluid" attempts at
rience among this group of students, speaking until accuracy is achieved,
Send your "letters to the editor" to
eslmagazine@compuserve.corn or write namely, cheating. I wonder' if working perhaps many years later. It is very
to ESL Magazine, 220 McKendree Ave., under the Soviet system encouraged important that fluency be encouraged
Annapolis, MD 21401. Please include students to band together to help each and positively reinforced if the sec-
your name and position or address. other. In any case, this behavior has an ond-language learner is to progress.
obvious impact on their acculturation Repeated criticisms or corrections by
TOEFL Goes Electronic to American classrooms. teachers, or society, hinder that
I> The lead article in the March/April In a similar way, it appears that process.
issue is timely and useful for students some Asian students complete assign- When I moved to a Spanish-
as well as those who help prepare stu- ments for less able classmates as part speaking country in order to improve
dents for the TOEFL. I am pleased of their duty to assist fellow immi- my Spanish, I was constantly ridiculed
with the quality of the articles and grants or as a favor, not realizing that for speaking "Spanglish," or a broken
resourceful information found in your here such outside help is viewed as form of Spanish. It took all that I had
magazine! Keep up the good work! dishonesty. Perhaps a frank discussion to make the effort to move up a notch
BARBARA MACLEAN of this delicate issue could be the topic on the language-learning ladder. After
CEO, Knowledge 3000 of a future article. all, language learning is a creative
GAIL SCHMITT process that, like most works of art,
> Dr. Cochran has thoroughly cov- Montgomery College, Rockville, MD requires much trial and error.
ered all the aspects of the new com- MICHELANGELO RODRIGUEZ
puter TOEFL test and has elicited Using Video in Your ESL/EFL Atlanta, GA
much information from its executive Program
director, Dr. To Dutka. The article 1> Thank you for
assuages fears for those who feel that your informative
the changes instituted by ETS might article on using
adversely affect students, especially in videos in the class-
areas of the world where access to room. I had heard
computers poses a problem. of a few of these 9.
In short, this article is a "must" for series but did not
those of us in this field as it alerts us to realize there was so riot
important changes in TESOL testing much excellent Vo,
practices and describes testing history material available.
in the making. It was particularly
MARY YEPEZ, PH.D helpful to have a
New York, NY comprehensive
summary to draw
> I am delighted to see a comprehen- from, which I'm
sive review of the computer-based sure will save
TOEFL test and the TOEFL Sampler many people and
in the most recent issue of ESL programs from
Magazine. This test will be launched committing to one
on July 24th. The first registration series and later The Dictionary
came in from Auckland, New Zealand realizing another Illustrates over 3,700 words in full-color, each clearly
at 8:00 in the morning on June 10. I would have been labeled and defined in context
look forward to working with all my more suitable for Offers 140 key topics targeted to meet the vocabulary
ESL colleagues to ensure the highest their particular needs of adults and young adults
quality of product and service in this needs. I am really Monolingual English, English/Spanish and English/Chinese
editions of the Dictionary now available
first generation of computer-based becoming a fan of
language assessment. ESL Magazine! Oxford University Press
JULIA TO DUTK A MARIDA HINES ESL Department (800) 445-9714 or (919) 677-1303
Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.oup-usa.org/esl/
Executive Director, the TOEFL program Gaithersburg, MD
1.tby
ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998 70 5
MgVg3 120QP3

$3.6 Billion Acquisition to Create


the World's Largest Education Business
Dearson, the UK-based interna- Modern Curriculum Press, also of Simon & Schuster, publish
tional media group, announced supplemental materials, especially for middle and high school
in May its agreement to purchase students and teachers.
Simon & Schuster education divi- AWL publishes books, multimedia and learning programs
sions from Viacom for $3.6 billion. in major academic disciplines for primary, secondary, higher
The combination of Simon & education and professional markets worldwide. In 1997, it
Schuster education and Addison earned operating profits of $98 million on sales of $924 mil-
Wesley Longman (AWL), already lion. CE Jovanovich was previously president of McGraw-
owned by Pearson, creates the Hill's Education and Publishing Group.
world's largest education business, AWL's U.S. school group publishes K-12 materials and
and the largest ESL publisher in Marjorie Scardino, programs for reading, language arts, social studies, mathemat-
North America. The acquisition is Pearson Chief Executive ics and science under the Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley
expected to save $130 million for the companies by the year imprints. It also has an electronic education division. AWL's
2000. higher education group publishes books and multimedia prod-
Pearson's Chief Executive, Marjorie Scardino, comment- ucts in many academic subjects for the U.S. and international
ed on the acquisition, "Education is one of the great growth college markets through the Addison-Wesley, Longman, and
industries of our time. This is a tremendous opportunity to Benjamin Cummings imprints. Its Longman English
meet, in print and electronically, the growing demand of stu- Language Teaching (ELT) business is a major publisher of
dents of all ages and in all parts of the world for stimulating ELT materials in the world.
and effective educational programs."
Peter Jovanovich, chief executive of AWL and future CEO
of the combined business, said: "Both companies have long New York Board Task Force
and fine traditions of helping teach, enlighten and enrich chil-
dren, young adults and professionals in the United States and Withdrawls ESL Certification
throughout the world. The combination of the professional,
intellectual, editorial and financial resources of our two com-
Proposal
panies means that we will be able to take this work forward he New York Board of Regents Task
even more effectively in the future."
Simon & Schuster is the world's largest higher education
T Force has unofficially withdrawn its
November 1997 proposal to eliminate
business, selling print, electronic and distributed learning ESL certification for kinder-
products to college and adult markets in the U.S. and interna- garten through twelfth grade
tionally. Its U.S. school division, through the Silver Burdett teachers. Nevertheless, the
Ginn and Prentice Hall School imprints, publishes K-12 texts Task Force plans to review
for all major disciplines. Computer Curriculum Corporation is
its educational technology business. Globe Fearon and current ESL certification requirements
and may propose changes.

Proposition 227 Passes in California


n June 2, voters in California passed Proposition 227 to they are transferred to English language mainstream class-
Oend bilingual education in the state (61% for, 39% rooms; 3) Allows parental waivers to the above for chil-
against). The following is a brief overview of the controver- dren with special needs; 4) Allocates money for English
sial ballot measure. classes for adults who promise to tutor limited English
Proposition 227's background. The initiative was filed proficient students; 5) Permits enforcement suits against
in May 1997 by California businessman Ron schools by parents and guardians. (Full text of
Unz, Chairman of the "English for the the proposition can be found at: http://prima-
Children" project (web site: http://www.one- PROPOSIMON ry98.ss.ca.gov/VoterGuide/Propositions/227.
nation.org). Joined by Co-Chair Gloria Matta
Tuchman, an Orange County teacher, Unz and
22 7 htm).
Opposition to Proposition 227. Lawsuits
the "English for the Children" project maintain that the cur- have already been filed against Proposition 227's passing, so
rent bilingual system produces English proficiency in only actual implementation into law is pending court rulings.
5% of students originally classified as not proficient in Opponents to the proposition, such as the group "Citizens for
English, a "95% failure rate." an Educated America: No on Prop 227" (Web site:
What Proposition 227 says. The initiative ends the cur- http://www.noonunz.org) list critical flaws with 227, among
rent bilingual educational system in the state. It: 1) Requires them the now-illegal status of truly successful bilingual pro-
all public school instruction be conducted in English; grams at individual schools throughout the state.
2) Allows students not fluent in English one year of inten-
sive, sheltered English immersion instruction, after which John Hickok, California State University, Fullerton

6
71 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
13flgVO3 flEE

New Study
Shows Marked EF Language Wins the
Improvement for Around the World
LES/NES Students Whitbread Sailing Race
Anumber of limited English speaking
(LES) and non-English speaking F Language, one of two boats
(NES) middle school students in Pasco E sponsored by EF (Education First)
County, Florida participated in a project Education, won the prestigious
entitled "Talk to Me." Whitbread Sailing Race on May 24, ,.
Talk Systems, Inc., of Roswell, GA 1998, after eight months of grueling
provided students with small, portable ocean racing. EF Language finished
receivers with "earbuds" to wear during first out of nine boats.
class. A bilingual paraprofessional used a "It's going to be hard to duplicate
Talk Systemml to communicate with the this," said Paul Cayard, skipper of EF
students. The paraprofessional repeated Language. "This is a special moment. Are '

or paraphrased the teacher's lesson. Just going around the world in a sail-
Translation was only used when it was boat is specialbut to win the race is
extra special."
considered essential for students' com- EF Education wanted to partici-
prehension of a difficult concept. Using pate in a global event that would
the Talk System,TM the paraprofessional bring together its over 1,800 employ-
could only be heard by the LES/NES stu- ees worldwide. Because EF employs
dents and not by other students. an equal number of men and women,
Beatrice K. Palls, Supervisor of they entered two boats EF
ESOL, Foreign Language, and Foreign Language with an all-male crew and
Student Studies for Pasco County direct- EF Education with an all-female
ed the ongoing project and reported on it crew, which finished ninth.
in May at the Sunshine State TESOL The victory marks the end of a
Conference in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. three-year program for Team EF, the
Palls and colleagues reported that only two-boat syndicate in the race
after six weeks students showed marked and the first company that announced J.0 y
improvement in affective behavior, par- their sponsorship in the Whitbread. '4,
ticularly in taking responsibility, self- Much of the success of the cam- y_

confidence, participation, motivation, paign was attributed to the enthusiasm EF Language sailing in the Whitbread
rule following and interaction. Palls et al and support of EF employees.
also reported preliminary evidence for Thousands of staff from around the world followed the race and participated in the
improved academic achievement. Palls stopovers. Leading the company's support was Bertil Hult, the founder and owner of
stated that LES/NES students using the EF. "This Race has been a great adventure for our staff, our teachers and our students.
Talk System remained interested and It has been an experience of a lifetime for all of us."
involved, and their learning of English EF Education is a language-oriented multinational group of nine companies and
was enhanced. One student participant non-profit organizations, offering education services to over 500,000 participants a
commented, "This means we don't have year. EF maintains 70 offices in 40 countries, with its world headquarters in
to fail anymore!" Stockholm, Sweden and its North American base in Boston, Massachusetts.
The estimated cost of entering a boat in the Whitbread is $10 million, however

4111lfl sponsorship can defray much of the cost. EF is not currently planning to enter the next
Whitbread.
The first around the world sailing race took place in 1968. A British newspaper,
The Sunday Times, offered £5,000 to the sailor who, single-handedly and without
entering a port, could sail fastest around the world.
Nine boats accepted the challenge, but only one finished the raceSuhaili, sailed
by Englishman Robin Knox-Johnson, who was instrumental in forming an organized
ocean race under the sponsorship of the English brewer, Whitbread.
The first Whitbread Around The World Race was sailed in 1973-74. Since then,
the Whitbread has been held every fourth year, and no two races have been exactly
alike. In the beginning the boats were large and comfortable, but relatively slow.
Technology has progressed rapidly since then, and today's boats are sophisticated
speed-machines with little comfort for the crew.
As the boats have changed, so has everything else. Almost all crew members
today are professional sailors, the organization in each port has improved, communi-
cation with the boats has advanced greatly, sponsor interest and commitment have
grown, and media coverage has exploded. The Whitbread is now one of the world's
most-watched sporting competitionsa global event with global appeal.
The Talk SystemTM
ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
72 7
01N9@ (13120Q@

CATESOL Conference Considers TESOL Arabia Sets


the Future of Education in California Attendance Record
he 29th annual CATESOL (California Association of Teachers of English
Tto Speakers of Other Languages) conference was held in Pasadena in Trecord at its annual conference in
April. Approximately 2,500 participants attended a record 350 presentations,
ESOL Arabia set a new attendance

Al Ain, March in United Arab


according to conference co-chair Chan Bostwick. The conference focused on Emirates.
the pedagogical and political future of second language eduction in California. The fourth annual conference drew
Plenary speakers included Jack Scott, Assemblyman for the 44th District, who over 800 delegates from more than 25
spoke on the future of education in California and Kathleen Bailey, TESOL countries. The conference was the
President, who addressed the teacher's role in the learner-centered classroom. largest of its kind in the entire Middle
The next annual conference will take place outside California for the first East.
time, hosted by CATESOL's Nevada affiliate in Reno, Nevada The theme was "Unity through
Marilyn Knight-Mendelson, ESL Instructional Supervisor Diversity," and the plenary speakers
Napa Valley Adult School, Napa, CA were Professor David Crystal and Dr.
Diane Larsen-Freeman. There were

Tempo Bookstore more than 100 concurrent sessions, and


30 publishing companies were repre-
sented. Twenty major institutions par-
The Languages Resource Center ticipated in the new Recruitment Expo.
To Learn Foreign Languages and English as a Second Language (ESL) The field of English language edu-
Translation Aids Cassettes Children's Visual Aids cation is growing in the Middle East;
Language Videos Language Arts Electronic TESOL Arabia has a membership of
Teacher CD-ROM's (Preschool & K-12; Translators over 600.
Resources CD's ESL; Phonics; Special BOok Information regarding TESOL
Dictionaries Cards Bilingual; Requests: Any
(Worldwide & Games Multicultural) Title, Any Field Arabia and the TESOL Arabia Confer-
Special Fields) ence '99 "Teaching Learning and
202-363-6683 Technology" is available from Geoff
4905 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington D.C. 20016 Stout at E512@ugru.uaeu.ac.ae or
Fax: 202-363-6686 E-Mail: tempobookstore@usa.net Joyce Zomer at jzomer@het.ac.ae.
Mon-Sat: 10-10, Sun: 11-7 by U.A.E. Correspondent, Karen Asenavage

Conference Calendar
.May Melbourne, Australia. Contact Fauth Royale 18-20 Slovak Association of Teachers of
7-9 Florida Sunshine State TESOL Annual fauroy@ozemail.com.au., http://www.arts. English (SLATE) and the University of
Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. Contact unimelb.edu.au/-hIc/worldcall/. Zilina, Zilina, Slovak Republic. Contact
Judy Jameson, 352-331-4318, judy@cal. Anna Hlavanova, hlavnova@fria.utc.sk.
17-19 TESOL Academy, San Antonio, TX.
org. Proposal deadline: March 15. Contact Stephen Grady, 703-836-0774, 18-20 international Association of
Expected attendance: 600. sgrady@tesol.edu. Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
20-21 New Jersey TESOL/Bilingual 28-August 1 Linguistic Association of (IATEFL). Symposium/British Council/
Education (NJTESOL/NJBE) Spring Canada and the United States (LACUS), IATEFL, Hevelius Hotel, Gdansk, Poland.
Conference, East Brunswick, New Jersey. Claremont, California. Contact Ruth Brend Contact IATEFL, 100070.1327@
Judith B. O'Loughlin, 201-652-4555, 313-665-2787, rbrend@umich.edu. Compuserve.com, www.iatefl.org/.
joesIteach@aol.com. Expected: 700+. October
31-August 1 The Ohio State Conference
20-23 Centre for Research on Language on Second Language Reading/Writing 1-3 Southeast TESOL'98 Annual
Teaching and Learning (CREAL), Canadian Connections, Ohio State University, Conference, Louisville, Kentucky. Contact
Association of Applied Linguistics (CAAL) Columbus, OH. Contact Coordinator, Tricia Davis at 606-622-4382.
international Congress, Ontario, Canada. ESL Programs, L2Conference@osu.edu. 15-18 Second Language Research Forum
Contact Chantel Dion, 613-520-2600, '98, U. of Hawai'i, Honolulu. Contact SLRF
Expected attendance: 400. August
10-12 National Council of Teachers of '98, 808-956-5984, slrf98@hawaii.edu,
June English (NCTE), Bordeaux, France. Contact http://www.Ill.hawaii.edu/slrf98/.
24-27 Association for Language NCTE, 217-328-3870, 217-328-0977 fax. 15-17 Texas Foreign Language
Awareness (ALA), Quebec, Canada. Association (TFLA), El Camino Real, TX.
Contact Joyce M. Angio, 418-659-6600. 14-16 TESOL Academy, Seattle University,
Seattle, WA. Contact Stephen Grady, 703- Contact TFLA, 1320 Modiste Dr., Houston,
Expected attendance: 125. Texas 77055. 713-468-4959,
836-0774, sgrady@tesol.edu.
26-28 TESOL Academy, The Johns Hopkins TFLA@aol.com.
U., Baltimore, MD. Contact Stephen Grady, 27-30 International Association of
Teachers of English as a Foreign Language 17 National Council of Teachers of English
703-836-0774, sgrady@tesol.edu. (NCTE), professional development services
(IATEFL), Constantsa, Romania. Contact
July IATEFL, 100070.1327@compuserve.com. videoconference. Contact NCTE, 1111 W.
13-16 English Teachers' Association in Kenyon Rd., Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096.
Israel (ETAI), Jerusalem, Israel. Contact H. September 217-328-3870.
Hoffman, teumcong@netmedia.net.il. 16-20 Institute for Intercultural
Communication, 5th European summer 17 Michigan TESOL (MITESOL) Annual
Expected attendance: 800. Conference,Lansing, Michigan. Contact
seminar, Budapest, Hungary. Contact:
13-17 Inaugural World Conference on bvhouten@euronet.nl. Jean Holther, 734-663-8137, A2Jean@aol.
Computer Aided Language Learning, U. of corn. Expected Attendance: 200.

8 73 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998


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One of the most unique features of Short Cuts is its use of manipula-
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9
ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
74
Developing Active Vocabulary:
Making the Communicative Connection
BY JAYME ADELSON-GOLDSTEIN

Looking at the phrase "vocabulary guage student alike. The first type of Selecting Active Vocabulary
development," some of us will vocabulary is passive or receptive. It is to Develop
conjure up images of long word the vocabulary we see (or hear) and The ESL classroom is the perfect
lists. Others will see analogy tests understand but don't necessarily use. arena for developing students' active
from school. Still others will think of Our passive vocabulary allows us to vocabularies. Through needs assess-
crossword puzzles and word games. recognize and comprehend much of ments such as illustrated question-
For those of us who work in the what we hear or read in our daily lives. naires and teacher-led question and
ESL classroom, however, another The typical native speaker's passive answer sessions, the teacher can dis-
image comes to mind. We can envi- vocabulary contains between 45,000
cover students' goals (personal, school
sion, far too readily, a teacher valiant- and 65,000 words.
ly trying to give context and meaning The second type of vocabulary is and work-related) as well as their
to new words while most of her stu- active or productive. This is the vocab- working and living situations. This
dents frantically search through their ulary we not only understand but actu- information helps the teacher deter-
bilingual dictionaries for translations. ally use in our speech or writing. A mine which language should be target-
This is not a reassuring image, espe- person's active vocabulary is generally ed for instruction and which should
cially in these times when teaching not.
language in context is so highly For example, it may not be neces-
valued. Once teachers sary to make grocery shopping lan-
The emphasis in teacher-training guage a high priority with a communi-
and language journals has been on understand this ty of learners who do all their grocery
techniques and strategies that develop shopping in their first language. On
students' communicative competence connection, the other hand, it may be critical to
in the four skill areaslistening, teach a specific lexicon to students to
speaking, reading and writing. ESL they can help students enable them to participate fully in a
students, however, rarely read the lat- special school function, such as a
est journals or research articles on
employ it to learn, health fair, or to succeed in a particu-
language acquisition. retain and use the lar workplace setting. When students
Because many students believe work with target language that they
that comprehension at the word level vocabulary they need. use in their daily lives or that relates to
is critical to their success in English, their future goals, this language more
they rebel against communicative readily becomes part of the students'
strategies that ask them to jump over much smaller than his or her passive active vocabulary.
words they don't understand in a read- vocabulary, around 10,000 words.
ing or listening passage. Most students However, this number is still large Vocabulary Development and the
will happily purchase and use a bilin- enough to accomplish complex com- Communicative Framework
gual dictionary or an electronic trans- municative tasks. It is now fairly commonplace to
lation device. With this discrepancy While most passive vocabulary observe ESL teaching that features
between student perception and teach- development comes through receptive communicative goals such as being
ing methodology, it is worthwhile for processes (listening and reading), able to identify the locations of items
teachers to examine the connection active vocabulary development usual- in a kitchen, being able to invite a
between communicative methods and ly occurs when speakers find ways to friend on an outing, or being able to
active vocabulary development. Once use or produce new words in their discuss different cultures' views on
teachers understand this connection, speaking or writing. It is also interest- time. More and more ESL texts, in
they can help students employ it to ing to note that active vocabularies conjunction with states' model stan-
learn, retain and use the vocabulary often reflect social and work situa- dards for instruction, feature needs-
they need. tions. Workers, families and other based and/or high interest topics along
groups have lexicons that are activated with meaningful, communicative
Active versus Passive Vocabulary only when people of that group are practice activities.
There are two types of vocabulary communicating with one another. Despite all this support for com-
available to native speaker and lan- municative language teaching, teach-
r,
10 0 e.9 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
ers are left wondering how vocabulary TEACHER: What is it? SUNTREE: Oh, I don't dance. Movies.
development fits into this kind of STUDENTS: A bowl. My kids like movies.
framework. The ESL classes des- TEACHER: Right. It's abowl. Jung, Afterwards one member of each
cribed below illustrate a variety of put the bowl in the sink. group reports their list while another
strategies teachers use to develop the student records the words reported by
active vocabularies of their students r- each group on the board. The teacher
through communicative instruction in checks the students' comprehension of
their classes. '[;rd.\ the words by making statements about
R the locations and asking students to
A Tour of Three respond by stating "true" or "false."
ESL Classrooms For example:
The first class on our tour is a begin- TEACHER: People usually read at
ning level ESL class. The students in clubs.
the class have just finished identifying STUDENTS: False.
seven out of ten pictures of kitchen "As

items. There are simple drawings of a She then proposes two new words for
refrigerator, a stove and a sink on the the list: concert and gallery. She
chalkboard. The teacher is holding up checks to see if any students know
pictures of three items the students these words, and when no one seems
could not identify: a bowl, a pot, and a to, she writes them on the board and
frying pan. As he holds up each pic- teaches the new words with examples
ture, the teacher talks about the item, and acting. Next, the students use their
naming it and describing it. He talks list of words as substitutions in a con-
briefly about the bowls, pots and pans , versation practice activity.
he has in his home. He talks about STUDENT 1: Do you have plans
what kinds of food go into each item. for Saturday?
The teacher then pauses and gives the STUDENT 2: No, I'm free.
picture of the bowl to a student, STUDENT 1: Would you like to go to a
Jung Kim. (Jung walks to the board and tapes the concert with me?
picture onto the image of the sink.) STUDENT 2: Sure. Who's playing?
TEACHER: Point to the bowl. The bowl is in the sink. It must be
(Students point to picture.) STUDEN'T 1: The Bangles.
dirty.
TEACHER: Who has the bowl? Three doors down, an advanced
In the class next door, intermedi-
STUDENTS: Jung. level class has just finished reading a
ate level students in small groups are
TEACHER: Right. He has the bowl. passage about the ways different cul-
brainstorming a list of places that are
Does he have the pot? tures deal with time. The teacher has
good Saturday night destinations.
STUDENTS: No. asked numerous comprehension ques-
TEACHER: Does he have the bowl? JORGE: A party. tions to establish students' understand-
STUDENTS: Yes. ANA: A club. ing of the main points and now asks
TEACHER: IS that a pot or bowl? SuNTREE: What is it? the students to call out the words or
STUDENTS: A bowl. ANA: A place you dance. phrases from the reading that relate to

Vocabulary Reflection for Teachers


killed teachers spend time reflecting, not only on the REFLECTION ACTIVITY 2
S process that occurs within the classroom, but on the
various components of the language they teach. Good
What's the opposite of...
dry?
teaching activities often result from such reflections. strong?
The following exercises (adapted from Working with rough?
Words by Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman) will help you thick?
or your teacher-trainees consider 1) the role that previ- hard?
ously acquired words play in vocabulary development,
and 2) the pot holes waiting for language learners on Now give the opposites of the following:
the road to vocabulary acquisition. dry wine
strong cigarettes
REFLECTION ACTIVITY 1 a rough sea
Look at the list of words below and come up with a thick person
definitions for each. Which words in your vocabulary a hard exercise
led you to your definition?
a readeress What does this indicate about the very common
lunocracy practice of teaching opposites.
a teachee
a toolery
a doglet
computerette

ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998


7.6 11
time. Students point out phrases such term memory and helps them retneve take turns naming an item and writing
as "on time," "in the nick of time," the new information more readily. it on the paper. At the end of the
"quality time," "fashionably late," etc. Therefore, the tasks in these classes roundtable, one student reports back
The teacher then asks the students assist students in organizing, filing, from each group, and a class list of
to categorize the time words and and using the new language in con- vocabulary is amassed. The teacher
phrases as positive, negative or neutral junction with previously "filed" lan- adds any new vocabulary at this time
concepts. In some cases, students dis- guage. and then provides practice activities
agree and a class discussion ensues. that make use of both the teacher-gen-
Later the teacher will have the stu- Communicative Classroom erated and student-generated words.
dents choose five words from the read- Techniques Teaching the meaning of new
ing that they don't understand. The activities in these classes came vocabulary can take many forms in the
Working in groups, the students will out of specific TESL concepts such as communicative classroom. Using pic-
pool their lists and their knowledge to early production from Krashen and ture cards, picture dictionaries, or
see if they can 1) define the words for Terrell's Natural Approach, Spencer teacher or student-generated drawings
their teammates; 2) recognize the Kagan's Cooperative Learning tech- in conjunction with teacher explana-
roots of any of the words; and 3) make niques as well as the problem posing tions is common at the beginning lev-
contextual guesses about the words' and discovery methods of learning. els. In intermediate and advanced
meanings. As a final activity, the stu- If we acknowledge that knowing classes, new vocabulary is often pre-
dents will use a dictionary to look up students' needs is critical to effective sented through a reading or listening
any unknown words and evaluate the teaching, then pre-assessment activi- passage. While context is a key ele-
accuracy of those definitions they've ties become an important part of the ment in making new words compre-
created. hensible, the form of the word itself
should not be overlooked. Helping
Vocabulary's Role Rather than a discrete students identify the parts of a com-
in the ESL Lesson pound word or meaningful suffixes
The three teachers we've just visited number of words, such as -er and -less enables them to
are all building students' vocabularies
within a communicative lesson. related or otherwise, the be self-sufficient language learners,
and allows them to attack new words
Despite the differences in levels, top- lesson's or task's objective with problem-solving rather than
ics and language focus, the students translation strategies.
are moving from "see-level" (the abil- is the basis of the While both pre-assessment and
ity to recognize words, i.e., passive presentation strategies are critical to
vocabulary) into "use-level" (the abili- vocabulary that is an effective lesson, they do not create
ty to use the words to communicate, active vocabularies. This is left to the
i.e., active vocabulary.) presented and practiced. practice and application stages of the
The first two lessons focus on lesson. Many of the communicative
speaking and listening skills and are, teaching cycle, allowing the teacher to activities that are used to develop lis-
therefore, communicative. The third identify which language within a topic tening, speaking, reading and writing
lesson has a reading focus and perhaps area is already "owned" by the stu- skills play a dual role in building a stu-
a less obvious communicative nature dents and can be used to give context dent's active vocabulary. Activities
until we consider that reading and to new or unknown language. such as "mixers" give students the
writing are opportunities for the Visuals of any kind make excel- opportunity to produce new vocabu-
author and reader to communicate lent assessment tools, and they can be lary in a guided but interactive setting.
with each other. Therefore, activities recycled as presentation and practice When students circulate, asking
that encourage students to discover the resources. One way to use visuals is to and answering questions such as,
meaning of an author's words rein- post them around the room, distribute "Where are you going to go this week-
force the communicative aspects of index cards with the matching words, end?" they are participating in a per-
reading. and then have students post their index sonalized substitution drill. In order to
The lessons above show how cards beneath the appropriate pictures. create a communicative activity, stu-
meaningful vocabulary lessons come Picture dictionaries are another way to dents have to be asked to actively lis-
from the context of the overall lesson. use visuals for assessment. By mask- ten for or recall the information they
Rather than a discrete number of ing the word lists beneath the pictures hear during the mixer. In this way
words, related or otherwise, the les- and asking students to identify the another level of production is added to
son's or task's objective is the basis of items in the picture, the teacher can the activity and retention is enhanced.
the vocabulary that is presented and determine which words are unfamiliar Information gap tasks that ask stu-
practiced. Most importantly, students' to most students. dents to exchange information based
prior knowledge is activated and A brainstorming activity (called a on a chart, graph, or drawing usually
exploited from the outset, so that the "roundtable" in Kagan's work) is a include the new vocabulary presented
teacher can focus on a limited number very effective pre-assessment tool. in the lesson. In asking for and giving
of new vocabulary items. Retention Groups of four to five students pass a this information, students are once
research indicates that a meaningful, single paper and pencil around the again drawing on their productive
focused task helps learners move new group in order to list all the words they skills and incorporating new words
information from short term into long know for a specific topic. Students into their vocabulary.
12 '7 7 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
Stu ent Vc p bleary Activrit
111

his communicative vocabulary activity was adapted could Work in pairs to practice the new information by
T from Vocabulary in Action by Linda Taylor. The activity
.can be'used at any proficiency level and in any area of
creating their own pictures and labels.)
3. With the class, talk about what steps are necessary
ESL (from elementary to university level) depending on to drive a car (make a salad, get onto the Internet etc.).
the chosen topic. The topic of "driving" used below Through the use of mime, the previous vocabulary, and
would be most appropriate for adult learners at the high questions such as"Where do I sit?" generate a short
beginning to low intermediate level. list of directions that would guide a new driver: "First,
LEVEL: Beginning to advanced, depending on the topic unlock the driver's door. Next, sit down in the driver's
STUDENTS: All ages seat." Be sure to add any directions that you have pre-
pared that the class does not generate. Have volun-
GROUPS: Whole class and small groups teers demonstrate the sequence of actions while
TIME: 1/2 2 hours (depending on complexity the class reads the directions to them.
of task) 4. As a comprehension check, have the class
PURPOSE: To move language from the give you directions. Make mistakes so that
passive to active vocabulary. Students they can correct you (and so that you can
start by learning basic vocabulary check their understanding).
related to the topic and then use
the vocabulary in connected dis- 5. Divide the class into small groups
course to accomplish a particular and give each group a set of the
directions. Have them practice
task.
reading and acting out the sequence.
MATERIALS: 1) 3x5 cards/labels with (If possible, provide each group with a
target language for the lesson, 2) A large tape recorder and have each member of the
picture of the item(s) to be labeled, 3) A group record one or two steps in the
set of directions that fit the topic (e.g., How sequence until the whole sequence is on tape.)
to drive a car, how to make a fruit salad, how
to use the Internet, etc.) 6. Take the class out to your car and have each
group identify their new driver. (In the case of the fruit
Procedures salad, the class might go to the school cafeteria
1. Show the class the picture of the car (fruit salad kitchen. In the case of the Internet lesson, the class
ingredients, computer, etc.) and ask learners to volun- might go to the computer lab.) Have each group take
teer any of the associated words that they know. (If you turns giving their set of directions (or play their tape
use a class set of pictures, students can work in small recorded directions) to the driver.
groups or pairs to generate a list of words they know 7. Back in the classroom have the class decide on the
that can later be shared with the class.) most and least important directions in the sequence.
2. Distribute the cards/labels for the new, vocabulary. An application activity can be for the students to write a
Have students with the appropriate labels place their set of directions for parking a car (making another kind
labels on the pictures. (Following this activity, students of recipe, using another computer application, etc.).

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In addition to the types of activi- The Communicative have immediate application to stu-
ties that integrate vocabulary develop- Connection dents' lives. This application moti-
ment, there are specific vocabulary As we build our understanding of the vates students to participate in mean-
building activities that operate within links between communicative lesson- ingful practice tasks, which in turn
the communicative framework. For planning and the development of an foster retention of the new language.
example, giving small groups the task active vocabulary, we can help our When students retain the new lan-
of categorizing or classifying words students understand this connection as guage, they begin to own it and use it,
by type, topic, affect, etc. creates a well. When students' needs determine and in doing so, demonstrate their
meaningful task in which students can the topic and content of a lesson, any communicative competence not only
use their communicative resources to new language that is presented will to their teachers, but to themselves.
negotiate meaning and reach consen-
sus on how to categorize words.
A low-level beginning class Communicative Vocabulary Resources
studying the lexicon of family rela- Background and Techniques
tionships could work in small groups "A Comparison of Three Learning Strategies for ESL Vocabulary
to place the relationship words in the Acquisition." by Thomas S. Brown and Fred Perry, Jr., TESOL Quarterly,
categories of male, female, or both. 25, pp. 655-670, 1991.
They could then follow up this activi- Working with Words: A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary by Ruth
ty by using their picture dictionaries Gairns and Stuart Redman, Cambridge University Press.
to check the accuracy of their work. A Early Production, Teacher Training Through Video by Mary McMullin,
higher beginning class could use their Longman Publishing Group.
ESL dictionaries and the chart below Cooperative Learning: ESL Techniques by Mary McMullin, Longman
to discover which animal names have Publishing Group.
irregular plurals.
"The Vocabulary Knowledge Framework" by Paul Meara, Vocabulary
Acquisition Research Group, University of Wales Swansea Virtual Library
Animal Name Irregular Plural? Plural Form (http://www.swan.ac.uk/cals/vlibrary/pm96d.html), Nov. 1996.
ape ri0 apes Teaching and Learning Vocabulary by I.S.P. Nation, Newbury House.
bison yes bison Making It Happen: Interaction in the Second Language Classroom, From
cat Theory to Practice by Patricia A. Richard-Amato, Addison Wesley
Publishing Group.
deer
eagle Activities for Active Vocabulary Development
fish The Oxford Picture Dictionary Teacher's Book by Jayme Adelson-Goldstein,
Norma Shapiro and Renee Weiss, Oxford University Press.
gorilla
Communication in English by Kenneth Glowacki, Linmore Publishing.
Intermediate level learners can Word by Word Teacher's Resource Book and Activity Masters by Steven J.
Molinsky and Bill Bliss, Prentice Hall Regents.
give peer dictations. Using sentences
that feature words with similar Vocabulary by John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri, Oxford University Press.
sounds, spelling or structure, one stu- Live Action English by Elizabeth Romijn and Contee Seely, Alemany Press.
dent dictates to a partner or a small Chalktalks by Norma Shapiro and Carol Genser, Command Performance
group. The students writing the dicta- Language Institute.
tion can use clarification strategies to The Basic Oxford Picture Dictionary Teacher Resource Book by Norma
ensure that they are writing the correct Shapiro, Jayme Adelson-Goldstein and Fiona Armstrong, Oxford U. Press.
word. Vocabulary in Action by Linda Taylor, Prentice Hall Regents.
STUDENT 1: The trees were bare when
the black bear came back ESL Vocabulary Web Sites
to the forest. Vocabulary Acquisition Research Group Archive
STUDENT 2: The trees were what? (http://www.swan.ac.uk/cals/bibl/varga97.html) An annotated bibliogra-
phy of research papers and resources in vocabulary acquisition published
STUDENT 1: Bare, no leaves. in 1997. To see papers from 91-96, just insert two-digit year after "varga"
STUDENT 2: B-a-r-e? in the Internet address.
STUDENT 1: That's right.
Planet English (http://www.tesol.com/index.html)
This kind of activity links vocabulary A Web site devoted to students and teachers of ESOL. Features lessons,
through form rather than topic. In cre- games and a marketplace in which to find ESOL materials.
ating an opportunity for students to ESL Vocabulary Construction Page (http://grove.ufl.eduk-tsniad/)
practice a particular clarification strat- This page is designed to pull together useful vocabulary building activi-
egy, a peer dictation task becomes ties, on-line exercises and resources for students and teachers of ESL.
effective on two levels: developing Dave Sperling's ESL Cafe (http://www.eslcafe.com)
active listening skills as well as This site has games, lessons plans, activity suggestions and excellent
vocabulary. resource lists for ESL teachers.
Crossword Puzzles for ESL Students (http://www.aitech.ac.jp/tesljjcw)

14 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998


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sible to gather 25 people around one what types of presentations are done. brands are Proxima, Vivatek, Sharp
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a class so large that a TV screen is too around one computer or strain to see a
small for the entire class to see clear- TV, all of your students can have easy
ly? If so, then an Electronic Projection visual access. Now, if you could just
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or a game such as "Where in the World
As with any type of technology,
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school or program for staff develop-
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> Resolution. Know the resolution So. America $167
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tor. dim, an LCD panel may work better. Frankfurt, Johannesburg, London, Madrid, Milan,
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To work either system, simply dis- > Size. LCDs are smaller but require
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reconnect it to a cable that runs to the can weigh eight or more pounds. Will Honolulu, Manila, Melbourne, Seoul, Singapore,
panel or projector. If it is an LCD you have to move your projection Sydney,Taipei,Tokyo.
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monitor's port into the projector and > Option/Add-ons. Options add to La Paz, Lima, Managua, Mexico City, Panama, Quito,

then onto a wall, allowing you to see the cost. Do you need a remote con-
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http://www.aircourier.org

ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998 17


G2QWEIQW9@

Short Cuts Goes A Long Way


for Adult ESL Students
BY ERIC MILLER
When ESL teachers consider a sequence. This often alarms teachers selves bear no printed vocabulary. "Do
new text, we often page who do not realize that these "chunks" you ever...?" can become "Does John
through it rather quickly. of language are not only essential for ever...?" without making new materi-
Unfortunately, we tend to recognize als; manipulatives are recycled for
truly effective communication, but can
only the familiar when doing so, sim- be learned if properly presented and
whatever language need the teacher
ply because we have done it before. contextualized. wishes to address, reducing photo-
Teachers and coordinators are prone to Many expressions necessary for copying to a minimum. Short Cuts
dismiss activities that present different competent communication cannot be directly addresses grammar quite dif-
paradigms and could think, "That conveniently categorized into specific ferently from most texts, though prob-
wouldn't work in my class." grammatical forms. When asked, "Do ably more effectively. At the end of
Short Cuts (McGraw-Hill), a new you ever go dancing?" one probably each chapter the student will find
series of low level adult ESL texts by will not respond with a simple "Yes, I iconic depictions of English syntax
James Mentel, gives teachers good do," or "No, I don't," but rather, rather than metalinguistic terminolo-
reason to abandon this attitude and gy. The teacher can cut up transparen-
consider a new paradigm for their cies of these and move them around to
classrooms. This three-part series show students, for example,
draws upon a simple though sur- how auxiliary verbs work when
prisingly versatile device called we make questions in English.
"manipulatives": images or icons (Kudos to Mentel, who recog-
on small pieces of paper which nizes that "be " is not really a
students cut and move around on a verb, but a copulaor sometime
larger sheet that displays the con- auxiliaryand should be pre-
text of the language being studied. sented to students as such.)
For example, students place For the skeptical teacher or
small pieces of paper with images administrator who still cannot see
of vegetables or utensils on a full- the potential of Short Cuts, the
sized sheet depicting a kitchen, teacher's guide will give a clearer
complete with counters, drawers, cab- picture of the possibilities. A com-
inets and a refrigerator. They can prac- plete lesson plan accompanies each of
tice asking where things are, where to the four sections within every chapter,
put things, or telling other students including detailed explanations of
where to put things. The advantage how to introduce new language as
over a simple fixed image is that the well as activities for listening, speak-
objects or markers can vary and allow Short Cuts features manipulatives ing (group work), reading, and writ-
for the natural variation of circum- that can be cut out and moved on ing. Not every activity requires the
stances that occur in real life. The the picture. manipulatives, and expansion activi-
instructor can use transparencies of ties allow for practice in more open,
the manipulatives to direct class activ- "Yeah, once in a while," or "Sure, real-world situations. An imaginative
ities or an enlarged poster board kit quite a bit," or "No, never." Students teacher, however, can use the manipu-
which corresponds to the students' set. need to learn such responses to latives in ways that even Mentel has
Short Cuts is organized according become truly proficient in conversa- not mentioned in the teacher's guide.
to realistic language situations. Unlike tional English. Short Cuts, in this par- Mentel encourages teachers to inno-
many "communicative" texts, howev- ticular case, gives students a variety of vate and has created a Web site where
er, which simply contrive topics in answers, ranging from "No, never," to they can share their ideas.
order to support a linear grammatical "Yes, all the time," and the most com- Short Cuts is a series which all
agenda, Short Cuts includes a more monly used expressions in between. adult ESL teachers and administrators
realistic assortment of the expressions Students can then place icons of free should consider, without taking any
needed in these situations. This means time activities on the appropriate short cuts. Look it over very carefully,
that any given chapter context places on the continuum according to and try to imagine a different, perhaps
("Getting Around," "Likes and the information they encounter in lis- much better, way of teaching.
Dislikes," "The Job Site") might pre- tening, speaking, or reading activities.
sent students with expressions which Grammatical issues are incorpo- Eric Miller is an ESL Instructor and
have not yet been grammatically ana- rated into manipulative lessons quite Teacher Advisor at the L.A. Unified
lyzed or practiced in the text's easily since the manipulatives them- School District, Adult Division.
18
83 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
Announcing 00

Ta utsiAgnding 'V C COO

r Aiut E ttg, s e

VOCABULARY ASIcs
Reading Level: 4-6
Judith Nadell Beth Johnson Paul Langan
Vocabulary Basics will help your most basic students learn 240
words important for moving ahead in school and at work. Students
learn in the best possible way: by working closely and repeatedly
with the new words. No other book on the market provides so
much and such varied reinforcement.

GROUNDWORK FOR A ETTER V MARY, 2/E


Reading Level: 5-8
R. Kent Smith Beth Johnson Carole Mohr
A slightly higher-level text than Vocabulary Basics, the newly-
revised edition of Groundwork for a Better Vocabulary has been
expanded so that it now teaches 250 words.

Key features ©' each book:


An intensive words-in-context approach. Each new word is presented in at least nine
different settings. To develop "ownership" of the new words, students are also asked to use
the words in speaking and writing situations.
Varied practice and appealing content. You'll find your students motivated by the wide
variety of activities as well as by the lively, realistic, often humorous practice materials.
Sensitivity to the needs of adult ESL students. Information is presented in a clear and
easy-to-understand wayin a friendly, accessible tone of voice that never condescends.
o Outstanding price. While the books are comprehensive enough to serve as primary texts,
their modest net price of $7.90 also makes them inexpensive supplements in any ESL class.

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Helping you help students learn
Dave Spe itez:
AT. Man with a Virtual Passion
BY GEORGE H . CLEMES, III

When you meet Dave Sperling, thrives on it. from school, live in Japan, and then
creator of the popular Web site Dave Sperling has a lot to teach continue my studies in psychology.
"Dave's ESL Cafe," you'll us. In the following exclusive inter- Needing to support myself, I got my
quickly realize that he is a man of pas- view, ESL Magazine learns what has very first teaching job teaching gram-
sion. Dave is passionate about the made Dave, at the age of 37, such a mar at the Tokyo International College
Cafe of course, for which he is most successful pioneer in ESL. in Meguro, Tokyo. With no prior
known, but he's also passionate about teaching experience, I had no idea
teaching, writing, lecturing, his family Itow did you get started in ESL? how to teach grammar, so I stood up in
and life in general. I traveled extensively as a kid, whichfront of a very bored class and started
Dave has good reason to be made a powerful impression on me. teaching the parts of speech! Oi! I
upbeat: his award-winning Web site My first trip was to the Middle East learned fast, though, and soon made
gets over one million hits a month and and Europe when I was eight. Maybe oral communication the central part of
raves from around the my teaching.
world; he loves his teaching After teaching only a
job; the latest version of his short while, I was hooked!
book Dave Sperling's They say that you either
Internet Guide was just love teaching or you hate it.
released this year; he is lec- I found I loved it and
turing around the world stayed in Japan for five
about the Internet and ESL; years.
and he has a lovely wife and I then went to northern
two kids. Thailand looking for a
What is inspiring about change from the fast pace
Dave, however, is that his of Tokyo. What I found was
positive attitude doesn't my wife! Dao and I met at
spring from his success in a party and were married a
life; rather, his success year later. I also taught
comes from his positive atti- English at Chiang-mai
tude. University in northern
Besides calling him Sperling with his ESL students at Cal-State, Northridge. Thailand and at the
exceptionally optimistic, American University Al-
Dave's closest friends and colleagues this was the beginning of my interest umni Language Center.
attribute his achievements to a unique in ESL! I've always been fascinated We came back to the U.S. in 1992.
blend of congeniality, ingenuity, and I left psychology behind and earned an
hard work. The reason Dave can be so by people from other countries, and ESL teaching certificate from
pleasant and hard working at the same most of my best friends in high school California State University, North-
time is that he genuinely loves what he and university were from abroad. I ridge in 1993 and an M.A. in applied
does. also backpacked through Europe in linguistics and ESL in 1995.
Dave is a California native with the summers of 1979 and 1980 and
global interests. He collects music traveled overland through Egypt, Nave you always had an interest
from around the world, frequents eth- Ethiopia, Kenya, and the Sudan in in technology or computers?
nic restaurants and Asian cafes in Los 1982. A lot of people are surprised that I
Angeles, and enjoys Asian cinema. He While in college, I wanted to be a don't have a background in technolo-
speaks basic Thai and Japanese as psychologist and earned a psychology gy. I took a computer class in high
well as Spanish, which he practices in degree from Pepperdine University in school and hated it. Most of the other
Mexico where he takes his family for 1982. After I graduated, I had the computer students were really into
the occasional get-away. He is not opportunity to visit friends in Japan. math and science, but I wasn't. In fact,
afraid to try new things and, in fact, My plan was to take two years off that was the beginning of my comput-
20 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
er phobia! I managed to resist comput-
ers for another 15 years! Even in col-
lege I typed my papers on a type-
writer.
Where I first taught in Japan, only
a few of the secretaries had comput-
ers; there weren't computers in rural
Thailand either. However, when I
started graduate school in 1992, I had
no choice but to use computers to con-
duct research and write my papers.

How did you get involved


with the Internet?
I bought my first Mac in 1992, and it
came with a modem. The very first
night I got online and sent my first e-
mail from my home in Los Angeles to
a friend across the world in Bangkok.
Imagine my exhilaration when I
received a message back from him
within minutes! I was amazed at how
quick and easy it was, and again I was
hooked!

How did Dave's ESL Cafe beOn?


The Cafe started in the fall of 1995, t-
but it almost never happened. After I
earned my M.A., I went to Thailand
for the summer of 1995 to visit friends
and family, and I was almost killed in
a motorcycle accident. I hit a pot-hole
hidden by a puddle and landed on my
head, breaking several bones in my
face. My helmet saved my life. When
I came back to the States after a sum-
mer in the hospital, I was in the mood
to do something more with my life.
Having surfed the Internet in 1994
and 1995, I had realized that most of
the ESL/EFL Web pages were not
very interactive, interesting, or fun Dave Sperling is often at his computer with his daughter
and usually consisted only of pages of Shannon on his lap and his dog at his feet!
information and links to other Web
sites. I wanted to create something duced our first Web page using the beginning of the semester, the students
completely different. class's digital pictures and writing had barely attended class. Now they
I got a job teaching an English samples, which were humorous auto- loved class! They also weren't writing
writing class at California State biographies. This was our first effort, anything before using the Internet, not
University, Northridge. My students and we successfully published it on even in their own language. Now they
had been in university ESL programs the World Wide Web! We called it were writing daily! The students pro-
before and simply weren't motivated, "Dave's Writing Class." It's still there! gressed noticeably in their English and
so I offered to teach them writing in (http://www.csun.edu/hces1004/ began to communicate quite well. The
the context of the Internet. Reluctant- CSUN.html). computer really is a powerful lan-
ly, they agreed. I got access to the In a few short weeks my students guage acquisition tool!
campus computer lab and introduced began to receive e-mail from dozens That was the beginning of my
the students to the Web, which was of students around the globe, and to publishing on the Web. I thought, "If I
just beginning at that time. I bought a my surprise, they quickly became can do this for my class, why not do
$99 digital camera and began teaching motivated to read, write, and commu- something for the whole world?"
myself and the students how to use nicate daily in English on the Net, as Originally I wanted to form a
graphics and create Web pages. well as in my classroom. This was team to create a Web site for ESL stu-
In December of 1995 we pro- truly a stunning transformation. At the dents and teachers. I tried to get a pro-

"A lot of people are surpritAd that I don't have a background in technology."
86
"If I can do this for my class, why not try to do something for the world?"
grammer, a graphic designer, writers, cult thing to do. I had always loved to about 20 jobs a day. There is also a job
but nobody would even consider write, but nobody wanted to publish discussion area and a place to post
doing it. They asked, "What does it me! I wasn't looking for money, I just resume links. We get over a million
pay?" and I told them, "Nothing. At wanted to create. So when I learned hits a month!
least not yet. Maybe someday!" You about the Internet, I thought, "Wow, At one point I wanted to create an
have to remember that in 1995 the I'll just do it myself right here!" entire course in ESL on the Web, but
Web was still in its formative stages. Eventually I needed a place to put that is very difficult. I created individ-
With no takers I had to develop all these pages I was creating, and I ual modules instead. I've got 15
the Web site myself. I experimented came up with Dave's ESL Cafe. A vir- teacher forums which include class
with some ideas, and the first page I tual place where ESL/EFL people activities, adult education, linguistics,
came up with was the Graffiti Wall, meet. bilingual education, computer-assisted
which came as an inspiration from my learning, elementary education and
environment! employment.
There is a lot of interesting graffi- Did you have other name ideas?
We also have 15 student forums
ti in Northridgesome really artistic No, that was it. I have always liked on such topics as hobbies, holidays,
stuff. Someone would write something
cafes and hang out in them even now.
current news, movies, computers, lit-
and someone else would respond and A cafe is an interactive place with a erature, music, learning English, etc.
add to it and so on. This interested me, nice atmosphere where people meet.
So I picked the word "cafe" as part of The student forums are very interest-
and I wondered if I could do this on ing. I learn a lot about students from
the name. I considered some high-tech
the Internet for ESL students by creat- various countries in the forums!
ing a site where they could express names like "Virtual" or "Cyber Cafe"
their creativity on a virtual wall. I but decided on "Dave" because I'm
Dave and "ESL" because I teach ESL! Do you have any help
came up with the idea on a Monday, with the Cafe?
However, I often joke with my
and by Friday I had it up and running!
I had some time off that winter students that I need to change my My friend and colleague Dennis
name because on the Internet in Japan Oliver, who teaches at Arizona State
and continued to experiment with University, has collaborated with me
additional page ideas. I came up with my students called me Da-bu, which
means "fat." And in Thailand, on much of the Cafe's content and has
the Question Page, where I answer been a great help. He is my main
questions from students and post the Sperling is sometimes pronounced
Super-ling, meaning "Super Mon- writer and has written the idiom sec-
answers in a kind of "Dear Dave" col- tion, phrasal verb section, many of the
key!"
umn. As students began writing ques- quizzes, and the "Hint of the Day." I
tions concerning methodology or run everything past Dennis before it
TOEFL, for example, I began to Is your Web site for teachers goes up on the Web.
search the Internet and give students or students? I also have a team of teachers
links so they could get more informa- It's about 50/50. There is a lot for around the world who help answer
tion for themselves. both, and I try to keep a balance. questions on my Help Center, my
The more pages I created, the Teachers often use the Cafe in their global virtual classroom for ESL/EFL
more I loved it. This became my way classes. The most popular teacher students.
of publishing. I had learned that get- page, however, is the Job Center, espe-
ting published was really a very diffi- cially the Job Offers, where I post Where do you work on the Cafe?
I do most of the work at home, in my
-Arrisa.asrealac- 4." ..3:IMI"'_3:17, bedroom, actually. I also work from
my laptop when I'm traveling. A lot of
people think I work in some slick
office with computers humming all
around me and assistants scurrying to
and fro, taking care of Cafe business.
In reality, I work from a desk in my
M- bedroom. I'm known on the Net as
----Z-7-1.
.- "Papa Dave" because it's common for
me to work with my children on my
lap and my dog at my feet!
Once I was in my hotel room at a
a
conference in Yuma, Arizona. I had
the door open and was working on my
laptop on the bed. Two teachers
walked by my room and did a U-turn
and came back. They knew of me and
the Cafe from my conference presen-
tation and asked, "What are you
doing?" I explained I was posting jobs
4 Ai
22 147 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
on the Cafe. "Is this how you run the What are your future plans The project happened quickly.
Cafe?" "Yeah," I said with a grin. for the Cafe? The book went into print in March of
They had envisioned a big staff, office Get it out of my house, or at least my 1997 and has been very well received,
building, etc. All I need is a telephone bedroom! Also, I'd like to fine-tune I am pleased to report. As any writer
line and my laptop. I can work on the my ESL Web Guide, which is now up knows, once you have a book out
Web site from just about anywhere, and running with over 1,500 ESL/EFL there, you worry that someone will
and no one knows the difference. resources and over 350 categories. just tear it apart, but nobody has. I use
I've also just started taking on the book when I give workshops.
How much time do you sponsors after avoiding it for three We've done a 1998 revision of the
spend on the Cafe? years. The cost of operating the Cafe book called Dave Sperling's Internet
The Cafe takes several hours a day. was getting to be too much to maintain Guide (Prentice Hall Regents). This
My routine starts at 5:30 or 6:00 in the on my own. My last bill was almost update has a host of new addresses
morning. With a hot cup of coffee $600 for the month! Now I'm getting and comes with a CD-ROM. I'll also
nearby, I work on e-mail for an hour into the business end of things, which be publishing a student guide called
and a half. Then I take a break to cook is a challenge. The ESL Internet Activity Book for
breakfast for the family, shower, dress, Students in time for TESOL '99 in
and take my son to school. After .
New York.
more work on the Cafe, I break , As a result of the books and
to walk my dog, Alby. i the Cafe, I get a lot of invita-
Daily Cafe work includes 0 tions to speak on the Internet
lots of e-mail, updating pages, Z and ESL all over the world.
posting graffiti onto the Graffiti 0 I Recent engagements have been
Wall, posting answers to my in Orlando, Boston, New
Question Page, posting new Jersey, New York, Hong Kong,
jobs, screening submissions to Sao Palo, Rio, Japan, Thailand,
the Job Discussion forum, log- Chile, Bolivia, Malaysia and
ging onto the Cafe's Chat , Singapore. It's been fun!
Central to make sure everyone 1.
is behaving, validating and Is it hard to juggle
adding links into my Web Guide teaching, lecturing,
and fixing various areas of the writing and the Cafe?
Cafe. It's very difficult. Even with
When I actually add a new help from colleagues like
page to the Cafe, it can take 15 Dennis Oliver, the Cafe takes
or more hours per day, and I lit- several hours a day. I teach 20
erally don't sleep! It's easier hours a week. Somehow I've
now than it used to be, however. managed to write a book and lecture
If I made a programming mistake in You have written the first book
around the world. My friends and fam-
the past, it could take two hours to find about ESL and the Internet.
and fix it. Now I can usually remedy a What inspired you to write it?
ily know I can be a workaholic at
problem in a matter of seconds. More My book project began in 1996. I had
times, so this year I've tried to have
processes such as deleting postings are given a presentation at the CATESOL more balance. I'm spending more time
now automated, too. The Cafe can be conference in San Francisco, and I with my family. At some point I'll
a lot of work, but I really do enjoy it. was approached by editor Sheryl probably have to cut back on the
Olinsky from Prentice Hall Regents to teaching.
What kind of feedback have you write a book about the Internet. It
received about the Cafe? sounded interesting, so I gave it some Of all your jobs, which is
I get feedback from all around the thought. We got together and brain- your favorite?
world. Creating something so visible stormed different ideas. I wrote up a Teaching. I love teaching. Whether
tends to attract a lot of attention. The proposal, sent it in and promptly for- I' m teaching students or teachers
feedback has been really fantastic, and got about it. By the next summer it about computers or the Internet, it's
that's what keeps me going! was approved. just a part of who I am. I especially
Occasionally people suggest changes The book is called The Internet love teaching ESL. I've been doing it
such as making a background less Guide for English Language Teachers for a long time, and it's amazing that I
obtrusive. Sometimes I can make the (Prentice Hall Regents). I wanted to still have such a passion for it. I'm
changes, sometimes I can't. Overall, write an introductory guide for teach- thrilled that I can have such a great
the feedback is really motivating. ers who knew almost nothing about time in the classroom! Right now I'm
At the beginning of March this the Internet but at the same time pro- teaching a listening/speaking class
year my server crashed. For about 40 vide enough information so it would with students from about seven differ-
hours the Cafe just didn't exist. I got be useful for everyone. I knew from ent countries and a beginning English
about 300 e-mails a day saying, my own experience that such a guide class. I just love it. Honestly, not a day
"Dave, where's the Cafe!?" That was a would be helpful for learning a new goes by when I don't think, "Wow!
disaster. technology. I'm really fortunate to be doing this."
It's not like a job to me.
ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998 23
"I love teaching. Whether I'm teaching students or teachers about
computers or the Internet, it's just a part of who I am."

My teaching style is fun-filled, have met through the Cafe has been I can't let them bother me or hold
high-energy, and personable. Humor astounding! Dennis, for example, is me back.
is important in my teaching and in my now a close friend. There are so many
life. I love to laugh and to make peo- other people whom I would never
ple laugh. If students can understand have met had I not started the Cafe. What words of wisdom
my humor and laugh, that builds their For me, Dave's ESL Cafe is more would you like to pass on
confidence. I also enjoy having stu- than just publishing something; it's to your ESL/EFL colleagues?
dents visit my home. I'm always creating and enjoying relationships all I often close my presentations with
learning from them. around the globe. The Cafe is a central the following quote from Lynore
Writing has been a new but won- location where ESL/EFL students Carnuccio, a teacher in Mustang,
derful experience for me. It's very dif- around the world congregate. That's Oldahoma:
ferent from what I've done in the past. exciting. "We have done some work with
It's not like putting a grammar book the Net, but what I find when I speak
together, which has already been done. to other public school teachers is fear.
The Internet guide was brand new; What would you say is your However, in many cases, I think the
there was nothing else out there like it. biggest accomplishment? fear comes from lack of experience or
What is really gratifying is that it is I'm really proud of the Cafe. The exposure to the Internet."
changing people's lives. I get e-mails
from teachers who tell me that the obstacles I've overcome have been My advice to teachers: overcome
book has really helped them. amazingmy lack of technical train- your fear and apprehension about the
I also enjoy the Cafe. There are ing, the fact that I'm not a program- Internet and give it a try. I promise that
two things that I really love about it. mer, the lack of financing, and the lack you won't regret it. The Net is a fun,
First, it's such a great feeling to be of income from the Cafe. I've been useful, and extremely powerful tool
able to publish what I want. When I able to overcome all that and put for both you and your students, and it
have an idea like the Graffiti Wall, I together something that helps count- is going to be more and more difficult
don't have to go through any less people around the world. to ignore it as we approach the twenty-
bureaucracyI can just do it. I've learned that lots of things are first century. My motto is "Just do it!"
Second, the number of people I hard, but the hard things always pass. That's what created Dave's ESL Cafe.

Prentice Hall Regents presents


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hard at work keeping up with the changes on the Net so 3.1 or 95 by Howard Beckerman,
Charts & Exercises by
you don't have to! His new 2nd edition has lots of new
Betty Schrampfer Azar
web links, and in it you'll find everything you need to:
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PRENTICE HALL REGENTS , :II


Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 I

coa
24 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
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91
26 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
Christine Meloni 's
NETWOR THY
Web Crossword Puzzles
Make Vocabulary Development Fun!
Afun way to study vocabulary in a As soon as the students have fin- The URL for the Crossword
foreign language is to do cross- ished a puzzle, they can check their Puzzles for ESL Students Web site is
word puzzles. For this reason, answers. If they are using a http://www.aitech.ac.jp/-teslj/cw.
the editors of the Internet TESL JavaScript-enabled browser, their puz- If you would like to contribute a
Journal launched the "Crossword zles will be automatically checked. puzzle, you will find the necessary
Puzzles for ESL Students" project. For other browsers students will be guidelines and instructions at http://
When the January/February issue of shown the answers and can check the w w w.ai tech. ac. jp/- ites lj/cw/proj ect.
ESL Magazine went to press a html. So far, a small number of
Countries Where English Is Spoken contributors have been working
few months ago, this project Click on each box to enter letters In the crossword punk, then press the Check Answers button. If you are
offered only four puzzles (see stuck, press the Hint button to get a letter. overtimeVera Mello, Charles
"The Internet in the Classroom,"
r-
' f- 1- I- r'r I- I- Across
Kelly, Elek Mathe, Aviva Furman
page 14). Now the number
3
,._ I. huropean country whose capital Is London
and Martin Holmes. They would
I- ` E FEE I 5. African country whose capital is Nairobi.
greatly appreciate your assistance
exceeds 40. E 6r I-
7. Nation which k also a cotuinent,

The puzzles are classified E E F r Down in building up this site. Martin


into three levels of ability: easy, I- 2. Mr Clinton's country. Holmes originally developed the
medium and difficult. The num- 1- 1-1-1-E1-1-Efli:17, 6 "w".
ere both English and French are spoken.
6. (with 3 down) Mr Mandela's country.
JavaScript and HTML template
I- for this kind of puzzle.
ber of words per puzzle ranges
from seven to 26.
Few 3..5unit-enabled Browsers
( Check Answers I 1133
The Internet Journal is a
Each puzzle has a theme. SFIZ`",7,yo. ro:17, monthly Web magazine which
For example, you'll find puzzles offers articles, teaching tech-
that relate to animals, planets, Sample crossword from the Internet TESL Journal's niques, lesson plans, projects
metals, vegetables, fruits, parts "Crossword Puzzles for ESL Students" project. (including self-study quizzes,
of a house, and medical terms. Some puzzles themselves. Internet treasure hunts, and jokes for
themes are grammatically oriented; The puzzles can also be down- the ESL classroom), and selected links
for example, the answers are parts of loaded and completed offline. The for ESL teachers and ESL students.
speech, past tense verbs, or adjective "Hint Button" and the automatic cor- Check it out!
opposites. recting feature are still operational. Christine Meloni can be reached
An added feature that students Instructions for downloading are given for comments or questions at mel-
will appreciate is the "Hint Button." If at the site. Another option is for teach- oni@gwu.edu or at the EFL Dept.,
they get stuck in the middle of a puz- ers to print out the puzzles and distrib- The George Washington University,
zle and are unable to continue, they ute them for students to complete in Washington, DC 20052, USA.
can click on this button to get a letter. class.

"
WorldWalker Language Lab activities stimulating. Exercises, a verb form index, phonetic
Destination: Pictures and sound are used to build 200 listings, and an alphabetical index guide
Australia sentences with more than 500 words in students through pattern practice, applica-
This is an interdiscipli- each language. Students who are more tion of the new language to other topics,
nary CD-ROM that fluent will enjoy the animal exploration in and personalization questions. Lesson
supports English Ian- the Walkabout Game. plans in the Teacher's
guage instruction with- A The program, which includes a com- Book expand the vo-
in science, math, and prehensive Teacher's Guide, is available cabulary through read-
social sciences lessons. for Macintosh and Windows for $44.95. ing, writing, listening,
Students explore a new language on a Lab packs of five, site licenses and a and speaking.
journey to the wilds of Australia. They Network version are also available. Soleil The Oxford Pict-
can switch at any time between English, Software, 800-501-0110, e-mail info@ ure Dictionary, by
Spanish (or German) and French. soleil.com, http://www.soleil.com. Norma Shapiro and
Fascinating facts about Aussie animals Jayme Adelson-Gold-
and culture can be read or listened to in Oxford Picture Dictionary stein, is the core of a forthcoming pro-
native speakers' voices. The Oxford Picture Dictionary presents gram which includes a dictionary cassette,
The California Clearinghouse gave over 3,700 words in meaningful context teacher's book and focused listening cas-
WorldWalker an "Exemplary" rating, say- with engaging artwork. More than 140 sette, beginning and intermediate work-
ing that the language embedded in the key topics in 12 thematic units cover aca- books, classroom activities (over 100
lessons allowed students learn both con- demic studies, workplace, community, reproducibles), readers, and overhead
tent and language. Students who are tran- health care, home and family for begin- transparencies. Spanish and Chinese
sitioning to English reading will find the ning and low-intermediate students.
, bilingual editions presently available.

ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998 27


qj
Arab Students in the U.S.
Learning Language, Teaching Friendship
BY PAUL KWILINSKI

Saed al-Mubari is concerned in the United States. Despite a slight Because Arab students represent a
about his final examination decline in 1997, the number of new variety of countries as well as regions
tomorrow. Although he has students coming to the U.S. from Arab within countries, their educational
attended every class in his ESL countries has been increasing, which backgrounds are diverse. However, it
course, he worries that his writing has is encouraging for programs looking is fair to say that students from urban
not improved enough for him to to increase their Arab enrollment. areas tend to have had more exposure
advance to the next level of study. However, we are still a long way from to English and other outside influ-
During the course, Saed found writing ences. Students from top schools have
to be the most difficult part of learning "The American had excellent English instruction, but
English. Tonight he will get together it seems that the average Arab student
with his friends, all from Saudi 'way of doing things' has had less exposure to English than
Arabia, and study the material one students from other countries such as
more time. is not just an China or Russia.
Saed is just one of many Saudi
Arabian students in the United States adventure for these Cultural Differences
learning English. For him, as with One of the greatest hurdles for Arab
many other international students, studentsit is a direct students upon arrival in the U.S. is cul-
English is just the beginning of his tural adjustment. Issues related to this
training. Saed will eventually graduate
challenge to their often outweigh those of classroom
performance. New students may feel
from his English program and enter a native culture." bewildered by the lack of familiar cul-
university to study engineering. If he
does well at the university, he may tural structures. Arab students tend to
pursue a graduate degree. Along the 1980 when the entire Middle East pro- be highly social and reach out to peo-
way, Saed will meet Arab students vided roughly 29% of the internation- ple from other cultures immediately.
from The United Arab Emirates al students in the U.S. Today, students They are often confused and hurt
(U.A.E.), Egypt, Kuwait, and Jordan. from the entire Middle East represent when they find their initial interactions
Indeed, there is a significant number about 6.5% of the total enrollment, less than successful. The American
of students entering the United States and, of course, all those students are "way of doing things" is not just an
from Middle Eastern countries. not Arab. adventure for these studentsit is a
According to Open Doors 1996- The vast majority of Arab students direct challenge to their native culture.
in the U.S. are males studying Given the differences in family struc-
1997 (an annual publication of the
Institute of International Education), business and engineering. Over half of ture, roles of women, religion, laws
Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, U.A.E., Jordan,
the Arab students enrolled in under- and the cultural diversity of American
and Cyprus are the leading countries
graduate or graduate programs are society, it is not difficult to imagine
enrolled in one of these two disci-
of origin for Arab students attending plines. how completely alien it all seems to
the new arrival.
post-secondary educational programs

What pirt, ycur nit hees ma°den s?


n one
O U.A.E.occasion as I was helping students from the
set up checking accounts rather than carry
to have assured the security of
each individual's bank
around rolls of cash, the process reminded me that the account!
cultural strengths of Arab students can become cultural The strength here is that
difficulties in some situations. Arab students simply can't
As a group we went to the bank to complete the refuse another Arab student
task at hand. With boisterous enthusiasm, the stu- who needs help. They solve problems communally. In
dents helped each other decipher the forms, spell the contrast, the difficulty in this situation is the lack of
words, write out the letters, and copy information from cultural awareness regarding the information they were
their passports. However, their voices echoed through sharing.
the bank, and thus they publicly shared secret informa- Pat Finlayson
tion such as their mothers' maiden names, which were Senior Instructor, ELS Language Centers, Seattle, WA

28 g3 ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998


Arab students seem to expect the tiable" can be carried even further if Cultural SensltMty
American family to resemble the one the authority is a woman. There is an About three weeks after Saed's arrival
they left at home. A truly family-ori- adjustment period for many Arab stu- in the U.S., he was called in to talk to
ented culture, Arabs have clearly dents when dealing with female the student advisor The advisor asked
defined roles for each family member. instructors, directors or others in posi- Sued how he was doing. Was he feel-
The father is the bread-winner and tions of authority. While this is not ing homesick? Was he getting along
moral center of the family. The moth- usually a case of outright disregard for with the other students? Saed
er is the caregiver in the home. Nearly the female in charge, it often takes the answered that everything was fine. He
all the needs of a young man are taken form of extended negotiation; the final had some initial trouble adjusting to
care of by his mother. She is the one to decision is perceived as temporary, the food in his homestay, but he had
make his bed, do the laundry or fix a valid only until the student can find taught the family how to cook a few of
late night snack. In the case of a someone to give him the answer he his favorite dishes. He now felt more
wealthy family, servants would do desires. comfortable. The advisor told him that
these things. It is easy to see that had been a great way to
confusion might arise if these handle the situation. He
expectations were pressed upon then said that he had a del-
an American household by a stu- icate matter to discuss with
dent, especially a one-parent Sued. It seemed that sever-
household or one with a work- al of Saed's classmates had
ing wife and mother. A high mentioned that Saed
always wore a heavy, sweet
school or college student
expecting his bed to made for
t cologne and that it was
him may be greatly disap fteistLswilifIRM&' bothering classmates sit-
pointed. ting near him. Did he have
Another cultural difference ;. any ideas on how to handle
relates to rules and laws; the this situation?
Arab world depends heav- This would be a
ily on connections and I,
difficult discussion
negotiation. When coming with anyone of any
from a culture in which culture. The discussion
getting what you want with Saed was suc-
cessful because he felt
depends on who you are or
whom you know, it is not
unusual for a student to
4 .--a..1 he was in a supportive
environment and that
assume this will work the he was respected. In
same way in the U.S. working with any
While the other students in international student,
his social group may actu- one can fall into a trap
ally grant a student special of presenting the
status, the expectation that "right way" of doing
it extends into all areas of things without regard
life can lead to problems. - for the way the student
Although the enforcement r_ wants to do things.
of rules in the U.S. may be Often, a student can perceive this
somewhat dependent on one's identi- as a lack of respect for his culture
ty, perhaps we react poorly when this or, in some cases, for himself. The
expectation is reflected back to us by a issue of comfort in a foreign envi-
visitor. Certainly, expectations of spe- ronment is often fundamentally an
cial treatment are not met in the class- issue of respect.
room. Arab students may arrive in
Arab students are highly social and the U.S. anticipating that discrimi-
Negotiation is the process by verbal, often helping to draw out
which it seems all decisions are made. nation will be directed toward
students from other cultures. them. This expectation comes
The term "final grade" seems to hold
little meaning at times. Students will from the U.S. media they
spend hours lobbying for a higher In dealing with any authority, encounter at home and the interpreta-
score, comparing their performance to these students, as do students from all tion it is given by their local leaders.
that of classmates and asking for over the world, will follow the path of The U.S. support of Israel is seen as
reconsideration. The question, "Will least resistance. A request resulting in anti-Arab. Our own struggles with
you help me?" can be misunderstood. a negative response will be repeated to race relations point to potential prob-
I have offered extra tutoring and spe- as many people as possible in the hope lems. A offense against any one stu-
cial work to many students who, in that someone will say "yes." If some- dent can be interpreted as an offense
reality, were requesting a grade change. one does say "yes," the student will against all. It is vital that the issue of
The theme of "everything is nego- take all future requests to that person. respect be strongly and consistently
ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998 29
reinforced in working with any culture among a student's language skills; the students.
group. Consistency in treatment of the however, if a student can't read, he Pat Finlayson, Senior Instructor at
individual is as important as consis- often cannot be placed at the appropri- ELS Language Centers in Seattle,
tency in treatment of the group. This ate level of conversation class because notes that Arab students need to devel-
will minimize the potential for misun- he will not be able to read the materi- op their visual memory to supplement
derstandings and frustration. als. This can cause initial frustration their excellent oral retention. Because
During their time in the U.S., especially with a student already Arabic is highly phonetic and English
Arab students tend to stay in their own struggling with cultural adaptation. often isn't, beginning students benefit
social group. This can cause students Generally, writing skills are the from letter writing practice with
from other countries, as well as hardest for any ESL student to master. emphasis on left-to-right reading
American students, to feel a bit intim- Arab students frequently have the (saw/was) as well as "reverse spelling
idated and thus inhibited from reach- most difficulty. Focus on the alphabet tests" in which the teacher pronounces
ing out to them. Even when Arab stu- and spelling is often the first step for and then spells a word which the stu-
dents are placed with American fami-incoming Arab students. With hard dent then writes.
lies, they tend to cling to their fellow
work, these students usually master Regardless of the linguistic chal-
Arab students for guidance. Usually the necessary writing skills, but this lenges, these students are a joy to
within the first three months these stu- area develops much more slowly than work with. Multilingual classrooms
dents make the transition successfully their verbal skills, thus creating seri- can suffer from a lack of verbal initia-
and live comfortably and function tive from the students, but having Arab
within their setting. Homestay orga- students usually solves this problem.
nizers have claimed that Arab students Open and verbal, these students are
are both their most challenging place- wonderful participants in the class-
ments and their most successful. room.
In a good homestay, these stu- Additionally, they are welcome
dents become one of the family, and catalysts in the social environment of
spend less time with their Arab class- any institutionthey participate in
mates. The student comes home for activities and get others involved.
dinner and participates in family activ- They want to share their culture with
ities. These students also introduce the those around them and are regarded as
family to their own culture. It is not the center of the social scene. I have
unusual for these students to be the seen many relationships form between
most successful in their studies. Arab students and those from other
countries that have lasted for years and
Classroom Challenges Many Arab students feel that their continue to develop. Indeed, of all my
The classroom presents other chal- time in the U.S. is the most prized former students, I am visited by my
lenges for students as well as for their experience of their lives. Arab students more than any other
classmates and instructors. Being very group. Individually, they tell me that
social, i.e., verbal, Arab students can ous frustration. ESL programs can their time spent in the U.S. is the most
appear more fluent than they really only preview and hint at the rigorous prized experience of their lives.
are. Classrooms can become the set- standards for academic writing at the Saed, after being in the U.S. for a
ting for contests in which students vie university level. While all ESL stu- few months, has learned a number of
for opportunities to talk as much as dents suffer from split levels of fluen- strategies to be successful. While he
possible. Lost in this is the concept of cy in the various language skills, it can studied with his Saudi friends, he also
accuracy. Less verbal students, some be dramatic at the upper level for Arab spent time with a few of his non-Arab
Asians, for example, may feel they do students. classmates. Their discussions were in
not have access to the instructor in the Again, these students are highly English and helped him practice the
classroom. The instructor is left with verbal. They progress fairly well in the structures needed to pass his exam.
the responsibility of managing this sit- area of spoken grammar. Tenses and Saed knows that his work must show
uation so that it is equitable for all pronoun usage are usually not a prob- his ability to write clearly, accurately
and of instilling the idea that speaking lem. Pronunciation is usually clear, and to be original. While a lot of hard
and speaking accurately are two dif- strong and easy even for other ESL work remains ahead, Saed will reach
ferent things. students to understand. Vocabulary the fluency he needs to progress. He
One of the greatest needs of new acquisition is hindered only if reading passed his writing test, and more
students is to taste success immediate- skills lagand they often do. await him as he continues to climb the
ly in their English program. Initial Reading presents a few problem- ladder toward completing his ESL
placement of these students in ESL atic issues to the students. The obvious program and entering the university.
programs can be challenging and difference of reading left-to-right can
problematic. When students have not cause some initial difficulties. Also, Paul Kwilinski is Center Director of
had exposure to the alphabet, yet can the phonetic properties of English, ELS Language Centers, Seattle, and is
speak and communicate at a basic with all its exceptions to the rules, are currently the National Administrator
level, this can be a difficult situation. not as strong as those of Arabic. It is for language training for a major
Programs are usually set up to handle challenging to find interesting and Arab airline. He has also Directed
situations in which there is disparity appropriate reading materials for all ELS Centers in Asia and New York.
30 s ESL MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 1998
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5 5'
July/August 1998
Vol. 1, No. 4

The Expanding Role of the Elementary ESL Teacher:


Doing More than Teaching Language
by Jodi Crandall 10
Page 10
Going Corporate:
Teaching English in the Workplace
by Faith Hayflich 18

Learning to Listen
by Marc Helgesen 24

Haitian Students in the U.S.


by Roger Savain 28
,
CIQCPCJI;341MCMV@3
Page 18

Editor's Note 4
Letters to the Editor 5

News Briefs 6
Conference Calendar 8

Technology 17

Reviews 23
Christine Meloni's Networthy 27
Catalog Showcase 31 Page 24

Who's Reading ESL Magazine?

Dona De Sanctis Check out our


Editor of Ambassador, Web site at
a cultural magazine for
www.eslmag.com!
Italian Americans, pub-
lished by The National
(lots of links!)
Italian American Found-
ation in Washington, D.C.
Ms. De Sanctis formerly
taught EFL in Italy. Page 28
ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
1 00 3
EDITOR'S NOTE
LUL
MASA:1111i TM

Elementary ESL Publisher


GEORGE H. CLEMES, HI

Teachers Shoulder Editorial Director


MARILYN ROSENTHAL
Greater Responsibility
Editor
KATHLEEN R. BEALL

ising academic standards, the increasing use of standardized


Contributing Editors
assessment and other factors have increased the responsibility of JODI CRANDALL
FAITH HAYFLICH
elementary ESL teachers for the overall education of language MARC HELGESEN
GEORGE JOR
learners. Jodi Crandall describes the expanding role of the elementary ESL DEBRA KENDRICK
EMILY LITEs
teacher. She highlights content-based instruction and the TESOL Pre-K-12 LINDA MAK
TOMMY B. MCDONELL
Standards as two means which can help teachers equip students for
CHRISTINE MELONI
KATHY THORPE
academic achievement. She outlines the development of interesting thematic
JEANA REMINGTON

units that provide students with the language, skills and content they need for ROGER E. SAVAIN

mainstream classes. Webmaster


CHARLES FOWLER
A variety of factors are contributing to the increasing need for English
Advertising Sales
language instruction in the workplace. Faith Hayflich describes this growing 410-570-0746
410-798-5607 (fax)
arena for ESL instruction and helps teachers evaluate this alternative eslmagazine@compuserve.com

Subscriplion Information
instructional setting for themselves. Emily Lites and Kathy Thorpe give Introductory rate: 1 year, 6 issues, U.S.:
$16.95, Canada/Mexico: $24.95, outside
guidelines for evaluating workplace instructional materials. North America: $34.95. All prices in U.S.
$ and must be paid in U.S. funds. To sub-
Marc Helgesen explains the need to prepare students for successful scribe, fill out subscription form on page
23 (photocopy additional forms if neces-
sary) and mail with payment to: ESL
listening and shares tips for teaching effective listening skills. Magazine, 220 McKendree Avenue,
Annapolis, MD 21401. Or fax subscrip-
Roger Savain discusses the history of the Haitian people and the tion form with credit card information to
410-810-0910. Please call 410-570-0746
for all other inquiries.
characteristics of their culture that contribute to their academic success in the
ESL Magazine is published bimonthly
United States. by Bridge Press, LLC
220 McKendree Avenue
Thank you for the response to our article on Dave Sperling. Your letters Annapolis, MD 21401
eslmagazine@compuserve.com
www.eslmag.com
confirm the importance of Dave's contributions to the ESL/EFL field.
ISSN: 1098-6553
9,7-em+t- ESL Magazine is abstracted and
indexed with ERIC.
Marilyn Rosenthal, Ph.D.
Editorial Dirctor u 0 1998 Bridge Press, LLC, All rights reserved.

4 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


Dave Sperling: Great article on Dave Sperling and
A Man with a Virtual Passion congratulations to Dave on everything
I just read the interview in ESL he has accomplished! I heard about
Magazine, "Dave Sperling: A Man the Cafe a year ago and have since met
with a Virtual Passion." The article Dave and have seen firsthand his love
brought into view a person of whom for what he does. I feel fortunate to
we can all be proud. People like Dave, have experienced his wonderful sense
unselfish, generous, intelligent, cre- of humor, and I admire his dedication
ative and possessing a sense of humor, in maintaining his Web site. I tell my
make this world a wonderful place in children that their goal in life should
which to live. The truth is, I wish I be to make a difference, to make the
Send your "letters to the editor" to could be one of his students! "Happy
eslmagazine@compuserve.com or write world a better placeyou have done
to ESL Magazine, 220 McKendree Ave., is the man who can make a living by that Dave. Thanks.
Annapolis, MD 21401. Please include his hobby!" DEBBIE J . LEE
your name and position or address. JOSE ANTONIO Alberta, Canada
Spain
Developing Active Vocabulary I'm very happy to see the article on
I applaud Jayme Adelson- Just a note to say that Dave's ESL Dave's ESL Cafe in ESL Magazine. I
Goldstein's insightful article "Devel- Cafe is very useful for finding new met Dave online several years ago and
oping Active Vocabulary." It is acces- jobs. I've found my last two jobs have visited him and his family in
sible and thorough. Any teacher read- through postings in the job list! L.A. In addition to its stated purpose
ing it will have a great place from Thanks, Dave! :-) of ESL, the Cafe is also an important
which to start using a communicative KAYE MASTIN MALLORY multicultural resource. Teachers and
approach to vocabulary teaching. The e-mail students who visit the Cafe are inter-
"tour" of the three levels of ESL class- ested in language issues, but many are
rooms gives readers a firsthand look at Thanks a million for the touching, interested in a multicultural exchange.
the way students at all levels can overwhelming article "A Man with a AN/I GOLD
actively and meaningfully acquire Virtual Passion!" I've been a big Be'er Sheva, Israel
new vocabulary. The myriad examples admirer of Dave Sperling and his great
will assist all teachers in adding to Web page for nearly two years. I'm Arab Students
their repertoire of communicative probably his biggest fan in Japan! I've I appreciated Mr. Kwilinski's por-
vocabulary teaching techniques. The read lots of articles about him and his trait of Arab students and their way of
extensive list of resources is an invalu- activities, but I've never read one as teaching friendship and sharing their
able reference. wonderful as this. While most articles culture while they study in the U.S.
LORI HOWARD and interviews only cover things like We Americans are often too eager to
University of California at Berkeley his background and details of his Web know how our country and ways
site, your article communicates much impress newcomers and forget to learn
As an adult ESL instructor, I read more. It tells us a great deal about his from those who come. True friendship
the article on developing active vocab- charming personality and what he's involves mutual respect and mutual
ulary with great interest. My interme- like deep down. I'm very proud to be appreciation. Thank you for the
diate and advanced students always a fan of such an incredible person! refreshing reminder.
ask me how they can develop their KEIKO TSUJI ROBERTA SMITH
vocabulary. Until now, I've only been Japan West River, MD
able to recommend reading. Ms.
Adelson-Goldstein's technique of
focused task oriented use of new MASTERS DEGREES IN TEACHING ENGLISH
vocabulary is the answer. I'm delight- AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
ed to report that I used the technique
outlined in the article immediately. OPTION I leads to K-12 teaching
The results were terrific and my stu- certification
dents loved it. The next day they came OPTION II leads to Adult/International
MANHATTANVILLE teaching
into class proudly using their newly COLLEGE
acquired vocabulary. Thanks for a Join us at a small, private, co-ed, liberal arts
great article! 2900 Purchase Street college in suburban New York for individual
Purchase, New York 10577 teaching programs using theory to
CHARMAINE BUDASKA improve practice!
Adult ESL Instructot; Los Angeles, CA
For information : Contact Dr. Krute (914) 323-5141 Lkrute@mville.edu

We shape the teachers who shape the world!


ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 44; 5
W

Workforce Investment Partnership Enacted


n August 7, President measures in order to ensure the improvement of adult edu-
O Clinton signed into law the
Workforce Investment Partner-
cation and literacy services. The Act also encourages pro-
grams that promote phonemic awareness, systemic phon-
ship Act of 1998, which consoli- ics, fluency and comprehension.
dates more than 60 federal train- This Act replaces the Adult Education Act, the National
ing programs into three block Literacy Act of 1991 and certain adult education and litera-
grants to states. Title 11 of the cy program provisions of the Refugee Education Assistance
law, known as the Adult Act of 1980.
Education and Family Literacy
Act, creates a partnership among
the federal government, states
Cambridge University Press
and localities to provide, on a
voluntary basis, adult education
Acquires St. Martin's
and literacy services. ESL Product Line
The purpose of the partnership is to assist adults in ambridge University Press and St. Martin's Press have
1) becoming literate and obtaining the knowledge and skills C signed an agreement whereby Cambridge University Press
has acquired the St. Martin's College Division's ESL product
necessary for employment and self-sufficiency; 2) obtain-
ing the educational skills necessary to become full partners line in a deal that took approximately six weeks to negotiate.
in the educational development of their children; and 3) The effective transfer date for publishing and distribution
completing secondary education. responsibilities was June 24, 1998. Cambridge University
Included in the term "adult education" are services or Press is a leading publisher of ESL/EFL materials for a vari-
ety of audiences in North America and international markets.
instruction below the postsecondary level for individuals Robert L. Biewen, Chairman of the Scientific American
who are 16 years or older, who are not enrolled or required /St. Martin's College Publishing Group, stated, "I am pleased
to be enrolled in secondary school under state law and who that the St. Martin's ESL authors and their books will have a
are unable to speak, read or write the English language. good home at
This Act provides grants to states and directs them to Cambridge University
Press. Since this small
CAM IL RED GE
award multiyear grants or contracts to eligible providers to UNIVERSITY PRESS
develop, implement and improve adult education and liter- list does not have a
acy activities. Eligible providers may include local educa- proper fit with our overall strategic plan, I am glad that it will
tional agencies, community-based organizations, volunteer become a part of the distinguished publishing program at
Cambridge University Press."
literacy organizations, institutions of higher education, Mary Vaughn, Publishing Director of ESL/EFL in
public or private nonprofit agencies, libraries, public hous- Cambridge's North American branch, commented, "This
ing authorities, other nonprofit institutions able to provide acquisition will contribute significantly to our ESL publishing
literacy services to adults and families or a consortium of plans for the college and university market and will reinforce
these entities. States are also directed to adopt performance our strong position in global ESL/EFL publishing."

Percent of Population Who Can Converse in


English in European Union Countries
80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

Netherlands Denmark Sweden Luxembourg Germany Belgium France EU Italy Poland Spain Russia
SOURCE: Eunobarometen The Economist, Oct. 25, 1997

6 403 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


MRWS, DDORV@ Resources From Pro Lingua
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by Donna Inness and James Kea ley
lobal Learn Day II (GLDII) will take place on the second Sunday of
G October 1998. It is intended by organizers to be a global celebra- 49 fun grammar games for
middle school to adult learners
tion of education and educators. The main event will be the second
'round the world voyage of a five-masted virtual clipper known as the 96 photocopyable masters
Franklin. The date was chosen to correspond with the celebration of "Easy-to-use, flexible, and
Columbus day. The 28-hour Webcast "voyage" includes 21 "ports" fun...virtually foolproof."
host institutions in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americasthat will fea- Cheryl Pay lik, ESL Magazine,
Jan./Feb. 1998, vol. 1, Num. 1 SMENANIOAMES
ture presentations by experts in the fields of technology and education.
&remain arz
Individuals from more than 200 countries will man chat rooms, and an
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Lifelong Learning, Globalization, and Appropriate Technology.
Fly as an international courier for
GLDII will feature more than 120,000 accredited courses available
via distance delivery from thousands of universities worldwide. This the "big name" freight companies.
number is expected to exceed one million in the next two years. It's the cheapest way to fly. Over
Participants will learn how to evaluate and select courses as well as 1000 nit flights weekly.
how to market educational programs worldwide. The voyage will also Examples:
demonstrate technology that will allow attendees to take a tour of the Europe, Middle East,Africx Amsterdam,
Hermitage in St. Petersburg and allow instructors in London to teach Brussels, Cairo, Cape Town, Copenhagen, Dublin,
English to students in Albania. Frankfurt, Johannesburg, London, Madrid, Milan,
Nairobi, Paris, Rome, Stockholm,Tel Aviv, Zurich.
Broadcast.com in Dallas is providing Webcasting services without
Asia, Pacific Rim, South Pacific: Auckland,
charge. Hundreds of volunteers have participated in the project. Bangkok, Beijing, Brisbane, Cairns, Hong Kong,
Chief organizer, John Hibbs, is also the founder of the Benjamin Honolulu, Manila, Melbourne, Seoul, Singapore,
Franklin Institute of Global Education in San Diego and of the Franklin Sydney,Taipei,Tokyo.
Knowledge Corps, an alliance whose membership is recruited from the Mexico, Central and South America: Buenos
Aires, Caracas, Guatamala City, Guayquil, Kingston,
200,000 Americans, Australians, British, Canadians, Irish and New La Paz, Lima, Managua, Mexico City, Panama, Quito,
Zealanders who teach English abroad. Hibbs states that these teachers Rio de Janeiro, Salvador; San Juan, Sao Paulo, Santiago.
"are the most resourceful persons on the planet." His goal is to assist
them through the vehicle of distance learning. "The opportunities of AIR COURIER
distance learning for those who teach abroad are extraordinary."
For a FREE
Participation in GLDII requires only an Internet connection and a info kit call
late version browser. Participants may register at www.bfranklin.edu.
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ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 i4m4 7A


MQU7c5 12EIQC#@

Hong Kong Alters English Education Policy


While English continues to be one of the two official lan- However, there is a growing acceptance of American,
guages of Hong Kong (the other is Cantonese), the Canadian, Australian and other Englishes, especially in
Education Department of Hong Kong has ordered a change international business, science, technology, the computer
in the use of English as a medium of instruction in high industry, world news and entertainment. National
schools. Of Hong Kong's 424 high schools, 300 teach in Geographic, X-files, ER, 60 Minutes and movies like
Cantonese and 124 in English. The Education Department Titanic are well received.
has ordered 24 of the latter to shift to Cantonese in
September 1998, while permitting 100 to continue teaching George Jor, Hong Kong Correspondent
in English. The new message from the
government for teachers and students in
Hong Konguse the mother tongue.
This policy has caused resentment Tempo Bookstore
among the principals, parents and students
in both secondary and primary schools.
The Languages Resource Center
Campaigns have been launched to prove To Learn Foreign Languages and English as a Second Language (ESL)
that students and teachers have the ability Translation Aids Cassettes Children's Visual Aids
Language Videos Language Arts Electronic
to learn and teach in English. Teacher CD-ROM's (Preschool & K-12; Translators
Schools that are still allowed to teach Resources CD's ESL; Phonics; Special Book
in English are perceived as better and more Dictionaries Cards Bilingual; Requests: Any
prestigious and are sought after by many (Worldwide & Games Multicultural) Title, Any Field
Special Fields)
parents and students. Heep Yan School
received over 800 applications for less
202-363-6683
than 100 openings. 4905 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington D.C. 20016
Fax: 202-363-6686 E-Mail: tempobookstore@usa.net
British English continues to be taught
and highly esteemed in Hong Kong. Mon-Sat: 10-10, Sun: 11-7

Conference Calendar
July September 17 Maryland TESOL (MD TESOL) Annual
13-16 English Teachers' Association in 16-20 Institute for Intercultural Conference, Howard Community College,
Israel (ETAI), Jerusalem, Israel. Contact H. Communication, 5th European summer Columbia, Maryland. Contact Sara Rose at
Hoffman, teumcong@netmedia.net.il. seminar, Budapest, Hungary. Contact: 410-532-3156. Expected attendance: 250.
Expected attendance: 800. bvhouten@euronet.nl.
17 National Council of Teachers of English
13-17 Inaugural World Conference on 18-20 Slovak Association of Teachers of (NCTE), professional development services
Computer Aided Language Learning, U. of English (SLATE) and the University of videoconference. Contact NCTE, 1111 W.
Melbourne, Australia. Contact Fauth Royale Zi Dna, Zilina, Slovak Republic. Contact Kenyon Rd., Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096.
fauroy@ozemail.com.au., http://www.arts. Anna Hlavanova, hlavnova@fria.utc.sk. 217-328-3870.
unimelb.edu.au/--hIc/worldcall/.
18-20 International Association of 17 Michigan TESOL (MITESOL) Annual
17-19 TESOL Academy, San Antonio, TX. Teachers of English as a Foreign Language Conference, Lansing, Michigan. Contact
Contact Stephen Grady, 703-836-0774, (IATEFL). Symposium/British Council/ Jean Holther, 734-663-8137, A2Jean@aol.
sgrady@tesol.edu. IATEFL, Hevelius Hotel, Gdansk, Poland. com. Expected attendance: 350.
28-August 1 Linguistic Association of Contact IATEFL, 100070.1327@
Compuserve.com, www.iatefl.org/. 17-18 Korea TESOL Annual Conference,
Canada and the United States (LACUS), Kyung-hee University, Seoul, South Korea.
Claremont, California. Contact Ruth Brend October Contact Kirsten Reitan, reitankb@sorak.
313-665-2787, rbrend@umich.edu. 1-3 Southeast Regional TESOL Annual kaist.ac.kr. Expected attendance: 900.
31-August 1 The Oh lo State Conference Conference, Louisville, Kentucky. Contact
Tricia Davis, 606-622-4382. Expected
November
on Second Language Reading/Writing 7 Washington Area (WATESOL) Annual
Connections, Ohio State University, attendance: 500.
Conference, Bethesda, MD. Contact
Columbus, OH. Contact Coordinator, 2-4 New York TESOL 28th Annual Goedele Gulikers 301-982-1125. Expected
ESL Programs, L2Conference@osu.edu. Conference, Buffalo/Niagra. Contact Tim or attendance: 500.
August Miriam Ebsworth, 973-762-1530. Expected
attendance: 500. 6-7 TexTESOL V State Conference,
10-12 National Council of Teachers of Arlington, Texas. Contact Jean Conway
English (NCTE), Bordeaux, France. Contact 15-18 Second Language Research Forum jconway@cicccd.edu. Expected attendance:
NCTE, 217-328-3870, 217-328-0977 fax. '98, U. of Hawai'i, Honolulu. Contact SLRF 1,200.
14-16 TESOL Academy, Seattle University, '98, 808-956-5984, slrf98@hawaii.edu,
20-23 24th Annual JALT (Japan
Seattle, WA. Contact Stephen Grady, 703- http://www.Ill.hawaii.edu/slrf98/. Association for Language Teaching)
836-0774, sgrady@tesol.edu. 15-17 Texas Foreign Language International Conference, Omiya Sonic
27-30 International Association of Association (TFLA), El Camino Real, TX. City, Omiya, Saitama, Japan. Contact
Teachers of English as a Foreign Language Contact TFLA, 1320 Modiste Dr., Houston, Janina Tubby, janina@gol.com. Expected
(IATEFL), Constantsa, Romania. Contact Texas 77055. 713-468-4959, attendance: 2,500.
IATEFL, 100070.1327@compuserve.com. TFLA@aol.com.

fa'r.
8
105 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
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ieG 9
The Expanding/AZ' le of the
Elementary S ,Teachen//
Domg More t an Teaching Language,
BY JODI CRANDALL
j)/: /
"Teachers of English as a second or in the mainstream classroom. shown, students are likely-to be able to
foreign language to young children Whatever the context, elementary ESL achieve these through social interac-
must impart English skills at the same teachers are likely to find themselves tion with peers in a relatively short
time that they foster socialization; teaching not only language, but also time. It is Goal 2 which is the heart of
heighten an awareness of the self; the the academic concepts and strategies the standards document and increas-
immediate classroom community, and to help English language learners use ingly the core of elementary ESL: to
the community beyond the school; their new language more effectively help English language learners "use
introduce content concepts; and for learning. English to obtain, process, construct,
expose students to art, drama, litera- and provide subject matter informa-
ture, and music. They must accomplish tion in spoken and written form" in
these objectives through enjoyable content areas across the curriculum
activities that address the whole (Standard 2 of Goal 2). Children may
childthe child's physical cognitive, be able to acquire social language
social, and emotional development." without much assistance from their
Schinke-Llano & Rauff, 1996 ESL teacher, but to understand social
studies textbooks, read and work math
Rising academic standards, word problems, and follow directions
increasing use of standardized and complete science reports is likely
assessments, growing numbers to require the assistance of the ESL
and diversity of English language teacher, who can provide comprehen-
learners in the elementary grades, and sible, yet meaningful opportunities for
increasing reliance upon ESL without children to interact and converse in
mother tongue literacy or language that academic language as they
support: all these have led to a more explore new ideas, relate these ideas to
challenging role for elementary ESL prior learning, and react and respond
teachers, who may be expected to to each other. And for an elementary
shoulder greater responsibility for the ESL teacher to be able to help students
overall education of English language "to achieve academically in all content
learners. Elementary ESL students need areas," requires that the teacher
Today, elementary ESL teachers content-based English instruction become very familiar with the goals
may be required to teach initial litera- to succeed in school. and curriculum of other content areas
cy, provide the major language arts and be able to align or integrate ESL
instruction, introduce academic con- The new TESOL pre-K-12 ESL instruction with the core curriculum.
cepts, promote academic and social standards reflect this expanded role in
language development, and help stu- the three goals for ESL instruction: Content-Based Language
dents make up for missed prior Instruction in Elementary ESL
schooling, as well as serve as coun- GI:iAL 1: To use English to'communi-
cate in social settings; Content-based language instruction
selor, interpreter, and community and (CBLI)which focuses on the lan-
school liaison. While attempting to GoAL 2: To use English to achieve guage of academic content areas, as
accomplish these many objectives, academically in all content areas; and well as core concepts and strategies
elementary ESL teachers may also for learning theseprovides a means
find that the 30-minute "pull-out" ESL GOAL 3: To use English in socially
and culturally appropriate ways. of achieving the integration of ESL
class has given way to 90- or 120- instruction with the core curriculum.
minute ESL/language arts blocks or In a 30-minute pull-out class, an ESL
even full-day assignments in which Goals 1 and 3 are important, but in
second language contexts, as teacher might survey students on their
ESL teachers "plug-in" and work col- favorite foods, colors or pets and have
laboratively with classroom teachers Cummins, Collier and others have
them construct a graph recording their
10
107 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
results, integrating learning the lan- the English language learner to the record what they already know about
guage of numbers and comparisons mainstream classroom, and thematic trees, what they want to know about
with an important mathematical con- teaching helps children build on their them, and later, what they have
cept. Or, over the course of a semester learned. This K-W-L chart will serve
or year, students might plant seeds and 'V to mark their progress throughout the
JfILij unit. They may go outside and collect
chart their growth, noting the effects of
sunlight or darkness and water or leaves to press and describe in a class
drought. In discussing and recording book, or spend time in cooperative
their results, students might use the groups studying one treehow it
future tense to predict the outcome, the looks, what it feels like and how it
past tense to confirm or disconfirm smells.
their predictions, and appropriate mea- They may use their impressions of
surement vocabulary as they chart that tree to write a diamante or
their plant's progress. cinquain poem or collect pieces of
To integrate key vocabulary, con- bark or leaves and use them in a shape
cepts and learning strategies from sev- poem they write about "their" tree.
eral content areas and foster opportu- Following this, the teacher and stu-
nities for including multicultural liter- dents may engage in shared reading of
ature and other types of texts, the a book such as The Great Kapok Tree
teacher might build an instructional or The People Who Hugged the Trees.
unit around a theme such as Follow-up discussion might focus on
"Families," "Animal Babies," "Fossils the value of trees to people and other
and Dinosaurs," "The Planets," or living creatures, the threat of the loss
"Food." Thematic teaching also pro- of trees and what people can do to
vides opportunities for a number of meet their needs without overhar-
different activities. Games, chants, vesting.
songs, Total Physical Response (TPR) A culminating activity might be
activities, role plays, stories and drills ESL teachers can help students the planting of a class tree in the
are still part of the elementary ESL achieve academically in all areas. school yard, with follow-up activities
teacher's instructional repertoire, as throughout the year in which students
are software programs and electronic prior learning and relate what they are document the changes and growth in
"keypals" or "sister classes" which learning to the larger context of their the tree over time. Sensory adjectives,
link students across miles, but in a the- lives and world. the names for the parts of a tree and a
matic unit, these activities are all inte- A sample thematic unit on "Trees" leaf, and comparatives could all be
grated and interconnected through an illustrates how academic content and taught within this unit, which inte-
interesting and motivating theme. skills across the curriculum are devel- grates scientific knowledge, social
Content-based language instruc- oped within an ESL class. In this unit, responsibility and academic English
tion, by integrating language learning students begin by discussing what they through a variety of oral and written
with science, mathematics and social know about trees, filling out the first English activities. As this unit demon-
studies, helps smooth the transition for part of a "K-W-L" chart on which they strates, thematic teaching can also

Developing Thematic Units


Choose a theme that: 3. Identify content objectives.
Motivates and interests students (or a theme which
they have selected) 4. Identify critical thinking skills, study skills or
Focuses on relevant content from across the
learning strategies.
curriculum
5. Develop activities which:
Facilitates meaningful dialogue and interaction Foster authentic language use
Is grade- and age-appropriate Integrate listening, speaking, reading and writing
Appeals to different learning styles Draw upon students' prior knowledge and lead to high-
Offers opportunities for activities appropriate for er levels of understanding
"multiple intelligences" Are appropriate for a variety of learning styles
Is related to current events or concerns Develop learning strategies
Use a variety of grouping strategies
Plan the thematic unit: Provide periodic feedback and assessment
1. Identify appropriate texts to use or adapt (stories,
poetry, academic texts, trade books or students' work).
6. Sequence the activities.
2. Identify language objectives.
Functions
Grammatical structures
Vocabulary

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 108 11


activate and appeal to most of idea how it was made. So they engag- Donald provides a delightful opportu-
Gardner's "multiple intelligences" ed in an experiment in making peanut nity to focus on pronunciation of
through opportunities for movement, butter. They hypothesized about the English long vowels (E-I-E-I-O) and
singing or chanting, story telling, taste and texture of peanut butter at singular-plural distinctions (duck-
drawing and describing pictures, giv- various stages, followed directions to ducks, dog-dogs, and horse-horses)
ing and following directions, and help make it, then tasted and talked with the appropriate pronunciation of
engaging in projects and experiments. about it as their teachers recorded their (-s, -z, -iz). I have also found that chil-
Thematic teaching can also be impressions on a large chart. Finally, dren have a great deal of fun making
effective in plug-in ESL programs, in they voted on whether or not peanut the sounds of the animals in English
which the ESL teacher co-teaches butter tasted good and whether it was
and in their own language(s) while
with the mainstream teacher. For better when it was "chunky" or singing the song. Cards with pictures
example, in one Wisconsin elementary "smooth." In sequencing, predicting, of the animals and their names can be
school, the author observed ESL confirming or disconfirming the pre- made by the students and used in
teachers work in small groups in the dictions, comparing and contrasting, games such as "Concentration," "Go
morning (usually during a portion of the children used the academic lan- Fish," or other memory card games.
their language arts module) on vocab- guage and skills that will be needed This unit can be followed by a
ulary, grammar and other aspects of for other scientific experiments and in unit on "Zoo Animals," with a focus
English, and in the afternoon, co-teach other comparative activities. on similarities and differences among
with the mainstream teachers, who By having the ESL teacher in the the various animals. A trip to a farm
often bring several classes of students mainstream classroom, the children and a zoo, of course, would make all
together for longer periods to accom- not only had the benefit of a greater this even more engaging and memo-
modate science experiments or social number of supportive teachers in the rable for the children. Thematic units,
studies projects. In one particularly classroom, but the mainstream class- while taking more time to develop and
memorable afternoon, all the first room teacher also had the opportunity present, may offer a more engaging
graderswith their teachers, the ESL to observe how the ESL teacher adapt- and productive use of the short EFL
teacher and some teacher aidespar- ed instruction to make it more com- class than a series of activities that are
ticipated in a unit on peanut butter that prehensible to the English language not related to a central theme. The
began with small groups engaged in learners. theme helps students develop cogni-
shared reading of Peanut Butter and Thematic teaching is also possible tive schema about their world as well
Jelly and a discussion of favorite in EFL contexts. For example, a unit as the language to discuss and learn
foods. Some of the students had never on "Farm Animals" might begin with more about it.
eaten peanut butter, and few had any a discussion of pictures of these ani-
mals, followed by The Challenges of CBU
teaching songs for Elementary ESL
such as "Old Perhaps the greatest challenge for
Ihe tnglish leacher's Assistant: MacDonald had a CBLI in elementary ESL is the scarci-
farm" or "There ty of good materials. Some excellent
The Newsletter for Busg, Innovative was an old lady materials are available. Science for
ESL/EFL Teachers and Tutors who swallowed a Language Learners offers wonderful
fly." Old Mac- suggestions for integrating science
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12
Pe&
ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1 998
and ESL through thematic units relat- currently in preparation and when standards movement have provided
ed to plants, animals or heat. The rela- available, will facilitate greater vocab- additional exciting challenges, as ESL
tively new series Scott Foresman ESL: ulary development in the content teachers work together to align their
Accelerating English Language areas. However, available texts are ESL curriculum, first, with the core
Learning integrates academic con- few, requiring ESL teachers to devel- curriculum in the school and then with
cepts and language with learning op their own thematic units, a time- the standards set by TESOL. Summer
strategies and literature in engaging consuming though interesting chal- curriculum development teams pro-
and appropriately challenging units. lenge for teachers. vide a start on this process, but help-
In addition, The Oxford Picture The publication of the TESOL ing teachers to implement the new
Dictionary of the Content Areas is pre-K-12 standards and the entire curriculum and standards will take

A Sample Thematic Unit


Theme: Trees Presentation
In small groups, have students list all the ways that
Language Objectives
Lis-rENINGListen to the story (The Great Kapok Tree).
people, animals and other plants benefit from trees.
Show pictures of birds' nests, lumber, small trees
SPEAKING living under larger ones, squirrels eating acorns, etc.
Talk about similarities and differences in trees. if students need some suggestions.
Describe leaves or trees. Record students' ideas on a chart according to who
Discuss the value of trees to people, animals, etc. benefits (people, animals, plants).
Retell the story (language experience story). Read The Great Kapok Tree. Preview the book with
READING
the students. Show the pictures. Ask students about
where the story takes place. Point on a globe or map
Read language experience story.
to where rain forests are located.
Read and sequence sentences from the
story (strip story). While reading the story, stop frequently to talk about
the kapok tree and the animals that live in the rain
10 WRITING forest.
Label or write captions for tree book
Practice
Create a tree poem.
Discuss the story. Go through the book again, pointing
STRUCTURESplurals (-s, -z, -iz), comparatives (bigger, out more of the things in the pictures. Ask students if
smaller, lighter, darker, etc.) they can remember the names of the animals and how
each benefits from trees. As they talk, take notes on
VOCABULARY the chart. From these, ask students to retell the story
Trees, parts of tree (trunk, bark, leaves, roots, etc.) in their own words while you record their words.
Shapes (round, oval, square)
Application
Names of the animals in the story Depending on age and English level, ask students to:
Descriptive adjectives (smooth, rough, pretty, colors, Draw and label the parts of a tree.
size, etc.)
Working in pairs, create a tree/leaf book: paste
Content Objectives leaves on sheets of paper, describe the leaves, name
Understand similarities and differences in leaves and the tree.
trees. Complete a chart which identifies ways people use
Understand the value of trees and the importance of trees that allow the trees to continue living (renewable
protecting and planting them. resources) and ways that cause trees to die.
Study Skills Plant a tree in the school yard and create a sign for it.
Sequence information. In groups of three, create a tree poem (using a dia-
Compare and contrast effects of different uses of mante, cinquain or shape poem).
trees. Evaluation and Closure
Warm Up Ask students to share their "application" projects with
Take students on walk around school grounds. Point the class.
to different trees. Touch them. Talk about them. Build Have students work in small groups to create tree
vocabulary. Encourage students to look closely and to posters that combine their work.
pick up fallen leaves and bark to take back to class.
Follow-Up
When back in the class, ask students to describe If students plant a tree, create a class tree diary.
their leaves. Elicit vocabulary for colors, shapes, size
and other characteristics. Ask students to look at the tree carefully periodically
(perhaps once a month) and to describe changes in
Show pictures of different trees. Ask students to talk the tree.
about trees in the school yard, in their yards, in the
neighborhood, etc. Identify ways in which the trees are Measure the tree's growth periodically and chart that
the same/different; small/large, etc.). growth on the classroom wall.
Create a semantic web recording what students know Appoint different students each week/month to be
about trees. Transfer to a K-W-L chart and ask what responsible for caring for the tree, watering it, if nec-
else they want to know (learn) about trees. essary, and reporting to the class about its growth.

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 13


11
substantially more time and effort. ers in their classes. An experienced
Exchanging More An additional challenge is class
time. Even with 90- or 120-minute
elementary school teacher who adds
an M.A. in TESOL is a great asset to
Than Just Ideas classes, the time for thematic teaching a school. However, efforts in some
may be limited, and what time is states to reduce ESL certification to an
available may be interrupted by endorsement and to require that teach-
requests for interpreting, testing, other ers become certified as elementary
special assignments and the ongoing school teachers before they add a few
testing and placement of new students. courses in ESL are misguided and
Classroom teachers may overlook the short-sighted. While elementary
scheduled departure time for ESL stu- teachers may need to learn how to
dents or may refuse to let these stu- teach the increasingly diverse students
dents leave because "they are involved in their classrooms, teaching ESL
in something too important to miss." requires knowledge and experiences
Sadly, it is these same teachers who beyond those which would be avail-
may also say, "You take care of it. able in a brief endorsement program.
THE FULBRIGHT You're the English teacher," when a Teacher education partnerships which
student has trouble with the language link those preparing to teach ESL with
TEACHER EXCHANGE of mathematics or the reading or writ- others preparing to teach science or
PROGRAM ing requirements of the regular class- social studies offer the opportunity for
room. these prospective teachers to learn
Opportunities for educators at the For those engaged in preparing from each other. Partnerships between
elementary, secondary, and two- ESOL teachers, the challenges are schools and universities that offer
year post-secondary levels to: also great. Prospective elementary long-term internships to teacher can-
Exchange classrooms with ESL teachers need time to observe, didates are also promising. Teacher
teachers from other countries. assist and co-teach in both ESL and preparation is a continuing challenge,
Participate in a six-week mainstream classrooms if they are to one which must be met if future ele-
administrative exchange.
be prepared to integrate ESL and the mentary ESL teachers are to success-
Attend a Classics Seminar in
core curriculum in their teaching. In fully fill their expanding roles.
the M.A. Program in ESOL/Bilingual
Italy.
Education at the University of JoAnn (Jodi) Crandall is professor of
Maryland, Baltimore County, many Education, Co-Director ESOLJ
TO QUALIFYYOU MUST: students have been teaching elemen- Bilingual Program and Director,
Be a U.S. citizen. tary school for years and want to teach Doctoral Program in Language,
Be fluent in English. ESL because of their positive experi- Literacy and Culture, University of
Have a Bachelor's degree or ences with the English language learn- MD Baltimore County (UMBC).
higher.
Be in at least third year of full-
time employment.
Hold a current full-time
ESL Standards for
teaching or administrative
position. Pre-K 12 Students feu
Minorities are encouraged to CSL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students is the %amps
apply. I first national guide to assist states and local
school districts in addressing the particular
For more Information and
instructional needs of ESL students, who must
application material contact:
learn a new language as well as academic con-
The Fulbright Teacher Exchange tent. Development of the ESL standards was a
Attention: L.E. three-year project funded by the TESOL associa-
600 Maryland Avenue, S.W. tion and carried out primarily through the grass-roots, volunteer effort
Room 465 of TESOL members. Hundreds of teachers, researchers, administrators
Washington, DC 20024 and language specialists participated in the .project.
(800)726-0479 The standards are organized around three goals and each goal
fulbrigh@grad.usda.gov has three standards according to grade-level clusters pre-K-3, 4-8 and
http://www.grad.usda.gov/ 9-12. The standards include behavioral descriptors, progress indica-
International/ftep.html tors and real classroom scenarios.
For more information about the ESL Standards and their imple-
Applications must be post-marked mentation in pre-K through twelfth grade classrooms, contact Deborah
by October 15, 1998 Short, Project Director, or Emily Gomez at the Center for Applied
FliazuguT Linguistics at 202-429-9292.
Copies of ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students are available from
-Sponsored by the U.S. Information A9ency-
TESOL at 703-518-2522, e-mail publ@tesol.edu.

14 " ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


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Two Outstanding New Vocabulary Boolcs
For Adult ESL Students
VOCABULARY BASICS
Reading Level: 4-6
Judith Nadel Beth Johnson Paul Langan
Vocabulary Basics will help your most basic students learn 240
words important for moving ahead in school and at work. Students
learn in the best possible way: by working closely and repeatedly
with the new words. No other book on the market provides so
much and such varied reinforcement.

GROUNDWORK FOR A BETTER VOCABULARY, 2/E


Reading Level: 5-8
R. Kent Smith Beth Johnson Carole Mohr
A slightly higher-level text than Vocabulary Basics, the newly-
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expanded so that it now teaches 250 words.

Key fe tures of each book:


An intensive words-in-context approach. Each new word is presented in at least nine
different settings. To develop "ownership" of the new words, students are also asked to use
the words in speaking and writing situations.
Varied practice and appealing content. You'll fmd your students motivated by the wide
variety of activities as well as by the lively, realistic, often humorous practice materials.
Sensitivity to the needs of adult ESL students. Information is presented in a clear and
easy-to-understand wayin a friendly, accessible tone of voice that never condescends.
Outstanding price. While the books are comprehensive enough to serve as primary texts,
their modest net price of $7.90 also makes them inexpensive supplements in any ESL class.

For a free exam copy of the instructor's edition of either book, please call or write us.
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213
Vg@IIRC)1©@V

Comfort at the Computer


BY TOMMY B . MCDONELL, M P S

Students' comfort has much to do o upper arms are close to your sides D Lighting
with how they learn. If students and elbows form right angles (90 If glare is a problem, there are several
are not comfortable while work- degrees). solutions. Position the screen at right
ing at the computer, this will affect angles to any bright light sources.
their learning. Therefore, teachers D Work Station Don't face a window. If you have trou-
need to pay attention not only to com- First, make sure you have enough ble reading the screen, adjust the
puter software for students but also to room. Place materials or supplies brightness and contrast controls.
the set up of computer work stations. where they don't interfere with your Reflections may be eliminated by tilt-
Habits developed at school can be con- movements. Arrange the work area so ing the display.
tinued at home. These tips .also work that you face the display and keyboard
for setting up your own office at directly, without having to twist 1> Keyboards
school or at home. your body. The keyboard and mouse are often the
Ergonomics, the scientific study reason for hand or wrist pain and
of human work, has as its goal the carpal tunnel syndrome. Keyboards
reduction of musculosketal disorders should be detachable so the angle and
by adapting work to fit the person. The position can be adjusted. Wrist/palm
Occupational Safety and Health rests should be made of soft support-
Administration, or OSHA, defines ing material and be the same height as
ergonomic disorders as those of mus- the keyboard.
culoskeletal and nervous systems Use the palm rest to rest your
occurring in the upper or lower hand prior to typing; don't use it while
extremities or the back. Disorders typing or you will put stress on your
include carpal tunnel syndrome, vari- hands. When typing, your wrists
ous tendon disorders and lower back should be as straight as possible and
injuries. Common symptoms are: your forearms parallel to the floor.
o painful joints, wrists or shoulders, A divided keyboard promotes natural
0 tingling and numbness in hands and comfortable hand position. D The Mouse
and feet, When moving the mouse, use your
o back or neck pain, D The Chair whole arm, not just your wrist. Your
o stiffness. Both chairs and monitors are often the mouse or trackball should be at the
These symptoms are caused or causes of neck and/or back discom- same height as your keyboard and
aggravated by repetitive motion or fort. Every chair is different, but one within easy reach.
awkward positions for extended should be able to adjust the fit, tilt and
periods of time. height of the chair for good posture D Extra Tips
and comfort. The chair should fit the Remember to stretch from time to
Tailor Your Work Space To back snugly or have a back cushion. time. After twenty minutes of typing
Fit Your Body's Needs Set the chair height so that hands or looking at the monitor, take a break
The best computer lab or teacher's and wrists are at about the same level for a minute or two and look around
office is one in which the workspace is as the home row on the keyboard. the room.
tailored to fit the body's needs. The Feet should be on the floor or on a If you have pain that lasts for
best position for your body is one that foot rest. more than a few days, call your doctor
generates the least amount of strain. to determine the problem.
Making the right ergonomic adjust- L> Monitor
ments to the chair, keyboard and dis- The top line of the monitor should be The next time you experience
play are important. just below eye level to keep the neck neck or back pain at work, or notice a
straight. Adjustable arms, tables or student's discomfort, consider the set
I> Your Body platforms can help bring the screen to up of the computer work station and
If you work with a computer, the rec- the proper height. The monitor should look for ways to make it more
ommended position for your body is be placed 18 to 30 inches away from ergonomically correct.
one in which your: the you. The screen should be easily
shoulders are relaxed, viewed so that the your head isn't turn- Tommy B. McDonell is Executive
o wrists form straight lines with ing to the side or tilting up or down Director of the Learning English Adult
arms, hands and fingers, regularly. Program, Inc. (LEAP) in New York.

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 17


GOING CORPORATE:

Teaching English in the Workplace


BY FAITH HAYFLICH
The union of auto manufacturing role is expanded. To be successful, a related situations (e.g., "How much
giants Chrysler and Daimler- teacher must adapt to this new envi- paper do you want?" not "How much
Benz was the merger "heard ronment and meet these challenges meat?"). Many of a teacher's favorite
'round the world," causing many to sit with energy and creativity. books may not be useful within the
up and take notice. English language When a teacher walks into a cor- corporate setting because they focus
teachers should also take notice poration, he or she becomes an too much on school situations or life
because the accelerated globalization instructor, trainer or consultant. The skills or are oriented towards the
of business is just one of several fac- students are employees of the corpora- wrong age group.
tors causing the growth of corporate tion and are known as participants or
ESL in North America, growth that is trainees. The school represented by Creative Scheduling
providing increased opportunities for the teacher is the vendor or provider. Class schedules must conform to com-
teachers. Everyone who has an interest in the pany schedules. Students may come to
More and more companies are class may be referred to as a "stake- class for two hours twice a week, or
seeking English language and cul- three hours once a week, or some-
tural training for their employees. times for a whole day for one
Berlitz International, Inc., one of class. Classes may take place
the largest language teaching enti- before or after work or on the job.
ties in the world, reports that in just They can even occur during a
the last five years, corporate enroll- graveyard shift from 11 p.m. to 1
ments for English language a.m. or 5 a.m. to 7 a.m.
instruction have increased from Since classes may be two or
21% to 32% of their total corporate eight or twelve weeks long, a
enrollment. Among their English teacher who works full-time in a
training clients are familiar names corporate setting may have a
such as McDonald's, Coca-Cola, schedule that changes constantly.
Samsung, Daimler-Benz and Overlapping courses may provide
KPMG Peat Marwick. 28 hours of teaching in one week
Other international companies and only six in the next. Trainers
such as Toyota, Panasonic and typically need to schedule vaca-
Canon have all offered English tions in advance and inform the
classes for their employees in the corporate client since there are no
U.S. and abroad. Hilton now offers regularly scheduled school vaca-
English classes for management tions.
and support staff nationwide. Other Scheduling individual classes
ESL training entities report requires juggling the priorities of
increases in the number of corpo- various stakeholders in a com-
rate clients from a variety of fields holder." Students, their supervisors, pany. When the students are profes-
including technology, real estate, the division manager and the training sionals (e.g., engineers, scientists, and
management, law, design, finance, manager may all be stakeholders. accountants), scheduling may be rela-
publishing/media, and hospitality sec- The language in the classroom tively easy. Classes can usually occur
tors, as well as associations and feder- relates primarily to work rather than during the day or sometimes immedi-
al agencies. life skills or school situations. This ately after work because these
means that conversation practice is employees often schedule their own
Changes and Challenges geared toward situations that occur at time. The main issue is scheduling
What is it like to teach ESL in a cor- work (e.g., meetings). Sentences used around meetings and business trips.
poration? It can be exciting and full of for pronunciation exercises include For hourly workers such as clerks
surprises. One encounters new termi- work-related vocabulary (so that hard- or manufacturing employees, schedul-
nology, schedules, instructional set- ware engineers talk about "hardware" ing can be more challenging. Training
tings and goals. Even the teacher's instead of "holloware"), and grammar on company time ensures good atten-
and functional exercises include work- dance but may lower output in a pro-
18
II 115 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
duction environment, so supervisors limited English speaking employ- Organizations That
may request training after hours. ees and their managers, saving
Have Provided English
However, employees may then have a time and reducing costly errors;
difficult time coming to class because Improve communication and rela- Training for Employees
of second jobs or baby-sitting needs or tionships among coworkers to cre- >- Apple Computer
car pools. Employees may work 12- ate greater cooperation; >- Applied Komatsu Technology
hour shifts three days per week and be Encourage employees to report >- Compaq
tired if they come to class after their problems and devise solutions; >- Digital Equipment
shift. A typical solution in a produc- Improve employees' communica- Dolby Labs
tion environment is to provide training tion skills and self-confidence so Fujitsu America
for two hours twice per week with one that they can assume greater 0- Hewlett-Packard
hour on company time and one hour responsibility and be promoted in IBM
on the employee's own time. the organization; Kobe Precision
Improve communication between Quantum
Instructional Settings limited English speaking employ- >- Silicon Graphics
The classroom in a company is often a ees and customers in order to Solectron
conference room. This may be a won- enhance customer relations; Sony
derful training facilitybetter than any Improve the quality and speed of >- Sun Microsystems
school classroomwith video, an over- production through better reading >- 3COM
head projector, flip charts, white- of job specifications, better under- >- Xerox
boards (some of which can print out standing of instructions and Cirrus Logic
what the teacher has written on them), increased ability to interpret math- >- Intel
moveable tables and a thermostat that ematical information. Motorola
can be set for comfort. On the other 0,- National Semiconductor
hand, a teacher may find herself in a These kinds of goals can be excit- >- Samsung
large cafeteria or a room designed for ing for the trainer who sees his work McDonald's
O.- Coca-Cola
>- Daimler-Benz
"One encounters new teninology, KPMG Peat Marwick
>- General Motors
Nikon Precision, Inc.
>- Silicon Valley Group
schedules, instructional settings and goals. 0- Chemical Pharmaceutical
Panasonic
>- Stanford University Medical Center
Even the teacher's role is expanded." Adobe
Toyota
ten people with a class of twelve. have a direct impact on the students >- Oracle
There may be a noisy ventilation sys- and those around them. For example, Bank of America
tem to compete with a pronunciation one company found itself saving Citibank
class. $1,000,000 per year on one production Metropolitan Life
Add to these challenges the possi- line due to work-related ESL training. >- Wells Fargo Bank
bility of a high priority corporate In the class, the employees had >- Bureau of Land Management
meeting taking place in the regularly learned to discuss and solve problems >- United Defense
scheduled training room so that the they were having in meeting their pro- Litton Applied Technology
instructor must find an alternate room duction goals. By solving some of >- Lockheed Missiles & Space
at the last minute. One corporate train- these problems, they were able to save >- U.S. Air Force
er arrived at her meeting room in a the company money and receive Hyatt Hotels
fast-growing company only to find bonuses in the process. MCI
that it had been converted into an In another case, an employee >- Northern Telecom
office over the weekend. wanted to apply for a promotion but >- Lucent Technology
was not meeting the interviewer's >0 Pacific Bell
Diverse Students and Goals expectations even though he was good >- SynOptics
The corporate setting also often pre- at his job. His ESL class helped him >- Canon
sents goals that differ from those in a acquire the skills he needed to succeed Pioneer Electronics
school setting. Companies hire ESL in an interview and get a well- Toro Irrigation
teachers to improve productivity and deserved promotion. Chevron Corporation
save money. More specifically, they ESL teachers in a corporation 0.- Asian Management Institute
may request that a class: serve a wide variety of students. > Sonoma State University
Improve worker participation in A teacher may conduct training for: > University of California
total quality management (TQM) A group of employees who are in >- General Electric
teams; the U.S. for 6 months of job train- > Levi Strauss
Improve conmiunication between ing from their company but whose >- Los Angeles Times
Waste Management
0 br 19
ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 4
116
English skills are inadequate teacher should maintain contact
for that training; with the stakeholders to inform
A high-ranking executive who them of the progress of the class
needs to make presentations and any problems. The trainer
but has trouble being under- should also be informed of any
stood because of his accent; factors affecting students' jobs
A group of manufacturing that could be brought into future
workers, some of whom are lessons. At the conclusion of
not literate, who must read training, results of post-tests and
manuals on the job and speak questionnaires to students' super-
to colleagues and supervisors visors asking about progress and
to solve problems; usefulness of the training can help
Hotel workers who are not the company evaluate the training
literate and know very little and determine whether or not to
English yet must answer provide additional training for
guests' questions; employees.
Engineers who have lived in With the diversity of students
the U.S. for many years but and goals typically present in a
whose career development is ESL professionals may serve a wider variety company, teachers must be care-
stymied because of poor of students in a corporate setting. ful not to overextend themselves.
communication; Since an hour of class in a work-
Bank clerks who need to write writing needs on the job are very place may require several hours of
grammatically correct letters to different. preparation, successful workplace
customers. teachers learn to prepare classes effi-
Developing Instruction ciently and spend their time develop-
For each of these groups, the cur- In order to conduct a class that meets ing materials that can be used in more
riculum and materials will be differ- the needs of the participants, the train- than one class. For example, a fre-
ent. Ideally, the trainer will encourage er must first do a needs assessment quent need in manufacturing is for
the company not to combine too many that includes placement testing and an employees to learn to clarify. Teachers
different groups into one class. For analysis of the language used on the can create a standard lesson on clarify-
example, a writing class with native job. The next step is to divide the par- ing skills and then adapt it for each
and non-native speaking engineers can ticipants into classes according to type new level or company.
be successful as long as the latter have of job and language level. The cur-
advanced English skills. However, a riculum is then developed with input An Expanded Role
writing class with engineers and man- from students, supervisors and man- In a company, teachers take on a new
ufacturing workers may be less suc- agers, if possible. role. They become not only teachers to
cessful if their educational levels and As training takes place, the (continued on page 22)

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20 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


17
Evaluating Business and Workplace
English Materials
BY EMILY LITES AND KATHY THORPE
Evaluating business or workplace English instructional 3. Match Learner Needs with the Contents of Textbooks
materials can be daunting since the materials chosen Comparing textbook tables of contents with your learning
often have a major impact on the success of the goals is a good place to start. Level and general appropri-
learning experience. For any corporate or workplace set- acy then become important considerations:
ting, trainers typically cannot find published materials that Is the level appropriate?
exactly fit trainees' needs. Trainers must usually rely on a Are the materials relevant to your trainees?
combination of their own materials and published materi-
als. The following steps should help trainers evaluate Are the materials sufficiently sophisticated?
materials and select those which best fit the needs of the Is the language natural [American] English?
trainees. Are the situations authentic?

1. Conduct a Brief Needs Analysis 4. Identify Positive Qualities in Each Textbook


Identify specific learning goals before selecting materials: The search is further narrowed as you examine individual
What do learners need to be able to do in English? characteristics:
What general skill areas are important? Is there a strong [listening, speaking, reading and
In what communication situations will they writing] component?
participate? Is there a variety of exercises and activities?
What are individual and corporate expectations? Is there a logical progression in the activities?
At what level are the learners currently? Is there a mix of controlled, semi-controlled, and free
expression activities?
Target Proficiency Do the activities include authentic, problem-solving
tasks when appropriate?
Current Proficiency Are activities sufficient in number, nature and depth
= Focus of Coursework to reach mastery of the target language and skills?

The needs analysis might be 5. Check for Differentiating


done via questionnaires, interviews, Qualities
and/or talks with corporate adminis- These additional considerations
trators and trainees. Although diffi- may help you finalize the decision:
cult to get, this information is
tremendously helpful to course Is the content interesting,
designers. relevant and engaging?
Are the directions clear and
2. Analyze and Select Specific simple?
Language Skills Are communicative activities
A key concern is whether the materi- open-ended? Do participants
als focus on the high frequency, assume roles and stances?
authentic language actually used in Are they adequately prepared
business contexts. With oral skills, areas beforehand? Is there opportunity for learners to
of particular need might include: relate the topics to their own experience?
Telephoning Does the textbook elicit cross cultural information?
Setting up appointments and meetings Is there attention to business protocol, often a con-
Traveling internationally cern for international executives?
Participating in and running meetings Are the art and layout user-friendly and inviting?
Giving presentations Are companion materials (cassettes, video, CD-ROM,
Socializing instructor manual, etc.) useful?
Persuading others The perfect textbook may never exist, but as more
Negotiating materials are published for different skill areas, it
Discussion skills becomes easier to match quality materials with the needs
Executive etiquette of program participants.
Cross-cultural awareness and business protocol
Also important may be skills more closely aligned Emily Lites, Executive Director of American Business
with participants' specific occupations: taking orders; English, is designing an online business English training
placing orders; customer service; making travel arrange- center for corporate and individual users. Visit her online
ments; receiving visitors; giving company tours; describing at http://www.bizenglish.com/.
products and services; describing company history,
Kathy Thorpe is Coordinator of Executive English
organization and structure; describing a process or
Programs at the Economics Institute where she teaches,
procedure; interpersonal skills or teamwork. designs courses and programs and writes materials. She

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


ii can be reached at thorpek@spot.colorado.edu.

21
their students, but advisors to the com- gual company wanted all employees American Society for Training and
pany. They must, as usual, satisfy their to speak English on the floor during Development to meet local corporate
students and their own teaching super- working hours so that everyone would trainers or make cold calls to inform
visor, but also the students' supervi- feel included in discussions. Students local corporations of the services.
sors and the human resources depart- in ESL training spent several weeks Other contact can be via brochures,
ment of the company. This requires discussing the pros and cons of speak- advertisements, yellow page listings
diplomacy and an ability to be neutral ing English on the floor, including fac- or the Internet.
when considering the needs of differ- tors that made it easy or difficult for Pay for workplace teachers varies.
ent stakeholders. Manufacturing them to speak English. Class represen-
Some community colleges and adult
supervisors are ultimately responsible tatives brought their reports to the
education centers pay a small premi-
for production. When employees are stakeholder group, and the group dis- um dn top of their regular pay rates for
in classes, they are not producing a cussed ways to encourage speaking corporate work. Some pay extra for
product. A teacher may need to be English on the floor. One result was a curriculum development and mileage.
willing to suspend classes for a week poster contest. A more important In California, rates for ESL teachers in
when there's a production push while result was greater understanding by corporate settings can range from $25
also demonstrating to supervisors how the employees and their supervisors of an hour for adult education programs
the class will ultimately help meet the ramifications of speaking or not or private schools to $100 per hour or
production goals. speaking English. more for teachers who get contracts on
In some of the most successful their own.
large-scale workplace programs, there Going Corporate The need for corporate ESL teach-
is a stakeholder group that meets reg- Teachers who want to teach in the ers is growing, providing an exciting
ularly throughout the program. workplace have several ways to go career alternative for ESL profession-
Participants include the ESL teacher, about it. One is to get a workplace job als. While it requires flexibility and
people from the human resources through a community college, adult adaptability, the rewards can be great
staff, selected students from the pro- education program or through a com- for those who like creative challenges.
gram and their supervisors or man- pany like Berlitz or LinguaTec (in the
agers. The ESL teacher's role is to San Francisco Bay Area). An instruc-
advise, provide information about the tor can also approach a company inde-
educational process and encourage the pendently. In this case, it is best to use P. Faith Hayflich is President of
stakeholders in making their deci- a wide variety of methods. Some con- LinguaTec, a corporation she founded
sions. tact should be personal. The teacher in 1980 to provide English language
For example, one very multilin- can join a local chapter of the training in the workplace.

Would you and your students like a complete


Business English Website? Do you have what it takes
Announcing...
American Business English to teach in a company?
IAIlile th ere are a variety of different corporate situa-
A New Online Resource for tlions, if you can answer yes to most of the following
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22
119 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
REVIEWS

ELLIS Software Supplements Instruction


and Promotes Practice
BY JEANA REMINGTON

As an ESOL instructor, I am logue from the video segment is trans- lessons as many times as they want.
always concerned that my stu- ferred to the computer screen where While students are working at their
dents spend as much time as the student is guided through a series individual stations, I am able to
possible using English. I also want my of learning activities that include lis- move from student to student and pro-
students to enjoy the personalized, tening, vocabulary, phrases, grammar, vide that critically important "one on
individual instruction that comes from culture and pronunciation. Writing one" time, listening, assisting and
a small class setting. Unfortunately, activities are provided in a companion clarifying.
time deficiencies and other constraints workbook. Often students feel that taking
sometimes prevent these ideals from Students are encouraged to speak language classes keeps them from
being realized. However, I'm English through the use of role play studying what they really came to col-
excited that there is now a pow- lege forcomputer science, medicine,
erful multimedia instructional engineering, etc. For many of my stu-
program series called ELLIS Two
dents, the ESOL computer lab is their
(English Language Learning and first experience with computers.
r-°7-1.745
Instruction System) by CALI, However, by the time a stu-
Inc. that is helping us meet our liY1 I* Os* dent completes a semester of
individual student goals. 1.11,, ESOL courses with the user
The three core programs of friendly ELLIS programs,
Ce-
Nes paolle.l.a.w.
ELLIS (Intro, Middle Mastery they have not only gained a
and Senior Mastery) cover a higher level of comfort with
wide range of English ability. Intro is the personal computer but
the beginner program and addresses have actually learned a little of
the needs of persons with minimal how it works. Using the indi-
English ability. It contains 400 hours vidualized computer instruc-
of interactive instruction and is built tion also increases our stu-
around themes that reflect the survival dents' motivation.
skills necessary for a person who may Finally, as a lab coordinator, I face
be new to an English speaking envi- many technical challenges. Keeping
ronment. This program uses a large computers running, software updated
number of graphics and a built-in and penpherals repaired can be time-
Native Language Help/Guide. Ellis software uses video and role consuming. The ELLIS products have
Middle Mastery and Senior play activities and allows students to run consistently well and, with
Mastery are the intermediate and view progress and scores. CALI's frequent updates, have always
advanced programs that provide remained "state-of-the-art" applica-
increasingly higher skill levels as stu- activities in which they assume the tions. Also, as someone who delivers
dents move through the integrated cur- role of one of the actors in the video five or six orientations per day at
riculum. segment and insert their voice into the the beginning of each semester, I can
Two other programs include segment for playback and review. say that my students learn to use this
Master Pronunciation, which is a prac- There are multiple practice activities fairly complex program with ease.
tice program for pronunciation skills that prepare students for their perfor- The ELLIS software combined
and accent reduction, and an on-line mance evaluations. with the increased student-teacher
computer-adaptive assessment called Through a combination of class- interaction and individualized practice
Placement that indicates which pro- room instruction and laboratory has created a richer learning experi-
gram and where within that program assignments using the ELLIS pro- ence for our ESOL students.
the student should work. grams, we are able to work with a
The strategy of the programs is to large group of students and still ensure
create a "real world" learning environ- that each student has a quality oppor-
ment for each lesson that is relevant to tunity to practice English at her or his Jeana Remington teaches ESL at
the student's life through the presenta- own pace. Students can listen to, prac- Richland College of the Dallas County
tion of a short video segment. The dia- tice and repeat lessons and portions of Community College District.

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


12' 23
0
_,Earrn

BY MARC HELGESEN

Every day we listen to many dif- so, choose and read one (and only one) ERIKA: Tennis? Look out the window.
ferent things in many different of the three tasks below. It's raining.
ways. Perhaps your alarm clock
rang this morning. You heard it and TASK 1 RAFAEL: Raining? Oh, no!
woke up. That's listening. Maybe the What's the main topic How you read depended on which
TV or radio was on as you ate break- of the conversation? task you chose. Task 1 required
fast. You weren't really paying atten- El sports reading for the gist or general under-
tion until something you wanted to 0 the weather standing. Task 2 asked for specific
know aboutthe weather or the 0 the window information. Task 3 required infer-
newscame on. Then you focused in. ence. If you had been listening to the
Both being aware of the sounds in the TASK 2 conversation instead of reading it, you
background and your focusing were What's the weather like? would have adjusted your listening to
types of listening. Maybe you had a 0 It's sunny. fit your task.
conversation with your family or 0 It's cold.
roommate. Hopefully you were listen- 0 It's raining. Types of listening
ing. At work you talked Listening for gist
and listenedto different In the first task, all three
people in different ways answers sports, the wea-
for different purposes. The
list goes on. The point is ther and the windowwere
this: What's important is
part of the conversation.
not just what we're listen- However, the weather was
ing to. It's what we're lis- the most important thing.
tening for. Readers doing Task 1 were
looking for the gist or main
No one has to be idea. They didn't focus on
taught how to adjust their
listening to match their understanding everything.
purpose in their native lan-
Rather, they read to see
what was important.
guage. It grows naturally
Listening for gist works the
out of exposure to and same way. Students only
having to understand dif-
ferent things. Yet, what focus on the main ideas. If
happens in the classroom? one compares listening to
All too often, textbooks reading the other receptive
skill, listening for gist is a
introduce students to a lot like skimming.
very narrow range of lis-
tening types and tasks. But Gist listening is like
standing in a watetfall. The
to be effective listeners, students need
TASK 3 message washes over you and you get
a variety of both. They need to learn a general understanding.
how to listen. Do the people go outside?
The first step in learning how to
0 yes
listen is for students to notice their 0 no Listening for specific information
Task 2 involved looking for specific
tasklearners need to be aware of Now read this conversation and information: What is the weather like?
what they are listening for. The goal answer the question in your task. Looking for specific information
affects the way they listen. To demon-
RAFAEL: I need some exercise. Do you doesn't mean reading and processing
strate the point, you're going to read a
want to go outside? Maybe we could every word to find the answer. Rather,
very short conversation. Before doing it's about scanning for the needed
play tennis?
24 12.1 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
data. The reader's focus was probably about the different listening types?
something like this: Exercises like the one at the beginning
of this article (which is based on one Teaching Tips
RAFAEL: xxxxx exercise. xxxxx from Active Listening from Cam- How did you know? When contem-
outside? xxxxx play tennis? bridge University Press) are useful for plating a task involving gist or infer-
creating awareness. By regularly ence listening, students identify the
ERIKA: xxxxx window. xxxxx pointing out task types, teachers
raining. words that gave them the clues. This
encourage learners to notice their own helps learners who missed the infor-
RAFAEL: Raining? xxxxx. listening goals. mation know how their classmates
As useful as these three types of caught it.
Rather than paying attention to listening are both for learner aware-
every word, people think about what ness and as a checklist for teachers Do it in pairs. If learners find a pas-
they need to understand and look for planning classes, it's important to sage difficult, have them listen in
that information. Listening for spec- remember that the skills are rarely pairs. They help each other find the
used in isolation. At times, a specific answers. This usually means they
ific information is quite similar to the focus on sharing what they did under-
reading skill of scanning. word or two will give the clues that
help learners understand the gist. In stand rather than panicking over what
This is where students often get they missed.
into trouble. They try to catch every- some cases, global knowledge of a
thing, often taking the time to mental- topic makes it easier to focus on spe-
cific information or to infer meaning. Choose your own level. While
ly translate it into their mother tongue. checking an activity, write the answers
This word-by-word processing leads The important thing is that students
have experience with a variety of lis- on the board or an overhead projector.
to slow, tedious reading. With listen- Then play the passage again.
ing, it's impossible. It simply takes too tening types and tasks.
Students choose their own level of
long. The key is to get students to support. Those who feel they under-
focus on what they are listening for. In which direction stood the listening well close their
One good way is simply to have them are they listening? eyes and imagine the conversation.
read the task or questions before lis- These listening types need to be con- Those who were less certain look at
tening. Do they have to write sidered within the overall framework the task in their textbook and try to
answers? Check boxes? Fill in a form? learners use to make sense of what spot the information as they hear it.
Number pictures? In real life, people they hear. Over the past several years, Those who found the listening difficult
always know why they are listening. the distinction between "top-down" watch you. As they hear the passage,
In class, the learners need to know, and "bottom-up" processing has emer- point to the answers just before they
too. ged as a useful metaphor for how are spoken.
Listening for specific information learners make sense of what they Play it again, later. If students
isn't understanding everything and listen to.
found listening to natural English
using what you need. It's knowing Basically, top-down listening difficult at the beginning of a course,
what you need and catching that. starts at the point of overall meaning. go back to the same passage a
It makes use of general knowledge and month or two later. In most cases,
Inference life experience, sometimes called what used to be difficult to under-
Task 3 required inference. The ques- "content schemata." Top-down listen- stand is now easier. This helps them
tion was simple enough: Do they go ing simply means thinking about what see their own progress and builds
outside? Of course they don't. It's one already knows about the topic, the confidence.
raining. Notice that they never say task and likely answers. In short, lis-
specifically that they aren't going to teners use what they already know Don't give out the script. In most
go outside. It isn't necessary. about a topic to understand more. cases, don't give out the scripts. It
Inference is an important skill, but Bottom-up listening, on the other can reinforce the idea that they need
one that's often left out of elementary hand, makes use of the "parts" of lan- to catch every word to "really" under-
level textbooks since it is considered a guage to try to understand what's been stand. When the script is given out, it
high level of comprehension. This is heard. These parts include vocabulary, should be for a specific purpose such
unfortunate because learners really do grammar and sounds. Because so as listening and underlining a particu-
need to be able to "listen between the much language study involves the lar point of grammar.
lines" from the very beginning. parts, many learners are overly reliant
Indeed, beginners who lack extensive on bottom-up processing. This "puz- Listen to enjoy. Stories are a won-
vocabularies and knowledge of lan- zle it out" approach is like trying to derful source of listening material.
guage functions and grammar often deal with English as if it were their They can excite and involve students.
need to infer a lot just to compensate And, if learners can explain whether or
first language in codestudents catch
for what they don't understand. not they like a story they've heard, it
a piece (a word or phrase), focus on its
demonstrates understanding at a very
Inference is neither magic nor meaning, perhaps mentally rearrange high level. Ironically, the most sophis-
pure imagination. It is hearing mean- it to fit their first language's grammar, ticated comprehension question might
ing that is there, even when the words and then go on to the next piece. That simply be: Did you like the story?
aren't. sounds easy enough, but it's actually Why?
How do we educate students quite difficult to do effectively. To

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 122 25


illustrate this point, read the following their language and increases their lis-
Adapting Textbooks excerpts from a passage and write a tening skills.
title for it. The simplest way to promote top-
If a textbook book lacks pre-listening
Itasks and a range of listening types, A few years ago, the Canadian down processing and activate lan-
guage is through a pre-listening warm-
here are ways to add them. National Swim Team put ladybugs
up. Just as doing pre-reading exercises
on their chests.
Preview Tasks is a good way to get learners ready to
Students work in pairs or small 200 years earlier, a cross on the read, pre-listening tasks should be a
groups. They look at the tasks and say back might have stopped a standard part of listening lessons. The
or list everything they know about the
topics. Add a time limit to keep them whipping. pre-listening task "reminds" learners
focused. of what they already knowor want
In some places, it's about beauty. to knowabout the topic. That is, it
If the topic is unfamiliar, learners
can list at least three things they East Africa. Polynesia. gets them in touch with their own top-
would like to know or think the record- down knowledge. At the same time,
At times, it is related to occupa- that top-down information is made up
ing will include.
tion. For better or worse. of words and phrases, the bottom-up
If there is a picture with the task,
have students work in pairs. How Think before you make a judg- elements of vocabulary and grammar.
many items in the picture can they ment. And think before you make The warm-up is more than an intro-
name in English in two minutes? a decision. duction of the topicit's a way to
activate background knowledge and
Adding Listening Types In this age of AIDS, you've got to integrate the directions of listening.
GIST be careful.
Choose the main idea of the listening
The specific warm-up will, of
passage as well as two or three other What title would you give the pas- course, depend on what the students
items from the passage. Write all the sage? Most people feel frustrated are going to listen to. If they are going
items on the board in a scrambled reading this. What's the topic? All the to listen to the passage on tattoos as
order. Students listen and decide words are understood, but what is it part of a lesson on cultural differences,
which is the main point. they might do a pre-listening task in
If the passage tells a story,
about? That feeling is the frustration
choose four or five events. Again, of bottom-up processing. All the pairs or small groups in which they
write them on the board in a scram- pieces are there, but they just don't say or list everything they can think of
bled order. Learners listen and put the add up. related to the topic in five minutes.
events in order. Include one extra This passage's real title is "The Their list could include who gets tat-
event not from the story so students Tattoo: Across Cultures, Across toos, common tattoo images or any-
must listen to the entire passage. Time." However, without that back- thing they know about the topic from
LISTENING FOR SPECIFIC ground (top-down) information, read- other cultures.
INFORMATION ers can't make use of their own gener- Earlier it was pointed out that stu-
Choose a group of items that come up dents should always know their task
several times in the listening passage.
al knowledge: Why do people get tat-
toos? Group membership is one rea- before they listen. Reading questions
They might be content items like
names of food, colors or people or son. That could include bikers and, a in advance activates what they
grammar items such as -ing verbs, few years ago, the Canadian swim- knowespecially if they try to answer
past tense verbs, modals or adjec- mers. European sailors used to get a them. Students need pre-listening
tives. Tell the students what to listen cross or a picture of Jesus tattooed on tasks. By the time the listening begins,
for. Play the passage. Students raise their backs so that no one would dare it's too late. They are either ready to
their hands each time they hear the catch the information and to succeed
item. This is a way to show their whip them. In many cultures, tattoos
answers and cue others who might are a sign of beauty. Occupations? For or they aren't.
have missed it. Generally, listening for better, Thai soldiers were tattooed for Listening is an important skill. Do
content items is a way to preview the bravery. For worse, Japanese and students need practice? Of course. But
main listening task. Listening for gram- Korean gangsters get the markings to they need more than that. They need to
mar points is usually best after they show toughness and cultural defiance. be aware of their purpose, to integrate
already know the general meaning. their listening directions and to acti-
If the listening task involves
A recent problem has been the spread
answering comprehension questions of the HIV virus through tattoo ink. vate the English that they already
or filling in blanks, students work in Knowing the title would have have. If learners gain these skills,
pairs before they listen. They try to helped the reader use top-down pro- they've learned more than the answers
guess the answers to the questions. cessing and make sense of the pas- to a particular exercise. They've
Later, when they listen, they find out sage. Without it, the reader was faced learned how to listen.
whether or not they were right. with same difficulty as learners who
INFERENCE try to listen from the bottom up. Marc Helgesen is Professor at Miyagi
Look for opportunities to add infer- Teachers can't replace bottom-up Gakuin Women's College, Sendai,
ence. Two places to start: processing with top-down. It wouldn't Japan, and has co-authored many
Focus on the speakers' emotions. textbooks including the Active
How do they feel? How do we know? be desirable even if it were possible.
Look for the "background informa- They key is to get learners "listening Listening series (Cambridge
tion." Has the speaker been here/ University Press) and the English
in both directions." They need to inte-
done that/tried this before? grate top-down and bottom-up pro- Firsthand, Impact and Workplace
cessing. When they do, it activates English series (Longman).
t't L.
26 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
123
Language Translation on the Web:
Fast and Free, But Not Foolproof
The popular Web search engine and readability of the translations, I for translating Web sites on research
Alta Vista has recently launched entered the following text: topics. The imperfect translation will
a translation service. The URL is "As I was strolling through the certainly be more useful to you than
http://babelfish.altavista.digital.com/ Tuscan countryside, I saw row after no translation at all. It's also less
cgi-bin/translate. Simply type in the row of olive trees and acres and acres expensive than a paying a translator.
address of a Web site you would like of vineyards. My heart leapt with joy For instruction, teachers might
to translate, and you'll have a com- at the beauty of the setting." generate English translations of texts
plete and free translation in a matter of I requested an Italian and a French (these could be original passages writ-
seconds. The translation will not be ten by students) and then ask students
completely accurate, but it will give to discuss the accuracy of the gram-
you a general idea of the content of the mar and vocabulary of the transla-
site. You may also have translated any tions.
text you type in. Currently, one can A French professor at my univer-
request translations from French, sity told me that she knows some of
German, Italian, Spanish and her students are using Alta Vista for
Portuguese into English and vice their homework assignments because
versa. If used carefully, this translation their errors are clearly not typical stu-
service can be of value to teachers dent errors. Unfortunately, ESL/EFL
both for research and pedagogy. students, too, could hand in composi-
Just for fun, I asked for a transla- translation. When shown to an Italian- tions translated into English from their
tion of my own home page into French bilingual, the comment was, native languages (if one of the five
French. The translation soon appeared "The English version is poetic while offered by the Alta Vista service), but
but left something to be desired. Some the French and Italian translations are these shouldn't be too difficult to rec-
words were simply not translated and, mechanical, choppy and not particu- ognize.
for some reason, Washington, D.C. larly accurate." The most obvious Alta Vista is furnishing an excit-
became Washington, C.C. I certainly error in both translations was the word ing service which can have significant
wouldn't post an Alta Vista translation "setting" which became the equivalent value if used properly. One must real-
of my site without checking with a of "configuration" in French and "reg- ize, however, that the translations will
reliable native or near-native speaker ulation" in Italian. not be completely accurate and that
of the language first. Despite the limitations, teachers there is the potential for "cyber-
To have an idea of the accuracy will find this service useful in research cheating."

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27
Haitian Students
in the United States BY ROGER E. SAVAIN

The master of ceremonies at a recent middle class, beneficiaries of the govern- of seasonal and permanent cane cutting
recognition banquet in Broward ment bureaucracy, a few economically migrations are vividly depicted in two
County, Florida was a poised young dominant Euro-Africans called mulatres, renowned Haitian novels: Jacques
woman in her early twenties. She was, in and Syriens, descendants of Levantine Roumain's Gouverneur de la Rosée and
a characteristically modern way, articu- immigrants. These few, whose standard Jacques Stephen Alexis' Compere
late, spirited, bright, and she was Haitian of living mirrors that of American middle General Soled.
American. and upper-middle class households, shut- According to Stepick, some 500
Bernadine Destin is a member of the tle between Port-au-Prince and south Haitians permanently migrated to the
Haitian Youth for Cultural and Edu- Florida, and now routinely speak English United States each year between the sec-
cational Awareness (HYCEA), a support along with fluent Kreyol and, occasional- ond World War and the mid 1950's,
group operating at Ely High School in ly, French. "while another 3,000 came temporarily
Broward County. With over 400 mem- Students of Haitian descent in as tourists, students, or on business." The
bers, this group helps students of Haitian American public schools come mainly coming to power of Papa Doc Duvalier in
descent adjust to life in the United States, from the Haiti's economically depressed 1957 caused a moderate exodus com-
learn English and perform successfully population. The 1990 U.S. census identi- posed of bourgeois merchants and pro-
through their high school years. At the fied them among the poorest immigrants fessionals. According to Stepick, by the
same time, the organization and its mem- at the time of entry. However, the same late 1960's "nearly 7,000 Haitians each
bers cherish and celebrate the lan- year became permanent immigrants
guage and traditional values of their to the U.S. and another approximate-
home country. ly 20,000 came with temporary visas
More than 100 Haitian each year." Nearly all remained, espe-
Americans graduated this year from cially in New York, whose Haitian
Ely. Over half are college bound. American population is estimated at
Those present at the banquet were , over half a million, and in smaller
notable for their intelligence and numbers in Boston, Chicago and
motivation. They carried on stimu- f Washington, D.C.
lating conversations in standard, The Haitian population in the United
grammatically correct English and States continued to mushroom
in Haitian Kreyol. through the 1970s. Over a two-year
Ms. Destin and HYCEA mem- period, from 1980 to 1981, South
bers are not exceptions among Florida saw a mass migration of
Haitian American students in South Haitians, the famed "boat people"
Florida and throughout the U.S. An who landed on the heels of the Mariel
impressive number of Haitian high These 1998 Haitian high school graduates Cuban exodus. However, while the
school graduates from Florida, New are optimistic about their future. U.S. government greeted the Cubans
York, Boston and Montreal go on to as political refugees, Haitians were
college. Many are admitted to the coun- survey finds the vast majority gainfully deemed economic refugees similar to
try's most renowned institutions. This is employed and thriving in time. For over Mexicans clandestinely crossing the
more significant given the fact that most 57.9% of the Haitian population report- Texas and California borders.
of these students' parents, some 20 years ing entry between 1980 and 1990, Oco- A new community emerged just
ago, lived in Haiti's isolated rural vil- nomic indices, while low, show promis- north of downtown Miami that became
lages and in urban shanties where ing signs that may be evident in the next known as Little Haiti. Most who come
schooling was often rare or inadequate. census. through leave to purchase homes and
In his recent book, Pride and take residence in more upscale neighbor-
In Search of a More Fulfilling Life Prejudice, Haitians in the United States, hoods. Little Haiti's appearance reflects
Haiti's people are divided into two dis- Alex Stepick observes that "Haitians its ongoing function as point of entry for
tinct societies. One is rural and makes up have a long history of migration and a less evident but steady stream of new
close to 80% of the population. Rural temporary sojourns to other countries." commerce.
folk are culturally and ethnically near to Since early in the 20th century, Haitian As a whole, the Haitian American
the Africans who, brought to the New peasants have contracted to cut sugar community of south Florida today is a
World in chains, revolted and established cane in the Dominican Republic. This complex one, stretching from Homestead
an independent nation in 1804. The practice continues today, and Haitian to Orlando. Estimated at 250,000, its
remaining 20% congregate in urban labor is an essential element of the population is composed primarily of
areas like the capital city, Port-au-Prince, Dominican sugar industry. Haitians also medium and high wage workers along
where close to 2 million people exist on worked and settled in significant num- with a growing number of prosperous
the margin of survival. A small, influen- bers until 1960 in the cane growing entrepreneurs and professionals. Many of
tial bourgeoisie is comprised of a black Oriente province of Cuba. The dynamics these have resettled from larger and bet-
28 1 25 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998
ter established Haitian American com- presented with models of behavior tions add to identity and personality con-
munities in New York and Boston. informed by the wider American culture flicts. The notion of "minority" in the
Most new immigrants from Haiti where self-reliance, creativity and inde- U.S. clashes with the established Haitian
moving to the U.S. in 1981 underwent a pendence are prized. In Haitian homes self-image shaped by the history of a rac-
revolution in living standards. Emerging children must be obedient and defer to ial and cultural majority. American cate-
from peasant society and its urban ver- the authority of parental figures. These gorizations that factor in elements of
sion, Haitian immigrants quickly learned include not only father and mother but white, black, rich or poor can also trigger
to cope in a society centuries removed other adult members of extended fami- feelings of non-acceptance and rejection.
from their own both technologically and lies. The label offanmi extends as well to The fear of standing out that all chil-
socially. Within weeks of their arrival, the "friends and allies" that make up dren experience is compounded by the
they succeeded in securing work, any nearly all of the social interactions these confusion of racial classification undif-
work at any pay. In no time, they par- children enjoy. ferentiated by cultural distinctions. Is
layed these jobs into stable, adequately Other than through television and "Haitian American" a racial or cultural
compensated positions that led, in many radio, contact with the broader Haitian category? Does "Black" or "African
instances, to supervisory and even man- community remains limited. From any American" pertain to native Americans
agerial posts.. point in South Florida, round-the-clock of African ancestry, and so on? Native
Haitians who quickly joined the Kreyol language broadcasts keep an African American classmates are also
ranks of hard and dependable workers, appreciation for Haitian music and lan- perplexed and can be both accepting and
also placed the highest priority on educa- guage alive. Weekly television broad- alienating. In the same breath they resent
tion. The importance of education as an casts bring news of Haiti along with the Haitian Americans standing apart and
economic engine is well established latest music videos. Moreover, recent then accuse them of trying too hard to
dogma throughout Haitian society. grants of amnesty to undocumented "look like us."
Taking advantage of free schooling in the immigrants allowed thousands of Haitian children are often intimidat-
U.S. becomes the new immigrant's most Haitians to regularize their status in the ed and confused when asked to express
immediate reward. This gift is claimed 1990's, making travel back and forth to their feelings, show openness, deal with
not only for children but for adults who Haiti a widespread practice today. intimacy or take responsibility. They
rush to learn English, often learning as Still, the quest for education and avoid eye contact not in disrespect but in
well to read and write for the first time. economic prosperity is clearly rooted in deference as the Haitian culture disap-
Understanding the connection between the belief that succeeding on American proves of children confronting adults
work advancement and education, they terms matters most. However, like chil- with their stare. At home, adults domi-
are an avid clientele of vocational and dren in other immigrant communities, nate the decision-making process. This
adult education centers. Haitian Americans navigate the contrast- causes difficulty in class when pupils are
ing values of a permissive atmosphere at called upon to think creatively, act inde-
Coping with US. Education school and in the community at large, pendently and take risks.
Children of Haitian heritage generally and home discipline that is authoritarian Corporal punishment is ubiquitous
live in two worldsone dominated by and purports to serve as sole arbiter of a in Haitian households. The proverb
their school, the other by their home and complex reality. "Spare the rod, spoil the child" is
social environment. At school, they are American racial and class distinc- emblematic of traditional Haitian child

Mother Knows Best


ome seventeen years ago, Estomene, a young Haitian In Miami, Estomene worked as a teacher's assistant at
S woman, arrived in Queens, New York with her husband,
Joseph Dorcely, a carpenter. Their three daughters and one
Thomas Jefferson High School. Her dedication, enthusiasm
and leadership brought praise from staff and students.
son joined them a year later. Her experience at Thomas Jefferson inspired her to
The family came from Laboule, an area south of Port-au- become a guidance counselor. She enrolled at Miami's Barry
Prince where well appointed villas tower over modest University Adult Continuing Education Program and received a
dwellings and peasant huts. Estomene grew bachelor's degree in social work in 1994. With
up there with her parents, people of modest a scholarship, she enrolled in graduate school
means. She went to elementary school in and in May of this year received a master's
Laboule and secondary school in Port-au- degree in elementary education from Barry.
Prince but dropped out in the tenth grade. Reflecting on her academic experience in
Like many immigrant women, Estomene the U.S., Estomene said: "I came to this coun-
came to New York with a limited knowledge of try seventeen years ago as a tenth grade drop
English and faced the challenge of adjusting to out. I have been in school here sixteen years.
a new life and caring for her four children. Still, This fall, I am returning to Barry for my spe-
she found the time and energy to attend ESL cialization. Two years from now, I will be a cer-
classes at night in Brooklyn. She also became tified guidance counselor."
active in the Haitian community, volunteering Estomene Dorcely's perseverance and ded-
in a program helping Haitian refugees. ication set an example for her children. Her
Within a year of her arrival, Estomene was Estomene Dorcely oldest daughter, Cassandre, 25, received a
encouraged by a Haitian American history pro- bachelor's degree in health administration in
fessor to complete her graduate equivalency degree (GED). 1997 from Florida International University. Stephanie, 24, is a
After two attempts, she got her GED; "not in French," she graduate of Johnson and Wales Institute in business adminis-
explains proudly, "but in English." This launched a new acade- tration. Valory, 20, currently attends Florida International
mic career for her. Working as a teacher's aide and inter- University's School of Education on a full scholarship. She is
preter, Estomene attended Medgar Evers College and earned also part of the "Summer Link Haitian Culture" that prepares
54 credits between 1986 and 1988. She then moved with students for magnet schools. Her brother, Cleef, 22, is work-
her husband and children to Miami. She immediately ing and attending Miami-Dade Community College. And
resumed her studies at Miami-Dade Community College Estomene's two grandchildren have already been inspired by
where she received an associate's degree in 1992. their grandma's achievements.

ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998 126 29


rearing. In many second generation is the language of work and commerce. when referring to others, the student will
Haitian American families, especially Kreyol, on the other hand, is the lan- often confuse he and she because in
among professionals, more moderate, guage of intimacy, friendship and famil- Haitian Kreyol the equivalent of he and
supportive and democratic practices are ial interaction. Even if born in the U.S., a she is only /i.
taking root. New arrivals, however, upon child raised in a Kreyol-speaking house- Written Haitian Kreyol is based on
learning of legal prohibitions against hold is unlikely to have any extensive four principles: 1) one sign for each
chronic or severe corporal punishment, contact with the English language, sound; 2) the same sign for the same
feel powerless and confused. Lacking a except via radio or television. sound; 3) there is no silent letter; 4) each
normative rudder, some parents abdicate While this may impart a basic letter has its own function. If a student
their disciplinary responsibilities thereby knowledge of the language, children of has previously learned to read and write
giving rise to a small but important seg- working class families usually begin in his language, he may find English
ment of Haitian American students who their formal education without having spelling confusing. The same sound pro-
behave and perform poorly in school. been read to in English or Kreyol or hav- duced with different spellings or one let-
Academically, among difficult cases ing had access to books in any language. ter producing different sounds can be
are new arrivals who are well into their Kreyol, only recently written (see daunting. Until he learns to recognize
adolescence and yet have received little Haitian Kreyol in Ten Steps, Schenkman and pronounce various letter combina-
or no formal schooling. These students Books, by this writer), is a vibrant but tions, he may read the words incorrectly.
require extensive remediation in order to primarily oral mode of communication. There are ten vowels in Haitian
complete a high school program. Related An effective early childhood educa- Kreyol which are the phonemes in sylla-
problems can be an isolated family unit tion plan must accommodate the reality bles. Their sounds never change regard-
that lacks the support of a network of kin of two distinct but not incompatible cul- less of their position in a word. They are:
such as single working mothers, and the tural strategies. Haitian American home a (cat), an (no equivalent), e (say), e
lure of criminal behavior. The latter, life dominated by Kreyol should be (get), en (lens), i (sea), o (low), 6 (ought),
which has never been a serious problem incorporated in early efforts to teach chil- on (no equivalent), ou (two).
in Haitian communities, is now discour- dren to read. This avoids any rift between In the Haitian Kreyol alphabet, there
aged not only by strong community and the essential mastery of reading and writ- are ten vowels, three semivowels and
criminal sanctions but also by the threat ing skills in English and loyalties to an seventeen consonants. There is no c but
of automatic expulsion from the U.S. affective core. While books for children ch = sh, no u but ui, no consonants q and
The goal of educators and families is in Kreyol are few and not often of the x. The letter g always has a hard sound.
the nurture and development of well edu- best quality, they can be found and new The letter j is pronounced like the end of
cated and well adapted young adults. ones are published every year. "beige." The nouns, the adjectives and
Haitian children immigrating from Haiti In 1992 Intechnica International the verbs do not inflect for gender, num-
and Haitian American children born and introduced a CD-ROM in Haitian ber, person, or tense. Knowing these par-
raised in the U.S., draw from a mixed bag Kreyol/English that teaches English ticularities of Haitian Kreyol can enable
of strengths and weaknesses that affect reading, writing, listening and speaking a teacher to help a Haitian student over-
schooling. Strong family ties develop to Haitian students. In 1995 Harcourt come difficulties in learning English.
self-esteem and the confidence of Brace ESL/EFL published the Haitian Showing respect for the language of
belonging to a well defined cultural enti- Kreyol/English Picture Dictionary. adults may be an important way to
ty. Add to this the strength of the unwa- Prentice Hall Regents published Word by involve parents in the schooling of their
vering conviction that the highest Word English/Haitian Kreyol in 1996 children. The principal benefit that better
achievement is success in America and and Basic Word by Word, an abridged educated and motivated families extend
the understanding that this requires a version of its picture dictionary in 1997. to their children is a seamless learning
good education. These works and others with the environment. Under ideal conditions,
Some weaknesses for Haitian stu- same educational intent conform to the home is a place where informal and for-
dents are holdovers from life in Haiti. At official written form of Haitian Kreyol as mal education are joined. Facilitating the
a few expensive private schools in Port- established by the Haitian Ministry of partnership of Haitian American parents
au-Prince, parents participate in gover- National Education in early 1980. in the intellectual growth of their chil-
nance issues and consult with teachers on Haitian Kreyol is one of the Creoles dren requires acknowledgment of their
the progress of their children. For the that flourished on former colonial islands cultural contribution.
most part, however, PTAs or any compa- in the Caribbean, the West Coast of In the context of cooperation, teach-
rable organizations are non-existent in Africa and the Indian Ocean. Its spelling ers and parents can recognize and antici-
Haiti. Even literate Haitian parents tend is phonetic, its vocabulary draws from pate linguistic difficulties. More substan-
to entrust the fate of their children to an 16th through 18th century lexical French tive issues might also be addressed
all-knowing school administration. As in and its syntax is based on principles of social skills and attitudes that are best
the French model, but lacking its profes- West African languages. suited to a competitive and highly tech-
sionalism, expertise and resources, a cen- A Haitian Kreyol speaker will often nological global environment. Kreyol
tralized governmental entity monopo- have some difficulty with the pronuncia- and English, or Korean and English, or
lizes oversight and curricular develop- tion of the letter r, and the use of "to be." Spanish and English, are powerful foun-
ment. The reality, sadly, is that most In Haitian Kreyol there is no r at the end dations for preparing young Americans
school children in Haiti attend private of any syllable and r is replaced by w to meet the challenges of the 21st century.
schools for lack of sufficient public ones, before o, 6, on, ou. The student will say
and all are largely unregulated by the "fame" instead of farmer, "dola" instead Roger E. Savain is a bilingual education
ministry of education or by the parents. of dollar, "wonn" instead of round. consultant with the Multicultural Educa-
Moreover, Haitian has no "to be." tion Department of Broward County
The Bilingual Challenge Instead of "It is four o'clock," the student Public Schools. He is the author of Hait-
Bilingualism, a dominant feature of the might say "It four o'clock." Because the ian Kreyol in Ten Steps and the transla-
rich Haitian American cultural life, can letter s is not sibilant in Haitian Kreyol, tor of numerous educational texts, hand-
also be a shortcoming. In tight-knit the Haitian student might say "espb" or books and picture dictionaries. He lec-
Haitian American communities, English "estop" instead of sport or stop. And tures on Haitian language and culture.

30 1 127 ESL MAGAZINE JULY/AUGUST 1998


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Sept./Oct. 1998
Vol. 1, No. 5

FEATURES
Carolyn Graham:
A Conversation with the Creator of Jazz Chants®
by Marilyn Rosenthal 10 1

Page 10
Without Slang and Idioms, Students are In the Dark!
by David Burke 20

Homestay: Highlights and Hurdles


by Doug Ronson 26

DEPARTMENTS
Editor's Note 4

Letters to the Editor 5 Page 20

News Briefs 6

Conference Calendar 8

Technology 17

Christine Meloni's Networthy 18

Reviews 24

Catalog Showcase 31 Page 26

Who's Reading ESL Magazine?

ESL Magazine
ONLINE!
Elyane Comarteau www.eslmag.com
Editor in Chief of (lots of links!)
.e; Standpoints magazine,
produced by the Centre
National de Documentation
- Pedagogique in France.
Page 7
ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998 3
QC)04@l;29@ GIOVg

TM

The magazine for English as a


My Friend Second Language professionals.

and Colleague, Publisher


GEORGE H. CLEMES, III
Carolyn Graham Editorial Director
t was more than 22 years ago that I first saw Carolyn Graham at a TESOL MARILYN ROSENTHAL
conference in the ballroom of the New York Hilton in 1976. She was
presenting something called "Jazz Chants." There were about 500 ESL Editor
teachers in the room and the atmosphere was electric. Everyone was buzzing KATHLEEN R. BEALL

about this amazing woman who had come up with a new approach to teaching
Contributing Editors
truly conversational English through jazz rhythms.
KAREN AsENAVAGE
I was sitting at the back of the room, watching the crowd and watching all DAVID BURKE
of the other publishers watching her and watching each other. I had just started JOHN HICKOK
in the publishing business, working for Oxford University Press. I had been RICK INDENBAUM
hired to develop their American English publishing program in New York TOMMY B. MCDONELL
because I had been a teacher and teacher trainer and knew the field. They CHRISTINE MELON!
certainly didn't hire me because of my knowledge of publishing, which was DOUG RONSON
almost zero at that time!
Webmaster
I couldn't believe what I was hearing. I said to myself, "This is fantastic!
CHARLES FOWLER
It can really work in the classroom." At the end of the presentation, I asked my
publishing friends naively, "Isn't that terrific?" And they said, "Sure, but they Advertising Sales
won't let you publish itit's too radical. You're supposed to publish series. 410-570-0746
410-798-5607 (fax)
That's where the big money is." eslmagazine@compuserve.com
Fortunately, I was idealistic enough to believe that if something is good Subscription Information
and it works, it should be published. I marched right up to Carolyn, mustered Introductory rate: 1 year, 6 issues, U.S.:
$16.95, Canada/Mexico: $24.95, outside
up all my courage, and said, "I think this is wonderful. I want to publish it." North America: $34.95. All prices in U.S.
Fortunately, Oxford University Press felt the same way about quality materials $ and must be paid in U.S. funds. To sub-
scribe, fill out subscription form on page
and still does. They supported the project. Carolyn was delighted. Jazz Chants 30 (photocopy additional forms if neces-
became her first book, and it was my first book as an editor. sary) and mail with payment to: ESL
Magazine, 220 McKendree Avenue,
Through the years, Carolyn Graham has developed her Jazz Chants for Annapolis, MD 21401. Or fax subscrip-
tion form with credit card information to
both children and adults and has been invited all over the world to present
410-810-0910. Please call 410-570-0746
them. She and I have collaborated on many different books both at Oxford for all other inquiries.
University Press and elsewhere. I have been at countless presentations she has
ESL Magazine is published bimonthly
given in various parts of the worldeach one even more dynamic. It was only by Bridge Press, 1.tc
220 McKendree Avenue
recently that I was again sitting in her presentation and I said to myself, "This Annapolis, MD 21401
is fantastic. It really works!" eslmagazine@compuserve.com
www.eslmag.com
So it is with great pleasure that I share with our readers the cover story
"Carolyn Graham, a Conversation with the Creator of Jazz Chants." ISSN: 1098-6553

ESL Magazine is abstracted and


indexed with ERIC.
Marilyn Rosenthal, Ph.D.
Editorial Director
11.
33 0 1998 Bridge Press, u.c, all rights reserved.

4 s41. ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998


11, ,Q 4 4 g G2

rooms, but additional practice, adapta- Haitian Students in the U.S.


tions, and expansions are needed for I> Excellent article on Haitian stu-
the ESL students, combined with the dents in the U.S.; we are subscribing!
essential ingredients of extra time and VILMA T. DIAZ
trained ESL professionals. A good ESOL Director, FL Dept. of Education
5,1fh
9!1..
resource for teachers is The Global
, Classroom, Vol. I and II (Addison- > I was pleasantly surprised to read
The Expanding Role of t e Mr. Savain's article. Haiti suffers not
Elementary tTeacher Wesley, 1994), a thematic multicultur-
al model for the K-6 and ESL class- only from "bad press," but also from
AfF
room, written by Michelle De Cou- coverage in the popular and profes-
Send letters to eslmagazine@compuserve. Landberg, an ESL teacher from sional media that is as superficial as it
com or ESL Magazine, 220 McKendree Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. is fleeting. Consequently, misinforma-
Ave., Annapolis, MD 21401. Include your
DR. BETTY ANSIN SMALLWOOD tion about Haitians and Haitian
name and position or address. Americans circulates widely, and we
Center for Applied Linguistics
Chair; TESOL Elementary Interest Sec. Americans erroneously believe that
The Expanding Role of the the "Haitian problem" is unique. Mr.
Elementary ESL Teacher D. Thank you! I enjoyed the article Savain demolishes such nonsense by
> Jodi Crandall's excellent article on about the role of elementary ESL identifying a set of connections among
the expanding role of elementary ESL teachers very much. It is so true that culture, language and society that
teachers highlighted the importance we do much more that teach language. challenge educational policy and prac-
that Goal 2 of the TESOL ESL We are routing this article to the tice in the U.S. today.
Standards for Pre-K-12 Students grade-level teachers in our building to Anthropologists will take issue
plays in ESL teaching today. Goal 2, help explain what we do each day. with some of Mr. Savain's generaliza-
Standard 2 focuses on the need for JANICE MICKLE tions about Haitian culture and soci-
ESL students to learn academic lan- Lincoln, Nebraska ety. Likewise, linguists will find fault
guage to acquire content area knowl- with certain aspects of his description
edge. As Dr. Crandall pointed out, ele- Learning to Listen of Haitian Creole, especially his com-
mentary ESL teachers must wear I> Marc Helgeson reminds us of the parisons of Haitian Creole sounds
many different hats. Perhaps the most need to use a wide range of basic lis- with those of U.S. American English.
critical role ESL teachers play in help- tening tasks to promote active listen- However, minor inaccuracies don't
ing ESL students achieve success in ing. His suggestions could serve as the detract from Mr. Savain's constructive
school is to teach them the academic scaffolding for listening classes where message. His observations about lan-
language skills necessary to reach the teachers' job is to help students guage as a symbol of national, racial,
Goal 2. By incorporating the ESL take the reins of their own learning. and class identity and his call for an
Standards into their instruction, they RANDALL S . DAVIS approach to education that bridges dif-
will do just that. Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab ferences between life "at home" and
EMILY GOMEZ Japan, www.esl-lab.com "in school," are instructive in them-
Center for Applied Linguistics selves. They should also prompt fur-
ESL Standards & Assessment Project Going Corporate ther investigation by ESL Magazine
> Kudos to Faith Hayflich for her arti- readers who seek effective and equi-
D In the past, the term "content-based cle on corporate ESL teaching. I have table means to address the problems of
instruction" was viewed by elemen- often wondered about the market for education in a world whose complexi-
tary educators as more of a middle and this in the U.S. I taught English for tythat is, diversity and unitycan
secondary school ESL issue. However, seven years at corporations in Japan. no longer be ignored.
in reality, elementary ESL teachers Among the corporations I taught for in DREXEL G . WOODSON, PH.D.
have also been doing it for years, with Japan: Mitsubishi Automotive, Bureau of Applied Research in
thematic units. As Dr. Crandall points Mitsubishi Petrochemical, Nippon Anthropology, University of Arizona
out, these offer a natural integration of Denso (automotive supplier to
language and content and are consis- Toyota), Mitsukan (vinegar company), > Overall, a great article on Haitian
tent with mainstream elementary cur- BASF Japan, Toshiba, Toyota, AW students in the U.S. Mr. Savain han-
ricula. Thematic units also help pre- Aishin (Toyota transmission supplier), dles well the history and immigration
pare students with the academic learn- and for Ford Motor Co. in a Mazda of Haitians. However, concerning pro-
ing strategies needed for the standard- joint-venture. nunciation issues, Mr. Savain is a lit-
ized exams in the content areas (e.g., It is great to hear that U.S. corpo- tle too general. There is also a fair
social studies, science, math) that are rations employ a lot of nonnative amount of teaching material for
increasingly required of all elementary English speakers and that there is an Creole speakers on the market today.
students. increasing need for TESL in this area. JAN MAPOU
My own research has shown that Thanks for bringing this to light! Sosyet Koukouy Director
the same thematic material can work PHILIP N . CARSON Correction: The URL for the Crossword Puzzles for
in both ESL and K-6 grade-level class- Colorado Springs,C0 ESL Students is: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/ites1j/cw/

ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998 5


RE2N9@ C3120Q?@

New Universities, TESOL Names New


New Opportunities Executive Director
T he Persian Gulf region has always provided numerous
professional opportunities for those in the EFL field.
Those opportunities have increased since the United Arab
T eachers of English to Speakers of
Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)
announced the selection of its new
Emirates (U.A.E.) has granted approval for non-government- executive director, Charles S.
based tertiary institutions to begin offering programs. Amorosino, Jr., concluding TESOL's
Since the late 1980's, the government founded U.A.E. seven-month search. Amorosino, an
University in Al Ain and the Higher Colleges of Technology association executive for more than
(HCT) in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Ras Al Khaimah. These have 16 years, assumed his post on
met the country's needs by educating Emirati nationals. While September 15. He fills the position
vacated by Susan C. Bayley in
the University offers bachelor's degrees in seven faculties with November 1997 following her seven
several post-graduate programs, years as executive director.
Ras Al Khaimah HCT offers certificate, diplo- "I am most fortunate to have Charles S. Amorosino, Jr
ma and bachelor's courses in this opportunity to help TESOL
Dubai engineering, business, and advance its efforts as the world's foremost provider of English
Abu Dhabi health sciences. Both have as a second language and English as a foreign language ser-
intensive English and English vices," Amorosino said. "I am excited to be part of this promi-
for Specific Purposes (ESP) nent association as it expands its influence in promoting high
programs which together hire hun- standards for teaching in the classroom and advocating for
dreds of instructors each year. learners in their communities."
However, with the growing With the exponential growth in the need for English lan-
Emirati and expatriate population, more tertiary institutions guage learning worldwide, TESOL President Kathleen M.
were needed. In the fall of 1997, American University Sharjah Bailey said that Amorosino's dynamic leadership qualities and
experience make him an excellent choice to help the organiza-
(AUS), University of Sharjah and Higher Colleges of tion achieve its objectives. "Chuck is a perfect match for
Technology opened their doors on one large campus in TESOL," Bailey said. "At a time when the number of limited
Sharjah, and the American University of Dubai began classes. English proficient children and adults throughout the United
While HCT serves an Emirati population, the others serve an States is increasing and the global demand for learning
Emirati and expatriate Arab population with an increasing English is exploding, Chuck's experience and vision will help
number of Asian students. Student populations range from us achieve our organizational goal of connecting our global
1,100 to 1,750 with one-third of those participating in inten- community through English language learning."
sive English, English for Academic Purposes and ESP pro-
grams. The number of EFL instructors hired in each institution the other tertiary institutions.
ranges from 10 to 25. With the rapid development of the U.A.E., the demand for
This fall the government has opened Sheikh Zayed English language skills has also grown. These schools and a
University in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Currently, these are host of smaller institutions provide unique professional, cultur-
women's campuses with approximately 1,200 students and 65 al and financial opportunities for EFL teachers.
instructors. The University offers majors similar to those of by U.A.E. Correspondent, Karen Asenavage

Update on California's Proposition 227


T wo major lawsuits to block the implementation of
California's Proposition 227 (passed in June by vot-
ers, 61% to 39%, ending bilingual education in the state)
schoolsa handful of specialized, state-approved
schools offering unique curricula such as dual-immer-
sion language teaching. For regular school districts, the
were filed this summer. Both were defeat- State Board has refused to offer exemptions. This
ed. On July 31, both a U.S. District Judge prompted an Alameda County Superior
in Los Angeles, and a U.S. Circuit Court of Court judge, on August 27, to order the State
Appeals in San Francisco, rejected argu- PROPO SITION Board to consider requests from regular dis-
ments to block 227. 227 tricts. On September 11 the State Board
School districts throughout the state appealed this rather than complying (citing,
have been hurriedly changing their programs to comply among many factors, its effort to follow the law and voter
with the new law. However, some districts-38 accord- sentiment). The appeal is pending. The results of the
ing to a recent counthave filed with the State Board of appeal are expected in the coming months.
Education to be exempt from 227. The State Board has John Hickok, TESOL Librarian
granted exemptions but only to special "charter" California State University, Fullerton

6 1 1 35 ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998


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ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998 /U 36 7


Computer-Based TOEFL Launched
On July 24 the first TOEFL computer-based test (CBT) 700 internationally.
was administered in Auckland, New Zealand to a can- Since registration opened on June 10, more than
didate who began his test at 8:34 a.m. local time and fin- 49,000 people have registered for the CBT, which is cur-
ished in two and a half hours. The pioneer examinee chose rently available in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East,
to type the required essay into the computer rather than Africa, Australia and selected Asian regions, and will be
handwrite it. More than 2,600 tests were administered on offered throughout all of Asia in the year 2000.
the first day of TOEFL computer-based testing worldwide. Within the next year, an estimated 400,000 people
About 1,900 took it in the United States and Canada and worldwide will take the CBT. The test is administered at
Sylvan Technology Centers, universities,

Tempo Bookstore as well as USIS advising centers,


Fulbright and bi-national centers.
The TOEFL Program is distributing
The Languages Resource Center 300,000 free TOEFL CD-ROM Samplers
To Learn Foreign Languages and English as a Second Language (ESL) with sample CBT questions and explana-
*Translation Aids Cassettes Children's Visual Aids tions of the computer skills needed to take
Language Videos Language Arts Electronic the test.
Teacher CD-ROM's (Preschool & K-12; Translators The TOEFL test is the latest college
Resources CD's ESL; Phonics; Special Book
Dictionaries Cards Bilingual; Requests: Any admissions test to move from paper to
(Worldwide & Games Multicultural) Title, Any Field computer. The Graduate Record
Special Fields) Examination (GRE) General Test has
202-363-6683 been moving to computer since 1993 and
4905 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington D.C. 20016 the Graduate Management Admission
Fax: 202-363-6686 E-Mail: tempobookstore@usa.net Test (GMAT) completely switched for-
Mon-Sat: 10-10, Sun: 11-7 mats in October 1997. Both are ETS tests.

Conference Calendar
September 15-17 Rocky Mountain TESOL, Tuscon, AZ. Expected attendance: 450.
16-20 Institute for intercultural Contact Cheri Boyer, 520-621-5709.
Communication, 5th European summer Expected attendance: 600. 30-31 Ohio TESOL, Dublin, OH. Contact
seminar, Budapest, Hungary. Contact: Diane Nelson, 937-767-6321. Expected
bvhouten@euronet.nl. 15-18 Second Language Research Forum attendance: 400.
'98, U. of Hawai'i, Honolulu. Contact SLRF
18-20 Slovak Association of Teachers of '98, 808-956-5984, slrf98@hawaii.edu,
English (SLATE) and the University of November
http://www.Ill.hawaii.edu/slrf98/. 7 Washington Area (WATESOL) Annual
Zilina, Zilina, Slovak Republic. Contact
Anna Hlavanova, hlavnova@fria.utc.sk. 15-18 TexTESOL IV, Houston, TX. Contact Conference, Bethesda, MD. Contact
Rose Mary Schouten, 713-718-7750. Goedele Gulikers, 301-982-1125. Expected
18-20 International Association of Expected attendance: 300. attendance: 500.
Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
(IATEFL). Symposium/British Council/ 15-18 Mexico TESOL (MexTESOL), 6-7 TexTESOL V State Conference,
IATEFL, Hevelius Hotel, Gdansk, Poland. Guadalajara, Mexico. Contact Carlos Arlington, Texas. Contact Jean Conway,
Contact IATEFL, 100070.1327@ Oceguera, mextesol@mail.internet.com.mx. jconway@dcccd.edu. Expected attendance:
Compuserve.com, www.iatefl.org/. Expected attendance: 2000. 1,200.
October 17 Maryland TESOL (MD TESOL) Annual 14 TESOL Scotland, Stirling, Scotland.
1-3 Southeast Regional TESOL Annual Conference, Howard Community College, Contact John Landon, johnlandon@mhie.
Conference, Louisville, Kentucky. Contact Columbia, Maryland. Contact Sara Rose at ac.uk. Expected attendance: 200.
Tricia Davis, 606-6224382. Exp. att.: 500. 410-532-3156. Expected attendance: 250.
19-21 TESOL Ontario, Toronto, Ontario.
2-4 New York TESOL 28th Annual 17 National Council of Teachers of English Contact Renate Tilson, 416-593-4243.
Conference, Buffalo/Niagra. Contact Tim or (NCTE), professional development services Expected attendance: 800.
Miriam Ebsworth, 973-762-1530. Expected videoconference. Contact NCTE, 1111 W.
Kenyon Rd., Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096. 20-21 Puerto Rico TESOL (PRTESOL),
attendance: 500. San Juan, Puerto Rico. Contact John
217-328-3870.
8-10 TESOL Chile 7th Annual Conference, Steele, jhsteele@caribe.net. Expected
Santiago, Chile. Contact Samuel Fernandez- 17 Michigan TESOL (MITESOL) Annual attendance: 1000.
Saavedra, 562-239-2522. Expected Conference, Lansing, Michigan. Contact
Jean Holther, 734-663-8137, A2Jean@aol. 20-21 TESOL Italy, Rome, Italy. Contact
attendance: 500. Lucilla Lopriore, lopriore@axrma.uniromal.it.
corn. Expected attendance: 350.
9-10 Mid-America TESOL, St. Louis, MO. Expected attendance: 900.
Contact Phylis Mithen, 314-977-3210. 17-18 Korea TESOL Annual Conference,
20-23 24th Annual JALT (Japan
Expected attendance: 300. Kyung-hee University, Seoul, South Korea.
Contact Kirsten Reitan, reitankb@sorak. Association for Language Teaching)
15-17 Texas Foreign Language kaist.ac.kr. Expected attendance: 900. international Conference, Omiya Sonic
Association (TFLA), El Camino Real, TX. City, Omiya, Saitama, Japan. Contact
Contact TFLA, 713-468-4959. 24 Indiana TESOL, Indianapolis, IN. Janina Tubby, janina@gol.com. Expected
Contact Trish Morita, 317-578-4577. attendance: 2,500.

8 ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998


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A conversation with the
creator of Jazz Chants®
BY MARILYN ROSENTHAL, PH.D.
PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Carolyn Graham is teaching ESL at New York University ation at NYU. I understand that you
one of the most creative and prolific and playing ragtime piano in various were able to make this happen in the
contributors to the field of ESLIEFL. piano bars in New York. I would be classroom and try it out with students.
During the early days of American teaching my students during the day-
ESL/EFL publishing, her first book, time and playing ragtime music at CG: It was my good fortune to be at
Jazz Chants®, was published by night. One day, just by accident, I real- NYU at that time because my boss
Oxford University Press (1978).
ized that rhythm of the spoken lan- was the brilliant professor Rudy
Oxford had just opened its American Bernard, and he was very open to new
guage was exactly the same rhythm as
office, and its Editorial Director was ideas and not at all alarmed by the
Marilyn Rosenthal, who is currently the music I'd been playing. I heard it
when somebody said, "Gee it's good words "Jazz Chant," which, until that
Editorial Director of ESL Magazine. time, nobody had heard. I went to him
We are pleased to publish this conver- to see you. You look wonderful." I
heard that ragtime beat-1-2-3-4. and said, "I want a large room where
sation that took place recently students could come in, free, after
between these two seasoned profes- class, and we're going to do something
sionals who have been working new." Professor Bernard said, "What
together at various times and places
for many years. are you going to do?" I said, "Jazz
"One day, just by Chants." And he just gave me the
room!
Mt The name Carolyn Graham has accident, I realized that MR: And the rest is history, of course!
become a household word among Carolyn, you know I'm not musical,
ESL/EFL professionals around the rhythm of the spoken and one question which has always
world. However, as new teachers enter been asked of me throughout the years
the field, they are intrigued with the language was exactly is, "How can a teacher who is not
concept of chanting and want to know musical use Jazz Chants?" How can
exactly what it means. Since you, the same rhythm as the you help people like me?
Carolyn, created the term "Jazz
Chants®," the concept, and the music I'd been playing." CG: I know. I get this question all the
methodology behind it, please explain time. A lot of teachers are afraid that
what a Jazz Chant is. you have to be a piano player or a
singer to do this thing, and it's not at
CO: A Jazz Chant is really a way of all true. Of course, it helps to have a
connecting with the natural rhythms of WIR: How were you able to launch it in sense of rhythm. It helps if you, in
spoken American English and linking your classroom? fact, have a musical background. But
them to the natural rhythms of for teachers who don't happen to have
CG: The first thing I did was to start to
American jazz. that, it can still be very easily worked
listen with this new awareness. I
MR: So, I guess you could say it's a would listen in coffee shops and into your classroom. I think, initially,
fragment of authentic language pre- would hear things like, "How do you it helps to use the tapes and perhaps
sented with emphasis on its inherent like your coffee?" I went to the airport practice a little at home so that you
natural rhythm. Carolyn, how did the and I heard things like, "Have a won- feel comfortable with clapping and
concept of Jazz Chants first occur to derful trip. Don't forget to call me keeping that 1-2-3-4 beat going. But
you? when you get back." So, everything it's not at all difficult. I've seen it done
started to sound like a Jazz Chant! with teachers all over the world with
CO: It really happened about 25 years various degrees of natural musical
ago in New York City when I was it You were very lucky in your situ- ability.
10 139 ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998
And the language of the chant being developed for Italy by Oxford guage development.
almost forces you into the rhythm University Press in England. MR: Some people have said that the
because the language is so conversa- reason for the great success of Jazz
LIM And do you feel comfortable
tional. The language then becomes the Chants is the fact that it appeals to the
doing the British English?
rhythm and the rhythm is in the lan- right side of the brain. This is the per-
guage. CO: Well, I have to have some transla- formance side of the brain, which
CG: Exactly. The nice thing is that tion occasionally. I'm also in the relates to music and rhythm. For chil-
Oxford collection of children's poetry. dren who learn in this manner, as
we're not imposing this beat onto the
language. We're just making the con-
I have four poems in their new opposed to those who learn with the
nection. The beat is there. It's the nat-
Anthology of First Verse (British analytical, left side of the brain, this is
English). I'm very pleased about that. another way to access the language.
ural, spoken form. It's not like rap- Do you emphasize this in the "creative
ping, which is a distortion. It's a classroom"?
poetic distortion, but it's a distor-
tion. The Jazz Chant is in no way CO: Definitely. I think the west-
a distortion of the language. Jazz ern classroom is very left brain-
Chants should reflect exactly the centered, certainly in Europe,
sound of a native speaker in nat- but also in the United States.
ural conversation, including the There tends to be more emphasis
stress, the rhythm and THE into- on left brain learning, whereas,
nation. in reality, there are many stu-
dents (including myself as a stu-
MR: We've also seen in your pre- dent) who are more right-
sentations that the rhythm of the brained and who could perhaps
words themselves gives the child be much more successful stu-
or adult confidence because if dents if they were offered an
they listen to the rhythm, they opportunity to use things like
can't make a mistake. music, dance and drawing, uti-
CG: I've discovered that the lizing this other side of the brain.
rhythm is this really powerful MR: You've been able to use
tool which we can use in the Jazz Chants in other fields
classroom. It's the rhythm that beyond ESL/EFL with all kinds
really seems to be the aid to of childrennative speakers,
memory. children in special education,
MR: Carolyn, you talk about how etc. Tell us about some of these
the rhythm really emphasizes the experiences and the power of
natural beat of American English. Jazz Chanting.
But in your presentations around CG: I was very intrigued to get a
the world, you've done Jazz call from the New York School
Chanting with British teachers. Carolyn Graham, August 1998. for the Deaf and find that they
How does it work with British were using my books to work
English? with deaf children. They invited me to
MR: That's wonderful. You've been
CG: Of course, Jazz Chants were cre- doing teacher training workshops in come and see the results. They had the
ated for American English, and they New York, Japan and in many differ- children signing the chants rhythnli-
work very very well with the ent places throughout the world. Often cally. It was really exciting and
American sound system. But to my the workshop is billed as "Carolyn impressive to see. I have also had a
great surprise, they seem to also be a Graham and the Creative Classroom." chance to see work being done with
very effective tool with British Tell us more about that. emotionally disturbed children in a
English. Many British teachers are variety of places.
using Jazz Chants and also a lot of my CO: My idea of the "creative class-
room" is to engage the teacher in the MR: There's a very interesting story
songs for the language classroom.
creative process and to use the arts in about the power of Jazz Chants and a
MR: Aren't you doing a project with our language teaching. That is, to child who had real trouble relating to
Oxford University Press from England draw on poetry, on songs, on simple others. What happened with that
with Italian teachers using British dance movement (I'm not talking child?
English? How can you do this? about anything complicatedI'm not CO: This was a situation where the
CG: Yes. I'm very pleased to have a dancer), just going to the arts for our child, about six years old, was selec-
been invited to do all of the songs and nourishment, for the wonderful possi- tively mute. That is, she had just
chants for a new children's series bilities they offer for our students' lan- decided not to speak and had some
ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998 140 11
really terrible conflict with her moth- My first experience with this was lovely story, but also one which can be
er. One day after the mother's visit, the in Japan where we worked with a sung and where the song reinforces
therapist had taken the child on her lap series of Japanese folk tales. My the actual rhythm and the language of
and tried to help the child explain her favorite one was The Fisherman and the story.
real feelings. They had been using the Turtle Princess. I wrote a perfor- You were talking about having
Jazz Chanting with these children, and mance piece based on that story and teachers use classroom settings for
the child said, "I can't tell you, but I then wrote songs and chants based on developing chants. Tell us about that.
can chant it to you." And then the child the folk tale.
began to chant, "My mother doesn't CO: I love to create material coming
like me, My mother doesn't like me." Mt The Fisherman and the Turtle from the classroom. For example,
What it told me was that the chant Princess later turned into a marvelous chants and songs based on students'
form gave her a kind of safe way to story book. It's a trade book with a names. This works particularly well in
express pain, the way music does for chant book, a video and an audio cas- the primary classroom. I'll give you an
some of us, the way a song allows you sette. You've brought the whole folk
to say something which might be very, tale to life in lots of different media.
example. You could take a student's
very painful if you spoke it directly. name like "Andy." You could use any
name, but I'll use a four-letter name as
ME% What an impressive story! Also an example. You could begin with a
beyond the field of ESL/EFL, you've chant like this:
done a number of performances for
bookstores such as Barnes & Noble.
"My idea of the A-n-d-y, AN-dy
What was that like? A-n-d-y, AN-dy
'creative classroom' is to
Ce: That was a marvelous experience. And simply chant it to that 1-2-3-4
It was, of course, very different from a engage the teacher in beat. Then you can take a very simple
classroom setting because we had the melody and move that into a song.
mommies with the children and some- the creative process and CV1R: Lately, you've done a number of
times even infants in strollers. And the children's concerts in Japan, Germany,
wonderful thing about Jazz Chanting to use the arts in our the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
is that it seems to connect so power- What do you hope to accomplish with
fully, even with a baby. I would see language teaching." these concerts and why are they
babies in carriages start to move to the important to you?
beat! Even though they obviously =8.117.1MIDII. .M/MINN ON-
couldn't produce language, they had CO: Well, it's just a wonderful oppor-
the rhythm and they could relate to it. tunity for me to perform with the chil-
You could see that they got tremen- CG: That was an exciting project dren in various countries. I was so
dous pleasure hearing that 1-2-3-4. because we were really bringing lucky in Moscow to have the New
together the two different cultures. We Moscow Jazz Band backing me up so
ME: You've also been doing some fas- had a sound track of American jazz. the children could chant and dance
cinating work taking folk tales from We had all the video animation done with me with a live band behind us.
various countries and making them in Tokyo, and the art was done by a And in Tokyo, I had this wonderful
into marvelous story books with wonderful, talented, young American Dixieland band and was able to be the
rhythm or songs or chants. What folk artist working out of Connecticut piano player/singer with them as we
tales have you been working with? John Himmelman. He also did the art performed for the children.
CM This began with my work with for my book The Story of Myrtle MR: Aren't there hundreds of children
Jazz Chant Fairy Tales where I was Marie. He brought so much to the at these concerts?
taking the standard Brother Grimm books with his beautiful art!
fairy tales (Goldilocks and the Three CG: Yes. But it's really fun. At the last
MR: He seems to really understand
Bears, etc.) and turning those very what you're trying to achieve with the children's concert in Tokyo, we had
familiar stories into Jazz Chant perfor- language, and he has made the lan- children ranging in age from about
mance pieces for children in class- three to ten, and then we had the moth-
guage even more alive with the art.
rooms. What I discovered then when I ers and teachers. We had a huge gym-
started to do a lot of work in other OS: Yes. He was wonderful to work nasium space. When I say "concert,"
countries were the great possibilities with. The Story of Myrtle Marie was that's really a misleading term. It's not
of using folk tales or fairy tales as a one of my favorite stories, and I had an really a formal thing where the chil-
source for teachers to create their own opportunity to perform that at Barnes dren are sitting silently, listening to
performance pieces, chants and songs, & Noble in various settings in New me. Not at all. It's a performance with
so that children are reinforcing their York and New Jersey. these children, who are all taking part.
own culture as they're learning the They're all moving, clapping, stamp-
MIR: It's very unusual to have a trade ing, dancing. They are the seagulls;
new language.
book where the story is not only a they are the lighthouse; they are the
12
k ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998
dolphins and we just play together. We
sing, we dance. Even very young chil-
dren, whose feet don't touch the floor,
are clapping their hands and trying to
tap the beat with their feet.
What Do You Like?
MR: You play together, but it's more
than play. It's couched in play. It looks
like play. It feels like play, but...
0I Me -
CG: Yes...it's a language learning
activity.
I IBee gel - koe, yes I
MR: That's the thing. A lot of people do.
7
may think,"Well, maybe Jazz Chants !Mt
is just fun and games." It is, but it's
much more than that. I do. too.
too_

CG: It is, but it's a reinforcement. I


think of it as an excellent tool for rein- I like ire mato, yes I dn.
I Eke ice erearn,yes I dn.
o I blue basebeIL yes I do.
I fike baseball. yes I do.
forcing basic grammatical structures I Like ire cream. I Boa basalsall
I do tom
and also for presenting natural spoken Hike ine ateom. too.
I do, too_
I Iike baseball, too.
language. It's a really good accompa-
niment to a functional syllabus.
MR: It's especially beneficial for chil-
dren from cultures where they're not
permitted to speak out or express their
feelings. But Jazz Chants allows them
to do that.
CG: Definitely. I think another one of
the benefits of Jazz Chants is that you The Love/Hate Song
can work with a very large group. In Grammarchant She loves him.
Africa, recently, I was in high schools
where they have over 100 students and He loves her.
We love them and they love us.
very little in the way of materials. You Third person s, yes, yes!
could work with Jazz Chants and I love him.
Not in the question, no, no! He loves me.
engage the entire group. The African Third person s, yes, yes!
students were just wonderful, with We love everybody.
their beautiful music and dance back- Not in the negative, no, no!
ground. They were just the perfect Third person s, yes, yes! She hates him.
Not in the plural, no, no! He hates her.
audience. I was thrilled to work with
We hate them and they hate us.
them. Third person s, yes, yes!
I hate him.
MR: Where were you in Africa? Third person s. Yes! He hates me.
We hate everybody.
CG: My first visit was really in Africa.
That is, West AfricaMali and
Burkina Faso. Last year, I went to
Ethiopia and Eritrea.
GRAMMARNOTES
MR: What has been the most memo-
1. The Love/Hate Song in the third person s simple
rable experience in your travels? This chant provides practice subject and object pronouns.
CG:In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia I had a present (loves/hates), and in the tape accom-
wonderful experience because years This chant is also presented as a song on
ago I had written a song based on panying Grammarchants.
Kip ling's Jungle Book called "He's an
Ethiopian." At that time, I had never
been to Ethiopia and had no plans to
go there. But then last year, I had an ABOVE: From Let's Chant, Let's Sing by Carolyn Graham 1994 by
invitation from USIS (U.S. Informa- Oxford University Press. BELOW: From Grammarchants by Carolyn
tion Service) to work with the teachers Graham 0 1993 by Oxford University Press. Both used by permission.
13
ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998
04 1412
and children in Addis Ababa. So I had should saymake plans for a concert
a chance to sing my "He's an tour where I'll be performing with a
mar Ethiopian" song on television in Addis band for the children and teachers in
Ababa. various countries where I have already
done a lot of training and Jazz Chant
GM: Carolyn, you know "He's an
Ethiopian" (10 1997 Carolyn Graham)
workshops. I would like to take the
band, for example, to Tokyo, Osaka,
is one of my favorites. Can you sing
that song for me?
Hiroshima and then perhaps do the
same kind of tour in other countries
The Works of CO: Sure.
He's an E-thi-o-pi-an.
like Russia. I did a lot of work in
Moscow and St. Petersburg. I'd like to
Carolyn Graham He's from E-thi-o-pi-a.
Ev-ery mor-ning, he wakes up in
go back with the band and perform for
the children in these countries.
All works include audio cassette E-thi-o-pi-a. : I understand that you want these
except where noted. He's an E-thi-o-pi-an. to be free concerts.
He's from E-thi-o-p-i-a. CO: Yes, of course. The idea is to give
Published by Oxford University Press Ev-ery day he goes to school in something back for all the wonderful
(www.oup-usa.org/esl/) E-thi-o-pi-a.
things that have been given to me by
He's an E-thi-o-pi-an. the fieldby the teachers, by the chil-
Ili* Jazz Chants (A)
He's from E-thi-o-pi-a. dren and by the students.
O. Small Talk: More Jazz Chants (A) Ev-ery night he goes to bed in
E-thi-o-pi-a. MR: Carolyn, you have so much ener-
Grammarchants (A) gy and passion for your work, and
He's an E-thi-o-pi-an. sheer delight in what you do! You
Ir Jazz Chants for Children (C) He's from E-thi-o-pi-a. must have at least five different pro-
Ev-ery night he falls a-sleep in
10. Jazz Chant Fairy Tales (C) E-thi-o-pi-a.
jects that you're working on for the
near future. Can you tell us a little bit
10. Mother Goose Jazz Chants (C) C422: Wonderful. I love it. One of the about some of your new projects?
things you do so successfully is to
IP- Let's Chant, Let's Sing series (C) CG: One of my new favorite projects is
show teachers how they can use what-
called Tiny Talk with Oxford
10. Sixty songs for the
ever they have in their culture or coun-
University Press. I had an opportunity
Tiny Talk course (I) try and turn it into a chant. Can you
to do the music for Susan River's Tiny
give us another example of that?
The Electric Elephant* (A)
Talk, which is a book designed for
C : One of the most memorable work- three-year-olds in Taiwan. Oxford is
shops, at least for me, was in Bamako, now gathering the songs for a Tiny
Published by Delta Systems Mali. I had a family of drummers Talk Songbook. So, I'm very much
(www.delta-systems.com) accompanying me in the workshop. It looking forward to seeing that and
was sensational, and I decided to show perhaps touring with it.
The Big Chants Series (C) the teachers how we could create
PM: That's interesting. There seems to
Fisherman and the chants based on their natural sur-
be a whole new area emerging on lan-
Turtle Princess (C) roundings. Their environment was a
village with lots of wildlife and won- guage development with very young
children.
101- Chocolate Cake (C) derful huge trees, plants, flowers and
bees. I took bees, bats and crocodiles CG: Yes, the research is showing that a
IP- Turn of the Century Songbook (A)
(Bamako is famous for its crocodiles), baby's language development is very
Story of Myrtle Marie (C) and I created a little chant. It goes like much helped by hearing the lan-
this: guageby the mother speaking to the
1* Singing, Chanting, Telling Tales* (A) The bees of Bamako sting. infant and singing to it. I think also
The bats of Bamako bite. that the baby responds to the rhythm
The crocodiles of Bamako crawl and that helps them with their lan-
Published by JAG Press around all night. guage development. I've seen this
(www.jagpublications-esl.com)
WM, I see what you mean about using happen.
Rhythm and Role Play (A) what there is. On another topic, MR Isn't there a project in the works
Carolyn, if you could do anything in dealing with the language develop-
the world for the ESL/EFL field in the ment of babies with their mothers? I
* No audio cassette. A=adult (high school-adult),
next five years, what would that be? believe it's called Jazz Baby.
C=children (K-6), 1=infant (3 and under)
CO: I'm now starting to dreamor I
4. continued on page 16
14 ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998
The gUIV U&11,14 series
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Rhythm and Role Play
STR E ET TA L K-1 covers informal
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school, social situations, and in the
workplace. Special sections include initials,
fruits and vegetables, body parts, clothing etc.
enCHANTing playlets
are based on cartoon
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stories by the famous
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PLAY
commonly heard on
television: newscasts, students!
by
weather, sports, and traffic. Carolyn

STREET TALK .1
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TEXT
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ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998 15
contidued from.page 14 That is, new chants, new songs and a
CG: Yes, Jazz Baby has been one of couple of performances by Carolina
my really fun projects where we are Shout.
looking at the mother with the baby at ME: OK. Now you have to tell every-
home, and we're offering very accessi- Er one who Carolina Shout is?
ble materialschants and songs that
can be done with that very early age. 1 CO: Carolina Shout is my name as a
barroom piano player. I took that name
MR: That's a very interesting work in from the famous old piano solo called
progress. What other works in "Carolina Shout" and since my name
progress can you tell us about? was Carolyn, I thought I could borrow
CO: There's another project being it to use as my stage name.
designed by
a very innovative MR: You've done a number of evening
Japanese publisher using the Marilyn Rosenthal and Carolyn Graham. performances at TESOL as Carolina
American blues to teach English to vide sample chants and songs from the Shout, so it makes sense that you're
Japanese businessmen. We call it "The different titles. I'm hoping it will also going to include this in the forthcom-
Business Blues." I've written a series give my workshop schedule, including ing book.
of songs about the blues: "The my international schedule, so a teacher Carolyn, you're doing so many
Business Blues," "The Tokyo Blues," can know in advance if I'm going to things and your dynamism shows not
"The Answering Machine Blues," be appearing in Tokyo, for example. I only with something like the 21st
"The Cell Phone Blues" and things can also be reached by e-mail at the anniversary of Jazz Chants, but you're
like that. creating new material all the time. You
Web site. The address is: don't stop. You travel all around the
MR: People often ask, "Where can I http://www.delta-systems.com. Click world. Tell us how you feel about the
learn more about Carolyn Graham's on "Specials." field and what it means for you to con-
methodology? Where can I learn how tinue doing this?
to do it, how to create it?" Singing, CO: I've been teaching ESL for over
Chanting, Telling Tales was a method- 25 years, and I can honestly tell you
ology book that you wrote some time that I've never been borednever
ago. Are there any plans to revise that I'm always looking for been bored with my studentsnever
book? been bored in my classroom. And the
new ideasnew ways reason for that is that I'm always look-
CG: Yes. I'm in the process now of
ing for new ideasnew ways to use
reworking it. I'm doing a lot of teacher to use the things I love the things I love which are music,
training now, particularly at Columbia
poetry and storytelling. I use those
University. I do a seminar there in the which are music, poetry things to make my class more dynam-
fall and spring, and that work is help-
icmore interesting. I think our field
ing me with the revision of Singing, and storytelling. is marvelous because it's so open.
Chanting, Telling Tales, which I use as
That is, it's open to the arts.
my course book. ,MMgM.,
.remwomommti".imiMI=1"1 At this moment, I'm on my way to
MR: Many people have asked, "Where MR: The original Jazz Chants was Tokyo where I'm going to be giving a
can I find Carolyn Graham's books? published in 1978 by Oxford program for Japanese artists from var-
She has so many different publishers." ious disciplines who are going to show
University Press. Its 21st anniversary how they use their art in the class-
CO: Oxford University Press is my is coming in 1999. What are the plans room. Now that's going include a
main publisher, and they would be for the revision? dancer, a flower arranger, a tea cere-
able to help. with the Oxford line. All mony specialist, a martial arts person,
CO: This is really a thrill for me. The
of My books are also available at fact that the original Jazz Chants is a magician/fire eater, and a drama per-
Delta, who distributes everything,. still out there is extraordinary to me, son. It's going to be so interesting for
including the Oxford line. me. It's going to be like a master class
but one of the most wonderful things where we're going to explore all those
MR: Yes. Delta features the complete is that I'm back with my original edi- different things and see how we can
works of Carolyn Graham. I under- tor on this project, you! bring that magic, that power of the arts
stand that Delta has created a special into our language classrooms.
Carolyn Graham Web page on their MR: And I'm delighted about it as
well! MR: That sounds wonderful. We wish
Web site. How does it work and what
you all the best and thank you for shar-
is the benefit to teachers in the field? CO: I think it's going to be a lot of fun. ing the magic of Carolyn Graham with
CO: Well, it keeps people up-to-date We're planning to keep a core of the our ESL Magazine audience.
on my new material. It's going to pro- old favorites, the Jazz Chant classics,
but also offer a lot of new material. Jazz Chants® is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.

16 kiittl 4-5 ESL MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998


ITE2C3G9C.11.®17

Closed Captioning
Opens Doors to Learning
B Y TOMMY B. MCDIDNELL, MPS
If you use television programs or the screen are identified. gram and to ascertain students'
videotaped materials in your class, > Noises or sounds important to the understanding. If there are areas of
considering expanding the educa- plot are written. uncertainty or disagreement, show
tional potential of these tools by using the segment again with the captions
closed captioning. Although closed > Captions may be edited to keep up on for students to read. Allow stu-
captioning is not a new technology, it is with the video and, therefore, may dents to explain any changes in their
one of the least expensive ways to fos- not match word-for-word what is understanding based on their read-
ter literacy, build reading fluency and spoken. ing of the captions.
assist in English language learning. It Knowing these principles will be > Have students view a program or
can be especially helpful for integrating helpful both to you and your students' program segment without captions
listening/viewing with reading and for your viewing. and listen for any vocabulary they
writing. don't know. Have them try to write
Before Using Closed the new words as they hear them.
History of Closed Captioning Captioning in Class Play the segment again with cap-
Printed words appeared with images on Before using closed captioning in class, tions on and allow them to find and
screen long ago in silent movies, and you should become familiar with how it copy the written form of the new
they still appear as subtitles in foreign works. Watch any teleyision program words.
films. Closed captioning, however, was or videotaped material that is closed-
pioneered by The Caption Center of > The Caption Center tells of a
WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts in teacher who turns a listening/view-
the early 1970s. Originally developed ing activity into a reading activity in
for the deaf and hearing impaired, this way: students watch the first
closed captioning is now used by teach- part of a program with the audio on
ers in ESL and literacy programs. and the captions off. For the second
part of the program, the instructor
How It Works mutes the sound and turns on the
The captions are written material that is captions. Students have to read to
timed with and encoded in the video discover the end of the story!
signal using specialized software. > A listening/viewing activity could
Captions are "closed" because they are also become a writing activity: stu-
hidden unless decoded to appear on dents can try to write out the dia-
screen either by the decoder inside a logue they have watched or fill in
television or an external decoder. Since captioned. It will be marked with one blanks on a paper copy of the dia-
July 1993, all televisions sold in the of the the closed caption logos. logue. They can check their answers
U.S. with screens over 13 inches have a Familiarize yourself with turning the by watching the segment again with
built-in decoder. If your school televi- captions on and off with the controls on the captions on.
sion is older than this and you don't your television set. Any closed-cap-
want to buy a new one, you can pur- tioned broadcast can be videotaped on There are many possibilities for
chase a decoder that sits on top of your your VCR; even with your TV's closed the use of closed captioning in the ESL
television. These cost between $100 caption feature turned off, the encoded classroom. It is a valuable tool, and yet
and $200. Closed captioning is avail- captions will still be recorded. You can for those with new televisions, it is also
able with many television broadcasts then show the tape to your class with or free!
and on many videotapes. without the captions, depending upon For more information on close